Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Socio-economic Assessment of Inhabitants of Residential Densities in Akure, Nigeria

Socio-economic Assessment of Inhabitants of Residential Densities in Akure, Nigeria Civil Engineering and Architecture 5(6): 222-229, 2017 http://www.hrpub.org DOI: 10.13189/cea.2017.050604 Socio-economic Assessment of Inhabitants of Residential Densities in Akure, Nigeria Gabriel Emmanuel , Fasakin, J. O. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal University of Technology, Nigeria Copyright©2017 by authors, all rights reserved. Authors agree that this article remains permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License Abstract This paper examines socio-economic Housing accounts for more than 70% of land use in most attributes of inhabitants in residential densities in Akure, cities and determines urban form and densities, also Nigeria. The research investigated the sex, age, education, providing employment and contributing to growth. In 2010, marital status, household size, occupation and level of as many as 980 million urban households lacked decent income of the respondents. The sample size of 1,134 housing, as will another 600 million between 2010 and 2030. respondents was distributed in the proportion of 567; 425 and One billion new homes are needed worldwide by 2025, 142, for the core, transition and peripheral zones respectively. costing an estimated $650 billion per year, or US $9-11 Sex of respondents varies from one zone to the other. Age trillion overall. In addition, shortages in qualitative shows that there is more of productive age than the deficiency are much larger than those in quantity [3]. dependent citizens while without formal education Residential densities comprises of the low, medium and high accounted for 12.8% within the study area. Seventy-nine densities, however, people of high educational attainment are percent were married inhabitants and 12.1% single, while 4 highly status conscious. Besides, these people often seek for to 6 number of members of families had the highest residential locations that satisfy their desires for prestigious percentage. Most people residing at the heart of the city of dwellings and neighbourhoods comparable to their jobs, their Akure were business men/women (49.3%) and incomes as well as their personality [4]. Socioeconomic craftsmen/others (34.4%) and general monthly income is low characteristics are identified to include income, household with 37.8% of respondents earning less than ₦20,000 per size, education, age and employment status among others. month. Consequently, the research work recommends These socioeconomic characteristics of the people are poverty alleviation schemes, establishment of skill indicators of their quality of life [5]. Socio-economic acquisition centres and housing loan/subsidies among others. characteristics of respondents are general variables that are germane to social policy-oriented research. They are Keywords Socio-economic, Characteristics, Inhabitants designed to portray the personality profile of respondents and Housing Loan/Subsidies [6,7]. Moreover, this study examines the socio-economic attributes of residents living in the high, medium and low density areas of Akure. This is because housing embraces the day-to-day living and activities of individuals and families 1. Introduction within the community. The research investigated the sex, age, The rate of urbanization in Nigeria has witnessed education, marital status, household size, occupation and tremendous increase in the last two decades. Census in the level of income of the respondents at the core, transitional early fifties showed that, there were about 56 cities in the and peripheral zones of the study area. However, suggestions country and about 10.6% of the total population lived in were proffered to improve the socioeconomic dilemma of the these cities. This rose dramatically to 19.1% in 1963 and inhabitants in the study area. 24.5% in 1985. The national population was estimated to be about 150 million with the urban population constituting about 30% [1]. The rapid growth rate of urban population in 2. Materials and Methods Nigeria since the early seventies was mainly due to immigration induced by the concentration of the gains from 2.1. The Study Area the oil sector in the urban areas [2]. Given the expected increase in urban population, the magnitude of housing The study area is Akure, a Nigerian city, which like other problem in the country was enormous. traditional Yoruba towns in the country, has been in Civil Engineering and Architecture 5(6): 222-229, 2017 223 existence long before the advent of British colonial rule and rainfall is high throughout the year. The increased relative modern planning standards and practices. The city is located political influence of Akure as a state capital since 1976 has within Ondo State in the South Western part of Nigeria, one greatly promoted its rapid growth and socio-economic of the 36 states of Nigeria. It lies approximately on latitudes activities resulting in its spatial expansion from an area of 0 1 1 0 1 7 5 and 8°00 North of the Equator and longitude 5 45 East about 16 square kilometers in 1980 to about 30 square and longitude 6°00 East of the Greenwich Meridian at an kilometers in 2000. The population of the city grew from altitude of 370m above sea level. Akure is a medium-sized 38,852 in 1952 to 71,106 in 1963. Its population was urban centre that became the provincial headquarters of old estimated to be 112,850 in 1980); and 157,947 in 1990 Ondo province in 1939. It also became the capital city of (Ondo State of Nigeria, 1990). The 1991 national population Ondo State and a Local Government Headquarters in 1979. census however, puts the population of Akure at 239,124 and These dual political roles of Akure have since acted as its population in 2006 was 353,211 [9]. At 2014, using a impetus to the influx of people into the city [8]. growth rate of 3.18 percent, the city was estimated to have Akure is located approximately 700 kilometers South 453,731 people using a formula for projection, Pt = Po (1+r) West of Abuja, the Federal Capital of Nigeria and about 350 [7]. However, the study area is divided into three kilometers to Lagos, the former capital of Nigeria. It is neighbourhoods which include the core, transitional and located within the tropical rain forest region of Nigeria where peripheral zones. Sokoto Kastina Yobe Jigawa Zamfara Borno Kebbi Kano Gombe Kaduna Bauchi Niger Adamawa Plateau FCT Kwara Nassarrawa Oyo Taraba Ekiti Kogi Osun Ondo State Benue Other State Ondo Ogun Edo Lagos Enugu Ebonyi north Anambra Cross River Imo west east Delta Abia Akwa-Ibom Source south Bayelsa Department of Surveying & Geoinformatics Rivers University of Lagos Source: Department of Surveying & Geoinformatics, University of Lagos, (2016). Figure 1. The study area in its national setting 224 Socio-economic Assessment of Inhabitants of Residential Densities in Akure, Nigeria Primary data for the study were generated from the each of the research variables [6]. Definition of variable administration of a structured questionnaire. The involves essentially: questionnaire focused on household heads or any adult living (i) Clarification of the meaning of the variable, that is, in the buildings within the study area. It investigated among what it is. other things; sex, age, education, marital status, household (ii) Derivation of code for each variable for easy reference size, occupation and level income of the respondents. in data analysis and interpretation. Secondary data were obtained from the Ministry of Lands (iii) Specification of measurement scale, that is, various and Housing, Ondo State Development and Property options to each question in the questionnaire. Corporation, Physical Planning Department and Survey (iv) Careful exposition of typical or international units of Department in Ministry of Works Akure, Ondo State, while measurement like “₦” for Naira, “€” for Euro and “m” Property Maps were obtained from the National Population for metre. Commission among others. (v) Specification of time frames for some variables, for The population of Akure according to the 2006 population example, yearly, monthly, weekly, daily, hourly and so census was 353,211 [9]. This was projected to 2014 using on. 3.18% annual growth rate officially determined by the For the purpose of this research, however, variables have National Population Commission. The city was estimated to been identified based on socio-economic characteristics of have 453,731 people. The total number of buildings in Akure respondents in the study area. Thus, the research variables was calculated to be 16,205, using the following formula, are as identified and described. where ppf and hpb are persons per family and households per building. 