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Interventions Addressing Neurodevelopmental Delay in Young Children Infected With and Exposed to HIV: A Scoping Review

Interventions Addressing Neurodevelopmental Delay in Young Children Infected With and Exposed to... Background: Neurodevelopmental delays have been documented in children living with and infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Early childhood stimulation programs can positively impact neurodevelopmental outcomes and have a far-reaching effect beyond childhood. Objective: To conduct a scoping review mapping evidence describing interventions aimed at mitigating or preventing neurodevelopmental delays resulting from exposure to or infection with HIV in preschool children. Methods: Electronic databases of PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library, reference lists of identified articles, and gray literature were searched. Title and abstract and full-text reviews were conducted independently by 2 reviewers. Study location, design, sample size, age of cohort, child's HIV serostatus, antiretroviral treatment availability for children or caregivers, neurodevelopmental assessment tool used, and details of the intervention and comparison groups were documented. Results: Ten studies meeting predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified. Six studies focused on training provided to the child's caregiver of which one offered an intervention focused specifically on stimulating child development through a home-based stimulation program. Four studies provided a child-directed intervention. Interventions ranged in duration from 10 days to 15 months. Intensity of the intervention varied from 3 times per day to biweekly. Interventions were aimed at children in the neonatal period throughout the preschool years. Conclusion: Many children are at risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcomes due to HIV infection. Few studies investigating interventions aimed at addressing this problem were identified. Further research into effective interventions aimed at improving childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes in the context of HIV is required. 1Deputy Director, Empilweni Services and Research Unit, Honorary Lecturer Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa 2Physiotherapist, Clinical Research Assistant, Empilweni Services and Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa 3Associate Professor of Physiotherapy, School of Therapeutic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Correspondence: Renate Strehlau, MBBCh, MSc, Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital, Cnr Fuel Rd, and Oudtshoorn St, Coronationville, Johannesburg 2112, South Africa (renate.strehlau@wits.ac.za). Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citation appears in the printed text and is provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (www.rehabonc.com). The authors declare no conflicts of interest. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Rehabilitation Oncology Wolters Kluwer Health

Interventions Addressing Neurodevelopmental Delay in Young Children Infected With and Exposed to HIV: A Scoping Review

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Publisher
Wolters Kluwer Health
Copyright
© 2019 Oncology Section, APTA.
ISSN
2168-3808
eISSN
2381-2427
DOI
10.1097/01.REO.0000000000000150
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Background: Neurodevelopmental delays have been documented in children living with and infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Early childhood stimulation programs can positively impact neurodevelopmental outcomes and have a far-reaching effect beyond childhood. Objective: To conduct a scoping review mapping evidence describing interventions aimed at mitigating or preventing neurodevelopmental delays resulting from exposure to or infection with HIV in preschool children. Methods: Electronic databases of PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library, reference lists of identified articles, and gray literature were searched. Title and abstract and full-text reviews were conducted independently by 2 reviewers. Study location, design, sample size, age of cohort, child's HIV serostatus, antiretroviral treatment availability for children or caregivers, neurodevelopmental assessment tool used, and details of the intervention and comparison groups were documented. Results: Ten studies meeting predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified. Six studies focused on training provided to the child's caregiver of which one offered an intervention focused specifically on stimulating child development through a home-based stimulation program. Four studies provided a child-directed intervention. Interventions ranged in duration from 10 days to 15 months. Intensity of the intervention varied from 3 times per day to biweekly. Interventions were aimed at children in the neonatal period throughout the preschool years. Conclusion: Many children are at risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcomes due to HIV infection. Few studies investigating interventions aimed at addressing this problem were identified. Further research into effective interventions aimed at improving childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes in the context of HIV is required. 1Deputy Director, Empilweni Services and Research Unit, Honorary Lecturer Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa 2Physiotherapist, Clinical Research Assistant, Empilweni Services and Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa 3Associate Professor of Physiotherapy, School of Therapeutic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Correspondence: Renate Strehlau, MBBCh, MSc, Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital, Cnr Fuel Rd, and Oudtshoorn St, Coronationville, Johannesburg 2112, South Africa (renate.strehlau@wits.ac.za). Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citation appears in the printed text and is provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (www.rehabonc.com). The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Journal

Rehabilitation OncologyWolters Kluwer Health

Published: Jan 1, 2019

References