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Hydrogen Energy as Future of Sustainable Mobility

Hydrogen Energy as Future of Sustainable Mobility REVIEW published: 31 May 2022 doi: 10.3389/fenrg.2022.893475 Hydrogen Energy as Future of Sustainable Mobility 1 1 2 Suprava Chakraborty *, Santanu Kumar Dash , Rajvikram Madurai Elavarasan *, 3,4 1 5 6 Arshdeep Kaur , Devaraj Elangovan *, Sheikh Tanzim Meraj , Padmanathan Kasinathan 7,8 and Zafar Said 1 2 TIFAC-CORE, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Thiagarajar 3 4 College of Engineering, Madurai, India, CPS Technologies, Brisbane, QLD, Australia, Steering Committee (Hydrogen Society of Australia), Perth, WA, Australia, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Malaysia, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Agni College of Technology, Chennai, India, 7 8 Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering Department, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, Research Institute for Sciences and Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates Conventional fuels for vehicular applications generate hazardous pollutants which have an adverse effect on the environment. Therefore, there is a high demand to shift towards environment-friendly vehicles for the present mobility sector. This paper highlights Edited by: sustainable mobility and specifically sustainable transportation as a solution to reduce Subrata Hait, GHG emissions. Thus, hydrogen fuel-based vehicular technologies have started blooming Indian Institute of Technology Patna, India and have gained significance following the zero-emission policy, focusing on various types Reviewed by: of sustainable motilities and their limitations. Serving an incredible deliverance of energy by Muhammad Aziz, hydrogen fuel combustion engines, hydrogen can revolution various transportation The University of Tokyo, Japan sectors. In this study, the aspects of hydrogen as a fuel for sustainable mobility Sushant Kumar, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, sectors have been investigated. In order to reduce the GHG (Green House Gas) India emission from fossil fuel vehicles, researchers have paid their focus for research and *Correspondence: development on hydrogen fuel vehicles and proton exchange fuel cells. Also, its Suprava Chakraborty suprava@ee.ism.ac.in development and progress in all mobility sectors in various countries have been Rajvikram Madurai Elavarasan scrutinized to measure the feasibility of sustainable mobility as a future. This, paper is rajvikram787@gmail.com an inclusive review of hydrogen-based mobility in various sectors of transportation, in Devaraj Elangovan elangovan.devaraj@vit.ac.in particular fuel cell cars, that provides information on various technologies adapted with time to add more towards perfection. When compared to electric vehicles with a 200-mile Specialty section: range, fuel cell cars have a lower driving cost in all of the 2035 and 2050 scenarios. To This article was submitted to Sustainable Energy Systems and stimulate the use of hydrogen as a passenger automobile fuel, the cost of a hydrogen fuel Policies, cell vehicle (FCV) must be brought down to at least the same level as an electric vehicle. a section of the journal Compared to gasoline cars, fuel cell vehicles use 43% less energy and generate 40% Frontiers in Energy Research less CO . Received: 10 March 2022 Accepted: 19 April 2022 Keywords: climate change, sustainable mobility, hydrogen mobility, hydrogen fuel, GHG Published: 31 May 2022 Citation: Chakraborty S, Dash SK, 1 INTRODUCTION Elavarasan RM, Kaur A, Elangovan D, Meraj ST, Kasinathan P and Said Z Sustainable mobility is described as a transportation system that is ubiquitous, effective, clean, and (2022) Hydrogen Energy as Future of ecologically beneficial. Whilst transportation is not having its own sustainable development goals Sustainable Mobility. (SDGs), it is critical for accomplishing other SDGs in order to reach desired growth and Front. Energy Res. 10:893475. doi: 10.3389/fenrg.2022.893475 development. Top-scoring countries for the SDGs have more robust and long-term mobility Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 1 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility policies in place, whilst countries with the lowest scores are chastised for having inadequate transportation infrastructure (Sum4all.org, 2021). Figure 1 depicts the SDGs that are directly or indirectly met by sustainable transportation. The origin of “sustainable mobility” is from the broader definition of “Sustainable development”. “Sustainable development” is “development that meets current needs without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). The infographic (Figure 2) depicts the broad benefits of sustainable mobility (Ransformative-Mobility, 2021), which include energy security, economic development, environmental sustainability, and social wellbeing. The literature has a number of researches on sustainable mobility. The scope of technology in fostering a change in behaviour toward sustainable transportation has been investigated (Klecha and Gianni, 2018; Chng, 2021). Gonzales Green port strategies for reducing negative externalities in the countryside has been investigated (Gonzalez Aregall et al., 2018). Table 1 lists the results of several studies on sustainable mobility. FIGURE 1 | Targeted SDGs addressed by sustainable mobility. 1.1 Hydrogen: The Most Reliable Form of Energy and infrastructure have a direct impact on the societal The global need for energy has risen intensely with the growth of acceptability of hydrogen-powered private road cars in the the world’s population. This is because energy is required for all transportation sector. Most of the hypotheses, such as activities. The great majority of energy is imitative from fossil environmental awareness, limited refuelling infrastructure, fuels, which are non-renewable resources that take longer to and media backing for this sector, were supported by the recharge or reoccurrence to their previous capacity. Energy findings (Apostolou and Welcher, 2021). To explore the imitative from fossil fuels is less costly; however, it has effects of alternative cars on the environment and human shortcomings when compared to renewable energy sources health, a life cycle evaluation of methanol, hydrogen, and (Rohith et al., 2016). electric vehicles is done. The findings of this study Hydrogen is an emerging and almost established fuel source demonstrate that owing to the manufacturing and forcars(Apostolou and Xydis, 2019; Staffell et al., 2019; Falcone maintenance phases, electric cars have higher human toxicity et al., 2021). The present state of the art and future possibilities ratings. Because hydrogen has a higher energy density than of the burgeoning hydrogen-based market in road methanol, hydrogen-powered cars are a more environmental transportation, as well as an examination of existing sustainable alternative in terms of global warming and ozone hydrogen refuelling station technologies, have been explored layer depletion (Bicer and Dincer, 2017). The Covid-19 (Apostolou and Xydis, 2019). The hydrogen economy offers a coronavirus has made it more important than ever for people multi-sectoral view of low-cost clean energy and thorough to breathe cleaner air, drink cleaner water, eat cleaner food, and decarbonization in process sectors. The ability to store use cleaner energy. We were in a carbon age with hydrocarbon hydrogen or derivatives is a game changer for the integration fuels until the coronavirus outbreak juncture in 2020, and now of high renewable energy source shares, resulting in beneficial we must continue to change the driver to hydrogen, which is the effects on various SDGs through lower GHG and air pollution start of the hydrogen age, in which the use of hydrocarbon fuels emissions (Falcone et al., 2021). Along with biofuels and electric (fossilfuels)willdecreaseexponentially whilethe useof cars, hydrogen is one of three key low-carbon transportation hydrogen energy will increase (Dincer, 2020). The Covid-19 choices (EVs). Hydrogen avoids the negative effects of biofuels has thrown the transition from the carbon (C) age to the on land usage and air pollution, as well as the restricted range emerging hydrogen (H )age into disarray (Apostolou et al., and long recharge periods associated with electric vehicles 2018). (Staffell et al., 2019). Hydrogen automobiles have been As a result, renewable resources, particularly hydrogen energy, shown to have a threefold lower potential for global warming are the most promising choices for meeting energy demands. than other alternative technologies (Bicer and Dincer, 2017; Hydrogen is found mainly in plant materials and is rare in nature. Dincer, 2020; Apostolou and Welcher, 2021). In Denmark, Hydrogen is a non-metallic, nontoxic fuel that can provide more variables that may influence public acceptability of hydrogen- energy per unit of mass than gasoline (Abdalla et al., 2018). powered cars have been explored. To that purpose, four primary However, a substantial study is required to investigate and design hypotheses were proposed, assuming that variables such as technical and environmental knowledge, financial standing, onboard applications in order to use hydrogen as a fuel. Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 2 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility FIGURE 2 | Benefits of sustainable mobility. Hydrogen has lately emerged as a prospective energy carrier, end-use site, generally through small-scale electrolysis or steam and the organic chemical hydride approach offers significant methane reforming (Meraj et al., 2020). advantages in terms of transportability and handling (Morel et al., Hydrogen can also be converted to other energy carriers like 2015). The possibilities for combining stochastic power electricity, methane, or liquid fuels, which incurs conversion costs generation with hydrogen production, storage, and and efficiency losses but allows access to existing energy consumption is explained in (Korpas and Gjengedal, 2006). distribution networks without requiring the construction of an extensive hydrogen distribution infrastructure. The relative cost of regional basic resources for hydrogen generation and policies is 1.2 Hydrogen as a Fuel in the Transportation vital in determining the ideal hydrogen supply pathway. Sector Transportation of hydrogen can be done using. “Centralized” production, where hydrogen is produced on a large scale and supplied to customers via truck or pipeline. “On-site” or 1) Pipelines (Weinmann, 1999). 2) Mobile by trucks, trains, vessels (Domashenko, 2002). “distributed” production, is where hydrogen is produced at the TABLE 1 | Investigating research on sustainable mobility. Cited reference Year of publication Investigated on Ren et al. (2019) 2020 Green and sustainable logistics Kumar and Alok, (2020) 2020 Prospects for sustainability López et al. (2019) 2019 The impact of technological advances in bus transportation on environmental and social sustainability Tirachini, (2020) 2019 Travel behaviour and sustainable mobility Holden et al. (2019) 2019 Aspects of sustainable mobility in 2030 Martínez-Díaz et al. (2019) 2019 Future of autonomous driving Letnik et al. (2018) 2018 Sustainable and energy-efficient urban transportation policies and initiatives Ranieri et al. (2018) 2018 Logistics innovations in cost reduction vision Taiebat et al. (2018) 2018 Automated vehicles’ energy, environmental, and sustainability consequences (Ferrero et al., 2018; Santos, 2018) 2018 Shared mobility Biresselioglu et al. (2018) 2018 Electric mobility Pojani and Stead, (2018) 2018 Policy design for sustainable urban transport Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 3 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility The use of hydrogen in onboard vehicles has hurdles owing to subsections discuss the environmental and technical aspects of the high weight, volume, and cost of hydrogen. Furthermore, as hydrogen in the mobility sector and its scope. the refuelling process continues, the life cycle of hydrides Transportation is the second-largest source of pollution in shortens, reducing the vehicles’ efficiency. Another terms of GHG emissions, posing a serious threat to human health disadvantage is the lack of adequate hydrogen storage system (Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area-Towards a standards and protocols. The infrastructure to distribute competitive and resource efficient transport system, 2021). The hydrogen to the user requires entirely new infrastructure; the transportation sector accounts for 23% of total CO emissions. production and delivery systems must be integrated to reduce the According to the report, the transportation sector would continue cost of hydrogen delivery and distribution costs. At the moment, to rely on petroleum-based services for 90% of its fleet, with hydrogen transportation, storage, and delivery to the site of renewable energy sources accounting for only 10%. By 2050, consumption are all related with inefficient energy use. Despite carbon emissions from the transportation industry are predicted having some notable disadvantages, hydrogen is heavily used in to be 33% more than they were in 1990 (Le Quéré et al., 2020). several industries such as the transportation industry, power generation industry, and building industry instead of 2.1 Climatic Change and Greenhouse Gas conventional fossil fuels (Reddy et al., 2020). This paper aims to present the future of hydrogen energy as a Emissions solution to sustainable mobility. Existing literatures are mainly Climate change is the central point of focus in the present era due focusing on utilization of hydrogen for a particular sector of to the advancement of technologies in various sectors, including transportation; the overall transportation sector is not addressed. the transportation industries. The combustion of biofuels for In detail analysis of techno-economic-environmental aspects of transportation has captured the mobility sector for the last two Hydrogen as sustainable mobility solution is missing in recent centuries. Traditional combustion fuels by vehicles lead to the literature. The goal of this research is to evaluate the potential of generation of pollutants and GHGs to the environment, which hydrogen energy as a solution for sustainable transportation and has various adverse effects (Engel, 2012; Zhongfu et al., 2015). to analyse its environmental and social consequences. This review Hydrogen is a carrier, like electricity, rather than an energy aims to introduce the preparation processes, storage method, and source, and the notion of “hydricity,” or the inherent critical technical issues of its application in vehicles and related interchangeability of electricity and hydrogen, has been mobility sectors in a systematic manner, providing exciting established (Engel, 2012). Anthropogenic GHG emissions are insights into hydrogen-based energy, the potential large-scale directly linked to the global warming trend. Climate change deployment process on a global scale including techno-economic caused by GHG emissions is one of the most serious aspects, selected implemented projects, policies and challenges. environmental issues confronting modern society (Ding et al., The paper helps the policymakers and industries decide on 2018). In order to stabilize the climate, it is the need of the time to choosing hydrogen as the future of sustainable mobility. reduce the emissions significantly (Liu et al., 2019). CO is the This paper is structured as follows. Section 2 provides an in- major GHG contributor with a value of 76%, methane, while depth review of hydrogen as a fuel for transportation in many Nitrous Oxide and fluorinated gases together contributes the rest sectors and its environmental and technical elements. Section 3 24% (Global-Greenhouse-Gas-Emissions-Data, 2021). As deals with the generation and storage of hydrogen energy. Section illustrated in Figure 3, the global CO concentration is 4 concludes the in-depth analysis to suggest the scope of growing rapidly. hydrogen to be adopted as the future of sustainable mobility. The concentration of CO in the atmosphere is currently at 414.00 ppm, the highest in the previous 800 k years, and it is closely connected to global temperature. The world has committed to keeping global warming below 2 C, and this goal 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS can be met with a minimal carbon budget. According to Considering the fact of depletion of energy resources and the rise researchers, mankind can only emit 565 Gt of CO more and in global warming, challenges are encountered with the still meet the 2 C target—a limit that would be exhausted in combustion of energy due to the transportation sector in the 15 years if emissions continue at their current rate of 36.6 Gt CO present time. Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are caused by per year (Liu et al., 2019). It is also predicted that seven million the dominant conventional road transportations, which have people die each year as a result of illnesses caused by air pollution existed for more than a century and has reached its upper (Global-Energy-Related-Co2-Emissions, 2021). saturation level. As per the International Energy Agency During COVID-19, there is a temporary decline in daily global regulations, global carbon dioxide emissions must be decreased CO emissions due to forced confinement. By early April 2020, to limit the consequences of climate change (Zhao et al., 2020). To daily global CO emissions had decreased by 17% compared to enhance the technology that has zero pollutant discharge and the mean levels in 2019, with surface traffic accounting for half of zero climate change effect, hydrogen Fuel cell-based vehicles the decline (Saleem et al., 2021). However, in the post-COVID-19 production is being promoted by automotive industries. The scenario, things will be different. As a result, adopting a government of various countries like the United States, Japan sustainable transportation strategy is critical. and South Korea have encouraged the production of Hydrogen Although GHGs are released by a variety of sources, those vehicles since 2018 (Meng et al., 2021). The upcoming produced by automobiles can be reduced by employing Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 4 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility developed by the commission of the Flemish government (Sergeant. et al., 2009). This measurement is based upon the GHGs emissions, regulation of air quality and sound pollution. Apart from the three major aspects, two indirect aspects, including human lifecycle and ecosystem maintenance, are also included in the Ecoscore measurement scale (Van Mierlo et al., 2004). Environmental aspects of hydrogen vehicles are presented in Figure 4. FIGURE 3 | Concentration of CO in atmosphere in ppm (Climate- 3 TECHNICAL ASPECTS Change-Atmospheric-Carbon-Dioxide, 2021; Health-Topics, 2021) The study about hydrogen fuel vehicles has major issues related to alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) or green vehicles. Advanced high-pressure hydrogen storage. To tackle the problem of alternative fuel technologies have the potential to halve hydrogen storage, researchers have proposed the onboard gasoline use while also cutting CO emissions and their hydrogen generation engines (Frenette and Forthoffer, 2009; associated environmental consequences. Although fuel-efficient Shusheng et al., 2020). The fuel cell electric vehicle is an onboard hydrogen-generation type in the design scheme that technologies help vehicles perform better in terms of environmental performance, they cannot assist cut overall provides rapid hydrogen supply. Moreover, a self-heating emissions. This is ought to the fact that technology cannot reforming technology combining methanol vapour reforming change consumer habits on its own. So, framing a strategy and partial oxidation reforming being utilized (Özcan and that encourages consumers to choose energy-efficient vehicles Garip, 2020). The car is powered by a hybrid system that over traditional one is critical, as is ensuring the use of AFVs that includes a lithium battery and a hydrogen fuel cell. The complies with environmental pollution-reduction measures like aforesaid approach is different from hydrogen storage fuel cell carpooling and using low-CO -emitting vehicles, public vehicles. It eliminates the hydrogenation process and the high- transportation, or bicycles to save fuel (Oliveira and Dias, pressure hydrogen storage device, and drives the motor with the 2020; García-Melero et al., 2021; Apostolou and Xydis, 2019). fuel cell as the primary power source, while the lithium battery as a backup. Based on the structure of the fuel cell electric vehicle designed in the literature (Li et al., 2016; Shusheng et al., 2020), 2.2 Hydrogen as a Zero-Emission Source Hydrogen energy follows a zero-emission policy towards the the vehicle’s critical components, such as a hydrogen production environment, making it a fundamental attraction for system, electric drive system, auxiliary power supply, and researchers and industries to study and develop hydrogen management system, were evaluated, and their management transport technologies. Additionally, hydrogen has become a and control techniques were described. truly sustainable energy resource because of the zero climate change effect, as hydrogen is a highly efficient, reliable, and 3.1 Production of Hydrogen soundless source of power. Hydrogen may be produced using both renewable and fossil fuel The evaluation of hydrogen fuel transportation cannot be technologies. Steam reforming, partial oxidation, auto thermal alone evaluated based upon the tailpipe gas emissions. The oxidation, and gasification are all methods for producing environmental aspects can be accounted for based on the hydrogen from fossil fuels. By gasifying biomass/biofuels and vehicle’s wheel to tank evaluation (Concawe and JRC, 2007; Yang and Ogden, 2007; Bethoux, 2020). Natural hydrogen may become a viable economic option, making fuel cell vehicles a viable and ecologically acceptable alternative to battery electric vehicles (Bethoux, 2020). The European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, EUCAR, and CONCAWE have assessed the tank-to-wheels (TTW) energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions for a variety of future fuel and powertrain alternatives (Concawe and JRC, 2007). Moving our transportation sector away from petroleum-derived gasoline and diesel fuels and toward hydrogen derived from domestic primary energy resources can have a number of societal benefits, including lower well-to-wheels greenhouse gas emissions, zero point-of-use criteria air pollutant emissions, and less imported petroleum from politically sensitive areas (Yang and Ogden, 2007). Therefore, the accountability of hydrogen vehicles towards environmental effect has been studied and reported FIGURE 4 | Environmental aspect of hydrogen vehicle. through one tool known as Ecoscore. The tool has been Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 5 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility suggested that renewable energy curtailment be used as a source of electricity and multi-stack system electrolyzers be used as large-scale electrolysis equipment, in combination with cryogenic liquid hydrogen transportation or on-site hydrogen production (Luo et al., 2020). To reduce these pollutants affecting the atmosphere, literature has reported various technological modifications for hydrogen generation. Therefore, the utilization of renewable energy resources for hydrogen generation has been reported in recent works of literature (Boretti, 2020; Manna et al., 2021; Rabiee et al., 2021). Green hydrogen is also resultants of electrolyzers produced by renewable energies. It has been also noticed that green FIGURE 5 | Hydrogen production sources (Arat and Sürer, 2017) hydrogen can be also produced from bioenergy such as biomethane and biomass combustion. As the green hydrogen splitting water with solar or wind energy, hydrogen can be generated from various methodologies has net-zero gas emission, synthesized from renewable energy sources (Apostolou, 2020). researchers and industries have more attention towards its The Hydrogen production sources and technologies are shown in production advancement (Manna et al., 2021; Rabiee et al., Figure 5. 2021). Categories of Hydrogen generation is presented in The extraction of hydrogen from coal is the highest among all Figure 6. sources, approximately 21.5 billion tons/year, which need to be Hydrogen production from different sources and emission replaced by renewable resources. from it is tabulated in Table 2. At present, coal is the primary source of hydrogen extraction, 3.1.1 Categorization of Hydrogen Based on the Source but the process emits GHGs. Hydrogen extraction through of Generation photocatalytic water decomposition with solar energy is the By the adaptation of different technology and considered sources, least popular process, with 1.8 billion tons of hydrogen hydrogen production has been categorized into three types annually. Table 2, concludes that the hydrogen production according to the literature and study reports (von Döllen from photocatalytic water decomposition with solar energy is et al., 2021; Noussan et al., 2021). The utilization of major emission-free and the most sustainable path. sources for the production of hydrogen has introduced the color conceptualization. By the application of fossil fuel for the 3.1.2 Water Electrolysis to Generate Hydrogen generation of hydrogen leads to the emission of CO and Water as a feedstock is one of the most environmentally beneficial greenhouse gases. This technology of hydrogen production ways to produce hydrogen as it releases only oxygen as a by- and its utilized source refers to grey hydrogen (Ivanenko, product during processing. Green hydrogen is hydrogen 2020). Blue hydrogen was introduced, while the grey hydrogen produced by the breakdown of water using renewable energy production approach was used to lower the quantity of sources. Electrolysis is currently the most established greenhouse gas emissions in hydrogen production (Mari et al., commercially accessible process for producing hydrogen from 2016; Dickel, 2020). The utilization of fossil fuel, industrial gas, water. Water electrolysis is the process of breaking down water by-product gas, natural gas for hydrogen production for (H O) into its constituent’s hydrogen (H ) and oxygen (O ) using 2 2 2 sustainable mobility as energy resources generally emit electric current (Hydrogen-Production-Through-Electrolysis, pollutants, and greenhouse gases to the environment (Jovan 1927). Positive ions (H+) are drawn to the cathode, whereas and Dolanc, 2020; Luo et al., 2020; Schiro et al., 2020). In a negative ions (OH-) are drawn to the anode by the electric potential. Alkaline water electrolysis (AEL), proton exchange case study of a Slovenian hydro power plant, the possibility for green hydrogen generation was examined. If it is not burdened by membrane (PEM) water electrolysis, solid oxide water different environmental fees, hydrogen can be competitive in the electrolysis (SOE), and alkaline anion exchange membrane transportation sector (Jovan and Dolanc, 2020). Renewable (AEM) water electrolysis are some of the water electrolysis hydrogen generation is a reliable alternative since this energy procedures (Chi and Yu, 2018) as depicted in Figure 7. vector can be quickly created from electricity and injected into Comparative analysis of different water electrolysis processes existing natural gas infrastructure, allowing for storage and to generate hydrogen (Hydrogen-Production-By-Electrolysis- transit (Schiro et al., 2020). The economic analysis of Ann-Cornell, 2017; Hydrogen-Production-Through- hydrogen was applied to hydrogen produced by natural gas, Electrolysis, 2017; Articlelanding, 2020) is tabulated in Table 3. coal, and water electrolysis and conveyed in the form of high- Use of AEM water electrolysis could allow low-cost transition pressure hydrogen gas or cryogenic liquid hydrogen. The cost of metals to replace traditional noble metal electrocatalysts (Pt, Pd, hydrogen produced from natural gas and coal is now cheaper, but Ru, and Ir). AEM electrolysis has garnered special interest due to it is heavily influenced by the cost of hydrogen purification and its high power efficiency, membrane stability, durability, ease of the price of carbon trading. Given the impact of future production handling, and low-cost hydrogen-production method (Vincent technologies, raw material costs, and rising demands for and Bessarabov, 2018), despite being a developing technology. sustainable energy development on hydrogen energy costs, it is Aside from the high energy consumption induced by the rise in Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 6 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility FIGURE 6 | Categories of hydrogen. TABLE 2 | Hydrogen production from different sources and emissions. Hydrogen extraction source Quantity (billion Technical details Emission Ref no. tons/year) Coal 21.5 Homogeneous and high-speed reaction ought to GHG emission (Li et al., 2010; Hui et al., 2017; Wang its special physical and chemical process et al., 2020; Sun et al., 2021) Industrial gas 12.5 Physical and chemical process GHG emission (Vialetto et al., 2019; Ates and Ozcan, with pollutants 2020; Okolie et al., 2021) By product gas 7.07 Physical and chemical process GHG emission (Vialetto et al., 2019; Okolie et al., 2021) Natural gas 4.6 Chemical process Pollutants (Perdikaris et al., 2010; Bicer and Khalid, 2020; Mayrhofer et al., 2021) Electrolyzed water 2.1 Chemical process Pollutants (Mayrhofer et al., 2021; Sun et al., 2021) Photocatalytic water 1.8 Photocatalytic process No GHG emission (Jiang et al., 2013; Yan et al., 2013; Zhang decomposition with solar et al., 2013; Tasleem and Tahir, 2020) energy Biological H production 2.05 Microorganisms and their metabolic mechanisms Pollutants (Bi et al., 2010; Cormos, 2012; Cao et al., 2020) electrolysis voltage generated by the bubbles developed during pressure tanks (350.00–700.00 bar tank pressure) are primarily the electrolysis process (Hu et al., 2019), high energy used to store hydrogen as a gas. Cryogenic temperatures are consumption is another barrier of hydrogen synthesis from required to store hydrogen as a liquid (Hydrogen Storage, 2021). water electrolysis. Hydrocarbons can be used in water Sapru (2002) have given an summary on hydrogen storage electrolysis to reduce energy usage. Cheap metals or systems, based on storage tanks integrated with fuel cells. nonmetal composite materials, such as Ni, should be the electrodes’ likely future direction. 