2.2.1. Definition of Variables on Socio-economic Background of Respondents The variables on socio-economic characteristics of respondents include: SEX, AGE, EDU, MARITA, H-SIZE, A sample size of 7% was used for questionnaire OCCUPA, and INCOME for sex, age, education, marital administration that gave 1,134 respondents. This proportion status, household size, occupation and income level of the was reasonable given the homogeneity characterizing the respondents in the study area respectively. These variables study area which includes, form and age of buildings, were used to assess the validity of the data used in the study physical conditions of housing units, condition of area. For instance, the lowest age cohort for this study is neighbourhood infrastructure and respondents personal 20-29 years. This shows that the questionnaire was profile among others. Using the table of random numbers, 24 administered to adults in the study area. Although INCOME Enumeration Areas (EAs) were selected on the ratio of is part of socio-economic variables, in this research it is 50:35:15 for the core; transition and peripheral zones from considered important. The average monthly income of the the 2006 EAs from the NPC [10]. Twelve (12) EAs were respondents reveals their capability of building a personal sampled for the core; 9 for the transition zone; and 3 for the house. EDU is pertinent, because information gathered from peripheral zone. The sample size of 1,134 respondents was literate community is reliable. The average household size distributed in the proportion of 567; 425; and 142 for the core, (H-SIZE) reveals the crowding index in the study area. transition and peripheral zones respectively. A total of 831 Level of measurement refers to the particular way that a representing 73.28% out of the total 1,134 questionnaires variable is measured, and scale of measurement refers to the administered were retrieved and used for analysis. The particular tool for sorting the data that one applies based on selection of twenty-four (24) EAs was reasonable, when the level. Choosing level and scale of measurement is an earlier studies were considered that utilized EAs. important part of the research design process because they For instance, the Federal Ministry of Health [Nigeria], are necessary for systematized measuring and categorizing 2003 used two EAs per Local Government; and the National of data, and thus for analyzing it and drawing conclusions Population Commission [Nigeria], used the same number of from it as well [11]. Descriptive statistics summarize data. EAs for 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey. The mean of the variable is the arithmetic average of the Twenty field assistants were employed to administer the scores, calculated by adding all the scores and dividing by questionnaire in three months. Tables and graphs were used the total number of scores. On the other hand, the standard to present, interpret and discuss research findings through deviation of the variable provides some idea about the SPSS version 21 and Microsoft Excel 2013. distribution of scores around the mean (average). The smaller the standard deviation, the more narrow the range 2.2. Definition of Research Variables between the lowest and highest scores or, more generally, that the scores cluster closely to the average score. It is a As the basis for empirical investigation and analysis, there is a need to embark not only on listing of research variables, measure of "agreement" between raters. If everyone gave the but also to present the definition, that is, to explain the same score, then the standard deviation would be zero and meaning, provide justification and rationale for including the agreement would be high (or perfect) among the Civil Engineering and Architecture 5(6): 222-229, 2017 225 respondents. servants and those that are private among others. Sex as a variable shows that women prefer their husbands to be interviewed, as revealed by the findings of this study. This was because of suspicion, skepticism and 3. Results and Discussion misinterpretation of the exercise, thinking it was meant to determine taxable adults. It revealed the speculation that, 3.1. Introduction there were increasing numbers of male populations moving from the core to the periphery. Age revealed the distribution This section examines the analysis of socio-economic of the respondents in the study area. Household size showed characteristics of the respondents in the residential densities the number of person(s) living in a house and eating from the within Akure city. The results are presented as shown in the same source (under the same household head). Occupation following tables and charts. revealed the proportion of the respondents working as civil Table 1. Specification, Coding and Measurement of Socio-economic Variables S/N Specification Variable Code Scale Measurement Mean Standard Deviation 1 Sex of respondents SEX Nominal 1= Male; 2= female 1.45 0.50 Age of 1= 20-29; 2= 30-39; 3= 40-49; 4= 50-59; 2 AGE Interval 3.14 1.29 Respondents 5= 60 and above 1= No formal education; 2= Primary Level of education 3 EDU Nominal education; 3= Secondary education; 4= 3.08 1.01 of respondents Tertiary education 1= Single; 2= Married; 3= Marital status of 4 MARITA Nominal Widow/Widower; 4= Separated; 5= 1.97 0.49 respondents Divorced Household size of 5 H-SIZE Interval 1= 1-3; 2= 4-6; 3= 7 and above 2.21 0.68 respondents Occupational 1= Civil servant; 2= Business 6 OCCUPA Nominal 1.98 0.72 status man/woman; 3= Craftsmen and others Average monthly 1= <20,000; 2= 21,000-40000; 3= 7 income of INCOME Interval 41,000-60,000; 4= 61,000-80,000; 5= 2.31 1.37 respondents 81,000-100,000; 6= Above 100, 000 Source: Author’s Fieldwork, 2016. Table 2. Sex of Respondents in Residential Densities of Akure Total Zone Core Transition Periphery (Study Area) Sex Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Male 220 52.1 159 55.0 77 64.2 456 54.9 Female 202 47.9 130 45.0 43 35.8 375 45.1 Total 422 100.0 289 100.0 120 100.0 831 100.0 Source: Author’s Fieldwork, 2016. Table 3. Level of Education of Respondents in Residential Densities of Akure Total Core Transition Periphery Zone (Study Area) Level of Education Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) No formal education 77 18.2 29 10.0 0 0 106 12.8 Primary education 43 10.2 28 9.7 0 0 71 8.5 Secondary education 175 41.5 110 38.1 21 17.5 306 36.8 Tertiary education 127 30.1 122 42.2 99 82.5 348 41.9 Total 422 100.0 289 100.0 120 100.0 831 100.0 Source: Author’s Fieldwork, 2016. 