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Role of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash in Developing Sustainable Engineered Cementitious Composites

Role of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash in Developing Sustainable Engineered Cementitious Composites fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 1 ORIGINAL RESEARCH published: 08 April 2020 doi: 10.3389/fmats.2020.00065 Role of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash in Developing Sustainable Engineered Cementitious Composites 1 2 2 1 Muhammad Nasir Amin , Muhammad Ashraf , Rabinder Kumar , Kaffayatullah Khan , 3 3 3 Daniyal Saqib , Syed Sajid Ali and Sajidullah Khan Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, Department of Civil Engineering, Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi, Pakistan, Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan Sugarcane bagasse is an agricultural waste that can be transformed by incineration into a cement replacement material for various cementing purposes. This study investigated the role of finely ground bagasse ash (GBA) in producing engineered cementitious composites (ECCs) with the addition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers. The main focus of this study was to develop a green ECC with higher strength capabilities (compressive, tensile, and flexural) and greater tensile ductility. To develop this composite, GBA was added into ECC mixes at different proportions, i.e., 10, 20, and 30%. The proportions of PVA fibers and the water-to-binder ratio were kept constant. The results revealed that Edited by: the ECC mix containing 10% GBA exhibited higher compressive strength compared Carlos Chastre, New University of Lisbon, Portugal to that of a control and the other ECC mixes. The tensile and flexural strengths of the Reviewed by: ECCs exhibited patterns almost similar to that of compressive strength. Moreover, the Ionut Ovidiu Toma, deflection in the control mix was higher compared to that of the GBA-ECC mixes at an Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, ¸ Romania initial curing age. The ECC mix containing 10% GBA exhibited better ductile behavior Paulina Faria, among all the ECC mixes used in this study. New University of Lisbon, Portugal *Correspondence: Keywords: bagasse ash, engineered cementitious composite, compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, ductility Muhammad Nasir Amin mgadir@kfu.edu.sa INTRODUCTION Specialty section: This article was submitted to Structural Materials, After water, concrete is the most widely used material on our planet. The estimated yearly a section of the journal consumption of concrete is approaching 30 billion tons (Klee, 2009). For the last two decades, Frontiers in Materials the trend of using high-strength concrete has been increasing due to its demand for building Received: 13 October 2019 advanced infrastructures. However, with the increase in strength, the brittleness of concrete also Accepted: 03 March 2020 increases, which ultimately leads to the cracking and failure of concrete structures. Thus, it was Published: 08 April 2020 decided to develop new cementitious materials with high ductility that would be more valuable in Citation: terms of safety, durability, and sustainability in structural applications. Therefore, a new composite Amin MN, Ashraf M, Kumar R, material called engineered cementitious composite (ECC) was developed, which possessed high Khan K, Saqib D, Ali SS and Khan S tensile strength along with high compressive strength (Li, 1993, 2002; Li et al., 2002). In ECC, the (2020) Role of Sugarcane Bagasse concrete is sustained on an increased loading rate even after first cracking while undergoing large Ash in Developing Sustainable deformation. Because of these properties, ECCs are also known as strain-hardening cementitious Engineered Cementitious composites. In fact, the failure in concrete is initiated due to the generation of microcracks followed Composites. Front. Mater. 7:65. doi: 10.3389/fmats.2020.00065 by their transformation into macrocracks. However, the addition of dispersed fibers into the matrix Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 1 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 2 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash has been observed to enhance the tensile properties of However, the utilization of this bagasse ash waste in concrete concrete and prevent microcracking from propagating to the as a partial substitute for cement provides significant benefits in macrocracking stage, which eventually prevents brittle failure terms of reducing construction costs as well as greenhouse gas (Al Qadi and Al-Zaidyeen, 2014). Apart from their well-known emissions. This is because bagasse ash contains high amounts of extreme tensile ductility (Li, 2012), ECCs have been engineered amorphous silica and aluminum oxides, which are necessary for to demonstrate other useful traits, including light weight, low a material to be pozzolanic (Ganesan et al., 2007; Frías et al., 2011; carbon footprint, self-healing, self-sensing, self-thermal control, Bahurudeen et al., 2015). impact resistance, fire resistance with low thermal conductivity, Some researchers have reported that the pozzolanic rapid setting, self-consolidation, spray-ability, and extrudability reactivity of bagasse may improve the compressive strength (Wu et al., 2012; Liu and Tan, 2018; Shi et al., 2018). However, of concrete and enhance other mechanical and durability- all the above-mentioned traits greatly vary depending on the related properties (Rukzon and Chindaprasirt, 2012; Somna proportions, material type, and mix design of ECC. et al., 2012; Akkarapongtrakul et al., 2017). Since the main The cement content in ECCs compared to that in normal compound in bagasse ash is silica oxide, several searchers have concrete is quite high as it does not contain coarse aggregates. reported its potential use in concrete. According to Malyadri and However, the increased cement contents not only creates more Supriya (2015), the strength parameters of concrete increased heat of hydration, autogenous shrinkage and higher costs, by using 5% sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial substitute for but also causes the emission of large amounts of CO into cement. A very similar trend of strength improvement was the environment from the calcination of limestone and fuel also reported in another study by Mangi et al. (2017). Whereas combustion during the manufacturing of cement clinker (Zeman, Kawade et al. (2013) concluded that up to 15% of sugarcane 2009). Approximately, one ton of cement releases one ton CO , bagasse ash can be used favorably without compromising the which is responsible for 5% of greenhouse gas emissions (Kumar primary properties of concrete. Shafiq et al. (2018) reported et al., 2017). To minimize greenhouse effects, the addition of a considerable improvement in the compressive strength of industrial byproducts and agricultural wastes have been observed concrete utilizing 20% sugarcane bagasse ash. Moreover, a as sustainable alternatives because they successfully replace bulk significant improvement was also seen in the fresh, mechanical proportions of cement in ECCs without compromising strength and durability properties of concrete. Ganesan et al. (2007) and ductility (Kumar et al., 2017; Shafiq et al., 2018). also reported an optimum substitution of 20% sugarcane Currently, there is an increasing use of industrial waste, bagasse ash for cement without compromising the desired including fly ash, silica fume, and ground granulated blast furnace properties of concrete. Although the utilization of ground slag to produce highly sustainable concretes. The amorphous bagasse ash (GBA) in concrete has been widely explored and mineralogical character and high silicon dioxide (SiO ) content well documented by many researchers, its efficiency in ECCs is of these materials are usually responsible for controlling the still a novel topic to explore. Being a modern day construction stability and the development of high strength in the end product material, ECC produced using GBA can be useful in repair (Shafiq et al., 2018). In addition, the trend of using biowastes works and prefabricated building components where high from fuel sources in concrete, such as wheat straw ash, palm oil ductility is required. fuel ash, rice husk ash, and sugar cane bagasse ash, is increasing Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to evaluate significantly in those countries that produce large amounts of the performance of different proportions of GBA with PVA fibers these wastes that cause severe environmental issues if dumped on the mechanical properties of ECCs. For this purpose, the in open fields (Binici et al., 2008; Martirena and Monzó, 2018). detailed investigations of the compressive strength, direct tensile Previous studies show that sugar cane bagasse ash, which is a strength, and flexural strength of ECCs were carried out. The byproduct of the sugar cane industry, can be an effective material idea of such a detailed investigation is due to the target of this to be used in producing sustainable concrete (Ganesan et al., research, which is to obtain the optimum content of GBA as a 2007; Aigbodion et al., 2010). Bagasse, a residue remaining after partial substitute for cement in ECCs with the maximum gain the extraction of juice from sugarcane is subsequently used in in terms of mechanical performance, as well as economic and some industries as a primary source of energy (Frías et al., 2011). environmental sustainability. When it is burned as a fuel, it leaves bulk ash called bagasse ash (Loh et al., 2013). The burning of bagasse material at the MATERIALS AND METHODS temperature of 600–700 C produces amorphous silica, which eventually results in its substantial pozzolanic reactivity (Moretti Materials et al., 2018). The estimated bulk production of bagasse after juice extraction of sugarcane is 600 Mt, which is between 40 Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and 50% of the total weight of annually produced sugarcane in The cement used in this study was Type-I ordinary Portland the world (Shafiq et al., 2018). Among the largest sugarcane- cement (OPC) conforming to the requirements of ASTM C150- producing countries, Pakistan is ranked fifth in the world, after 07 (2007). The specific surface area and density of the cement 2 3 Brazil, India, China, and Thailand, with an annual production were 2670.3 cm /g and 3.15 g/cm , respectively. The X-ray of approximately 65.451 Mt. After burning the bagasse as a fluorescence (XRF) analysis was performed to determine the source of fuel, the ash waste is disposed of in landfills, which is chemical composition of the cement. Table 1 shows the chemical causing serious environmental problems (Chusilp et al., 2009). composition of the cement used in this research. Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 2 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 3 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash TABLE 1 | Chemical composition of cement and bagasse ash. Oxides composition SiO Fe O Al O CaO Na O MgO SO LOI Physical properties 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 Blaine fineness Density 2 3 (cm /g) (g/cm ) (%) Cement 18.4 3 5.6 66.8 0.13 1.4 1.3 2 2670.3 3.15 Bagasse ash 66.70 1.53 9.70 10.07 4.14 4.60 – 7.4 2850.8 2.25 Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Fibers enhance the pozzolanic reactivity, the bagasse ash waste was treated using various processes, including burning, sieving, Kuraray polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers of diameter 14.3 mm were used in this research as a reinforcement for the ECC (Figure 1). grinding, and chemical activation. These methods were efficiently utilized in combinations such that the bagasse ash waste attained These fibers were very thin, similar to hairs, and flexible enough to prevent the generation of micro cracks. The density of the highest achievable pozzolanic reactivity. The bagasse ash collected from the sugar industry was further burned at 700 C the PVA fibers was 1.3 g/cm . Table 2 shows the detailed physical for 90 min followed by cooling at room temperature. After properties of PVA fibers. The PVA characteristics data shown in cooling, the ash was stored in airtight containers until further Table 2 were obtained from the manufacturer. testing. The burned bagasse ash stored in airtight containers was Bagasse Ash composed of both entirely burned (fine) and unburned (coarse Boiler-fired bagasse ash waste was collected from the sugar fibrous) particles. The unburned coarse fibrous particles with industry located in Sakhakot Malakand agency, Pakistan. To high carbon content and without silica were not desired and, therefore, were completely separated by sieving through a 300- mm sieve to obtain only the fine particles for further processing. According to Bahurudeen et al. (2015), the burned bagasse ash passing the sieve 300-mm leaves only fine particles that are rich in silica content. Figures 2A,B show the appearance of the bagasse ash before and after sieving, respectively. The fine bagasse ash after grinding is shown in Figure 2C. Grinding of the bagasse ash Following heat treatment and sieving, the mechanical treatment of fine bagasse ash was carried out in a ball mill. The role of mechanical grinding in improving the performance of potential cement substitute materials is a well-established fact. In this study, the purpose of the mechanical grinding of bagasse ash was to increase its surface area and obtain its optimized value by varying the grinding times as 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. The speed of grinding was kept constant at 66 revolutions per minute and the grinding media-to-ash ratio was 5:1 by weight (i.e., 5 kg of balls to 1 kg of ash). Mix Proportions FIGURE 1 | Polyvinyl alcohol fibers. The constituents used in the production of ECC blends contained OPC, GBA, PVA fibers, and sand. Four different ECC mixes TABLE 2 | Physical properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers. were designed by increasing the amount of GBA (0, 10, 20, and 30%) as a partial substitute by mass of cement. Manufacturer Kurary The water-to-binder ratio and the amount of PVA fibers were kept constant in all the ECC mixes at 0.40 and 1.5% Origin Japan Color White of total mix volume, respectively. The detailed experimental matrix for the mix designs is summarized in Table 3. All Diameter (mm) 14.3 Length (mm) 8.0 the ECC mixes were labeled with a unique identity, i.e., CM Aspect ratio (l/d) 560 for control mix without GBA, whereas the mixes containing 10, 20, and 30% GBA were identified as 10ECC, 20ECC, and Tensile strength (MPa) 1716 Density (g/cm ) 1.3 30ECC, respectively. The different proportions of bagasse ash Elongation (%) 6.9 in this study (10–30%) were selected based on the findings of Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 3 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 4 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash FIGURE 2 | Bagasse ash: (A) after heat treatment at 700 C for 90 min, (B) passed the 300-mm sieve after heat treatment, and (C) ground in a ball mill for 60 min after sieving. TABLE 3 | ECC mix proportions for the control and mixes containing different percentages of GBA. Mix ID Mix quantities for 1 m ECC (kg) W/B Cement Water GBA Sand PVA fibers Super plasticizers (% of binder) CM 0.40 704 282 – 2112 26 1 10ECC 0.40 634 282 70 2112 26 1 20ECC 0.40 563 282 141 2112 26 1 30ECC 0.40 493 282 211 2112 26 1 previous studies (Ganesan et al., 2007; Bahurudeen et al., 2015; Fineness and Pozzolanic Reactivity of the Bagasse Joshaghani et al., 2016) as well as the trial tests. The main Ash objective was to evaluate the synergy of different percentages of The fineness values of the cement and GBA were determined by bagasse ash in ECC. using the Blaine air permeability apparatus in accordance with ASTM C204 - 11 (2011). The influence of the grinding time on Mixing and Casting the total surface area of the GBA is shown in Figure 3. It can be The ingredients of the ECC mixes were added into the seen that the surface area of the bagasse ash before grinding was mixer in this order: sand, cement, PVA fibers, GBA. After 2 2 2067.8 cm /g, which, compared to that of cement (2670.3 cm /g), adding the desired quantities to the mixer, the ingredients is lower. However, the surface area of the bagasse ash increased were thoroughly mixed for two minutes. Subsequently, the after grinding and gradually continued increasing with increased water and super plasticizers were added to the dry mixture grinding. The desired surface area (greater than that of cement) and mixed for another 2 min. Eventually, the PVA fibers was attained, corresponding to grinding for 60 min. Bahurudeen and GBA were slowly added into the mortar and mixed and Santhanam (2015) concluded that the pozzolanic reactivity of until all the fibers were uniformly dispersed. Immediately after mixing, the mixtures were cast into molds and stored under standard laboratory conditions of temperature and humidity. Three gang mortar steel molds (50 mm cube), coupon shaped steel molds (152 mm  76 mm  13 mm), and wooden prisms (320 mm  40 mm  12 mm) were used to cast mortar specimens for compressive strength tests, uniaxial tensile strength tests, and four-point bending tests, respectively. All the specimens were demolded after 24 h of casting and moist cured at 24  2 C until the age of testing. Test Methods The pozzolanic activity of bagasse ash was determined using the Chapelle test. The XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, and fineness were also determined. The microstructure of the GBA particles was analyzed through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. Together with direct tensile strength and flexural strength tests, the flexural FIGURE 3 | Influence of grinding duration on the surface area of bagasse ash behavior of ECCs containing different proportions of BA and its comparison with cement. was also investigated. Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 4 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 5 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash GBA is enhanced significantly when its surface area is equivalent From these micrographs, it can be seen that the ash sample to that of cement. contains many different particle shapes, such as rounded, Following the grinding phase, the pozzolanic reactivity of the elongated, irregular, and prismatic (Figure 4A). The sizes of bagasse ash obtained from grinding for 60 min was determined particles range from 10 to 50 mm. Moreover, Figure 4B shows by the Chappelle test in accordance with French norm, NF small, flat irregular, needle-shaped, and elliptical particles. P 18-513 (Association Française de Normalisation [AFNOR], Compressive Strength 2012; Pontes et al., 2013). The Chappelle test was performed to This test was performed to investigate the compressive strength determine the reduction in Ca(OH) due to its reaction with evolution of all the ECC mixes. A total of nine 50 mm cube siliceous or alumina-silicates present in pozzolans in GBA. The specimens were cast for each mix (CM, 10ECC, 20ECC, and Chappelle activity test chemically determines the amount of lime 30ECC) to test three identical specimens at ages of 14, 28, utilized by a pozzolan. The amount of lime utilized is directly and 91 days. The tests were performed in accordance with proportional to the pozzolanic activity of the material. The results ASTM C109 / C109M - 16a (2016) using a compression of the current Chapelle test on the GBA satisfied the minimum machine as shown in Figure 5A. According to ASTM C109, the requirements set for pozzolanic activity (330 mg of CaO/g of loading rate in the compression machine was kept at 0.91 kN/s pozzolan) due to its highly active amorphous silica (Li et al., for all specimens. 2004). This finding clearly suggested that the GBA is chemically reactive in nature and therefore suitable for its use as a sustainable Direct Tensile Test cement substitute material. Just like compression tests, nine coupon specimens having dimensions of 152 mm  76 mm  13 mm were cast for each Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the Bagasse mix to carry out uniaxial tensile tests at ages of 14, 28, and Ash 91 days. A series of direct tensile tests were performed using The morphological investigation of some selected samples of a universal testing machine (Figure 5B). The purpose of these GBA was conducted using SEM (JSM5910 JEOL, Japan). Figure 4 tests is to investigate the influence of the different amounts of shows the micrographs of studied samples at magnification GBA on tensile strength and to study the tensile stress-strain ranges from X500 to X2000. and strain-hardening behavior of the ECC mixes at desired FIGURE 4 | SEM images of bagasse ash after grinding in a ball mil: (A) the presence of different particle shapes and (B) the presence of small, flat irregular, needle-shaped, and elliptical particles. Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 5 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 6 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash FIGURE 6 | Comparison of compressive strength with aging among CM and ECC mixes containing different percentages of GBA. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Compressive Strength Figure 6 shows the comparison of the strength results of all four ECC mixes according to different proportions of GBA and curing ages (14, 28, and 91 days). At early ages (14 days of curing), FIGURE 5 | Test setup to measure: (A) compressive strength, (B) tensile all the ECC mixes containing GBA possessed lower compressive strength, and (C) flexural strength of the ECCs. strength compared to that of the control mix. Moreover, the reduction in compressive strength gradually increased with increasing amounts of GBA in the mix. This phenomenon of strength reduction can be attributed to slight or no pozzolanic testing ages. The specimens were loaded to a constant cross- activity at earlier stages. However, with increasing curing age, head speed of 0.003 mm/s. To measure strain, electrical resistance this phenomenon of strength reduction with increasing amounts strain gauges (Tokyo Sokki PFL-20-11-3L) were mounted on of GBA was completely reversed, particularly at later ages such to the surface of coupon specimens and the strain data were as 91 days of curing. A similar behavior of decreasing strength recorded using a data logger. Along with strain measurements, at early ages and then increasing strength with curing ages the elongation of the coupon specimen with loading was also was also reported in the literature (Arenas-Piedrahita et al., measured using a displacement transducer, simultaneously using 2016; Joshaghani et al., 2016). The mineralogy (Table 1) as well the same data logger. as the pozzolanic reactivity results obtained by the Chappelle test reflected predominate behavior of GBA in gaining later Four-Point Bending Test age strengths. Moreover, the particle characteristics of calcined The flexural strengths of the ECC mixes were measured by GBA observed by SEM (Figure 4) also suggests a denser and using the four-point loading method as specified by ASTM improved micro-structural phase of mortars containing different C348 - 14 (2014). For this purpose, nine rectangular beams percentages of GBA as compared to CM. The size and the shape of size 320 mm length  40 mm height  12 mm thickness of particles affect both the fresh as well as the hardened properties were cast for each mix to test three identical specimens at of cement matrix in a significant manner. ages of 14, 28, and 91 days. As shown in Figure 5C, the At 28 days, only the ECC containing 10% GBA (10ECC) clear span (the span between the supports) was divided into produced better compressive strength compared to that of the three equal parts to have two points to transmit the load. control mix, while the other two mixes (20ECC and 30ECC) still A deflection gauge was attached to the middle bottom surface of possessed lower values. The inclusion of 10% GBA in the ECC the beams to monitor deflection at regular intervals of loading. mix demonstrated 3 and 7% higher strength than that of the CM Eventually, from this test, the values of the first crack load and at 28 and 91 days, respectively. The gain in strength could be flexural strength were measured. Moreover, the load-deflection due to the consumption of free lime available in the matrix. The curves were drawn using the measured values of load and mix containing 20% GBA (20ECC) exhibited an approximately deflection to compare the toughness and deflection behavior of 6% reduction in compressive strength at 28 days of curing, while different mixes. the compressive strength increased by 3% at an age of 91 days. Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 6 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 7 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash Similar to 20ECC, the reduction in strength continued for 30ECC at 28 days and ended up at almost the same strength as that of CM at 91 days. The reason for the strength reduction in 20ECC and 30ECC at 28 days can be associated with decreased cement content and therefore slow pozzolanic reactivity (Bahurudeen et al., 2015). Overall, the current results indicated safe use of GBA in lower amounts, such as up to 10%, in producing optimized ECCs without compromising the required compressive strength. Tensile Strength and Load-Strain Behavior of the ECCs Figure 7 shows the comparison of the tensile strength results among different ECC mixes with and without GBA according to different curing ages (14, 28, and 91 days). As expected, the trend of tensile strength development among all ECC mixes followed almost the same pattern as that of the compressive strength at all ages except at 91 days. For instance, similar to the compressive strength at an early age (14 days), the tensile strength also remained lower than that of the CM in all the ECC mixes and decreased gradually with the increasing percentage of GBA. Moreover, at 28 days, only 10ECC possessed higher tensile strength than that of CM, while the other ECC mixes exhibited lower tensile strength. Contrary to the compressive strength results, the tensile strengths of the ECC mixes remained lower at 91 days than that of CM, except 10ECC, which exhibited higher tensile strength. Overall, the results indicated that the ECC containing 10% GBA (10ECC) produced the best results among all the mixes in terms of tensile strength. The tensile strengths were approximately 8.33 and 7.40% higher than those of the CM at 28 and 91 days, respectively. Based on the tensile strength comparison among the different ECC mixes, the use of 10% GBA can be recommended in producing optimized ECCs without compromising tensile strength. Figure 8 shows the load vs. strain relationship among the different ECC mixes according to curing ages (14, 28, and FIGURE 7 | Comparison of tensile strength with aging among CM and ECC FIGURE 8 | Comparison of the load vs. strain relationship between CM and ECC mixes at an age of: (A) 14, (B) 28, and (C) 91 days. mixes containing different percentages of GBA. Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 7 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 8 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash response to loading was observed in both 10ECC and 20ECC compared to that of CM. It was further noted that 20ECC performed better than CM at all load levels regardless of curing ages. However, 10ECC showed more strain compared to that of CM at all load levels at both 28 and 91 days, except toward failure where it exhibited lower strain at higher loads than that of CM. Eventually, the current load-strain relation demonstrated a toughness behavior for all the ECC mixes (10ECC and 20ECC GBA) comparable to that of CM. The values of toughness were not calculated due to damage to the strain gauges corresponding to the failure loads. The highest value of strain corresponding to the failure load of 2.9 kN was observed in 10ECC as 558 m at 91 days. At 28 days, 10ECC exhibited the highest strain among all the mixes, which was equal to 457 m, corresponding to a failure load of 2.6 kN. This increase in the microstrain in 10ECC is 5.54% and 6.08% more than the corresponding values of CM at 28 and 91 days, respectively. Elongation With Load In addition to the measurement of microstrain with respect to load as discussed in the previous section, the elongation with respect to loading for CM as well as all the ECC mixes (10ECC, 20ECC, 30ECC) was also measured using displacement transducers. Figure 9 shows the comparison of the load- elongation behavior among CM and the ECC mixes with aging. In addition, the detailed results of current investigations on the tensile strength-related properties of ECC mixes (first crack load, maximum load, and elongation) are also listed in Table 4. Compared to CM, a slight increase in elongation was observed in all the ECC mixes (10ECC, 20ECC, and 30ECC) irrespective of aging (14, 28, or 91 days). Moreover, the elongation increased with increasing percentages of GBA, particularly at later ages (28 and 91 days). Such elongation behavior clearly indicated improved ductility of the ECC mixes containing different percentages of GBA. At early ages (14 days), although the elongation increased in all the ECC mixes compared to that of CM, it decreased with increasing percentages of GBA from 10 to 20% and 20 to 30%. It is expected that the decrease in elongation at early ages with increasing percentages of GBA might be due to the gradually decreasing amount of cement and eventually the occurrence of early failure at relatively smaller loads compared to that of 10ECC. Elongation significantly increased in all mixes with aging from 14 to 28 days, which must be due to the increased hydration reaction with aging. More importantly, the intensity of elongation with aging increased with increasing amounts of GBA. For instance, the increase in elongation with aging from 14 to 28 days was calculated as 37, 76, and 116% in 10ECC, 20ECC, and 30ECC, respectively. This clearly indicated an improved mechanical behavior of the ECC mixes with increasing amounts of GBA. However, unlike FIGURE 9 | Comparison of elongation among CM and the ECC mixes at an age of: (A) 14, (B) 28, and (C) 91 days. early ages, a slight decrease in elongation was observed in all the mixes with aging from 28 to 91 days. This must be due to the small increase in brittleness, as the strengths of the mixes 91 days). It may be worth noting that the strain data used in increased at 91 days. A decrease in elongation by 7.43, 2.5, and Figure 8 were directly obtained from electrical resistance strain 13% was calculated from 28 to 91 days for 10ECC, 20ECC, and gauges (Tokyo Sokki PFL-20-11-3L) mounted on the surfaces of 30ECC, respectively. The smallest reduction in elongation in the coupon specimens. At an age of 14 days, a slightly better 20ECC at 91 days indicated that the 20% GBA-blended ECC mix Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 8 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 9 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash TABLE 4 | Comparison of the first crack load, maximum load, and maximum elongation among different ECC mixes with aging. Mix ID First crack load (kN) Maximum load (kN) Maximum elongation (mm) Age (days) 14 28 91 14 28 91 14 28 91 CM 0.854 0.875 0.822 2.010 2.402 2.703 8.236 13.194 11.353 10ECC 0.897 0.937 0.691 1.810 2.601 2.931 10.051 13.816 12.789 20ECC 0.878 0.967 0.763 1.802 2.311 2.599 8.994 15.813 15.418 30ECC 0.789 0.943 0.659 1.605 2.121 2.510 8.410 18.146 15.793 exhibited the best mechanical behavior in terms of its ductility compared to that of CM reduced significantly at 91 days and among all the mixes. even turned almost identical to that of CM in 20ECC. This All the tested ECC samples showed a continual increase is attributed to increased pozzolanic reactivity with increasing in load-carrying capacity after the appearance of the first amounts of GBA with aging. crack. It can be seen from the maximum load values listed in Table 4 that the load-carrying capacity increased continuously Load Deflection Curves with aging regardless of the mortar type (control or other To investigate the influence of GBA on ductility, the mid-span mortars containing any percentage of GBA) and decreased with deflection of beams was measured with aging. The experimental increasing amounts of GBA. The decrease in the maximum load- set up of flexural tests on rectangular beams with a deflection carrying capacity is obviously due to decreased amounts of binder gauge attached to the middle bottom of the specimens is shown with increasing amounts of GBA (10–20, then 30%). in Figure 5. The load on the beams gradually increased until Unlike the trend of the maximum loads, the load its failure, and the deflection corresponding to the load was corresponding to the first crack increased in mortars containing automatically logged using a data logger. Figure 11 shows a GBA, particularly at ages of 14 and 28 days. The first crack loads comparison of the load-deflection relationship among the CM continued increasing with aging (14–28 days) as well as with and different ECC mixes with respect to different curing ages. increasing amounts of GBA. However, at 14 days, the trend of As mentioned earlier in Section “Materials and Methods,” nine the increasing first crack load was rather insignificant and even identical specimens were cast for each mix to test three specimens a decrease was observed in the mortar containing 30% GBA at each age (14, 28, and 91 days). The presented curves in (30ECC). This must be due to the reduced hydration reaction Figure 11 are an average of three samples. It was noted that the because of a smaller amount of cement in 30ECC, thus leading maximum deflection corresponding to the failure load ranged to low stiffness of the mortar matrix and early cracking. At later between 3 and 6 mm depending on the type of ECC (10ECC, ages (91 days), the first crack load compared to that of early ages 20ECC, or 30ECC) and aging (14, 28, or 91 days). decreased in all mortars with and without GBA. The reason is that the degree of brittleness of the cementitious composites increased with aging. However, the lowest reduction in the first 7.00 crack load compared to that of CM was recorded in 20ECC. The CM reduction in the first crack loads in 10ECC, 20ECC, and 30ECC 6.00 at the age of 91 days was recorded as 16, 7, and 20% of that of 10ECC CM, respectively. 