3.2 Hydrogen Storage The following arethe majorfuturedirectionstobeinvestigatedin Hydrogen holds excellent potential to be an energy carrier, the water electrolysis process of hydrogen generation: especially for fuel cell applications. With high calorific value, it is also termed as regenerative and environmentally friendly fuel. � In-depth investigation of the reaction process in order to Additionally, it has energy density of 142 ML/kg, which is three improve hydrogen generation efficiency and achieve times of petroleum (47 MJ/kg) (Kaur et al., 2016). This makes conversion by combining chemical and electrical energy; hydrogen as the most efficient fuel to replace petroleum-based � Reduction in energy intake in the electrolysis process of vehicular. Thus, fossil fuel reliability can be reduced to fulfil all the water using renewable energy; global energy demands (Muir and Yao, 2011). Carbon and � In-depth investigation of the reaction process in order to Hydrogen cycle are shown in Figure 8. The combustion improve the efficiency of hydrogen production; process is shown below in blue arrows. The cycle shows how � Improvements in electrode stability and corrosion CO released causes global warming (presented by black arrows). resistance for increased longevity and lower electrode costs; On the other hand, the hydrogen cycle is presented by green � Development of new catalytic electrodes and catalysts to arrows and pointing towards renewable energy sources (Kaur improve reaction efficiency (Gao et al., 2019; Huang et al., et al., 2019). 2019). Hydrogen energy has also been projected as a widespread resolution for a secure energy future to increase energy security Hydrogen power is a promising technique for storing and strengthen developing countries’ economies (Marrero- fluctuating Renewable Energy (RE) to establish a 100% Alfonso et al., 2009). Various technological, significant renewable and sustainable hydrogen economy (Dawood et al., scientific, and economic challenges must be overcome before 2020). Hydrogen can be stored as gas or liquid form. High- hydrogen can be used as a clean fuel source and the transition Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 7 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility FIGURE 7 | Different types of water electrolysis processes to generate hydrogen. TABLE 3 | Comparative analysis of different types of water electrolysis process to generate hydrogen. Technology AEL PEM SOE AEM Electrolyte Aqueous KOH Proton exchange ionomer (e.g., solid-oxide Anion exchange ionomer (e.g., AS-4) + optional dilute (20–40 wt%) Nafion) caustic solution Cathode Ni, Ni–Mo alloys Pt, Pt–Pd Ni-YSZ (yttria-stabilized Ni and Ni alloys zirconia) Anode Ni, Ni–Co alloys RuO , IrO Lanthanum strontium Ni, Fe, Co oxides 2 2 manganate Charge carriers OH-, K+ H+ O2- OH- ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° Operating 100 –150C70 –90 C 700 C –800C50 C –60 C temperature Cell voltage (V) 1.8–2.4 1.8–2.2 1.6–1.8 1.8–2.2 Technology status Mature Commercial Not yet commercial Pilot R&D scale from a carbon-based fossil fuel energy system to a hydrogen- automotive applications have been made and deployed (Shang based economy can be completed (Shashikala, 152012). and Chen, 2006). Additionally, in the transportation sector, hydrogen storage technologies are in consideration and gradually move towards 3.2.1 Hydrogen Storage Methods designing highly efficient systems. For example, specific criteria Hydrogen storage methods can be categorized into three groups, as are looked into, such as thermal stability of the system, shown in Figure 9. Molecular hydrogen can be stored as (1) a gas or a gravimetric and volumetric densities and cost of the operating liquid without any significant physical or chemical bonding to other systems. Many of these sectors are being worked on, and materials; (2) molecular hydrogen can be adsorbed onto or into improvements in hydrogen production and storage for various material and held in place by relatively weak physical van der Waals Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 8 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility FIGURE 10 | (A) Compressed hydrogen gas storage and (B) cryo- compressed hydrogen gas storage (Sakintuna et al., 2007) FIGURE 8 | Carbon and hydrogen cycle (Muir and Yao, 2011) FIGURE 11 | (A) Surface adsorption and (B) Surface absorption (Klanchar et al., 2004) FIGURE 9 | Hydrogen storage technologies (Andersson and Grönkvist, 2019; Lototskyy et al., 2017) 3.2.1.2 Material Based Hydrogen Storage In materials, hydrogen is generally stored as absorption, bonds; (3) atomic hydrogen can be covalently bound (absorbed). The adsorption, and chemical reaction. If hydrogen is stored on spread of hydrogen fueling stations across the transportation the surface, then the phenomenon is called adsorption, and if it network, as well as investment in hydrogen fueling stations, can is stored within the solids, it is called absorption. The main lead to increased profits (El-Taweel et al., 2019). difference is in the density as it increases from adsorption to absorption. Adsorption is further divided into chemisorption 3.2.1.1 Compressed/Physical Hydrogen Storage and physisorption based on their mechanism. Physiosorbed Hydrogen is stored at high pressure and in compressed form and hydrogen is weakly bonded than chemisorbed hydrogen specifically designed hydrogen cylinders reinforced by carbon molecules. Also, it involves highly porous materials with high fibre that can withstand very high pressure. Various concerns surface areas to efficiently uptake and release hydrogen should be handled before using this technology, like high- molecules from the materials, such as metal hydride pressure requirements, low volumetric density, energy required hydrogen storage. to compress hydrogen gas, and cylinder weight and to reduce the However, absorption involves hydrogen atoms attached with overall cost (Sakintuna et al., 2007). strong bonds within the chemicals. Here, hydrogen is stored in Hydrogen can also be stored in cyro-compressed form by large amounts with small quantities of materials also could be cooling hydrogen gas to −253 C; this process increases the released at low temperature and pressure. For example, in volumetric storage capacity of hydrogen gas by 4 times. complex and chemical hydrides, hydrogen is absorbed in the However, this process is highly energy intensive due to energy materials, as shown in Figure 11 (Klanchar et al., 2004). requirements for compressing and liquifying hydrogen gas. There are further limitations, such as liquid hydrogen being very volatile 3.2.1.3 Chemical Hydrogen Storage Pathway and potentially forming an explosive combination with air if When hydrogen is generated and released through the chemical evaporated. Thus, this system should be designed to cover all the reaction, then the storage technology is defined as chemical hydrogen safety concerns (Sakintuna et al., 2007). Figure 10 shows storage. The basic reactions involve the reaction of chemical hydrides hydrogen gas in the form of compressed gas and cryogenic liquid. with water and alcohols. However, this technology suffers lack of The weight, volume, cost, efficiency, codes, and standards are reversible onboard reactions and require spent fuel and by-products the primary problems in hydrogen storage. New materials, to be removed off-board. Here, hydrogen is strongly bonded as particularly polymers, must be developed as barrier materials hydrogen atoms within the molecular structures of the chemical to limit hydrogen leakage in storage tanks with high energy-to- compounds, as presented in Figure 12.Therefore,for hydrogen weight ratios (Macher et al., 2021). generation and storage, a chemical reaction is required. Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 9 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility FIGURE 12 | (A,B): Absorption in complex chemical hydrides (Klanchar et al., 2004). FIGURE 14 | Flow diagram of solid-state hydrogen generation system (Demirci and Miele, 2009). FIGURE 13 | Volumetric hydrogen density of various hydrogen storage methods (Graetz, 2012). As hydrogen is stored in chemical hydrides, these hydrides in the As a clean resource, hydrogen energy might minimise energy form of materials have high gravimetric and volumetric densities. savings and emissions caused by the use of fossil fuels, and it will likely Thus, hydrogen is released in the form of chemical reactions. There play an increasingly important role in the future (Zhang et al., 2019a). are two methods of hydrogen release; the first is hydrolysis, and the In recent decades, the PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell second is thermolysis. The former one requires low temperature and or polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell), which effectively pressure, and the theoretical storage efficiency is very high. The latter transforms the chemical energy inherent in hydrogen into one involves highly sophisticated technologies and energy electricity without producing pollutants, has piqued interest in requirements to break the hydrides by thermal pathways. automotive applications (Ogungbemi et al., 2021). Considering that few common chemical hydrides that release hydrogen by hydrolysis pathway are sodium, lithium, magnesium, 3.3 Proton Exchange Fuel Cells calcium, titanium hydrides, and few of complex hydrides are sodium FCVs (fuel cell vehicles) powered by PEMFC have recently borohydride, lithium aluminium hydride and lithium borohydride reached mass production, such as Toyota’s Mirai, Honda’s (Klanchar et al., 2004). Clarity, and Hyundai’s NEXO. Performance should be Figure 13 presents various hydrides per their volumetric increased at a cheaper cost to improve its commercial uses. storage densities, with AlH3 having the highest value and The European Union and the US alone stand out alone in the pressurized tanks with the lowest values (Graetz, 2012). As majority to consume all petroleum products and energy demands. shown in Figure 14. This has led to the development of alternative energy sources, The catalyst for the reaction is supplied in the form of an with the best ones stated as hydrogen, synthetic fuels and biofuels. aqueous solution of NaBH as a chemical hydride. This solution is These energy sources are investigated for their suitability to run through a separator, which separates the pure hydrogen gas sustain a clean form of energy (Ogungbemi et al., 2021). The from the rest of the mixture. This pure hydrogen gas is then source where hydrogen is produced from renewable energy to pumped into the fuel cell, where it can be used. After the recycling electricity by PEM fuel cells are under investigation. The PEM procedure, the by-products might be returned to the liquid cells are capable of producing sufficient power to sustain reservoir and used again (Demirci and Miele, 2009). commercial and residential usage under varying temperatures. Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 10 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility For example, a PEM fuel cell generator with Na metal and water 4 HYDROGEN BASED MOBILITY chemical reaction generated hydrogen with minimum emissions and noise. This have extended its use to medium and high duty Promotion of hydrogen vehicles as the future transportation vehicular applications. Despite all such uses, PEM fuel cells face platform has been chosen due to its zero-pollutant discharge few disadvantages (Ijaodola et al., 2019) and studies are in characteristic. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle technology has the scope progress based on economics, policy framework and to various categories of mobility sectors. This technology can replace lightweight vehicles, heavy goods vehicles, heavy advancements in electrolysis process to facilitate the use of PEM fuel cells for vehicular and general use. Due to myriads passenger vehicles, trains, and unmanned vehicles. Adopting of advantages like low operating temperature, solid electrolyte the concept of hydrogen fuel for heavy vehicles has attracted and high power density, durability and reliability proton New Zealand and Paris to meet the zero climate change exchange, fuel cells can be used in several areas like on-site commitments. As reported in (MBIE, 2019), the proper hydrogen generation, automotive, and portable electronic examination of feasibility for adopting clean hydrogen for devices as discussed. The parameters of PEM fuel cells are heavy vehicles exceeds 30 tons has been discussed in (Concept based on operating conditions, and to accurately estimate its Consulting Group, 2021; Perez et al., 2021). characteristics; research is also in progress with efficient Apart from the development of hydrogen fuel, heavy and very mathematical modelling. It can disclose more about operating heavy-duty vehicles, public lightweight vehicles, and passenger buses parameters linked with the PEM fuel cells (Rao et al., 2019a; require a shift towards utilization of clean hydrogen (Topler and Lordache, 2017; Air Liquide Will Build the First High-pressure Kandidayeni et al., 2019). Studies are also in progress to study the dynamic loading on the performance of PEMFC (Zhang et al., Hydrogen Refueling Station for Long-haul Trucks, 2021). Air 2019b; Huang et al., 2020). The situation arises when Liquide has announced the opening of Europe’s first high- unreasonable loading conditions increase and could even lead pressure hydrogen filling station, which will support the first fleet to failure (Mayyas et al., 2014) thus, adding to the disadvantages of long-haul hydrogen vehicles (Air Liquide Will Build the First of the fuel cells. This could be explained as when PEM FC is used High-pressure Hydrogen Refueling Station for Long-haul Trucks, as a mechanical power source, it undergoes dynamic loading and 2021). This investment is in line with the Group’s objective of response voltage becomes lower than the steady-state conditions; accelerating hydrogen energy adoption through large-scale subsequently, the voltage increases gradually. This could lead to initiatives, notably in the heavy vehicle category. Vulnerabilities of unfavourable operations of PEM