226 Socio-economic Assessment of Inhabitants of Residential Densities in Akure, Nigeria Table 4. Marital Status of Respondents in Residential Densities of Akure Core Transition Periphery Total Marital Status Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Single 45 10.7 52 18.0 4 3.3 101 12.1 Married 323 76.5 226 78.2 115 95.8 664 79.9 Widow/Widower 48 11.4 11 3.8 1 .8 60 7.2 Separated 3 .7 - - - - 3 .4 Divorced 3 .7 - - - - 3 .4 Total 422 100.0 289 100.0 120 100.0 831 100.0 Source: Author’s Fieldwork, 2016. Table 5. Household Size of Respondents in Residential Densities of Akure Total Zone Core Transition Periphery (Study Area) Household Size Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) 1 – 3 26 6.2 27 9.3 69 57.5 122 14.7 4 – 6 187 44.3 177 61.2 48 40.0 412 49.6 7 and above 209 49.5 85 29.4 3 2.5 297 35.7 Total 422 100.0 289 100.0 120 100.0 831 100.0 Source: Author’s Fieldwork, 2016. Table 6. Occupation of Respondents in Residential Densities of Akure Total Core Transition Periphery Zone (Study Area) Occupation Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Civil servant 69 16.4 84 29.1 68 56.7 221 26.6 Business man/woman 208 49.3 147 50.9 49 40.8 404 48.6 Craftmen and others 145 34.4 58 20.1 3 2.5 206 24.8 Total 422 100.0 289 100.0 120 100.0 831 100.0 Source: Author’s Fieldwork, 2016. Table 7. Income of Respondents in Residential Densities of Akure Core Transition Periphery Total Monthly Income Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) <20,000 193 45.7 121 41.9 - - 314 37.8 21,000 - 40,000 125 29.6 67 23.2 21 17.5 213 25.6 41,000 - 60,000 60 14.2 39 13.5 24 20.0 123 14.8 61,000 - 80,000 25 5.9 44 15.2 52 43.3 121 14.6 81,000 - 100,000 14 3.3 9 3.1 12 10.0 35 4.2 Above 100,000 5 1.2 9 3.1 11 9.2 25 3.0 Total 422 100.0 289 100.0 120 100.0 831 100.0 Source: Author’s Fieldwork, 2016. 3.2. Sex of Respondents the male gender in the study area could be attributed to the fact that women in most cases prefer that, their husbands The pattern of results varies from one zone to the other. At respond to interviews whether they are available or not. the core 52.1 percent of the respondents were males against However, most of the respondents, misconstrued the exercise 47.9 percent females. Also in the transition zone, 55.0 as a survey to determine taxable adults, and therefore the percent of the respondents were males while 45.0 percent reference to the head of household in most cases. In addition, were females. At the periphery, it was discovered that 64.2 investigation revealed that the males were saddled with the percent of the respondents were males while 35.8 percent responsibilities of provision and maintenance of basic were females. In an exploratory manner, the prominence of Civil Engineering and Architecture 5(6): 222-229, 2017 227 facilities across the residential zones more than their females’ secondary education 17.5 percent (this is the zone where counterparts. The results also revealed an increasing number civil servants reside most; it is the neighbourhood where the of male populations from the core to the periphery. elites of the city live). The results in table 2 revealed that educational attainment increased from primary education to tertiary education both at the transition and periphery while 3.3. Age of Respondents the reverse was the case in the core of the study area. The The findings revealed that the age cohort 40-49 years had implication of this is that there were more literate inhabitants the highest proportion of 29.2 percent and indeed the age at the transitional and peripheral zones. Therefore, the low bracket with highest ratio across the residential zones in the level of education of some respondents in the study area may study area. This was followed by respondents within the age undermine the importance of housing quality. bracket 30-39 with 25.6 percent. The age cohort with the least proportion is 20-29 years which accounted for 9.4 3.5. Marital Status of Respondents percent of the total respondents. Below 20 years age cohort The marital status of the respondents revealed that 79.9 was excluded because the research was designed to gather percent were married and 12.1 percent single in the entire information from adults in the study area. The implication of study area. It was observed that at the core, 0.7 percent and the findings was that, there was more of productive age than 0.7 percent were separated and divorced respectively. At the the dependency ratio among the adults within the study area. transitional zone, 78.2 percent of the respondents were married and 3.8 percent were widows/widowers. In addition, at the periphery, findings revealed that 95.8 percent of the respondents were married and 3.3 percent were single. Although, the status of those married was high across the residential zones but highest at the periphery. 3.6. Household Size of Respondents Household size is the number of inhabitants residing in a housing unit whose production of income and consumption of goods and services are related. The household sizes of the respondents were studied across the residential zones in the Source: Author’s Fieldwork, 2016. study area. The study revealed that 49.6 percent of the Figure 3. Age of Respondents respondents in the study area had household size of four to six persons. At the core, the findings revealed that 7 and above persons per household had the highest proportion of 3.4. Education of Respondents 49.5 percent and the lowest was one to three household size The educational attainment of the heads of household is with 6.2 percent. Within the transitional zone, results showed important. This is because household heads with some that four to six had the highest household size which formal education are likely to do more in provision of accounted for 61.2 percent and this was followed by seven housing infrastructure independent of Government. No and above making up to 29.4 percent. However, at the doubt, education is a critical factor in the appreciation of up periphery, findings revealed that 57.5 percent of the to date issues pertinent to urban studies as one can easily rely respondents had a household size of one to three persons and on information supplied by the literates [12]. This category this was followed by 40.0 percent for household size of four of respondents has better sense for comfort and taste. The to six persons per housing unit. Moreover, the findings of educational level of residents of Akure is shown in table 3. this research revealed that, 4 to 6 household size had the The table revealed that respondents without formal education highest percentage. Therefore, the finding concurs with the accounted for 12.8 percent in the study area, having their result of [13] which states that the average household size in enclaves at the core and transitional zones. While those with Ondo State was 6 persons per household. tertiary education were 41.9 percent most of whom were residents at the peripheral zone of Akure. 3.7. Occupation of Respondents Spatially, at the core, highest level of education was 41.5 The occupational composition showed the differences in percent for secondary education and the lowest was primary types and representations across the residential zones. education which had 10.2 percent. However, it is interesting Findings revealed that most people residing at the heart of to state that the result revealed that 30.1% had tertiary the city of Akure were business men/women having 49.3 education in this zone. In the transition, tertiary education percent and craftsmen/others 34.4 percent. At the transition, had 42.2 percent while the lowest was 9.7 percent for business men/women accounted for 50.9 percent and 29.1 primary education. The residents at the periphery that had percent of the respondents were civil servants. Furthermore, tertiary education were 82.5 percent while those with 228 Socio-economic Assessment of Inhabitants of Residential Densities in Akure, Nigeria the findings revealed that at the peripheral zone, civil difficult to save enough money to buy or build their own servants and business men/women had 56.7 percent and 40.8 houses. Therefore, this paper recommends poverty percent respectively. It is therefore deduced that the alleviation scheme, [15] report suggests two strategies. self-employed and craftsmen are resident at the city core These are: 1. Promotion of the productive use of the poor’s while greater percentage of the civil servants in the study most abundant asset-labour. This invariably calls for policies area are resident at the periphery that create market incentives, stable social and political institutions, good infrastructure and adaptable technology. 