The molecular orbitals (MOs) of diformohydrazide have been determined from the electron density measured by X‐ray diffraction. The experimental and refinement procedures are explained in detail and the validity of the obtained MOs is assessed from the crystallographic point of view. The X‐ray structure factors were measured at 100 K by a four‐circle diffractometer avoiding multiple diffraction, the effect of which on the structure factors is comparable to two‐centre structure factors. There remained no significant peaks on the residual density map and the R factors reduced significantly. Among the 788 MO coefficients, 731 converged, of which 694 were statistically significant. The C—H and N—H bond distances are 1.032 (2) and 1.033 (3) Å, respectively. The electron densities of theoretical and experimental MOs and the differences between them are illustrated. The overall features of the electron density obtained by X‐ray molecular orbital (XMO) analysis are in good agreement with the canonical orbitals calculated by the restricted Hartree Fock (RHF) method. The bonding‐electron distribution around the middle of each bond is well represented and the relative phase relationships of the π orbitals are reflected clearly in the electron densities on the plane perpendicular to the molecular plane. However, differences are noticeable around the O atom on the molecular plane. The orbital energies obtained by XMO analysis are about 0.3 a.u. higher than the corresponding canonical orbitals, except for MO10 to MO14 which are about 0.7 a.u. higher. These exceptions are attributed to the N—H…O′′ intermolecular hydrogen bond, which is neglected in the MO models of the present study. The hydrogen bond is supported by significant electron densities at the saddle points between the H(N) and O′′ atoms in MO7, 8, 14 and 17, and by that of O′′‐p extended over H(N) in MO21 and 22, while no peaks were found in MO10, 11, 13 and 15. The electron density of each MO clearly exhibits its role in the molecule. Consequently, the MOs obtained by XMO analysis give a fundamental quantum mechanical insight into the real properties of molecules.
Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations and Advances – Wiley
Published: Nov 1, 2021
Keywords: X‐ray molecular orbital analysis; XMO analysis; electron density; molecular orbitals; diformohydrazide; multiple diffraction; hydrogen bonds