fuel cells, and thus, dynamic Hydrogen Energy in Emerging Markets describes strategies and performance needs to be studied. developments for hydrogen civilization efforts implemented by Proton Exchange fuel cells have wide application in various various stakeholders in different countries and at different stages sectors like power plants, transportation, digital devices etc. of the development cycle, including authorities, institutes, research, However, the short life span due to the degradation and industry, and individuals (Topler and Lordache, 2017). Considering reusability of fuel cells limits its applications in the these facts, Germany has taken the lead in the global market for the commercial sector (Chen et al., 2019). Considering the lifespan commercialization of Hydrogen vehicles, along with the collaborators of fuel cells in mobile applications, it is 3,000 h, but the demand from Japan, Korea and the United States (Galich and Marz, 2012; rises to 5000 h to be used commercially. As per DOE Trencher and Edianto, 2021). Hydrogen and fuelcelltechnologies (United States Department of Energy), the set future goals for have the potential to help create a more environmentally friendly and transportation and stationary applications of PEM fuel cells as emission-free transportation and energy system (Galich and Marz, 5,000 h and 40000 h, respectively, by 2020 with performance 2012). Policymakers and automotive players throughout the world degradation that should be less than 10% (Ren et al., 2020). attempt to expedite the electrification of road transport using The considerable difference between stationary and hydrogen (Trencher and Edianto, 2021). They examined and transportation can be attributed to different designs as fuel contrasted the factors impacting the production and market penetration of privately owned fuel cell electric passenger vehicles cells in vehicles encounters harsh conditions like the open- circuit voltage, dynamic load, startup and shutdown, overload (FCEVs) and fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) in public transportation and freezing thaw. Thus, the decay of fuel cells in vehicular fleets. applications is also thoroughly studied by developing various test protocols. With the performance of fuel cells, cost factors are also 4.1 Hydrogen Vehicles in consideration like The Strategic Analysis Inc. studied the most In the present time, railway is the most economical transportation influencing factors on the cost of FC’s in 2012 and 2017 (Li et al., preferred by the common citizen as well as it is also used for goods 2020). The report (2012) concluded that the fuel cell stack and transportation. The conventional railway depends upon the fossil platinum loading are the most important factors which affect the fuels leads to the emission of GHGs and the generation of sound cost of the fuel cells. Since then, the study has also focused on a pollution. In the line, to meet zero-emission and zero sound railway low Pt-based catalyst that made significant development in Pt-M transportation, InnoTrans in 2016 of Berlin developed the Coradia iLint. This has been commercialized and launched in 2020 to run for alloys, Pt-based core shell, and Pt-based nanostructure. Gradually this development led to Pt-free catalysts like carbon alloy catalysts 100 km between Cuxhaven, Bremerhaven, Bremervoerde and in commercial markets in Japan. Thus, it can be stated that PEM Buxtehude in northern Germany (Low et al., 2020). fuel cells holds the potential to establish a hydrogen economy for Understanding the requirement and need for replacing clean a secure and sustainable future. hydrogen fuel transportation with the second largest railway Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 11 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility (Committee on Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs, 2006; Cecere et al., 2014; van Biert et al., 2016), Japan (Dawson, 2004; Dale Reed and Lister, 2011), Europe (Negoro, 2007), India (Sekigawa and Mecham, 1996; Chopinet et al., 2011), China (Rao et al., 2019b) and Russia (Lele, 2006) have already reported the developmental progress for hydrogen fuel technology adaptation. The advancement of transportation in different segments and requirements has led to the development of unmanned vehicles. The most popular sector under this category is unmanned cars and unmanned Arial vehicles (UAV) (Tan, 2013). For UAV applications, various countries have focused the efficiency to cover longer distances and enhanced performance by replacing conventional fuel with clean hydrogen fuels (Sergienko, 1993; Wang et al., 2013). The development of Hydrogen mobility in different sectors are tabulated in Table 4. It has been studied and reported that utilization of hydrogen FIGURE 15 | Scope of hydrogen fuel in different mobility sectors. fuel cell vehicles has been pointed in the United States and 5,899 hydrogen vehicles developed for commercialization (Bayrak et al., 2020). For the promotion of hydrogen utilized vehicles, network in the world, the Indian Railway has also started developing companies like Toyota Mirai, Honda Clarity, Renault–Nissan, and testing passenger fuel cell train set (Jhunjhunwala et al., 2018). General Motors and Honda have formed alliances for the joint Conventional fuel engines utilized in the shipping industries production (Giacoppo et al., 2017; Dudek et al., 2021). release the air pollutants and GHGs into the environment. In the regulation of these harmful gases, International Maritime 4.2 Fuel Cells Electronic Vehicles Organization (IMO) has passed an article to prevent pollution Vehicle manufacturers began producing hydrogen fuel passenger from the ships under (World’sFirst Hydrogen TrainRunsRoute vehicles in 2002 (Tanç et al., 2018) due to an increase in the in Germany, 2021; Traction: India to trial fuel cell trainset, 2021). number of researchers interested in Fuel Cell Electronic Vehicles Enhanced efficiency of the marine fuel cells for various applications of (FCEVs). They’ve been manufacturing a variety of models up to onboard ships has motivated the researchers to focus on hydrogen now. In addition to passenger automobiles (Lee et al., 2019; Tanç fuel-based marine engines. Electricity generation, emergency power et al., 2020), these manufacturers are known to work with light supply and power propulsion are the major power requirement in an commercial vehicles (Matulić et al., 2019), buses (de Miranda onboard ship, which can be generated through clean hydrogen fuel et al., 2017), and trucks (Lee et al., 2018). Table 5, lists all cells by replacing conventional fuels (Sattler, 2000; IMO, 2012a; IMO, commercially available FCEVs, as well as their manufacturers 2012b). Fuel cells have a lot of potential for usage on ships. Fuel cells and special features. on merchant ships and naval surface ships can be used for a variety of In recent years, the majority of passenger car manufacturers have purposes, including: (1) emergency power generation; (2) electric started developing FCEVs. General Motors, Toyota, and Honda energy generation, particularly in waters and harbours with strict produce their own FC stacks, whereas Ford, Mazda, environmental regulations; (3) small power output for propulsion in DaimlerChrysler, Mazda, Hyundai, Fiat, and Volkswagen purchase special operating modes (e.g., very quiet run); and (4) electric power them from FC manufacturers. It is apparent from the specifications of generation for the ship’s network and, if necessary, the propulsion available FCEVs that battery hybridization is currently favoured. network on ships equipped with fuel cells (e.g., naval vessels as all- Furthermore, automakers such as Honda, Hyundai, and Mercedes electric ships, AES) (Sattler, 2000). The actual requirement, have recently developed plug-in FCEVs. Proton Exchange replacement and advantage of combustion fuel engine by clean Membrane Fuel Cell is the most prevalent FC stack, and its hydrogen fuel cell-based engine have been discussed in detail in efficiency for FCEVs is improving continuously. Detail (Leo et al., 2010; Tronstad et al., 2017). Submarines are now the most specifications of the commercialized presently dominating FCEV common marine use of fuel cells. In this industry, hydrogen/oxygen forsaleorleasing (Wasserstoffautos, 2021) are tabulated in Table 6. polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are often utilized (Leo For a shift from a carbon-based (fossil fuel) energy system to a et al., 2010). The scope of hydrogen fuel in different mobility sectors is hydrogen-based economy, three key technological hurdles depicted in Figure 15. (Chang et al., 2019) must be overcome that are as follows. The target to achieve limited emission fuel to protect the climate, world aviation industries have also focused on clean 1) To compete with other options, the cost of efficient and hydrogen as an efficient candidate for short and long-range sustainable hydrogen generation and transport must be aviation and space transportation (de-Troya et al., 2016). The considerably decreased. research and development in aviation and space sector industries 2) In order to, offer an appropriate driving range, new have reported continuous progress for choosing clean hydrogen generations of hydrogen storage technologies for vehicle fuel. The aviation and space industries of the United States applications must be created. Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 12 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility TABLE 4 | Development of Hydrogen Mobility in different sectors. Mobility type Country Status Ref no. Heavy Duty Vehicles New Zealand � Examination of feasibility (MBIE, 2019; Concept Consulting Group, 2021; Perez et al., 2021) � Energy strategy � Assessment of Potential Paris � Development of Vehicles Air Liquide Will Build the First High-pressure Hydrogen Refueling Station for Long-haul Trucks, (2021) � Fuel Station Light weight vehicles Germany � Development (Galich and Marz, 2012; Topler and Lordache, 2017; Trencher and � Commercialization Edianto, 2021) Japan � Development of cars by 2030 Low et al. (2020) South Korea � Development Low et al. (2020) � Commercialization US � Development Low et al. (2020) � Commercialization Railway transportation India � Development Jhunjhunwala et al. (2018) � Research Northern � Commercialized (Germany) World’s First Hydrogen Train Runs Route in Germany, (2021) Germany India � Developmental (India) [137] � Commercialization Process Shipping industries United Kingdom � Developmental stage (Sattler, 2000; IMO, 2012a; IMO, 2012b) Norway � Risk & Safety aspects Analysis (Tronstad et al., 2017; Leo et al., 2010; de-Troya et al., 2016; van Biert et al., 2016) Aviation and Space United states � Developmental Progress (Dawson, 2004; Committee on Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs, 2006; Dale Reed and Lister, 2011) Japan � Progress, Testing and Safety Negoro, (2007) Assessment India � Developmental Progress (Lele, 2006; Rao et al., 2019b) Europe � Testing Tan, (2013) China � Testing Wang et al. (2013) Russia � Testing Sergienko, (1993) Unmanned Cars, Unmanned Arial Turkey � Developmental Progress (Sergienko, 1993; Tan, 2013; Wang et al., 2013) vehicles Italy � Progress, Testing and Safety (Giacoppo et al., 2017; Bayrak et al., 2020) Assessment China � Developmental Progress Chang et al. (2019) 3) Fuel-cell and other hydrogen-based technologies must be less minimize reliance/dependency on fossil fuels and reduce carbon expensive while having a longer useful life. emissions from the transportation industry in the long run. In this context, the future market of hydrogen transportation 4.3 Techno Economic Aspects and distribution are determined mainly by four factors (Edwards The cost and performance competitiveness of fuel cell electric vehicles et al., 2008; Olabi et al., 2021): (a) Cost of hydrogen in future, (b) (FCEV) in the car industry will determine their future. FCEV the rate of advancement of various hydrogen-based technologies, adoption in the present transportation industry is still modest. (c) restriction in GHG emission, and (d) the cost of competing for Many governments have yet to take a firm stance on hydrogen alternative transportation systems. Hydrogen has the potential to for transportation. In this regard, comprehensive energy plans for the be a long-term option for sustainable mobility with several social, road transportation sector are required. The use of energy systems economic, and environmental benefits (Forsberg, 2005). It can modelling (ESM) to support energy planning is frequently advised in Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 13 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility TABLE 5 | Commercially available FCEVs. Model Manufacturer Appearance Type Range Top FC (type) Interval Leased/ Ref no. (km) speed (Year) Marked in (km/h) Gumpert Gumpert FC and 820 300 Direct 2021 Germany, Rolandgumpert, (2021) Nathalie Aiways Battery Methanol China Automobile hybridization Fuel Cell (RG) (DMFC) Hyundai Hyundai FC, Battery 600 179 PEMFC 2018- South Korea, Hyundai, (2021) Nexo and UC Present California, and hybridization Europe Toyota Toyota FC and 502 160 PEMFC 2015- Japan, Energy.Gov, (2021) Mirai Battery Present California, hybridization Europe, Québec and United Arab Emirates Honda Honda FC and 590 178 PEMFC 2016–2021 Japan, Automobiles.Honda, Clarity Battery Southern (2021) hybridization California, Europe Hyundai Hyundai FC and 594 160 PEMFC 2014–2018 South Korea, Environment ix35 FCEV Battery California, Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell, hybridization Europe and (2021) Vancouver Mercedes- Daimler AG FC and 402 132 PEMFC 2010–14 southern Mercedes-Benz, Benz Battery California (2021) F-Cell (B hybridization class) Honda Honda FC and 560 160 PEMFC 2008–2015 United States, Matsunaga et al. (2009) FCX Clarity Battery Europe and hybridization Japan Chevrolet General FC and 320 141 PEMFC 2007–2009 California and Eberle et al. (2016) Equinox Motors Battery New York FC hybridization (Continued on following page) Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 14 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility TABLE 5 | (Continued) Commercially available FCEVs. Model Manufacturer Appearance Type Range Top FC (type) Interval Leased/ Ref no. (km) speed (Year) Marked in (km/h) Mercedes- Daimler AG Full FCEV 160–180 132 PEMFC 2005–2007 United States, Mercedes-Benz-Cars, Benz Europe, (2021) F-Cell Singapore and (A-Class Japan based) Nissan Nissan FC, Battery 500 150 PEFC 2003–2013 Japan and Nissan-Global, (2021) X-Trail and UC California FCV (2005 hybridization Model) 2003 FC and 350 145 PEFC Model Battery hybridization Ford Ford FC and 320 129 PEMFC 2003–2006 California, Hydrogencarsnow, Focus FCV Battery Florida and (2021) hybridization Canada Honda Honda FC and UC 315 140 PEMFC 2002–2007 America, Global.Honda, (2021) FCX-V4 hybridization Japan this context, since it provides a scientific basis for the prospective of the hydrogen production mix that might meet the hydrogen evaluation of energy systems based on technical and economic factors demand for road transport under various scenarios for FCEV across time (Bhattacharyya and Timilsina, 2010). Furthermore, by penetration in Spain has been addressed (Navas-Anguita et al., using life-cycle sustainability variables in the future evaluation, ESM 2020). Due to the reasonable costs of natural gas and the maturity studies might be improved (García-Gusano et al., 2016). A variety of of the technology, the hydrogen demand associated with the eventual pathways and important conversion technologies for biomass and penetration of FCEV in the Spanish road transport system may be organic solid waste to hydrogen have been investigated (Aziz, 2021). totally met by conventional steam reforming of natural gas. The The potential for a techno-economic and environmental assessment worldwide view on hydrogen energy systems, on the other hand, TABLE 6 | Technical specifications of FCEVs which are presently dominating the market. Model Type Range (km) Electric motor Tank capacity Fuel consumption (kW) (kg) (H ) Kg/100 km Toyota MIRAI II Fuel cell vehicle 650 135 5.6 0.76 Hyundai NEXO Fuel cell vehicle-5th generation 756 120 6.33 0.84 Mercedes-Benz GLC F-CELL Electric vehicle with fuel cell and li-ion battery 478 141.557 (Li-ion battery 13.8 kWh) 4.4 0.97 Honda Clarity Fuel Cell Fuel cell vehicle 589 130 5 Hyundai ix35 4th generation Fuel cell vehicle 594 100 5.64 1 Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 15 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility refers to a hydrogen economy based on environmentally friendly (Aditiya and Aziz, 2021). Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei solutions. Lin et al. (Lin et al., 2013) used a cost-based consumer Darussalam, the Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, choice model to examine the market adoption and social advantages Japan, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand are among of FCEVs from 2015 to 2050. For the Indian urban driving cycle, the countries assessed. According to the findings, countries Shakdwipee and Banerjee compared fuel cell cars against petrol and with active hydrogen policies and high R&D capacity may lead CNG automobiles (Manish Shakdwipee, 2006). Primary energy the strategy, whilst countries with high primary energy supply consumption (MJ/km), CO emissions (kg CO /km), and cost capacity and an economic edge would aid the group in catering 2 2 (Rs./km) were used as comparison criteria. Fuel cell vehicles, they energy and commercial resources, respectively. The feasibility of discovered, are more energy efficient and environmentally friendlier using hydrogen cars in various modes of transportation, than gasoline automobiles. Fuel cell vehicles consume 43% less energy including personal automobiles, taxis, and shared mobility, and emit 40% less CO than gasoline automobiles. A techno- was investigated (Turon., 2020). Hype is the first hydrogen- economic analysis is conducted to assess the feasibility of powered taxi fleet in the world. The first five cars were deploying Fuel Cell Electric Trucks (FCET) on the Oslo- introduced to the system on 7 December 2015 at COP 21 by Trondheim route in Norway (Diva-Portal, 2022). The output of Société du Taxi Electrique Parisien (“STEP”)(Hype, 2019). The the infrastructure’s techno-economic model, which included various fleet now consists of about 100 cars. Before the end of 2020, 600 configurations and combinations of both hydrogen producing units cars are expected to be in use. The system’s taxis have a range of (HPU) and hydrogen refuelling stations (HRS), was given in the form more than 500 km. As a result, their charging time might be as of a cost curve function based on the FCET’s fleet size. The cheapest long as 5 min (Hype, 2019). In 2016, the first attempts were made set-up was found, consisting of a 350-bar HRS for a type 3 onboard to develop a car-sharing system based on hydrogen-powered tank with hydrogen production connected directly to it. Future cost vehicles. The Linde Group commenced operations at that time by curves for FCETs and infrastructure that indicate development in launching a service under the BeeZero brand in Munich, 2030 were investigated. Chen and Melaina (Chen and Melaina, 2019) Germany. The system has a 50-vehicle fleet. Unfortunately, the established a techno-economic analysis framework to analyse the cost system failed to work in June 2018 after 2 years of operation (Gas and performance of main vehicle technologies (internal combustion, World Portal, 2018). The corporation claims that economic hybrid, plug-in hybrid, battery and fuel cell electric) under various unprofitability was the cause for its demise. Unfortunately, one advancement scenarios for the years 2035 and 2050. Based on a 5- of the issues that car-sharing companies face is this type of issue years or 15-years ownership term, their findings suggest that the (Gas World Portal, 2018). This is because car-sharing is a new prices permilefor FCEVsare 36%or22% more than thoseofregular type of urban transportation that is now being developed among gasoline automobiles in the 2035 scenarios. FCEVs have 15-years today’s communities that are accustomed to owning rather than ownership costs that are equivalent to gasoline automobiles with renting a car (Turoń and Cokorilo, 2018). The introduction of comparable engineering performance in 2050 scenarios. Fuel cell cars hydrogen automobiles in the form of zero-emission buses is have a cheaper driving cost in all of the 2035 and 2050 scenarios when another alternative that allows the vehicle to reach the biggest compared to electric vehicles with a 200-mile range. To encourage the number of people. A bus that uses electric energy generated by use of hydrogen as a passenger car fuel, the cost of an FCV must be hydrogen in fuel cells or merely the engine whose cycle does not reduced to at least the same level as that of an electric vehicle. result in the production of greenhouse gases or other substances covered by the greenhouse gas emission management system (Polish Electromobility Act, 2018). An operator operating in 4.4 Selected Implemented Projects, Policies Cologne or Wuppertal, Germany, is an example of how this and Challenges type of bus may be implemented. Furthermore, this mode of Throughout the world many demonstration projects are transportation was so well received that a tender for the supply of implemented on hydrogen mobility. Some important a fleet of 40 cars was signed. Despite numerous dubious appraisals implemented projects are discussed here. Han (2014) and public worries, primarily due to ignorance, hydrogen- investigated the hydrogen fuel cell car demonstration projects powered cars appear to have a chance to becoming a viable in China, as well as their marketing methods. Their research alternative to conventional automobiles. The current condition of indicated that hydrogen fuel cells are the most promising such vehicle use in various nations reflects a growing interest in technology for reducing urban air pollution, saving energy, green transportation technology and the hunt for diverse achieving sustainable mobility, and promoting technical solutions that can assist transportation’s long-term growth. change in the automobile sector. The Chinese government has Many nations have strong hydrogen support policies, and adopted an ambitious strategy and is providing significant hydrogen energy will become an essential element of the future financial assistance for the development of hydrogen and global energy plan. Japan, the European Union, the United States, related technologies. Aditiya and Aziz examined the possibility and South Korea all responded enthusiastically and pushed of establishing an inter-state hydrogen energy system on selected aggressively, with national policy support focusing on countries in the Asia-Pacific region, based on individual hydrogen energy fuel cell cars. Foreign subsidy programmes evaluations from the nexus of technology, social, and primarily targeted the consumption connection and were paid economic perspectives, and utilising the respective strengths to in the form of a purchase tax credit or a purchase subsidy. The identify an inter-state hydrogen network strategy in the Asia- United States is the first country to use hydrogen and fuel cells as Pacific region, dubbed the “Asia-Pacific Hydrogen Valley” an energy source. It first proposed the notion of “hydrogen Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 16 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility economy” in 1970, and in 1990, it passed the Hydrogen Research, world. Even though some governments are willing to invest in the Development, and Demonstration Act. The National Roadmap building of hydrogen charging stations, demand remains low, and for Hydrogen Energy Development was announced by the US these terminals do not now make enough profit. Hydrogen Department of Energy in November 2002, kicking off the produced from renewable sources is highly costly and methodical execution of the National Hydrogen Energy Plan inefficient when compared to hydrogen produced from natural (Wang et al., 2015). The United States of America designated gas. Furthermore, hydrogen is still exceedingly explosive. It must October 8 as National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Day of be kept and transported in big containers under pressure. This Remembrance in 2018. The total number of fuel-cell cars sold creates security, logistical, and financial issues that continue to and leased in the United States as of 1 April 2020 was 8,285. Japan obstruct its usage (Solarimpulse, 2022). According to hydrogen has implemented a variety of beneficial regulations aimed at features and behaviour, hydrogen monitoring needs, including speeding up the commercialization of hydrogen energy and fuel international partnerships and formal agreements, legislation, cells, with encouraging outcomes. Japan was the first country in codes, and standards, Foorginezhad et al. (Foorginezhad, 2021) the world to establish a comprehensive government strategy for investigated the safety difficulties with hydrogen fuel cell cars. the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technology, and the The detection performance of hydrogen sensor types relevant to Basic Hydrogen Energy Strategy 2017 recommended that the fuel cell cars, such as catalytic hydrogen, electrochemical, semi- government prepare for hydrogen and fuel cell development. conductive metal-oxide, thermal conductivity, optical, palladium Japan aims to build 320 hydrogen refuelling stations in 2025 and (alloy) film-based, and combination technology-based sensors, is 900 in 2030, according to the Basic Hydrogen Energy Strategy also reviewed. Finally, future options for sensing and monitoring issued in late 2017 (Wei and Chen, 2020). The Japanese technologies, as well as obstacles ahead in the use of hydrogen fuel government has spent hundreds of billions of yen on cells in automobiles as a replacement for traditional equivalents, development and promotion of hydrogen and fuel cell are presented. technologies during the last 30 years. The EU sees hydrogen energy as a critical component of energy security and transformation. The EU Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Action 5 CONCLUSION Plan (FCH JU) initiative offers major funding for the development and promotion of national energy and fuel cells To reduce climate change and the adverse effect of pollutants across Europe. For the years 2014–2020, the entire budget was from conventional fuel vehicles, sustainable transportation €665 million (European Commission, 2020). In Europe, there development and commercialization have evolved rapidly in the last few years. The purpose of this study is to draw were 152 hydrogen refuelling stations in service by the end of 2018, with expectations to increase to 770 in 2025 and 1,500 in attention towards the sustainable mobility and implementation 2030, with roughly 1,080 fuel cell passenger cars being deployed. of sustainable development since there is substantial potential for Since 2014, China has enacted a number of policies and measures establishing convergence between climate change mitigation reflecting the country’s commitment to the growth of the efforts and sustainable development goals in the transportation hydrogen and fuel cell industries, as well as the obvious trend sector. Focusing on the rise in environmental concerns like of Chinese policies supporting the hydrogen industry’s greenhouse gas emissions and environmental sustainability, development. According to the Ministry of Industry and hydrogen energy-based technology is considered the potential Information Technology’s (MIIT) 2018 fuel cell vehicle for future transportation. Technical aspects presenting hydrogen subsidy criteria, the state provides up to 200,000, 300,000, and generation and storage methods reveal that hydrogen is the only 500,000 yuan in subsidies for fuel cell passenger cars, medium future fuel satisfying the criteria for sustainable mobility and designing hydrogen-based vehicles. commercial vehicles, and large commercial vehicles, respectively (Liu and Zhong, 2019). As a first step toward the National The review also presents exciting insights into hydrogen-based vehicles in the marine, railways and aerospace industry and Hydrogen Mission, the Indian government announced the first phase of its Green Hydrogen Policy in 2021. The mission’s goal is concludes that hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles should be to turn India into a green hydrogen centre that will assist the commercialized worldwide. The review findings would also country reach its climate goals. It aims to produce five million guide academia about various technical features of fuel cell metric tonnes per annum (MMTPA) of green hydrogen by 2030, electric vehicles, and they would benefit from recommending as well as build renewable energy capacity in the process (Power- more advanced technologies for the coming future. However, the Technology, 2022). transportation and distribution of hydrogen is another significant Successful implementation of Hydrogen policy required challenge, and this is a crucial consideration while transitioning extensive R&D to overcome the technical challenges to to a hydrogen economy. Investigation into hydrogen fuel vehicles expedite the acceptance of hydrogen as future of sustainable and their utilization in different mobility sectors have been mobility. The majority of hydrogen is now generated in a rigorously reviewed. Undeveloped hydrogen technologies have a high implementation cost for proper commercialization, traditional manner, coming from the burning of fossil fuels, which emits a significant quantity of CO2. As a result, the discouraging vehicle manufacturers from adopting the primary difficulty is to create hydrogen utilising sustainable technology. energy sources. This is a major step forward in the direction Nevertheless, a potentially significant advantage in terms of of green hydrogen. Only a few recharge stations exist across the zero-emission to climate has attracted the researchers for its Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 17 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility early development and progress to enhance more widespread. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS Different nations’ governments must coordinate their energy requirements for the future to increase the use of hydrogen as a Writing—Original draft, conceptualization, analysis, transportation fuel. Policy and regulatory measures and visualization and data curation, SC; writing—original draft, increased worldwide funding for research and visualization, investigation, methodology, SD; resources, commercialization initiatives would undoubtedly pave the supervision and data curation, RE; Writing—original draft, visualization, validation and investigation, AK; way for taking the first steps toward a hydrogen economy, which guarantees energy security. Hydrogen holds much Writing—Original draft, visualization, review and editing, DE; promise in the transportation industry if the appropriate review and editing, SM; data curation, PK; review and editing, ZS. steps and procedures are taken to make it safe, dependable, All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the and robust. manuscript. Hydrogen Catalyzed by Ag Nanocrystals. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 35 (13), REFERENCES 7177–7182. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2009.12.142 Bicer, Y., and Dincer, I. (2017). Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen, Abdalla, A. M., Hossain, S., Nisfindy, O. B., Azad, A. T., Dawood, M., and Azad, A. Methanol and Electric Vehicles from Well to Wheel. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 42 K. (2018). Hydrogen Production, Storage, Transportation and Key Challenges (6), 3767–3777. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.07.252 with Applications: A Review. Energy Convers. Manag. 165, 602–627. doi:10. Bicer, Y., and Khalid, F. (2020). 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REVIEW published: 31 May 2022 doi: 10.3389/fenrg.2022.893475 Hydrogen Energy as Future of Sustainable Mobility 1 1 2 Suprava Chakraborty *, Santanu Kumar Dash , Rajvikram Madurai Elavarasan *, 3,4 1 5 6 Arshdeep Kaur , Devaraj Elangovan *, Sheikh Tanzim Meraj , Padmanathan Kasinathan 7,8 and Zafar Said 1 2 TIFAC-CORE, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Thiagarajar 3 4 College of Engineering, Madurai, India, CPS Technologies, Brisbane, QLD, Australia, Steering Committee (Hydrogen Society of Australia), Perth, WA, Australia, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Malaysia, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Agni College of Technology, Chennai, India, 7 8 Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering Department, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, Research Institute for Sciences and Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates Conventional fuels for vehicular applications generate hazardous pollutants which have an adverse effect on the environment. Therefore, there is a high demand to shift towards environment-friendly vehicles for the present mobility sector. This paper highlights Edited by: sustainable mobility and specifically sustainable transportation as a solution to reduce Subrata Hait, GHG emissions. Thus, hydrogen fuel-based vehicular technologies have started blooming Indian Institute of Technology Patna, India and have gained significance following the zero-emission policy, focusing on various types Reviewed by: of sustainable motilities and their limitations. Serving an incredible deliverance of energy by Muhammad Aziz, hydrogen fuel combustion engines, hydrogen can revolution various transportation The University of Tokyo, Japan sectors. In this study, the aspects of hydrogen as a fuel for sustainable mobility Sushant Kumar, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, sectors have been investigated. In order to reduce the GHG (Green House Gas) India emission from fossil fuel vehicles, researchers have paid their focus for research and *Correspondence: development on hydrogen fuel vehicles and proton exchange fuel cells. Also, its Suprava Chakraborty suprava@ee.ism.ac.in development and progress in all mobility sectors in various countries have been Rajvikram Madurai Elavarasan scrutinized to measure the feasibility of sustainable mobility as a future. This, paper is rajvikram787@gmail.com an inclusive review of hydrogen-based mobility in various sectors of transportation, in Devaraj Elangovan elangovan.devaraj@vit.ac.in particular fuel cell cars, that provides information on various technologies adapted with time to add more towards perfection. When compared to electric vehicles with a 200-mile Specialty section: range, fuel cell cars have a lower driving cost in all of the 2035 and 2050 scenarios. To This article was submitted to Sustainable Energy Systems and stimulate the use of hydrogen as a passenger automobile fuel, the cost of a hydrogen fuel Policies, cell vehicle (FCV) must be brought down to at least the same level as an electric vehicle. a section of the journal Compared to gasoline cars, fuel cell vehicles use 43% less energy and generate 40% Frontiers in Energy Research less CO . Received: 10 March 2022 Accepted: 19 April 2022 Keywords: climate change, sustainable mobility, hydrogen mobility, hydrogen fuel, GHG Published: 31 May 2022 Citation: Chakraborty S, Dash SK, 1 INTRODUCTION Elavarasan RM, Kaur A, Elangovan D, Meraj ST, Kasinathan P and Said Z Sustainable mobility is described as a transportation system that is ubiquitous, effective, clean, and (2022) Hydrogen Energy as Future of ecologically beneficial. Whilst transportation is not having its own sustainable development goals Sustainable Mobility. (SDGs), it is critical for accomplishing other SDGs in order to reach desired growth and Front. Energy Res. 10:893475. doi: 10.3389/fenrg.2022.893475 development. Top-scoring countries for the SDGs have more robust and long-term mobility Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 1 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility policies in place, whilst countries with the lowest scores are chastised for having inadequate transportation infrastructure (Sum4all.org, 2021). Figure 1 depicts the SDGs that are directly or indirectly met by sustainable transportation. The origin of “sustainable mobility” is from the broader definition of “Sustainable development”. “Sustainable development” is “development that meets current needs without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). The infographic (Figure 2) depicts the broad benefits of sustainable mobility (Ransformative-Mobility, 2021), which include energy security, economic development, environmental sustainability, and social wellbeing. The literature has a number of researches on sustainable mobility. The scope of technology in fostering a change in behaviour toward sustainable transportation has been investigated (Klecha and Gianni, 2018; Chng, 2021). Gonzales Green port strategies for reducing negative externalities in the countryside has been investigated (Gonzalez Aregall et al., 2018). Table 1 lists the results of several studies on sustainable mobility. FIGURE 1 | Targeted SDGs addressed by sustainable mobility. 1.1 Hydrogen: The Most Reliable Form of Energy and infrastructure have a direct impact on the societal The global need for energy has risen intensely with the growth of acceptability of hydrogen-powered private road cars in the the world’s population. This is because energy is required for all transportation sector. Most of the hypotheses, such as activities. The great majority of energy is imitative from fossil environmental awareness, limited refuelling infrastructure, fuels, which are non-renewable resources that take longer to and media backing for this sector, were supported by the recharge or reoccurrence to their previous capacity. Energy findings (Apostolou and Welcher, 2021). To explore the imitative from fossil fuels is less costly; however, it has effects of alternative cars on the environment and human shortcomings when compared to renewable energy sources health, a life cycle evaluation of methanol, hydrogen, and (Rohith et al., 2016). electric vehicles is done. The findings of this study Hydrogen is an emerging and almost established fuel source demonstrate that owing to the manufacturing and forcars(Apostolou and Xydis, 2019; Staffell et al., 2019; Falcone maintenance phases, electric cars have higher human toxicity et al., 2021). The present state of the art and future possibilities ratings. Because hydrogen has a higher energy density than of the burgeoning hydrogen-based market in road methanol, hydrogen-powered cars are a more environmental transportation, as well as an examination of existing sustainable alternative in terms of global warming and ozone hydrogen refuelling station technologies, have been explored layer depletion (Bicer and Dincer, 2017). The Covid-19 (Apostolou and Xydis, 2019). The hydrogen economy offers a coronavirus has made it more important than ever for people multi-sectoral view of low-cost clean energy and thorough to breathe cleaner air, drink cleaner water, eat cleaner food, and decarbonization in process sectors. The ability to store use cleaner energy. We were in a carbon age with hydrocarbon hydrogen or derivatives is a game changer for the integration fuels until the coronavirus outbreak juncture in 2020, and now of high renewable energy source shares, resulting in beneficial we must continue to change the driver to hydrogen, which is the effects on various SDGs through lower GHG and air pollution start of the hydrogen age, in which the use of hydrocarbon fuels emissions (Falcone et al., 2021). Along with biofuels and electric (fossilfuels)willdecreaseexponentially whilethe useof cars, hydrogen is one of three key low-carbon transportation hydrogen energy will increase (Dincer, 2020). The Covid-19 choices (EVs). Hydrogen avoids the negative effects of biofuels has thrown the transition from the carbon (C) age to the on land usage and air pollution, as well as the restricted range emerging hydrogen (H )age into disarray (Apostolou et al., and long recharge periods associated with electric vehicles 2018). (Staffell et al., 2019). Hydrogen automobiles have been As a result, renewable resources, particularly hydrogen energy, shown to have a threefold lower potential for global warming are the most promising choices for meeting energy demands. than other alternative technologies (Bicer and Dincer, 2017; Hydrogen is found mainly in plant materials and is rare in nature. Dincer, 2020; Apostolou and Welcher, 2021). In Denmark, Hydrogen is a non-metallic, nontoxic fuel that can provide more variables that may influence public acceptability of hydrogen- energy per unit of mass than gasoline (Abdalla et al., 2018). powered cars have been explored. To that purpose, four primary However, a substantial study is required to investigate and design hypotheses were proposed, assuming that variables such as technical and environmental knowledge, financial standing, onboard applications in order to use hydrogen as a fuel. Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 2 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility FIGURE 2 | Benefits of sustainable mobility. Hydrogen has lately emerged as a prospective energy carrier, end-use site, generally through small-scale electrolysis or steam and the organic chemical hydride approach offers significant methane reforming (Meraj et al., 2020). advantages in terms of transportability and handling (Morel et al., Hydrogen can also be converted to other energy carriers like 2015). The possibilities for combining stochastic power electricity, methane, or liquid fuels, which incurs conversion costs generation with hydrogen production, storage, and and efficiency losses but allows access to existing energy consumption is explained in (Korpas and Gjengedal, 2006). distribution networks without requiring the construction of an extensive hydrogen distribution infrastructure. The relative cost of regional basic resources for hydrogen generation and policies is 1.2 Hydrogen as a Fuel in the Transportation vital in determining the ideal hydrogen supply pathway. Sector Transportation of hydrogen can be done using. “Centralized” production, where hydrogen is produced on a large scale and supplied to customers via truck or pipeline. “On-site” or 1) Pipelines (Weinmann, 1999). 2) Mobile by trucks, trains, vessels (Domashenko, 2002). “distributed” production, is where hydrogen is produced at the TABLE 1 | Investigating research on sustainable mobility. Cited reference Year of publication Investigated on Ren et al. (2019) 2020 Green and sustainable logistics Kumar and Alok, (2020) 2020 Prospects for sustainability López et al. (2019) 2019 The impact of technological advances in bus transportation on environmental and social sustainability Tirachini, (2020) 2019 Travel behaviour and sustainable mobility Holden et al. (2019) 2019 Aspects of sustainable mobility in 2030 Martínez-Díaz et al. (2019) 2019 Future of autonomous driving Letnik et al. (2018) 2018 Sustainable and energy-efficient urban transportation policies and initiatives Ranieri et al. (2018) 2018 Logistics innovations in cost reduction vision Taiebat et al. (2018) 2018 Automated vehicles’ energy, environmental, and sustainability consequences (Ferrero et al., 2018; Santos, 2018) 2018 Shared mobility Biresselioglu et al. (2018) 2018 Electric mobility Pojani and Stead, (2018) 2018 Policy design for sustainable urban transport Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 3 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility The use of hydrogen in onboard vehicles has hurdles owing to subsections discuss the environmental and technical aspects of the high weight, volume, and cost of hydrogen. Furthermore, as hydrogen in the mobility sector and its scope. the refuelling process continues, the life cycle of hydrides Transportation is the second-largest source of pollution in shortens, reducing the vehicles’ efficiency. Another terms of GHG emissions, posing a serious threat to human health disadvantage is the lack of adequate hydrogen storage system (Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area-Towards a standards and protocols. The infrastructure to distribute competitive and resource efficient transport system, 2021). The hydrogen to the user requires entirely new infrastructure; the transportation sector accounts for 23% of total CO emissions. production and delivery systems must be integrated to reduce the According to the report, the transportation sector would continue cost of hydrogen delivery and distribution costs. At the moment, to rely on petroleum-based services for 90% of its fleet, with hydrogen transportation, storage, and delivery to the site of renewable