2. Making basic social services available to the poor. Hence 3.8. Monthly Income of Respondents primary health care, family planning, balanced nutrition and Findings in table 7 showed the monthly income of primary education are of prime importance. Also economic respondents across the residential zones. At the core, there growth remains the primary means of reducing poverty and was a constant decrease in the monthly income. That is, from improving the quality of life. Therefore economic policies less than ₦20,000 per month to above ₦100,000 a month and should be directed towards poverty reduction, such as this accounted for 45.7 percent to 1.2 percent respectively. increased sectoral allocation to the productive sectors of the While at the periphery the reverse is the case, it was observed economy in order to create more jobs and raise the level of that there is stable increase upward in the monthly income employment. Unemployment is perceived as a key part of hierarchy. However, at the transition zone, it was observed poverty [16]. Establishment of skill acquisition centres for that there was a decrease in the monthly income of training on masonry, carpentry, arts and crafts, decoration, respondents from less than ₦20,000 to between ₦41,000 and electrical installation, information communication ₦60,000 which accrued for 41.9 percent to 13.5 percent technology (ICT), wood works, welding, metal works, spray respectively. and painting, in addition, housing loan/subsidies, site and Investigation revealed that the general monthly income is service to improve the socioeconomic predicament of the low with 37.8% of respondents earning less than ₦20,000 per inhabitants of the study area. month. With this low income distribution, to afford good housing would be difficult, if not impossible. However, this is important to this research, because with higher income, there is more disposable income with which to procure REFERENCES decent housing. In addition, the finding of this study shows [1] J. O. Ajanlekoko, (2011). Construction development that the poorer residents are more in the high density area that bank: A panacea for affordable housing and are also considered as low and medium income earners. The infrastructural development in Nigeria. A paper implication of this is that the low and medium income th Delivered at the 4 Annual Lecture of the School of earners may not be able or would find it difficult to save Environmental Technology, Federal University of enough money to buy or build their own houses. This Technology, Akure, Ondo State. discovery tallies with the findings of [14] on housing finance [2] K. Oyesiku, (2009): City Liveability: implications and in Akure, Ondo State, which also revealed that low and challenges. Paper presented at the 2009 Commonwealth medium income earners would find it difficult to build their Association of Planners, West Africa Workshop on Planning own house. for Liveable Human Settlement: The West African Challenges, Lagos. [3] UN-HABITAT, (2016). Urbanisation and development: 4. Conclusions Emerging futures. World Cities Report, 2016. www.unhabitat.org It is an undeniable reality that the residential nature of a [4] O. G. Julius, and L. R. Momoh, (2009). Residents’ town or city is functionally related to the location and socio-economic characteristics and the residential mobility decisions of the inhabitants in the community. From the process in an urban space: The example of the Warri metropolis, Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Hum Ecol, 27(1), analysis of this study, it was revealed that there seems to be 45-52. an increasing number of male populations from the core to the periphery and there is more of productive age than the [5] O. O. Rotowa, J. A. B., Olujimi, F. K., Omole, and A. E. dependency ratio within the study area. The low level of Olajuyigbe, (2015). Socioeconomic factors affecting household’s sanitation preferences in Akure, Nigeria. education of some respondents in the study area undermined European International Journal of Science and Technology the importance of housing quality. The findings of this study 4(5), 183-194. also revealed that the status of those married is high across the residential zones but highest at the periphery. However, [6] J.O. Fasakin, (2000). A land use analysis of the operation of commercial motorcycles in Akure, Nigeria. Unpublished PhD self-employed and craftsmen are resident at the city core Research Thesis, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, while greater percentage of the civil servants in the study Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. area are resident at the periphery. Apparently, low and medium income earners may not be able or would find it [7] E. Gabriel, (2017). Spatial differentiation of housing Civil Engineering and Architecture 5(6): 222-229, 2017 229 infrastructure autonomy in Akure, Nigeria. Unpublished PhD examples. Research Thesis, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, https://www.thoughtco.com/scales-of-measurement-3026571. Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. [12] TETFUND, University Research Grant. (2017). E-land pricing in residential housing density mix in Akure, Nigeria. [8] J. A. B. Olujim i and I. O. Olam iju (2011). Regional analys is of Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. locations of public educational facilities in Nigeria: The Akure region experience. Journal of Geography and Regional [13] National Population Commission (2006). Population and Planning 4(7), 428-442. Available online at housing census: “Population distribution by Sex, State, LGA, http://www.academicjournals.org/JGRP. and Senatorial district”, http://www.population.gov.ng/images. [9] National Population Commission, (2006). Population and housing census: “Population distribution by Sex, State, LGA, [14] A. Olumide, (2015). Housing finance in urban areas of Nigeria: and Senatorial district”, An empirical example from Akure, Ondo State. Swift Journals http://www.population.gov.ng/images. of Social Sciences 1(1), 8-12. [10] O. O. Rotowa, (2014). Spatio-environmental management of [15] World Bank (1996). Nigeria: Poverty in the midst of plenty. faecal waste in the residential zones of Akure, Nigeria. The challenge of growth with inclusion. Washington DC: Unpublished PhD Research Thesis, Department of Urban and World Bank. Regional Planning, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. [16] A. Olotu, R. Salami and I. Akeremale (2015). Poverty and rate of unemployment in Nigeria. International Journal of [11] A. Crossman, (2017). Understanding levels and scales of Management, 2(1). International Journal of Business and measurement: Nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio with Management. .4(6), 18-30. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Civil Engineering and Architecture Unpaywall

Socio-economic Assessment of Inhabitants of Residential Densities in Akure, Nigeria

Civil Engineering and ArchitectureDec 1, 2017

Loading next page...