20ECC 5.00 30ECC 4.00 Flexural Strength Figure 10 shows the influence of different proportions of GBA on the flexural strength of ECC mixes with aging. The 3.00 flexural strength closely followed a trend similar to that of the compressive strength where the flexural strength of the ECCs 2.00 containing GBA remained lower than that of the CM at early ages (14 days). The trend of gradual reduction with increasing 1.00 percentages of GBA at early ages demonstrated decreased pozzolanic activity with increasing GBA. This trend of decreasing 0.00 14 28 91 flexural strength in the ECCs with increasing percentages of GBA Age (day) continued at 28 days as well, except in 10ECC. Like compressive strength, the flexural strength of 10ECC exceeded that of CM FIGURE 10 | Comparison of flexural strength with aging among CM and the at both 28 and 91 days by 6.6 and 4%, respectively. Moreover, ECC mixes containing different percentages of GBA. the reduction in the flexural strengths in 20ECC and 30ECC Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 9 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 Flexural Strength (MPa) fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 10 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash gradually with increasing amounts of GBA in all the studied mixes. At any particular load level, deflection in the ECC mixes increased with increasing amounts of GBA. However, the load- deflection behavior of 10ECC was almost identical to that of CM. Moreover, the load-deflection behavior of ECCs containing GBA significantly improved with aging from 14 to 28 days and from 28 to 91 days. From Figures 11B,C, it can be seen that the resistance to deflection as well as the load-carrying capacity of 10ECC is greater than those of CM at both 28 and at 91 days. Similar to 10ECC, specimen 20ECC exhibited identical or slightly better load-deflection responses than that of CM at later ages. Considering the above discussion, the use of 10% GBA is recommended in producing sustainable ECCs as it exhibited the highest ductility among all the ECC mixes used in this study. CONCLUSION This research was carried out to study the potential use of GBA as a partial substitute for cement to produce an economical and sustainable ECC. For this purpose, three different percentages of GBA were selected (10ECC, 20ECC, and 30ECC) to evaluate the improvement in their mechanical performance factors, such as strength, deflection, ductility, first crack load, maximum loads, and elongation behavior. Considering the current findings, the following are the main conclusions drawn from this experimental study. 1. The results indicated that the compressive strength of ECC mixes gradually decreased with increasing amounts of GBA. The addition of GBA in ECCs reduced the compressive strength at early ages (14 days), which, however, was enhanced significantly at later ages. The mix containing 10% GBA (10ECC) exhibited the highest compressive strength among all the other ECC mixes, including CM, at the age of both 28 and 91 days. The compressive strength of 10ECC in comparison to that of CM was found to be higher, almost 3 and 7% higher at 28 and 91 days, respectively. The other ECC mixes with high amounts of GBA (20ECC and 30ECC) produced slightly higher strengths than that of CM only at 91 days. 2. Direct tensile and flexural strength trends similar to that of compressive strength were observed for all the mixes except that both 20ECC and 30ECC possessed slightly smaller tensile strengths than that of CM at 91 days. However, the flexural strengths for 20ECC and 30ECC are almost identical and only slightly smaller than that of CM at 91 days. Moreover, it was observed that the influence of increasing the amount of GBA on the reduction in tensile FIGURE 11 | Comparison of the load-deflection behavior among the CM and and flexural strengths decreased with aging from 14 to ECC mixes at an age of: (A) 14, (B) 28, and (C) 91 days. 28 and then from 28 to 91 days. Like with compressive strength, 10ECC demonstrated higher direct tensile and flexural strengths than those of CM. The results indicated At early ages such as 14 days, the maximum deflection among 8.33 and 7.4% higher tensile strengths, and 6.6 and 4% all the ECC mixes occurred in CM, while at the same age, both higher flexural strengths than those of CM at 28 and the failure load as well as its corresponding deflection decreased 91 days, respectively. Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 10 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 11 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash 3 A comparable tensile load-to-strain relation among the DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT ECC mixes containing 10 and 20% GBA (10ECC and 20ECC) and CM was observed irrespective of aging. At The datasets generated for this study are available on request to later ages (28 and 91 days), in particular, 10ECC exhibited the corresponding author. the highest failure load with the highest corresponding tensile strain. Consequently, it may be worth noting that the ECC mixes (10ECC and 20ECC) demonstrated AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS acceptable ductility and toughness behavior for their potential sustainable engineering applications. MNA, MA, RK, and KK contributed to the design of this 4 The direct tensile tests showed a continuous increase research and critically analyzed and discussed the results of this in load-carrying capacity after the appearance of a first research. DS, SA, and SK contributed to the methodology and crack in all the mixes. Moreover, it was noticed that the performance of the experiments, including collecting bagasse ash elongation in all the GBA-blended ECC mixes increased (BA) and other ingredients, burning BA, sieving and grinding significantly with increasing amounts of GBA and with BA, and mixing, casting, demolding, and curing the specimens, aging, particularly, at later curing ages. performing XRD analysis and mechanical testing, and preparing 5 The load-deflection results indicated that the failure load the initial draft. MNA, MA, and RK reviewed, edited, and as well as its corresponding deflection decreased gradually prepared the final draft of this manuscript. with increasing amounts of GBA. At any particular load level, deflection in the ECC samples increased with increasing amounts of GBA. However, the load- FUNDING deflection behavior of 10ECC is almost identical to that of CM. Moreover, the load-deflection behavior of the ECCs This research was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research containing GBA significantly improved with aging, for (DSR) at King Faisal University (KFU) through “Nasher grant instance, from 14 to 28 days and from 28 to 91 days. number 186251.” The funds for OAP were also covered by DSR In comparison to those of CM, the ECC with 10% GBA through the same “Nasher grant number 186251.” demonstrated greater resistance to deflection as well as higher load-carrying capacity at both 28 and at 91 days. Moreover, the ECC containing 20% GBA also exhibited identical or slightly better load-deflection responses than ACKNOWLEDGMENTS that of CM at later ages. 6 Considering the above discussion and the most important The authors acknowledge the Deanship of Scientific Research findings of this study, 10% GBA can be considered at the King Faisal University for the financial support under as the optimum replacement of cement in producing Nasher Track (Grant No. 186251). The authors are also highly a sustainable ECC as it exhibited improved strengths grateful to Dr. Muhammad Adil and Dr. Sajad Wali, Department (compressive, tensile, and flexural), better resistance to of Civil Engineering UET Peshawar, for their support in deflection, and improved ductility compared to those of all material procurement and facilitation during the testing phase the ECC mixes used in this study. of this research. addition- for- concrete- metakaolin- specifications- and- conformity- criteria/ REFERENCES article/760894/fa175740 (accessed April 23, 2018). Aigbodion, V. S., Hassan, S. B., Ause, T., and Nyior, G. B. (2010). Potential ASTM C109 / C109M - 16a (2016). Standard Test Method for Compressive Utilization of Solid Waste (Bagasse Ash). J. Min. Mater. Character. Eng. 9, Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-in. or [50-mm] Cube Specimens). 67–77. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2010.91006 Available at: www.astm.org (accessed April 23, 2018). 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Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that the research was conducted in the Li, V. C., Wu, C., Wang, S., Ogawa, A., and Saito, T. (2002). Interface tailoring absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a for strain-hardening polyvinyl alcohol-engineered cementitious composites potential conflict of interest. (PVA-ECC). ACI Mater J. 99, 463–472. Liu, J. C., and Tan, K. H. (2018). Fire resistance of ultra-high performance Copyright © 2020 Amin, Ashraf, Kumar, Khan, Saqib, Ali and Khan. This is an strain hardening cementitious composite: Residual mechanical properties open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution and spalling resistance. Cem. Concr. Compos. 89, 62–75. doi: 10.1016/j. License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, cemconcomp.2018.02.014 provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the Loh, Y. R., Sujan, D., Rahman, M. E., and Das, C. A. (2013). Review sugarcane original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic bagasse - the future composite material: a literature review. Resour. Conserv. practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply Recy. 75, 14–22. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2013.03.002 with these terms. Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 12 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Frontiers in Materials Unpaywall