energy sources accounting for only 10%. By 2050, consumption are all related with inefficient energy use. Despite carbon emissions from the transportation industry are predicted having some notable disadvantages, hydrogen is heavily used in to be 33% more than they were in 1990 (Le Quéré et al., 2020). several industries such as the transportation industry, power generation industry, and building industry instead of 2.1 Climatic Change and Greenhouse Gas conventional fossil fuels (Reddy et al., 2020). This paper aims to present the future of hydrogen energy as a Emissions solution to sustainable mobility. Existing literatures are mainly Climate change is the central point of focus in the present era due focusing on utilization of hydrogen for a particular sector of to the advancement of technologies in various sectors, including transportation; the overall transportation sector is not addressed. the transportation industries. The combustion of biofuels for In detail analysis of techno-economic-environmental aspects of transportation has captured the mobility sector for the last two Hydrogen as sustainable mobility solution is missing in recent centuries. Traditional combustion fuels by vehicles lead to the literature. The goal of this research is to evaluate the potential of generation of pollutants and GHGs to the environment, which hydrogen energy as a solution for sustainable transportation and has various adverse effects (Engel, 2012; Zhongfu et al., 2015). to analyse its environmental and social consequences. This review Hydrogen is a carrier, like electricity, rather than an energy aims to introduce the preparation processes, storage method, and source, and the notion of “hydricity,” or the inherent critical technical issues of its application in vehicles and related interchangeability of electricity and hydrogen, has been mobility sectors in a systematic manner, providing exciting established (Engel, 2012). Anthropogenic GHG emissions are insights into hydrogen-based energy, the potential large-scale directly linked to the global warming trend. Climate change deployment process on a global scale including techno-economic caused by GHG emissions is one of the most serious aspects, selected implemented projects, policies and challenges. environmental issues confronting modern society (Ding et al., The paper helps the policymakers and industries decide on 2018). In order to stabilize the climate, it is the need of the time to choosing hydrogen as the future of sustainable mobility. reduce the emissions significantly (Liu et al., 2019). CO is the This paper is structured as follows. Section 2 provides an in- major GHG contributor with a value of 76%, methane, while depth review of hydrogen as a fuel for transportation in many Nitrous Oxide and fluorinated gases together contributes the rest sectors and its environmental and technical elements. Section 3 24% (Global-Greenhouse-Gas-Emissions-Data, 2021). As deals with the generation and storage of hydrogen energy. Section illustrated in Figure 3, the global CO concentration is 4 concludes the in-depth analysis to suggest the scope of growing rapidly. hydrogen to be adopted as the future of sustainable mobility. The concentration of CO in the atmosphere is currently at 414.00 ppm, the highest in the previous 800 k years, and it is closely connected to global temperature. The world has committed to keeping global warming below 2 C, and this goal 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS can be met with a minimal carbon budget. According to Considering the fact of depletion of energy resources and the rise researchers, mankind can only emit 565 Gt of CO more and in global warming, challenges are encountered with the still meet the 2 C target—a limit that would be exhausted in combustion of energy due to the transportation sector in the 15 years if emissions continue at their current rate of 36.6 Gt CO present time. Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are caused by per year (Liu et al., 2019). It is also predicted that seven million the dominant conventional road transportations, which have people die each year as a result of illnesses caused by air pollution existed for more than a century and has reached its upper (Global-Energy-Related-Co2-Emissions, 2021). saturation level. As per the International Energy Agency During COVID-19, there is a temporary decline in daily global regulations, global carbon dioxide emissions must be decreased CO emissions due to forced confinement. By early April 2020, to limit the consequences of climate change (Zhao et al., 2020). To daily global CO emissions had decreased by 17% compared to enhance the technology that has zero pollutant discharge and the mean levels in 2019, with surface traffic accounting for half of zero climate change effect, hydrogen Fuel cell-based vehicles the decline (Saleem et al., 2021). However, in the post-COVID-19 production is being promoted by automotive industries. The scenario, things will be different. As a result, adopting a government of various countries like the United States, Japan sustainable transportation strategy is critical. and South Korea have encouraged the production of Hydrogen Although GHGs are released by a variety of sources, those vehicles since 2018 (Meng et al., 2021). The upcoming produced by automobiles can be reduced by employing Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 4 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility developed by the commission of the Flemish government (Sergeant. et al., 2009). This measurement is based upon the GHGs emissions, regulation of air quality and sound pollution. Apart from the three major aspects, two indirect aspects, including human lifecycle and ecosystem maintenance, are also included in the Ecoscore measurement scale (Van Mierlo et al., 2004). Environmental aspects of hydrogen vehicles are presented in Figure 4. FIGURE 3 | Concentration of CO in atmosphere in ppm (Climate- 3 TECHNICAL ASPECTS Change-Atmospheric-Carbon-Dioxide, 2021; Health-Topics, 2021) The study about hydrogen fuel vehicles has major issues related to alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) or green vehicles. Advanced high-pressure hydrogen storage. To tackle the problem of alternative fuel technologies have the potential to halve hydrogen storage, researchers have proposed the onboard gasoline use while also cutting CO emissions and their hydrogen generation engines (Frenette and Forthoffer, 2009; associated environmental consequences. Although fuel-efficient Shusheng et al., 2020). The fuel cell electric vehicle is an onboard hydrogen-generation type in the design scheme that technologies help vehicles perform better in terms of environmental performance, they cannot assist cut overall provides rapid hydrogen supply. Moreover, a self-heating emissions. This is ought to the fact that technology cannot reforming technology combining methanol vapour reforming change consumer habits on its own. So, framing a strategy and partial oxidation reforming being utilized (Özcan and that encourages consumers to choose energy-efficient vehicles Garip, 2020). The car is powered by a hybrid system that over traditional one is critical, as is ensuring the use of AFVs that includes a lithium battery and a hydrogen fuel cell. The complies with environmental pollution-reduction measures like aforesaid approach is different from hydrogen storage fuel cell carpooling and using low-CO -emitting vehicles, public vehicles. It eliminates the hydrogenation process and the high- transportation, or bicycles to save fuel (Oliveira and Dias, pressure hydrogen storage device, and drives the motor with the 2020; García-Melero et al., 2021; Apostolou and Xydis, 2019). fuel cell as the primary power source, while the lithium battery as a backup. Based on the structure of the fuel cell electric vehicle designed in the literature (Li et al., 2016; Shusheng et al., 2020), 2.2 Hydrogen as a Zero-Emission Source Hydrogen energy follows a zero-emission policy towards the the vehicle’s critical components, such as a hydrogen production environment, making it a fundamental attraction for system, electric drive system, auxiliary power supply, and researchers and industries to study and develop hydrogen management system, were evaluated, and their management transport technologies. Additionally, hydrogen has become a and control techniques were described. truly sustainable energy resource because of the zero climate change effect, as hydrogen is a highly efficient, reliable, and 3.1 Production of Hydrogen soundless source of power. Hydrogen may be produced using both renewable and fossil fuel The evaluation of hydrogen fuel transportation cannot be technologies. Steam reforming, partial oxidation, auto thermal alone evaluated based upon the tailpipe gas emissions. The oxidation, and gasification are all methods for producing environmental aspects can be accounted for based on the hydrogen from fossil fuels. By gasifying biomass/biofuels and vehicle’s wheel to tank evaluation (Concawe and JRC, 2007; Yang and Ogden, 2007; Bethoux, 2020). Natural hydrogen may become a viable economic option, making fuel cell vehicles a viable and ecologically acceptable alternative to battery electric vehicles (Bethoux, 2020). The European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, EUCAR, and CONCAWE have assessed the tank-to-wheels (TTW) energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions for a variety of future fuel and powertrain alternatives (Concawe and JRC, 2007). Moving our transportation sector away from petroleum-derived gasoline and diesel fuels and toward hydrogen derived from domestic primary energy resources can have a number of societal benefits, including lower well-to-wheels greenhouse gas emissions, zero point-of-use criteria air pollutant emissions, and less imported petroleum from politically sensitive areas (Yang and Ogden, 2007). Therefore, the accountability of hydrogen vehicles towards environmental effect has been studied and reported FIGURE 4 | Environmental aspect of hydrogen vehicle. through one tool known as Ecoscore. The tool has been Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 5 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility suggested that renewable energy curtailment be used as a source of electricity and multi-stack system electrolyzers be used as large-scale electrolysis equipment, in combination with cryogenic liquid hydrogen transportation or on-site hydrogen production (Luo et al., 2020). To reduce these pollutants affecting the atmosphere, literature has reported various technological modifications for hydrogen generation. Therefore, the utilization of renewable energy resources for hydrogen generation has been reported in recent works of literature (Boretti, 2020; Manna et al., 2021; Rabiee et al., 2021). Green hydrogen is also resultants of electrolyzers produced by renewable energies. It has been also noticed that green FIGURE 5 | Hydrogen production sources (Arat and Sürer, 2017) hydrogen can be also produced from bioenergy such as biomethane and biomass combustion. As the green hydrogen splitting water with solar or wind energy, hydrogen can be generated from various methodologies has net-zero gas emission, synthesized from renewable energy sources (Apostolou, 2020). researchers and industries have more attention towards its The Hydrogen production sources and technologies are shown in production advancement (Manna et al., 2021; Rabiee et al., Figure 5. 2021). Categories of Hydrogen generation is presented in The extraction of hydrogen from coal is the highest among all Figure 6. sources, approximately 21.5 billion tons/year, which need to be Hydrogen production from different sources and emission replaced by renewable resources. from it is tabulated in Table 2. At present, coal is the primary source of hydrogen extraction, 3.1.1 Categorization of Hydrogen Based on the Source but the process emits GHGs. Hydrogen extraction through of Generation photocatalytic water decomposition with solar energy is the By the adaptation of different technology and considered sources, least popular process, with 1.8 billion tons of hydrogen hydrogen production has been categorized into three types annually. Table 2, concludes that the hydrogen production according to the literature and study reports (von Döllen from photocatalytic water decomposition with solar energy is et al., 2021; Noussan et al., 2021). The utilization of major emission-free and the most sustainable path. sources for the production of hydrogen has introduced the color conceptualization. By the application of fossil fuel for the 3.1.2 Water Electrolysis to Generate Hydrogen generation of hydrogen leads to the emission of CO and Water as a feedstock is one of the most environmentally beneficial greenhouse gases. This technology of hydrogen production ways to produce hydrogen as it releases only oxygen as a by- and its utilized source refers to grey hydrogen (Ivanenko, product during processing. Green hydrogen is hydrogen 2020). Blue hydrogen was introduced, while the grey hydrogen produced by the breakdown of water using renewable energy production approach was used to lower the quantity of sources. Electrolysis is currently the most established greenhouse gas emissions in hydrogen production (Mari et al., commercially accessible process for producing hydrogen from 2016; Dickel, 2020). The utilization of fossil fuel, industrial gas, water. Water electrolysis is the process of breaking down water by-product gas, natural gas for hydrogen production for (H O) into its constituent’s hydrogen (H ) and oxygen (O ) using 2 2 2 sustainable mobility as energy resources generally emit electric current (Hydrogen-Production-Through-Electrolysis, pollutants, and greenhouse gases to the environment (Jovan 1927). Positive ions (H+) are drawn to the cathode, whereas and Dolanc, 2020; Luo et al., 2020; Schiro et al., 2020). In a negative ions (OH-) are drawn to the anode by the electric potential. Alkaline water electrolysis (AEL), proton exchange case study of a Slovenian hydro power plant, the possibility for green hydrogen generation was examined. If it is not burdened by membrane (PEM) water electrolysis, solid oxide water different environmental fees, hydrogen can be competitive in the electrolysis (SOE), and alkaline anion exchange membrane transportation sector (Jovan and Dolanc, 2020). Renewable (AEM) water electrolysis are some of the water electrolysis hydrogen generation is a reliable alternative since this energy procedures (Chi and Yu, 2018) as depicted in Figure 7. vector can be quickly created from electricity and injected into Comparative analysis of different water electrolysis processes existing natural gas infrastructure, allowing for storage and to generate hydrogen (Hydrogen-Production-By-Electrolysis- transit (Schiro et al., 2020). The economic analysis of Ann-Cornell, 2017; Hydrogen-Production-Through- hydrogen was applied to hydrogen produced by natural gas, Electrolysis, 2017; Articlelanding, 