 
/lp/unpaywall/socio-economic-assessment-of-inhabitants-of-residential-densities-in-FkmFB2yeih

References

References for this paper are not available at this time. We will be adding them shortly, thank you for your patience.

Publisher
Unpaywall
ISSN
2332-1091
DOI
10.13189/cea.2017.050604
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Civil Engineering and Architecture 5(6): 222-229, 2017 http://www.hrpub.org DOI: 10.13189/cea.2017.050604 Socio-economic Assessment of Inhabitants of Residential Densities in Akure, Nigeria Gabriel Emmanuel , Fasakin, J. O. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal University of Technology, Nigeria Copyright©2017 by authors, all rights reserved. Authors agree that this article remains permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License Abstract This paper examines socio-economic Housing accounts for more than 70% of land use in most attributes of inhabitants in residential densities in Akure, cities and determines urban form and densities, also Nigeria. The research investigated the sex, age, education, providing employment and contributing to growth. In 2010, marital status, household size, occupation and level of as many as 980 million urban households lacked decent income of the respondents. The sample size of 1,134 housing, as will another 600 million between 2010 and 2030. respondents was distributed in the proportion of 567; 425 and One billion new homes are needed worldwide by 2025, 142, for the core, transition and peripheral zones respectively. costing an estimated $650 billion per year, or US $9-11 Sex of respondents varies from one zone to the other. Age trillion overall. In addition, shortages in qualitative shows that there is more of productive age than the deficiency are much larger than those in quantity [3]. dependent citizens while without formal education Residential densities comprises of the low, medium and high accounted for 12.8% within the study area. Seventy-nine densities, however, people of high educational attainment are percent were married inhabitants and 12.1% single, while 4 highly status conscious. Besides, these people often seek for to 6 number of members of families had the highest residential locations that satisfy their desires for prestigious percentage. Most people residing at the heart of the city of dwellings and neighbourhoods comparable to their jobs, their Akure were business men/women (49.3%) and incomes as well as their personality [4]. Socioeconomic craftsmen/others (34.4%) and general monthly income is low characteristics are identified to include income, household with 37.8% of respondents earning less than ₦20,000 per size, education, age and employment status among others. month. Consequently, the research work recommends These socioeconomic characteristics of the people are poverty alleviation schemes, establishment of skill indicators of their quality of life [5]. Socio-economic acquisition centres and housing loan/subsidies among others. characteristics of respondents are general variables that are germane to social policy-oriented research. They are Keywords Socio-economic, Characteristics, Inhabitants designed to portray the personality profile of respondents and Housing Loan/Subsidies [6,7]. Moreover, this study examines the socio-economic attributes of residents living in the high, medium and low density areas of Akure. This is because housing embraces the day-to-day living and activities of individuals and families 1. Introduction within the community. The research investigated the sex, age, The rate of urbanization in Nigeria has witnessed education, marital status, household size, occupation and tremendous increase in the last two decades. Census in the level of income of the respondents at the core, transitional early fifties showed that, there were about 56 cities in the and peripheral zones of the study area. However, suggestions country and about 10.6% of the total population lived in were proffered to improve the socioeconomic dilemma of the these cities. This rose dramatically to 19.1% in 1963 and inhabitants in the study area. 24.5% in 1985. The national population was estimated to be about 150 million with the urban population constituting about 30% [1]. The rapid growth rate of urban population in 2. Materials and Methods Nigeria since the early seventies was mainly due to immigration induced by the concentration of the gains from 2.1. The Study Area the oil sector in the urban areas [2]. Given the expected increase in urban population, the magnitude of housing The study area is Akure, a Nigerian city, which like other problem in the country was enormous. traditional Yoruba towns in the country, has been in Civil Engineering and Architecture 5(6): 222-229, 2017 223 existence long before the advent of British colonial rule and rainfall is high throughout the year. The increased relative modern planning standards and practices. The city is located political influence of Akure as a state capital since 1976 has within Ondo State in the South Western part of Nigeria, one greatly promoted its rapid growth and socio-economic of the 36 states of Nigeria. It lies approximately on latitudes activities resulting in its spatial expansion from an area of 0 1 1 0 1 7 5 and 8°00 North of the Equator and longitude 5 45 East about 16 square kilometers in 1980 to about 30 square and longitude 6°00 East of the Greenwich Meridian at an kilometers in 2000. The population of the city grew from altitude of 370m above sea level. Akure is a medium-sized 38,852 in 1952 to 71,106 in 1963. Its population was urban centre that became the provincial headquarters of old estimated to be 112,850 in 1980); and 157,947 in 1990 Ondo province in 1939. It also became the capital city of (Ondo State of Nigeria, 1990). The 1991 national population Ondo State and a Local Government Headquarters in 1979. census however, puts the population of Akure at 239,124 and These dual political roles of Akure have since acted as its population in 2006 was 353,211 [9]. At 2014, using a impetus to the influx of people into the city [8]. growth rate of 3.18 percent, the city was estimated to have Akure is located approximately 700 kilometers South 453,731 people using a formula for projection, Pt = Po (1+r) West of Abuja, the Federal Capital of Nigeria and about 350 [7]. However, the study area is divided into three kilometers to Lagos, the former capital of Nigeria. It is neighbourhoods which include the core, transitional and located within the tropical rain forest region of Nigeria where peripheral zones. Sokoto Kastina Yobe Jigawa Zamfara Borno Kebbi Kano Gombe Kaduna Bauchi Niger Adamawa Plateau FCT Kwara Nassarrawa Oyo Taraba Ekiti Kogi Osun Ondo State Benue Other State Ondo Ogun Edo Lagos Enugu Ebonyi north Anambra Cross River Imo west east Delta Abia Akwa-Ibom Source south Bayelsa Department of Surveying & Geoinformatics Rivers University of Lagos Source: Department of Surveying & Geoinformatics, University of Lagos, (2016). Figure 1. The study area in its national setting 224 Socio-economic Assessment of Inhabitants of Residential Densities in Akure, Nigeria Primary data for the study were generated from the each of the research variables [6]. Definition of variable administration of a structured questionnaire. The involves essentially: questionnaire focused on household heads or any adult living (i) Clarification of the meaning of the variable, that is, in the buildings within the study area. It investigated among what it is. other things; sex, age, education, marital status, household (ii) Derivation of code for each variable for easy reference size, occupation and level income of the respondents. in data analysis and interpretation. Secondary data were obtained from the Ministry of Lands (iii) Specification of measurement scale, that is, various and Housing, Ondo State Development and Property options to each question in the questionnaire. Corporation, Physical Planning Department and Survey (iv) Careful exposition of typical or international units of Department in Ministry of Works Akure, Ondo State, while measurement like “₦” for Naira, “€” for Euro and “m” Property Maps were obtained from the National Population for metre. Commission among others. (v) Specification of time frames for some variables, for The population of Akure according to the 2006 population example, yearly, monthly, weekly, daily, hourly and so census was 353,211 [9]. This was projected to 2014 using on. 3.18% annual growth rate officially determined by the For the purpose of this research, however, variables have National Population Commission. The city was estimated to been identified based on socio-economic characteristics of have 453,731 people. The total number of buildings in Akure respondents in the study area. Thus, the research variables was calculated to be 16,205, using the following formula, are as identified and described. where ppf and hpb are persons per family and households per building. 2.2.1. Definition of Variables on Socio-economic Background of Respondents The variables on socio-economic characteristics of respondents include: SEX, AGE, EDU, MARITA, H-SIZE, A sample size of 7% was used for questionnaire OCCUPA, and INCOME for sex, age, education, marital administration that gave 1,134 respondents. This proportion status, household size, occupation and income level of the was reasonable given the homogeneity characterizing the respondents in the study area respectively. These variables study area which includes, form and age of buildings, were used to assess the validity of the data used in the study physical conditions of housing units, condition of area. For instance, the lowest age cohort for this study is neighbourhood infrastructure and respondents personal 20-29 years. This shows that the questionnaire was profile among others. Using the table of random numbers, 24 administered to adults in the study area. Although INCOME Enumeration Areas (EAs) were selected on the ratio of is part of socio-economic variables, in this research it is 50:35:15 for the core; transition and peripheral zones from considered important. The average monthly income of the the 2006 EAs from the NPC [10]. Twelve (12) EAs were respondents reveals their capability of building a personal sampled for the core; 9 for the transition zone; and 3 for the house. EDU is pertinent, because information gathered from peripheral zone. The sample size of 1,134 respondents was literate community is reliable. The average household size distributed in the proportion of 567; 425; and 142 for the core, (H-SIZE) reveals the crowding index in the study area. transition and peripheral zones respectively. A total of 831 Level of measurement refers to the particular way that a representing 73.28% out of the total 1,134 questionnaires variable is measured, and scale of measurement refers to the administered were retrieved and used for analysis. The particular tool for sorting the data that one applies based on selection of twenty-four (24) EAs was reasonable, when the level. Choosing level and scale of measurement is an earlier studies were considered that utilized EAs. important part of the research design process because they For instance, the Federal Ministry of Health [Nigeria], are necessary for systematized measuring and categorizing 2003 used two EAs per Local Government; and the National of data, and thus for analyzing it and drawing conclusions Population Commission [Nigeria], used the same number of from it as well [11]. Descriptive statistics summarize data. EAs for 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey. The mean of the variable is the arithmetic average of the Twenty field assistants were employed to administer the scores, calculated by adding all the scores and dividing by questionnaire in three months. Tables and graphs were used the total number of scores. On the other hand, the standard to present, interpret and discuss research findings through deviation of the variable provides some idea about the SPSS version 21 and Microsoft Excel 2013. distribution of scores around the mean (average). The smaller the standard deviation, the more narrow the range 2.2. Definition of Research Variables between the lowest and highest scores or, more generally, that the scores cluster closely to the average score. It is a As the basis for empirical investigation and analysis, there is a need to embark not only on listing of research variables, measure of "agreement" between raters. If everyone gave the but also to present the definition, that is, to explain the same score, then the standard deviation would be zero and meaning, provide justification and rationale for including the agreement would be high (or perfect) among the Civil Engineering and Architecture 5(6): 222-229, 2017 225 respondents. servants and those that are private among others. Sex as a variable shows that women prefer their husbands to be interviewed, as revealed by the findings of this study. This was because of suspicion, skepticism and 3. Results and Discussion misinterpretation of the exercise, thinking it was meant to determine taxable adults. It revealed the speculation that, 3.1. Introduction there were increasing numbers of male populations moving from the core to the periphery. Age revealed the distribution This section examines the analysis of socio-economic of the respondents in the study area. Household size showed characteristics of the respondents in the residential densities the number of person(s) living in a house and eating from the within Akure city. The results are presented as shown in the same source (under the same household head). Occupation following tables and charts. revealed the proportion of the respondents working as civil Table 1. Specification, Coding and Measurement of Socio-economic Variables S/N Specification Variable Code Scale Measurement Mean Standard Deviation 1 Sex of respondents SEX Nominal 1= Male; 2= female 1.45 0.50 Age of 1= 20-29; 2= 30-39; 3= 40-49; 4= 50-59; 2 AGE Interval 3.14 1.29 Respondents 5= 60 and above 1= No formal education; 2= Primary Level of education 3 EDU Nominal education; 3= Secondary education; 4= 3.08 1.01 of respondents Tertiary education 1= Single; 2= Married; 3= Marital status of 4 MARITA Nominal Widow/Widower; 4= Separated; 5= 1.97 0.49 respondents Divorced Household size of 5 H-SIZE Interval 1= 1-3; 2= 4-6; 3= 7 and above 2.21 0.68 respondents Occupational 1= Civil servant; 2= Business 6 OCCUPA Nominal 1.98 0.72 status man/woman; 3= Craftsmen and others Average monthly 1= <20,000; 2= 21,000-40000; 3= 7 income of INCOME Interval 41,000-60,000; 4= 61,000-80,000; 5= 2.31 1.37 respondents 81,000-100,000; 6= Above 100, 000 Source: Author’s Fieldwork, 2016. Table 2. Sex of Respondents in Residential Densities of Akure Total Zone Core Transition Periphery (Study Area) Sex Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Male 220 52.1 159 55.0 77 64.2 456 54.9 Female 202 47.9 130 45.0 43 35.8 375 45.1 Total 422 100.0 289 100.0 120 100.0 831 100.0 Source: Author’s Fieldwork, 2016. Table 3. Level of Education of Respondents in Residential Densities of Akure Total Core Transition Periphery Zone (Study Area) Level of Education Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) No formal education 77 18.2 29 10.0 0 0 106 12.8 Primary education 43 10.2 28 9.7 0 0 71 8.5 Secondary education 175 41.5 110 38.1 21 17.5 306 36.8 Tertiary education 127 30.1 122 42.2 99 82.5 348 41.9 Total 422 100.0 289 100.0 120 100.0 831 100.0 Source: Author’s Fieldwork, 2016. 