Role of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash in Developing Sustainable Engineered Cementitious Composites

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fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 1 ORIGINAL RESEARCH published: 08 April 2020 doi: 10.3389/fmats.2020.00065 Role of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash in Developing Sustainable Engineered Cementitious Composites 1 2 2 1 Muhammad Nasir Amin , Muhammad Ashraf , Rabinder Kumar , Kaffayatullah Khan , 3 3 3 Daniyal Saqib , Syed Sajid Ali and Sajidullah Khan Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, Department of Civil Engineering, Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi, Pakistan, Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan Sugarcane bagasse is an agricultural waste that can be transformed by incineration into a cement replacement material for various cementing purposes. This study investigated the role of finely ground bagasse ash (GBA) in producing engineered cementitious composites (ECCs) with the addition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers. The main focus of this study was to develop a green ECC with higher strength capabilities (compressive, tensile, and flexural) and greater tensile ductility. To develop this composite, GBA was added into ECC mixes at different proportions, i.e., 10, 20, and 30%. The proportions of PVA fibers and the water-to-binder ratio were kept constant. The results revealed that Edited by: the ECC mix containing 10% GBA exhibited higher compressive strength compared Carlos Chastre, New University of Lisbon, Portugal to that of a control and the other ECC mixes. The tensile and flexural strengths of the Reviewed by: ECCs exhibited patterns almost similar to that of compressive strength. Moreover, the Ionut Ovidiu Toma, deflection in the control mix was higher compared to that of the GBA-ECC mixes at an Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, ¸ Romania initial curing age. The ECC mix containing 10% GBA exhibited better ductile behavior Paulina Faria, among all the ECC mixes used in this study. New University of Lisbon, Portugal *Correspondence: Keywords: bagasse ash, engineered cementitious composite, compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, ductility Muhammad Nasir Amin mgadir@kfu.edu.sa INTRODUCTION Specialty section: This article was submitted to Structural Materials, After water, concrete is the most widely used material on our planet. The estimated yearly a section of the journal consumption of concrete is approaching 30 billion tons (Klee, 2009). For the last two decades, Frontiers in Materials the trend of using high-strength concrete has been increasing due to its demand for building Received: 13 October 2019 advanced infrastructures. However, with the increase in strength, the brittleness of concrete also Accepted: 03 March 2020 increases, which ultimately leads to the cracking and failure of concrete structures. Thus, it was Published: 08 April 2020 decided to develop new cementitious materials with high ductility that would be more valuable in Citation: terms of safety, durability, and sustainability in structural applications. Therefore, a new composite Amin MN, Ashraf M, Kumar R, material called engineered cementitious composite (ECC) was developed, which possessed high Khan K, Saqib D, Ali SS and Khan S tensile strength along with high compressive strength (Li, 1993, 2002; Li et al., 2002). In ECC, the (2020) Role of Sugarcane Bagasse concrete is sustained on an increased loading rate even after first cracking while undergoing large Ash in Developing Sustainable deformation. Because of these properties, ECCs are also known as strain-hardening cementitious Engineered Cementitious composites. In fact, the failure in concrete is initiated due to the generation of microcracks followed Composites. Front. Mater. 7:65. doi: 10.3389/fmats.2020.00065 by their transformation into macrocracks. However, the addition of dispersed fibers into the matrix Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 1 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 2 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash has been observed to enhance the tensile properties of However, the utilization of this bagasse ash waste in concrete concrete and prevent microcracking from propagating to the as a partial substitute for cement provides significant benefits in macrocracking stage, which eventually prevents brittle failure terms of reducing construction costs as well as greenhouse gas (Al Qadi and Al-Zaidyeen, 2014). Apart from their well-known emissions. This is because bagasse ash contains high amounts of extreme tensile ductility (Li, 2012), ECCs have been engineered amorphous silica and aluminum oxides, which are necessary for to demonstrate other useful traits, including light weight, low a material to be pozzolanic (Ganesan et al., 2007; Frías et al., 2011; carbon footprint, self-healing, self-sensing, self-thermal control, Bahurudeen et al., 2015). impact resistance, fire resistance with low thermal conductivity, Some researchers have reported that the pozzolanic rapid setting, self-consolidation, spray-ability, and extrudability reactivity of bagasse may improve the compressive strength (Wu et al., 2012; Liu and Tan, 2018; Shi et al., 2018). However, of concrete and enhance other mechanical and durability- all the above-mentioned traits greatly vary depending on the related properties (Rukzon and Chindaprasirt, 2012; Somna proportions, material type, and mix design of ECC. et al., 2012; Akkarapongtrakul et al., 2017). Since the main The cement content in ECCs compared to that in normal compound in bagasse ash is silica oxide, several searchers have concrete is quite high as it does not contain coarse aggregates. reported its potential use in concrete. According to Malyadri and However, the increased cement contents not only creates more Supriya (2015), the strength parameters of concrete increased heat of hydration, autogenous shrinkage and higher costs, by using 5% sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial substitute for but also causes the emission of large amounts of CO into cement. A very similar trend of strength improvement was the environment from the calcination of limestone and fuel also reported in another study by Mangi et al. (2017). Whereas combustion during the manufacturing of cement clinker (Zeman, Kawade et al. (2013) concluded that up to 15% of sugarcane 2009). Approximately, one ton of cement releases one ton CO , bagasse ash can be used favorably without compromising the which is responsible for 5% of greenhouse gas emissions (Kumar primary properties of concrete. Shafiq et al. (2018) reported et al., 2017). To minimize greenhouse effects, the addition of a considerable improvement in the compressive strength of industrial byproducts and agricultural wastes have been observed concrete utilizing 20% sugarcane bagasse ash. Moreover, a as sustainable alternatives because they successfully replace bulk significant improvement was also seen in the fresh, mechanical proportions of cement in ECCs without compromising strength and durability properties of concrete. Ganesan et al. (2007) and ductility (Kumar et al., 2017; Shafiq et al., 2018). also reported an optimum substitution of 20% sugarcane Currently, there is an increasing use of industrial waste, bagasse ash for cement without compromising the desired including fly ash, silica fume, and ground granulated blast furnace properties of concrete. Although the utilization of ground slag to produce highly sustainable concretes. The amorphous bagasse ash (GBA) in concrete has been widely explored and mineralogical character and high silicon dioxide (SiO ) content well documented by many researchers, its efficiency in ECCs is of these materials are usually responsible for controlling the still a novel topic to explore. Being a modern day construction stability and the development of high strength in the end product material, ECC produced using GBA can be useful in repair (Shafiq et al., 2018). In addition, the trend of using biowastes works and prefabricated building components where high from fuel sources in concrete, such as wheat straw ash, palm oil ductility is required. fuel ash, rice husk ash, and sugar cane bagasse ash, is increasing Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to evaluate significantly in those countries that produce large amounts of the performance of different proportions of GBA with PVA fibers these wastes that cause severe environmental issues if dumped on the mechanical properties of ECCs. For this purpose, the in open fields (Binici et al., 2008; Martirena and Monzó, 2018). detailed investigations of the compressive strength, direct tensile Previous studies show that sugar cane bagasse ash, which is a strength, and flexural strength of ECCs were carried out. The byproduct of the sugar cane industry, can be an effective material idea of such a detailed investigation is due to the target of this to be used in producing sustainable concrete (Ganesan et al., research, which is to obtain the optimum content of GBA as a 2007; Aigbodion et al., 2010). Bagasse, a residue remaining after partial substitute for cement in ECCs with the maximum gain the extraction of juice from sugarcane is subsequently used in in terms of mechanical performance, as well as economic and some industries as a primary source of energy (Frías et al., 2011). environmental sustainability. When it is burned as a fuel, it leaves bulk ash called bagasse ash (Loh et al., 2013). The burning of bagasse material at the MATERIALS AND METHODS temperature of 600–700 C produces amorphous silica, which eventually results in its substantial pozzolanic reactivity (Moretti Materials et al., 2018). The estimated bulk production of bagasse after juice extraction of sugarcane is 600 Mt, which is between 40 Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and 50% of the total weight of annually produced sugarcane in The cement used in this study was Type-I ordinary Portland the world (Shafiq et al., 2018). Among the largest sugarcane- cement (OPC) conforming to the requirements of ASTM C150- producing countries, Pakistan is ranked fifth in the world, after 07 (2007). The specific surface area and density of the cement 2 3 Brazil, India, China, and Thailand, with an annual production were 2670.3 cm /g and 3.15 g/cm , respectively. The X-ray of approximately 65.451 Mt. After burning the bagasse as a fluorescence (XRF) analysis was performed to determine the source of fuel, the ash waste is disposed of in landfills, which is chemical composition of the cement. Table 1 shows the chemical causing serious environmental problems (Chusilp et al., 2009). composition of the cement used in this research. Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 2 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 3 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash TABLE 1 | Chemical composition of cement and bagasse ash. Oxides composition SiO Fe O Al O CaO Na O MgO SO LOI Physical properties 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 Blaine fineness Density 2 3 (cm /g) (g/cm ) (%) Cement 18.4 3 5.6 66.8 0.13 1.4 1.3 2 2670.3 3.15 Bagasse ash 66.70 1.53 9.70 10.07 4.14 4.60 – 7.4 2850.8 2.25 Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Fibers enhance the pozzolanic reactivity, the bagasse ash waste was treated using various processes, including burning, sieving, Kuraray polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers of diameter 14.3 mm were used in this research as a reinforcement for the ECC (Figure 1). grinding, and chemical activation. These methods were efficiently utilized in combinations such that the bagasse ash waste attained These fibers were very thin, similar to hairs, and flexible enough to prevent the generation of micro cracks. The density of the highest achievable pozzolanic reactivity. The bagasse ash collected from the sugar industry was further burned at 700 C the PVA fibers was 1.3 g/cm . Table 2 shows the detailed physical for 90 min followed by cooling at room temperature. After properties of PVA fibers. The PVA characteristics data shown in cooling, the ash was stored in airtight containers until further Table 2 were obtained from the manufacturer. testing. The burned bagasse ash stored in airtight containers was Bagasse Ash composed of both entirely burned (fine) and unburned (coarse Boiler-fired bagasse ash waste was collected from the sugar fibrous) particles. The unburned coarse fibrous particles with industry located in Sakhakot Malakand agency, Pakistan. To high carbon content and without silica were not desired and, therefore, were completely separated by sieving through a 300- mm sieve to obtain only the fine particles for further processing. According to Bahurudeen et al. (2015), the burned bagasse ash passing the sieve 300-mm leaves only fine particles that are rich in silica content. Figures 2A,B show the appearance of the bagasse ash before and after sieving, respectively. The fine bagasse ash after grinding is shown in Figure 2C. Grinding of the bagasse ash Following heat treatment and sieving, the mechanical treatment of fine bagasse ash was carried out in a ball mill. The role of mechanical grinding in improving the performance of potential cement substitute materials is a well-established fact. In this study, the purpose of the mechanical grinding of bagasse ash was to increase its surface area and obtain its optimized value by varying the grinding times as 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. The speed of grinding was kept constant at 66 revolutions per minute and the grinding media-to-ash ratio was 5:1 by weight (i.e., 5 kg of balls to 1 kg of ash). Mix Proportions FIGURE 1 | Polyvinyl alcohol fibers. The constituents used in the production of ECC blends contained OPC, GBA, PVA fibers, and sand. Four different ECC mixes TABLE 2 | Physical properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers. were designed by increasing the amount of GBA (0, 10, 20, and 30%) as a partial substitute by mass of cement. Manufacturer Kurary The water-to-binder ratio and the amount of PVA fibers were kept constant in all the ECC mixes at 0.40 and 1.5% Origin Japan Color White of total mix volume, respectively. The detailed experimental matrix for the mix designs is summarized in Table 3. All Diameter (mm) 14.3 Length (mm) 8.0 the ECC mixes were labeled with a unique identity, i.e., CM Aspect ratio (l/d) 560 for control mix without GBA, whereas the mixes containing 10, 20, and 30% GBA were identified as 10ECC, 20ECC, and Tensile strength (MPa) 1716 Density (g/cm ) 1.3 30ECC, respectively. The different proportions of bagasse ash Elongation (%) 6.9 in this study (10–30%) were selected based on the findings of Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 3 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 4 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash FIGURE 2 | Bagasse ash: (A) after heat treatment at 700 C for 90 min, (B) passed the 300-mm sieve after heat treatment, and (C) ground in a ball mill for 60 min after sieving. TABLE 3 | ECC mix proportions for the control and mixes containing different percentages of GBA. Mix ID Mix quantities for 1 m ECC (kg) W/B Cement Water GBA Sand PVA fibers Super plasticizers (% of binder) CM 0.40 704 282 – 2112 26 1 10ECC 0.40 634 282 70 2112 26 1 20ECC 0.40 563 282 141 2112 26 1 30ECC 0.40 493 282 211 2112 26 1 previous studies (Ganesan et al., 2007; Bahurudeen et al., 2015; Fineness and Pozzolanic Reactivity of the Bagasse Joshaghani et al., 2016) as well as the trial tests. The main Ash objective was to evaluate the synergy of different percentages of The fineness values of the cement and GBA were determined by bagasse ash in ECC. using the Blaine air permeability apparatus in accordance with ASTM C204 - 11 (2011). The influence of the grinding time on Mixing and Casting the total surface area of the GBA is shown in Figure 3. It can be The ingredients of the ECC mixes were added into the seen that the surface area of the bagasse ash before grinding was mixer in this order: sand, cement, PVA fibers, GBA. After 2 2 2067.8 cm /g, which, compared to that of cement (2670.3 cm /g), adding the desired quantities to the mixer, the ingredients is lower. However, the surface area of the bagasse ash increased were thoroughly mixed for two minutes. Subsequently, the after grinding and gradually continued increasing with increased water and super plasticizers were added to the dry mixture grinding. The desired surface area (greater than that of cement) and mixed for another 2 min. Eventually, the PVA fibers was attained, corresponding to grinding for 60 min. Bahurudeen and GBA were slowly added into the mortar and mixed and Santhanam (2015) concluded that the pozzolanic reactivity of until all the fibers were uniformly dispersed. Immediately after mixing, the mixtures were cast into molds and stored under standard laboratory conditions of temperature and humidity. Three gang mortar steel molds (50 mm cube), coupon shaped steel molds (152 mm  76 mm  13 mm), and wooden prisms (320 mm  40 mm  12 mm) were used to cast mortar specimens for compressive strength tests, uniaxial tensile strength tests, and four-point bending tests, respectively. All the specimens were demolded after 24 h of casting and moist cured at 24  2 C until the age of testing. Test Methods The pozzolanic activity of bagasse ash was determined using the Chapelle test. The XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, and fineness were also determined. The microstructure of the GBA particles was analyzed through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. Together with direct tensile strength and flexural strength tests, the flexural FIGURE 3 | Influence of grinding duration on the surface area of bagasse ash behavior of ECCs containing different proportions of BA and its comparison with cement. was also investigated. Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 4 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 5 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash GBA is enhanced significantly when its surface area is equivalent From these micrographs, it can be seen that the ash sample to that of cement. contains many different particle shapes, such as rounded, Following the grinding phase, the pozzolanic reactivity of the elongated, irregular, and prismatic (Figure 4A). The sizes of bagasse ash obtained from grinding for 60 min was determined particles range from 10 to 50 mm. Moreover, Figure 4B shows by the Chappelle test in accordance with French norm, NF small, flat irregular, needle-shaped, and elliptical particles. P 18-513 (Association Française de Normalisation [AFNOR], Compressive Strength 2012; Pontes et al., 2013). The Chappelle test was performed to This test was performed to investigate the compressive strength determine the reduction in Ca(OH) due to its reaction with evolution of all the ECC mixes. A total of nine 50 mm cube siliceous or alumina-silicates present in pozzolans in GBA. The specimens were cast for each mix (CM, 10ECC, 20ECC, and Chappelle activity test chemically determines the amount of lime 30ECC) to test three identical specimens at ages of 14, 28, utilized by a pozzolan. The amount of lime utilized is directly and 91 days. The tests were performed in accordance with proportional to the pozzolanic activity of the material. The results ASTM C109 / C109M - 16a (2016) using a compression of the current Chapelle test on the GBA satisfied the minimum machine as shown in Figure 5A. According to ASTM C109, the requirements set for pozzolanic activity (330 mg of CaO/g of loading rate in the compression machine was kept at 0.91 kN/s pozzolan) due to its highly active amorphous silica (Li et al., for all specimens. 2004). This finding clearly suggested that the GBA is chemically reactive in nature and therefore suitable for its use as a sustainable Direct Tensile Test cement substitute material. Just like compression tests, nine coupon specimens having dimensions of 152 mm  76 mm  13 mm were cast for each Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the Bagasse mix to carry out uniaxial tensile tests at ages of 14, 28, and Ash 91 days. A series of direct tensile tests were performed using The morphological investigation of some selected samples of a universal testing machine (Figure 5B). The purpose of these GBA was conducted using SEM (JSM5910 JEOL, Japan). Figure 4 tests is to investigate the influence of the different amounts of shows the micrographs of studied samples at magnification GBA on tensile strength and to study the tensile stress-strain ranges from X500 to X2000. and strain-hardening behavior of the ECC mixes at desired FIGURE 4 | SEM images of bagasse ash after grinding in a ball mil: (A) the presence of different particle shapes and (B) the presence of small, flat irregular, needle-shaped, and elliptical particles. Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 5 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 6 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash FIGURE 6 | Comparison of compressive strength with aging among CM and ECC mixes containing different percentages of GBA. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Compressive Strength Figure 6 shows the comparison of the strength results of all four ECC mixes according to different proportions of GBA and curing ages (14, 28, and 91 days). At early ages (14 days of curing), FIGURE 5 | Test setup to measure: (A) compressive strength, (B) tensile all the ECC mixes containing GBA possessed lower compressive strength, and (C) flexural strength of the ECCs. strength compared to that of the control mix. Moreover, the reduction in compressive strength gradually increased with increasing amounts of GBA in the mix. This phenomenon of strength reduction can be attributed to slight or no pozzolanic testing ages. The specimens were loaded to a constant cross- activity at earlier stages. However, with increasing curing age, head speed of 0.003 mm/s. To measure strain, electrical resistance this phenomenon of strength reduction with increasing amounts strain gauges (Tokyo Sokki PFL-20-11-3L) were mounted on of GBA was completely reversed, particularly at later ages such to the surface of coupon specimens and the strain data were as 91 days of curing. A similar behavior of decreasing strength recorded using a data logger. Along with strain measurements, at early ages and then increasing strength with curing ages the elongation of the coupon specimen with loading was also was also reported in the literature (Arenas-Piedrahita et al., measured using a displacement transducer, simultaneously using 2016; Joshaghani et al., 2016). The mineralogy (Table 1) as well the same data logger. as the pozzolanic reactivity results obtained by the Chappelle test reflected predominate behavior of GBA in gaining later Four-Point Bending Test age strengths. Moreover, the particle characteristics of calcined The flexural strengths of the ECC mixes were measured by GBA observed by SEM (Figure 4) also suggests a denser and using the four-point loading method as specified by ASTM improved micro-structural phase of mortars containing different C348 - 14 (2014). For this purpose, nine rectangular beams percentages of GBA as compared to CM. The size and the shape of size 320 mm length  40 mm height  12 mm thickness of particles affect both the fresh as well as the hardened properties were cast for each mix to test three identical specimens at of cement matrix in a significant manner. ages of 14, 28, and 91 days. As shown in Figure 5C, the At 28 days, only the ECC containing 10% GBA (10ECC) clear span (the span between the supports) was divided into produced better compressive strength compared to that of the three equal parts to have two points to transmit the load. control mix, while the other two mixes (20ECC and 30ECC) still A deflection gauge was attached to the middle bottom surface of possessed lower values. The inclusion of 10% GBA in the ECC the beams to monitor deflection at regular intervals of loading. mix demonstrated 3 and 7% higher strength than that of the CM Eventually, from this test, the values of the first crack load and at 28 and 91 days, respectively. The gain in strength could be flexural strength were measured. Moreover, the load-deflection due to the consumption of free lime available in the matrix. The curves were drawn using the measured values of load and mix containing 20% GBA (20ECC) exhibited an approximately deflection to compare the toughness and deflection behavior of 6% reduction in compressive strength at 28 days of curing, while different mixes. the compressive strength increased by 3% at an age of 91 days. Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 6 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 7 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash Similar to 20ECC, the reduction in strength continued for 30ECC at 28 days and ended up at almost the same strength as that of CM at 91 days. The reason for the strength reduction in 20ECC and 30ECC at 28 days can be associated with decreased cement content and therefore slow pozzolanic reactivity (Bahurudeen et al., 2015). Overall, the current results indicated safe use of GBA in lower amounts, such as up to 10%, in producing optimized ECCs without compromising the required compressive strength. Tensile Strength and Load-Strain Behavior of the ECCs Figure 7 shows the comparison of the tensile strength results among different ECC mixes with and without GBA according to different curing ages (14, 28, and 91 days). As expected, the trend of tensile strength development among all ECC mixes followed almost the same pattern as that of the compressive strength at all ages except at 91 days. For instance, similar to the compressive strength at an early age (14 days), the tensile strength also remained lower than that of the CM in all the ECC mixes and decreased gradually with the increasing percentage of GBA. Moreover, at 28 days, only 10ECC possessed higher tensile strength than that of CM, while the other ECC mixes exhibited lower tensile strength. Contrary to the compressive strength results, the tensile strengths of the ECC mixes remained lower at 91 days than that of CM, except 10ECC, which exhibited higher tensile strength. Overall, the results indicated that the ECC containing 10% GBA (10ECC) produced the best results among all the mixes in terms of tensile strength. The tensile strengths were approximately 8.33 and 7.40% higher than those of the CM at 28 and 91 days, respectively. Based on the tensile strength comparison among the different ECC mixes, the use of 10% GBA can be recommended in producing optimized ECCs without compromising tensile strength. Figure 8 shows the load vs. strain relationship among the different ECC mixes according to curing ages (14, 28, and FIGURE 7 | Comparison of tensile strength with aging among CM and ECC FIGURE 8 | Comparison of the load vs. strain relationship between CM and ECC mixes at an age of: (A) 14, (B) 28, and (C) 91 days. mixes containing different percentages of GBA. Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 7 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 8 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash response to loading was observed in both 10ECC and 20ECC compared to that of CM. It was further noted that 20ECC performed better than CM at all load levels regardless of curing ages. However, 10ECC showed more strain compared to that of CM at all load levels at both 28 and 91 days, except toward failure where it exhibited lower strain at higher loads than that of CM. Eventually, the current load-strain relation demonstrated a toughness behavior for all the ECC mixes (10ECC and 20ECC GBA) comparable to that of CM. The values of toughness were not calculated due to damage to the strain gauges corresponding to the failure loads. The highest value of strain corresponding to the failure load of 2.9 kN was observed in 10ECC as 558 m at 91 days. At 28 days, 10ECC exhibited the highest strain among all the mixes, which was equal to 457 m, corresponding to a failure load of 2.6 kN. This increase in the microstrain in 10ECC is 5.54% and 6.08% more than the corresponding values of CM at 28 and 91 days, respectively. Elongation With Load In addition to the measurement of microstrain with respect to load as discussed in the previous section, the elongation with respect to loading for CM as well as all the ECC mixes (10ECC, 20ECC, 30ECC) was also measured using displacement transducers. Figure 9 shows the comparison of the load- elongation behavior among CM and the ECC mixes with aging. In addition, the detailed results of current investigations on the tensile strength-related properties of ECC mixes (first crack load, maximum load, and elongation) are also listed in Table 4. Compared to CM, a slight increase in elongation was observed in all the ECC mixes (10ECC, 20ECC, and 30ECC) irrespective of aging (14, 28, or 91 days). Moreover, the elongation increased with increasing percentages of GBA, particularly at later ages (28 and 91 days). Such elongation behavior clearly indicated improved ductility of the ECC mixes containing different percentages of GBA. At early ages (14 days), although the elongation increased in all the ECC mixes compared to that of CM, it decreased with increasing percentages of GBA from 10 to 20% and 20 to 30%. It is expected that the decrease in elongation at early ages with increasing percentages of GBA might be due to the gradually decreasing amount of cement and eventually the occurrence of early failure at relatively smaller loads compared to that of 10ECC. Elongation significantly increased in all mixes with aging from 14 to 28 days, which must be due to the increased hydration reaction with aging. More importantly, the intensity of elongation with aging increased with increasing amounts of GBA. For instance, the increase in elongation with aging from 14 to 28 days was calculated as 37, 76, and 116% in 10ECC, 20ECC, and 30ECC, respectively. This clearly indicated an improved mechanical behavior of the ECC mixes with increasing amounts of GBA. However, unlike FIGURE 9 | Comparison of elongation among CM and the ECC mixes at an age of: (A) 14, (B) 28, and (C) 91 days. early ages, a slight decrease in elongation was observed in all the mixes with aging from 28 to 91 days. This must be due to the small increase in brittleness, as the strengths of the mixes 91 days). It may be worth noting that the strain data used in increased at 91 days. A decrease in elongation by 7.43, 2.5, and Figure 8 were directly obtained from electrical resistance strain 13% was calculated from 28 to 91 days for 10ECC, 20ECC, and gauges (Tokyo Sokki PFL-20-11-3L) mounted on the surfaces of 30ECC, respectively. The smallest reduction in elongation in the coupon specimens. At an age of 14 days, a slightly better 20ECC at 91 days indicated that the 20% GBA-blended ECC mix Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 8 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 9 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash TABLE 4 | Comparison of the first crack load, maximum load, and maximum elongation among different ECC mixes with aging. Mix ID First crack load (kN) Maximum load (kN) Maximum elongation (mm) Age (days) 14 28 91 14 28 91 14 28 91 CM 0.854 0.875 0.822 2.010 2.402 2.703 8.236 13.194 11.353 10ECC 0.897 0.937 0.691 1.810 2.601 2.931 10.051 13.816 12.789 20ECC 0.878 0.967 0.763 1.802 2.311 2.599 8.994 15.813 15.418 30ECC 0.789 0.943 0.659 1.605 2.121 2.510 8.410 18.146 15.793 exhibited the best mechanical behavior in terms of its ductility compared to that of CM reduced significantly at 91 days and among all the mixes. even turned almost identical to that of CM in 20ECC. This All the tested ECC samples showed a continual increase is attributed to increased pozzolanic reactivity with increasing in load-carrying capacity after the appearance of the first amounts of GBA with aging. crack. It can be seen from the maximum load values listed in Table 4 that the load-carrying capacity increased continuously Load Deflection Curves with aging regardless of the mortar type (control or other To investigate the influence of GBA on ductility, the mid-span mortars containing any percentage of GBA) and decreased with deflection of beams was measured with aging. The experimental increasing amounts of GBA. The decrease in the maximum load- set up of flexural tests on rectangular beams with a deflection carrying capacity is obviously due to decreased amounts of binder gauge attached to the middle bottom of the specimens is shown with increasing amounts of GBA (10–20, then 30%). in Figure 5. The load on the beams gradually increased until Unlike the trend of the maximum loads, the load its failure, and the deflection corresponding to the load was corresponding to the first crack increased in mortars containing automatically logged using a data logger. Figure 11 shows a GBA, particularly at ages of 14 and 28 days. The first crack loads comparison of the load-deflection relationship among the CM continued increasing with aging (14–28 days) as well as with and different ECC mixes with respect to different curing ages. increasing amounts of GBA. However, at 14 days, the trend of As mentioned earlier in Section “Materials and Methods,” nine the increasing first crack load was rather insignificant and even identical specimens were cast for each mix to test three specimens a decrease was observed in the mortar containing 30% GBA at each age (14, 28, and 91 days). The presented curves in (30ECC). This must be due to the reduced hydration reaction Figure 11 are an average of three samples. It was noted that the because of a smaller amount of cement in 30ECC, thus leading maximum deflection corresponding to the failure load ranged to low stiffness of the mortar matrix and early cracking. At later between 3 and 6 mm depending on the type of ECC (10ECC, ages (91 days), the first crack load compared to that of early ages 20ECC, or 30ECC) and aging (14, 28, or 91 days). decreased in all mortars with and without GBA. The reason is that the degree of brittleness of the cementitious composites increased with aging. However, the lowest reduction in the first 7.00 crack load compared to that of CM was recorded in 20ECC. The CM reduction in the first crack loads in 10ECC, 20ECC, and 30ECC 6.00 at the age of 91 days was recorded as 16, 7, and 20% of that of 10ECC CM, respectively. 