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INTRODUCTIONChildren's language skills and vocabulary knowledge rapidly increase during the second year of life. By the time they are 24 months old, the majority of children have an expressive vocabulary of between 150 and 450 words (Fenson et al., 1994). However, there are vast individual differences in children's vocabulary development such that many children do not make such rapid gains and have much smaller expressive and/or receptive vocabularies than average. These children are commonly referred to as “late talkers” (Macroy‐Higgins & Montemarano, 2016; Rescorla, 2011). Late talkers vary from each other in their vocabulary size, phonological skills, pragmatic and social abilities, demographic backgrounds, and more (see Desmarais et al., 2008). Moreover, late talkers also vary greatly in their long‐term outcomes. Around half of these children are “late bloomers,” eventually catching up to their peers in the following years and having vocabularies in the normal range (Rescorla, 2011; Singleton, 2018). Nevertheless, a sizable number of late talkers continue to have persisting language delays and are later diagnosed with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD; Bishop, 2017; McGregor et al., 2020; Rescorla, 2011). As DLD has significant cascading impacts on life outcomes, knowing which late talkers will bloom and which will continue to have delays is
Developmental Science – Wiley
Published: Nov 10, 2022
Keywords: developmental language disorder; late talker; shape bias; vocabulary
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