226 Socio-economic Assessment of Inhabitants of Residential Densities in Akure, Nigeria Table 4. Marital Status of Respondents in Residential Densities of Akure Core Transition Periphery Total Marital Status Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Single 45 10.7 52 18.0 4 3.3 101 12.1 Married 323 76.5 226 78.2 115 95.8 664 79.9 Widow/Widower 48 11.4 11 3.8 1 .8 60 7.2 Separated 3 .7 - - - - 3 .4 Divorced 3 .7 - - - - 3 .4 Total 422 100.0 289 100.0 120 100.0 831 100.0 Source: Author’s Fieldwork, 2016. Table 5. Household Size of Respondents in Residential Densities of Akure Total Zone Core Transition Periphery (Study Area) Household Size Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) 1 – 3 26 6.2 27 9.3 69 57.5 122 14.7 4 – 6 187 44.3 177 61.2 48 40.0 412 49.6 7 and above 209 49.5 85 29.4 3 2.5 297 35.7 Total 422 100.0 289 100.0 120 100.0 831 100.0 Source: Author’s Fieldwork, 2016. Table 6. Occupation of Respondents in Residential Densities of Akure Total Core Transition Periphery Zone (Study Area) Occupation Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Civil servant 69 16.4 84 29.1 68 56.7 221 26.6 Business man/woman 208 49.3 147 50.9 49 40.8 404 48.6 Craftmen and others 145 34.4 58 20.1 3 2.5 206 24.8 Total 422 100.0 289 100.0 120 100.0 831 100.0 Source: Author’s Fieldwork, 2016. Table 7. Income of Respondents in Residential Densities of Akure Core Transition Periphery Total Monthly Income Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) Freq. Percent (%) <20,000 193 45.7 121 41.9 - - 314 37.8 21,000 - 40,000 125 29.6 67 23.2 21 17.5 213 25.6 41,000 - 60,000 60 14.2 39 13.5 24 20.0 123 14.8 61,000 - 80,000 25 5.9 44 15.2 52 43.3 121 14.6 81,000 - 100,000 14 3.3 9 3.1 12 10.0 35 4.2 Above 100,000 5 1.2 9 3.1 11 9.2 25 3.0 Total 422 100.0 289 100.0 120 100.0 831 100.0 Source: Author’s Fieldwork, 2016. 3.2. Sex of Respondents the male gender in the study area could be attributed to the fact that women in most cases prefer that, their husbands The pattern of results varies from one zone to the other. At respond to interviews whether they are available or not. the core 52.1 percent of the respondents were males against However, most of the respondents, misconstrued the exercise 47.9 percent females. Also in the transition zone, 55.0 as a survey to determine taxable adults, and therefore the percent of the respondents were males while 45.0 percent reference to the head of household in most cases. In addition, were females. At the periphery, it was discovered that 64.2 investigation revealed that the males were saddled with the percent of the respondents were males while 35.8 percent responsibilities of provision and maintenance of basic were females. In an exploratory manner, the prominence of Civil Engineering and Architecture 5(6): 222-229, 2017 227 facilities across the residential zones more than their females’ secondary education 17.5 percent (this is the zone where counterparts. The results also revealed an increasing number civil servants reside most; it is the neighbourhood where the of male populations from the core to the periphery. elites of the city live). The results in table 2 revealed that educational attainment increased from primary education to tertiary education both at the transition and periphery while 3.3. Age of Respondents the reverse was the case in the core of the study area. The The findings revealed that the age cohort 40-49 years had implication of this is that there were more literate inhabitants the highest proportion of 29.2 percent and indeed the age at the transitional and peripheral zones. Therefore, the low bracket with highest ratio across the residential zones in the level of education of some respondents in the study area may study area. This was followed by respondents within the age undermine the importance of housing quality. bracket 30-39 with 25.6 percent. The age cohort with the least proportion is 20-29 years which accounted for 9.4 3.5. Marital Status of Respondents percent of the total respondents. Below 20 years age cohort The marital status of the respondents revealed that 79.9 was excluded because the research was designed to gather percent were married and 12.1 percent single in the entire information from adults in the study area. The implication of study area. It was observed that at the core, 0.7 percent and the findings was that, there was more of productive age than 0.7 percent were separated and divorced respectively. At the the dependency ratio among the adults within the study area. transitional zone, 78.2 percent of the respondents were married and 3.8 percent were widows/widowers. In addition, at the periphery, findings revealed that 95.8 percent of the respondents were married and 3.3 percent were single. Although, the status of those married was high across the residential zones but highest at the periphery. 3.6. Household Size of Respondents Household size is the number of inhabitants residing in a housing unit whose production of income and consumption of goods and services are related. The household sizes of the respondents were studied across the residential zones in the Source: Author’s Fieldwork, 2016. study area. The study revealed that 49.6 percent of the Figure 3. Age of Respondents respondents in the study area had household size of four to six persons. At the core, the findings revealed that 7 and above persons per household had the highest proportion of 3.4. Education of Respondents 49.5 percent and the lowest was one to three household size The educational attainment of the heads of household is with 6.2 percent. Within the transitional zone, results showed important. This is because household heads with some that four to six had the highest household size which formal education are likely to do more in provision of accounted for 61.2 percent and this was followed by seven housing infrastructure independent of Government. No and above making up to 29.4 percent. However, at the doubt, education is a critical factor in the appreciation of up periphery, findings revealed that 57.5 percent of the to date issues pertinent to urban studies as one can easily rely respondents had a household size of one to three persons and on information supplied by the literates [12]. This category this was followed by 40.0 percent for household size of four of respondents has better sense for comfort and taste. The to six persons per housing unit. Moreover, the findings of educational level of residents of Akure is shown in table 3. this research revealed that, 4 to 6 household size had the The table revealed that respondents without formal education highest percentage. Therefore, the finding concurs with the accounted for 12.8 percent in the study area, having their result of [13] which states that the average household size in enclaves at the core and transitional zones. While those with Ondo State was 6 persons per household. tertiary education were 41.9 percent most of whom were residents at the peripheral zone of Akure. 