20ECC 5.00 30ECC 4.00 Flexural Strength Figure 10 shows the influence of different proportions of GBA on the flexural strength of ECC mixes with aging. The 3.00 flexural strength closely followed a trend similar to that of the compressive strength where the flexural strength of the ECCs 2.00 containing GBA remained lower than that of the CM at early ages (14 days). The trend of gradual reduction with increasing 1.00 percentages of GBA at early ages demonstrated decreased pozzolanic activity with increasing GBA. This trend of decreasing 0.00 14 28 91 flexural strength in the ECCs with increasing percentages of GBA Age (day) continued at 28 days as well, except in 10ECC. Like compressive strength, the flexural strength of 10ECC exceeded that of CM FIGURE 10 | Comparison of flexural strength with aging among CM and the at both 28 and 91 days by 6.6 and 4%, respectively. Moreover, ECC mixes containing different percentages of GBA. the reduction in the flexural strengths in 20ECC and 30ECC Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 9 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 Flexural Strength (MPa) fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 10 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash gradually with increasing amounts of GBA in all the studied mixes. At any particular load level, deflection in the ECC mixes increased with increasing amounts of GBA. However, the load- deflection behavior of 10ECC was almost identical to that of CM. Moreover, the load-deflection behavior of ECCs containing GBA significantly improved with aging from 14 to 28 days and from 28 to 91 days. From Figures 11B,C, it can be seen that the resistance to deflection as well as the load-carrying capacity of 10ECC is greater than those of CM at both 28 and at 91 days. Similar to 10ECC, specimen 20ECC exhibited identical or slightly better load-deflection responses than that of CM at later ages. Considering the above discussion, the use of 10% GBA is recommended in producing sustainable ECCs as it exhibited the highest ductility among all the ECC mixes used in this study. CONCLUSION This research was carried out to study the potential use of GBA as a partial substitute for cement to produce an economical and sustainable ECC. For this purpose, three different percentages of GBA were selected (10ECC, 20ECC, and 30ECC) to evaluate the improvement in their mechanical performance factors, such as strength, deflection, ductility, first crack load, maximum loads, and elongation behavior. Considering the current findings, the following are the main conclusions drawn from this experimental study. 1. The results indicated that the compressive strength of ECC mixes gradually decreased with increasing amounts of GBA. The addition of GBA in ECCs reduced the compressive strength at early ages (14 days), which, however, was enhanced significantly at later ages. The mix containing 10% GBA (10ECC) exhibited the highest compressive strength among all the other ECC mixes, including CM, at the age of both 28 and 91 days. The compressive strength of 10ECC in comparison to that of CM was found to be higher, almost 3 and 7% higher at 28 and 91 days, respectively. The other ECC mixes with high amounts of GBA (20ECC and 30ECC) produced slightly higher strengths than that of CM only at 91 days. 2. Direct tensile and flexural strength trends similar to that of compressive strength were observed for all the mixes except that both 20ECC and 30ECC possessed slightly smaller tensile strengths than that of CM at 91 days. However, the flexural strengths for 20ECC and 30ECC are almost identical and only slightly smaller than that of CM at 91 days. Moreover, it was observed that the influence of increasing the amount of GBA on the reduction in tensile FIGURE 11 | Comparison of the load-deflection behavior among the CM and and flexural strengths decreased with aging from 14 to ECC mixes at an age of: (A) 14, (B) 28, and (C) 91 days. 28 and then from 28 to 91 days. Like with compressive strength, 10ECC demonstrated higher direct tensile and flexural strengths than those of CM. The results indicated At early ages such as 14 days, the maximum deflection among 8.33 and 7.4% higher tensile strengths, and 6.6 and 4% all the ECC mixes occurred in CM, while at the same age, both higher flexural strengths than those of CM at 28 and the failure load as well as its corresponding deflection decreased 91 days, respectively. Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 10 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65 fmats-07-00065 April 7, 2020 Time: 17:37 # 11 Amin et al. ECC Incorporating Sugarcane Bagasse Ash 3 A comparable tensile load-to-strain relation among the DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT ECC mixes containing 10 and 20% GBA (10ECC and 20ECC) and CM was observed irrespective of aging. At The datasets generated for this study are available on request to later ages (28 and 91 days), in particular, 10ECC exhibited the corresponding author. the highest failure load with the highest corresponding tensile strain. Consequently, it may be worth noting that the ECC mixes (10ECC and 20ECC) demonstrated AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS acceptable ductility and toughness behavior for their potential sustainable engineering applications. MNA, MA, RK, and KK contributed to the design of this 4 The direct tensile tests showed a continuous increase research and critically analyzed and discussed the results of this in load-carrying capacity after the appearance of a first research. DS, SA, and SK contributed to the methodology and crack in all the mixes. Moreover, it was noticed that the performance of the experiments, including collecting bagasse ash elongation in all the GBA-blended ECC mixes increased (BA) and other ingredients, burning BA, sieving and grinding significantly with increasing amounts of GBA and with BA, and mixing, casting, demolding, and curing the specimens, aging, particularly, at later curing ages. performing XRD analysis and mechanical testing, and preparing 5 The load-deflection results indicated that the failure load the initial draft. MNA, MA, and RK reviewed, edited, and as well as its corresponding deflection decreased gradually prepared the final draft of this manuscript. with increasing amounts of GBA. At any particular load level, deflection in the ECC samples increased with increasing amounts of GBA. However, the load- FUNDING deflection behavior of 10ECC is almost identical to that of CM. Moreover, the load-deflection behavior of the ECCs This research was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research containing GBA significantly improved with aging, for (DSR) at King Faisal University (KFU) through “Nasher grant instance, from 14 to 28 days and from 28 to 91 days. number 186251.” The funds for OAP were also covered by DSR In comparison to those of CM, the ECC with 10% GBA through the same “Nasher grant number 186251.” demonstrated greater resistance to deflection as well as higher load-carrying capacity at both 28 and at 91 days. Moreover, the ECC containing 20% GBA also exhibited identical or slightly better load-deflection responses than ACKNOWLEDGMENTS that of CM at later ages. 6 Considering the above discussion and the most important The authors acknowledge the Deanship of Scientific Research findings of this study, 10% GBA can be considered at the King Faisal University for the financial support under as the optimum replacement of cement in producing Nasher Track (Grant No. 186251). The authors are also highly a sustainable ECC as it exhibited improved strengths grateful to Dr. Muhammad Adil and Dr. Sajad Wali, Department (compressive, tensile, and flexural), better resistance to of Civil Engineering UET Peshawar, for their support in deflection, and improved ductility compared to those of all material procurement and facilitation during the testing phase the ECC mixes used in this study. of this research. addition- for- concrete- metakaolin- specifications- and- conformity- criteria/ REFERENCES article/760894/fa175740 (accessed April 23, 2018). Aigbodion, V. S., Hassan, S. B., Ause, T., and Nyior, G. B. (2010). Potential ASTM C109 / C109M - 16a (2016). Standard Test Method for Compressive Utilization of Solid Waste (Bagasse Ash). J. Min. Mater. Character. Eng. 9, Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-in. or [50-mm] Cube Specimens). 67–77. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2010.91006 Available at: www.astm.org (accessed April 23, 2018). 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Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that the research was conducted in the Li, V. C., Wu, C., Wang, S., Ogawa, A., and Saito, T. (2002). Interface tailoring absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a for strain-hardening polyvinyl alcohol-engineered cementitious composites potential conflict of interest. (PVA-ECC). ACI Mater J. 99, 463–472. Liu, J. C., and Tan, K. H. (2018). Fire resistance of ultra-high performance Copyright © 2020 Amin, Ashraf, Kumar, Khan, Saqib, Ali and Khan. This is an strain hardening cementitious composite: Residual mechanical properties open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution and spalling resistance. Cem. Concr. Compos. 89, 62–75. doi: 10.1016/j. License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, cemconcomp.2018.02.014 provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the Loh, Y. R., Sujan, D., Rahman, M. E., and Das, C. A. (2013). Review sugarcane original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic bagasse - the future composite material: a literature review. Resour. Conserv. practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply Recy. 75, 14–22. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2013.03.002 with these terms. Frontiers in Materials | www.frontiersin.org 12 April 2020 | Volume 7 | Article 65

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