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Alloying of Alkali Metals with Tellurene

Alloying of Alkali Metals with Tellurene Graphite anodes offer low volumetric capacity in lithium‐ion batteries. By contrast, tellurene is expected to alloy with alkali metals with high volumetric capacity (≈2620 mAh cm−3), but to date there is no detailed study on its alloying behavior. In this work, the alloying response of a range of alkali metals (A = Li, Na, or K) with few‐layer Te is investigated. In situ transmission electron microscopy and density functional theory both indicate that Te alloys with alkali metals forming A2Te. However, the crystalline order of alloyed products varies significantly from single‐crystal (for Li2Te) to polycrystalline (for Na2Te and K2Te). Typical alloying materials lose their crystallinity when reacted with Li—the ability of Te to retain its crystallinity is therefore surprising. Simulations reveal that compared to Na or K, the migration of Li is highly “isotropic” in Te, enabling its crystallinity to be preserved. Such isotropic Li transport is made possible by Te's peculiar structure comprising chiral‐chains bound by van der Waals forces. While alloying with Na and K show poor performance, with Li, Te exhibits a stable volumetric capacity of ≈700 mAh cm−3, which is about twice the practical capacity of commercial graphite. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Advanced Energy Materials Wiley

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Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
© 2021 Wiley‐VCH GmbH
ISSN
1614-6832
eISSN
1614-6840
DOI
10.1002/aenm.202003248
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Graphite anodes offer low volumetric capacity in lithium‐ion batteries. By contrast, tellurene is expected to alloy with alkali metals with high volumetric capacity (≈2620 mAh cm−3), but to date there is no detailed study on its alloying behavior. In this work, the alloying response of a range of alkali metals (A = Li, Na, or K) with few‐layer Te is investigated. In situ transmission electron microscopy and density functional theory both indicate that Te alloys with alkali metals forming A2Te. However, the crystalline order of alloyed products varies significantly from single‐crystal (for Li2Te) to polycrystalline (for Na2Te and K2Te). Typical alloying materials lose their crystallinity when reacted with Li—the ability of Te to retain its crystallinity is therefore surprising. Simulations reveal that compared to Na or K, the migration of Li is highly “isotropic” in Te, enabling its crystallinity to be preserved. Such isotropic Li transport is made possible by Te's peculiar structure comprising chiral‐chains bound by van der Waals forces. While alloying with Na and K show poor performance, with Li, Te exhibits a stable volumetric capacity of ≈700 mAh cm−3, which is about twice the practical capacity of commercial graphite.

Journal

Advanced Energy MaterialsWiley

Published: Feb 1, 2021

Keywords: ; ; ;

References