3.7. Occupation of Respondents Spatially, at the core, highest level of education was 41.5 The occupational composition showed the differences in percent for secondary education and the lowest was primary types and representations across the residential zones. education which had 10.2 percent. However, it is interesting Findings revealed that most people residing at the heart of to state that the result revealed that 30.1% had tertiary the city of Akure were business men/women having 49.3 education in this zone. In the transition, tertiary education percent and craftsmen/others 34.4 percent. At the transition, had 42.2 percent while the lowest was 9.7 percent for business men/women accounted for 50.9 percent and 29.1 primary education. The residents at the periphery that had percent of the respondents were civil servants. Furthermore, tertiary education were 82.5 percent while those with 228 Socio-economic Assessment of Inhabitants of Residential Densities in Akure, Nigeria the findings revealed that at the peripheral zone, civil difficult to save enough money to buy or build their own servants and business men/women had 56.7 percent and 40.8 houses. Therefore, this paper recommends poverty percent respectively. It is therefore deduced that the alleviation scheme, [15] report suggests two strategies. self-employed and craftsmen are resident at the city core These are: 1. Promotion of the productive use of the poor’s while greater percentage of the civil servants in the study most abundant asset-labour. This invariably calls for policies area are resident at the periphery that create market incentives, stable social and political institutions, good infrastructure and adaptable technology. 2. Making basic social services available to the poor. Hence 3.8. Monthly Income of Respondents primary health care, family planning, balanced nutrition and Findings in table 7 showed the monthly income of primary education are of prime importance. Also economic respondents across the residential zones. At the core, there growth remains the primary means of reducing poverty and was a constant decrease in the monthly income. That is, from improving the quality of life. Therefore economic policies less than ₦20,000 per month to above ₦100,000 a month and should be directed towards poverty reduction, such as this accounted for 45.7 percent to 1.2 percent respectively. increased sectoral allocation to the productive sectors of the While at the periphery the reverse is the case, it was observed economy in order to create more jobs and raise the level of that there is stable increase upward in the monthly income employment. Unemployment is perceived as a key part of hierarchy. However, at the transition zone, it was observed poverty [16]. Establishment of skill acquisition centres for that there was a decrease in the monthly income of training on masonry, carpentry, arts and crafts, decoration, respondents from less than ₦20,000 to between ₦41,000 and electrical installation, information communication ₦60,000 which accrued for 41.9 percent to 13.5 percent technology (ICT), wood works, welding, metal works, spray respectively. and painting, in addition, housing loan/subsidies, site and Investigation revealed that the general monthly income is service to improve the socioeconomic predicament of the low with 37.8% of respondents earning less than ₦20,000 per inhabitants of the study area. month. With this low income distribution, to afford good housing would be difficult, if not impossible. However, this is important to this research, because with higher income, there is more disposable income with which to procure REFERENCES decent housing. In addition, the finding of this study shows [1] J. O. Ajanlekoko, (2011). Construction development that the poorer residents are more in the high density area that bank: A panacea for affordable housing and are also considered as low and medium income earners. The infrastructural development in Nigeria. A paper implication of this is that the low and medium income th Delivered at the 4 Annual Lecture of the School of earners may not be able or would find it difficult to save Environmental Technology, Federal University of enough money to buy or build their own houses. This Technology, Akure, Ondo State. discovery tallies with the findings of [14] on housing finance [2] K. Oyesiku, (2009): City Liveability: implications and in Akure, Ondo State, which also revealed that low and challenges. Paper presented at the 2009 Commonwealth medium income earners would find it difficult to build their Association of Planners, West Africa Workshop on Planning own house. for Liveable Human Settlement: The West African Challenges, Lagos. [3] UN-HABITAT, (2016). Urbanisation and development: 4. Conclusions Emerging futures. World Cities Report, 2016. www.unhabitat.org It is an undeniable reality that the residential nature of a [4] O. G. Julius, and L. R. Momoh, (2009). Residents’ town or city is functionally related to the location and socio-economic characteristics and the residential mobility decisions of the inhabitants in the community. From the process in an urban space: The example of the Warri metropolis, Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Hum Ecol, 27(1), analysis of this study, it was revealed that there seems to be 45-52. an increasing number of male populations from the core to the periphery and there is more of productive age than the [5] O. O. Rotowa, J. A. B., Olujimi, F. K., Omole, and A. E. dependency ratio within the study area. The low level of Olajuyigbe, (2015). Socioeconomic factors affecting household’s sanitation preferences in Akure, Nigeria. education of some respondents in the study area undermined European International Journal of Science and Technology the importance of housing quality. The findings of this study 4(5), 183-194. also revealed that the status of those married is high across the residential zones but highest at the periphery. However, [6] J.O. Fasakin, (2000). A land use analysis of the operation of commercial motorcycles in Akure, Nigeria. Unpublished PhD self-employed and craftsmen are resident at the city core Research Thesis, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, while greater percentage of the civil servants in the study Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. area are resident at the periphery. Apparently, low and medium income earners may not be able or would find it [7] E. Gabriel, (2017). Spatial differentiation of housing Civil Engineering and Architecture 5(6): 222-229, 2017 229 infrastructure autonomy in Akure, Nigeria. Unpublished PhD examples. Research Thesis, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, https://www.thoughtco.com/scales-of-measurement-3026571. Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. [12] TETFUND, University Research Grant. (2017). E-land pricing in residential housing density mix in Akure, Nigeria. [8] J. A. B. Olujim i and I. O. Olam iju (2011). Regional analys is of Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. locations of public educational facilities in Nigeria: The Akure region experience. Journal of Geography and Regional [13] National Population Commission (2006). Population and Planning 4(7), 428-442. Available online at housing census: “Population distribution by Sex, State, LGA, http://www.academicjournals.org/JGRP. and Senatorial district”, http://www.population.gov.ng/images. [9] National Population Commission, (2006). Population and housing census: “Population distribution by Sex, State, LGA, [14] A. Olumide, (2015). Housing finance in urban areas of Nigeria: and Senatorial district”, An empirical example from Akure, Ondo State. Swift Journals http://www.population.gov.ng/images. of Social Sciences 1(1), 8-12. [10] O. O. Rotowa, (2014). Spatio-environmental management of [15] World Bank (1996). Nigeria: Poverty in the midst of plenty. faecal waste in the residential zones of Akure, Nigeria. The challenge of growth with inclusion. Washington DC: Unpublished PhD Research Thesis, Department of Urban and World Bank. Regional Planning, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. [16] A. Olotu, R. Salami and I. Akeremale (2015). Poverty and rate of unemployment in Nigeria. International Journal of [11] A. Crossman, (2017). Understanding levels and scales of Management, 2(1). International Journal of Business and measurement: Nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio with Management. .4(6), 18-30.

Journal

Civil Engineering and ArchitectureUnpaywall

Published: Dec 1, 2017

There are no references for this article.