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The short‐form version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS‐21): Construct validity and normative data in a large non‐clinical sample

The short‐form version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS‐21): Construct validity and... Objectives. To test the construct validity of the short‐form version of the Depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS‐21), and in particular, to assess whether stress as indexed by this measure is synonymous with negative affectivity (NA) or whether it represents a related, but distinct, construct. To provide normative data for the general adult population. Design. Cross‐sectional, correlational and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Methods. The DASS‐21 was administered to a non‐clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N=1,794). Competing models of the latent structure of the DASS‐21 were evaluated using CFA. Results. The model with optimal fit (RCFI = 0.94) had a quadripartite structure, and consisted of a general factor of psychological distress plus orthogonal specific factors of depression, anxiety, and stress. This model was a significantly better fit than a competing model that tested the possibility that the Stress scale simply measures NA. Conclusions. The DASS‐21 subscales can validly be used to measure the dimensions of depression, anxiety, and stress. However, each of these subscales also taps a more general dimension of psychological distress or NA. The utility of the measure is enhanced by the provision of normative data based on a large sample. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png British Journal of Clinical Psychology Wiley

The short‐form version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS‐21): Construct validity and normative data in a large non‐clinical sample

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References (23)

Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
2005 The British Psychological Society
ISSN
0144-6657
eISSN
2044-8260
DOI
10.1348/014466505X29657
pmid
16004657
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Objectives. To test the construct validity of the short‐form version of the Depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS‐21), and in particular, to assess whether stress as indexed by this measure is synonymous with negative affectivity (NA) or whether it represents a related, but distinct, construct. To provide normative data for the general adult population. Design. Cross‐sectional, correlational and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Methods. The DASS‐21 was administered to a non‐clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N=1,794). Competing models of the latent structure of the DASS‐21 were evaluated using CFA. Results. The model with optimal fit (RCFI = 0.94) had a quadripartite structure, and consisted of a general factor of psychological distress plus orthogonal specific factors of depression, anxiety, and stress. This model was a significantly better fit than a competing model that tested the possibility that the Stress scale simply measures NA. Conclusions. The DASS‐21 subscales can validly be used to measure the dimensions of depression, anxiety, and stress. However, each of these subscales also taps a more general dimension of psychological distress or NA. The utility of the measure is enhanced by the provision of normative data based on a large sample.

Journal

British Journal of Clinical PsychologyWiley

Published: Jun 1, 2005

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