One of the main objectives of soybean breeding programs is the search for genotypes that are both high yielding and tolerant to abiotic stresses. Brazilian Cerrado, the main grain‐producing region in the country, is characterised by naturally acidic and low fertility soils that consequently have low base saturation. Therefore, identifying genotypes with good performance for favourable and low base saturation stress conditions is of fundamental importance for crop improvement. The objective of this study was to select F3 soybean populations for multiple traits under contrasting base saturation conditions. Field experiments were carried out in two crop seasons in randomised block design with three replicates and 10 F3 populations (P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P7, P8, P9 and P10). In the first experiment, F3 populations were evaluated without base saturation correction (V = 30%, low saturation), while in the second experiment, limestone was applied 3 months before the start to raise the base saturation to 60% (recommended saturation). We evaluated physiological, nutritional, agronomic and spectral variables. Multivariate analysis was performed to know the populations’ performance and the interrelationship between variables and populations in the saturation conditions evaluated. The F3 populations showed differential performance for all traits across the conditions tested, enabling the identification of the best populations for each specific condition and both base saturation environments. Population P2 stood out under both low and recommended base saturation conditions and can be used in F4 plant selection to obtain superior lines for physiological and agronomic traits and vegetation indices.
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science – Wiley
Published: Oct 19, 2021
Keywords: abiotic stress; Glycine max L. Merril; plant breeding; vegetation indices