2020) is tabulated in Table 3. coal, and water electrolysis and conveyed in the form of high- Use of AEM water electrolysis could allow low-cost transition pressure hydrogen gas or cryogenic liquid hydrogen. The cost of metals to replace traditional noble metal electrocatalysts (Pt, Pd, hydrogen produced from natural gas and coal is now cheaper, but Ru, and Ir). AEM electrolysis has garnered special interest due to it is heavily influenced by the cost of hydrogen purification and its high power efficiency, membrane stability, durability, ease of the price of carbon trading. Given the impact of future production handling, and low-cost hydrogen-production method (Vincent technologies, raw material costs, and rising demands for and Bessarabov, 2018), despite being a developing technology. sustainable energy development on hydrogen energy costs, it is Aside from the high energy consumption induced by the rise in Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 6 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility FIGURE 6 | Categories of hydrogen. TABLE 2 | Hydrogen production from different sources and emissions. Hydrogen extraction source Quantity (billion Technical details Emission Ref no. tons/year) Coal 21.5 Homogeneous and high-speed reaction ought to GHG emission (Li et al., 2010; Hui et al., 2017; Wang its special physical and chemical process et al., 2020; Sun et al., 2021) Industrial gas 12.5 Physical and chemical process GHG emission (Vialetto et al., 2019; Ates and Ozcan, with pollutants 2020; Okolie et al., 2021) By product gas 7.07 Physical and chemical process GHG emission (Vialetto et al., 2019; Okolie et al., 2021) Natural gas 4.6 Chemical process Pollutants (Perdikaris et al., 2010; Bicer and Khalid, 2020; Mayrhofer et al., 2021) Electrolyzed water 2.1 Chemical process Pollutants (Mayrhofer et al., 2021; Sun et al., 2021) Photocatalytic water 1.8 Photocatalytic process No GHG emission (Jiang et al., 2013; Yan et al., 2013; Zhang decomposition with solar et al., 2013; Tasleem and Tahir, 2020) energy Biological H production 2.05 Microorganisms and their metabolic mechanisms Pollutants (Bi et al., 2010; Cormos, 2012; Cao et al., 2020) electrolysis voltage generated by the bubbles developed during pressure tanks (350.00–700.00 bar tank pressure) are primarily the electrolysis process (Hu et al., 2019), high energy used to store hydrogen as a gas. Cryogenic temperatures are consumption is another barrier of hydrogen synthesis from required to store hydrogen as a liquid (Hydrogen Storage, 2021). water electrolysis. Hydrocarbons can be used in water Sapru (2002) have given an summary on hydrogen storage electrolysis to reduce energy usage. Cheap metals or systems, based on storage tanks integrated with fuel cells. nonmetal composite materials, such as Ni, should be the electrodes’ likely future direction. 3.2 Hydrogen Storage The following arethe majorfuturedirectionstobeinvestigatedin Hydrogen holds excellent potential to be an energy carrier, the water electrolysis process of hydrogen generation: especially for fuel cell applications. With high calorific value, it is also termed as regenerative and environmentally friendly fuel. � In-depth investigation of the reaction process in order to Additionally, it has energy density of 142 ML/kg, which is three improve hydrogen generation efficiency and achieve times of petroleum (47 MJ/kg) (Kaur et al., 2016). This makes conversion by combining chemical and electrical energy; hydrogen as the most efficient fuel to replace petroleum-based � Reduction in energy intake in the electrolysis process of vehicular. Thus, fossil fuel reliability can be reduced to fulfil all the water using renewable energy; global energy demands (Muir and Yao, 2011). Carbon and � In-depth investigation of the reaction process in order to Hydrogen cycle are shown in Figure 8. The combustion improve the efficiency of hydrogen production; process is shown below in blue arrows. The cycle shows how � Improvements in electrode stability and corrosion CO released causes global warming (presented by black arrows). resistance for increased longevity and lower electrode costs; On the other hand, the hydrogen cycle is presented by green � Development of new catalytic electrodes and catalysts to arrows and pointing towards renewable energy sources (Kaur improve reaction efficiency (Gao et al., 2019; Huang et al., et al., 2019). 2019). Hydrogen energy has also been projected as a widespread resolution for a secure energy future to increase energy security Hydrogen power is a promising technique for storing and strengthen developing countries’ economies (Marrero- fluctuating Renewable Energy (RE) to establish a 100% Alfonso et al., 2009). Various technological, significant renewable and sustainable hydrogen economy (Dawood et al., scientific, and economic challenges must be overcome before 2020). Hydrogen can be stored as gas or liquid form. High- hydrogen can be used as a clean fuel source and the transition Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 7 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility FIGURE 7 | Different types of water electrolysis processes to generate hydrogen. TABLE 3 | Comparative analysis of different types of water electrolysis process to generate hydrogen. Technology AEL PEM SOE AEM Electrolyte Aqueous KOH Proton exchange ionomer (e.g., solid-oxide Anion exchange ionomer (e.g., AS-4) + optional dilute (20–40 wt%) Nafion) caustic solution Cathode Ni, Ni–Mo alloys Pt, Pt–Pd Ni-YSZ (yttria-stabilized Ni and Ni alloys zirconia) Anode Ni, Ni–Co alloys RuO , IrO Lanthanum strontium Ni, Fe, Co oxides 2 2 manganate Charge carriers OH-, K+ H+ O2- OH- ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° Operating 100 –150C70 –90 C 700 C –800C50 C –60 C temperature Cell voltage (V) 1.8–2.4 1.8–2.2 1.6–1.8 1.8–2.2 Technology status Mature Commercial Not yet commercial Pilot R&D scale from a carbon-based fossil fuel energy system to a hydrogen- automotive applications have been made and deployed (Shang based economy can be completed (Shashikala, 152012). and Chen, 2006). Additionally, in the transportation sector, hydrogen storage technologies are in consideration and gradually move towards 3.2.1 Hydrogen Storage Methods designing highly efficient systems. For example, specific criteria Hydrogen storage methods can be categorized into three groups, as are looked into, such as thermal stability of the system, shown in Figure 9. Molecular hydrogen can be stored as (1) a gas or a gravimetric and volumetric densities and cost of the operating liquid without any significant physical or chemical bonding to other systems. Many of these sectors are being worked on, and materials; (2) molecular hydrogen can be adsorbed onto or into improvements in hydrogen production and storage for various material and held in place by relatively weak physical van der Waals Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 8 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility FIGURE 10 | (A) Compressed hydrogen gas storage and (B) cryo- compressed hydrogen gas storage (Sakintuna et al., 2007) FIGURE 8 | Carbon and hydrogen cycle (Muir and Yao, 2011) FIGURE 11 | (A) Surface adsorption and (B) Surface absorption (Klanchar et al., 2004) FIGURE 9 | Hydrogen storage technologies (Andersson and Grönkvist, 2019; Lototskyy et al., 2017) 3.2.1.2 Material Based Hydrogen Storage In materials, hydrogen is generally stored as absorption, bonds; (3) atomic hydrogen can be covalently bound (absorbed). The adsorption, and chemical reaction. If hydrogen is stored on spread of hydrogen fueling stations across the transportation the surface, then the phenomenon is called adsorption, and if it network, as well as investment in hydrogen fueling stations, can is stored within the solids, it is called absorption. The main lead to increased profits (El-Taweel et al., 2019). difference is in the density as it increases from adsorption to absorption. Adsorption is further divided into chemisorption 3.2.1.1 Compressed/Physical Hydrogen Storage and physisorption based on their mechanism. Physiosorbed Hydrogen is stored at high pressure and in compressed form and hydrogen is weakly bonded than chemisorbed hydrogen specifically designed hydrogen cylinders reinforced by carbon molecules. Also, it involves highly porous materials with high fibre that can withstand very high pressure. Various concerns surface areas to efficiently uptake and release hydrogen should be handled before using this technology, like high- molecules from the materials, such as metal hydride pressure requirements, low volumetric density, energy required hydrogen storage. to compress hydrogen gas, and cylinder weight and to reduce the However, absorption involves hydrogen atoms attached with overall cost (Sakintuna et al., 2007). strong bonds within the chemicals. Here, hydrogen is stored in Hydrogen can also be stored in cyro-compressed form by large amounts with small quantities of materials also could be cooling hydrogen gas to −253 C; this process increases the released at low temperature and pressure. For example, in volumetric storage capacity of hydrogen gas by 4 times. complex and chemical hydrides, hydrogen is absorbed in the However, this process is highly energy intensive due to energy materials, as shown in Figure 11 (Klanchar et al., 2004). requirements for compressing and liquifying hydrogen gas. There are further limitations, such as liquid hydrogen being very volatile 3.2.1.3 Chemical Hydrogen Storage Pathway and potentially forming an explosive combination with air if When hydrogen is generated and released through the chemical evaporated. Thus, this system should be designed to cover all the reaction, then the storage technology is defined as chemical hydrogen safety concerns (Sakintuna et al., 2007). Figure 10 shows storage. The basic reactions involve the reaction of chemical hydrides hydrogen gas in the form of compressed gas and cryogenic liquid. with water and alcohols. However, this technology suffers lack of The weight, volume, cost, efficiency, codes, and standards are reversible onboard reactions and require spent fuel and by-products the primary problems in hydrogen storage. New materials, to be removed off-board. Here, hydrogen is strongly bonded as particularly polymers, must be developed as barrier materials hydrogen atoms within the molecular structures of the chemical to limit hydrogen leakage in storage tanks with high energy-to- compounds, as presented in Figure 12.Therefore,for hydrogen weight ratios (Macher et al., 2021). generation and storage, a chemical reaction is required. Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 9 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility FIGURE 12 | (A,B): Absorption in complex chemical hydrides (Klanchar et al., 2004). FIGURE 14 | Flow diagram of solid-state hydrogen generation system (Demirci and Miele, 2009). FIGURE 13 | Volumetric hydrogen density of various hydrogen storage methods (Graetz, 2012). As hydrogen is stored in chemical hydrides, these hydrides in the As a clean resource, hydrogen energy might minimise energy form of materials have high gravimetric and volumetric densities. savings and emissions caused by the use of fossil fuels, and it will likely Thus, hydrogen is released in the form of chemical reactions. There play an increasingly important role in the future (Zhang et al., 2019a). are two methods of hydrogen release; the first is hydrolysis, and the In recent decades, the PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell second is thermolysis. The former one requires low temperature and or polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell), which effectively pressure, and the theoretical storage efficiency is very high. The latter transforms the chemical energy inherent in hydrogen into one involves highly sophisticated technologies and energy electricity without producing pollutants, has piqued interest in requirements to break the hydrides by thermal pathways. automotive applications (Ogungbemi et al., 2021). Considering that few common chemical hydrides that release hydrogen by hydrolysis pathway are sodium, lithium, magnesium, 3.3 Proton Exchange Fuel Cells calcium, titanium hydrides, and few of complex hydrides are sodium FCVs (fuel cell vehicles) powered by PEMFC have recently borohydride, lithium aluminium hydride and lithium borohydride reached mass production, such as Toyota’s Mirai, Honda’s (Klanchar et al., 2004). Clarity, and Hyundai’s NEXO. Performance should be Figure 13 presents various hydrides per their volumetric increased at a cheaper cost to improve its commercial uses. storage densities, with AlH3 having the highest value and The European Union and the US alone stand out alone in the pressurized tanks with the lowest values (Graetz, 2012). As majority to consume all petroleum products and energy demands. shown in Figure 14. This has led to the development of alternative energy sources, The catalyst for the reaction is supplied in the form of an with the best ones stated as hydrogen, synthetic fuels and biofuels. aqueous solution of NaBH as a chemical hydride. This solution is These energy sources are investigated for their suitability to run through a separator, which separates the pure hydrogen gas sustain a clean form of energy (Ogungbemi et al., 2021). The from the rest of the mixture. This pure hydrogen gas is then source where hydrogen is produced from renewable energy to pumped into the fuel cell, where it can be used. After the recycling electricity by PEM fuel cells are under investigation. The PEM procedure, the by-products might be returned to the liquid cells are capable of producing sufficient power to sustain reservoir and used again (Demirci and Miele, 2009). commercial and residential usage under varying temperatures. Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 10 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility For example, a PEM fuel cell generator with Na metal and water 4 HYDROGEN BASED MOBILITY chemical reaction generated hydrogen with minimum emissions and noise. This have extended its use to medium and high duty Promotion of hydrogen vehicles as the future transportation vehicular applications. Despite all such uses, PEM fuel cells face platform has been chosen due to its zero-pollutant discharge few disadvantages (Ijaodola et al., 2019) and studies are in characteristic. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle technology has the scope progress based on economics, policy framework and to various categories of mobility sectors. This technology can replace lightweight vehicles, heavy goods vehicles, heavy advancements in electrolysis process to facilitate the use of PEM fuel cells for vehicular and general use. Due to myriads passenger vehicles, trains, and unmanned vehicles. Adopting of advantages like low operating temperature, solid electrolyte the concept of hydrogen fuel for heavy vehicles has attracted and high power density, durability and reliability proton New Zealand and Paris to meet the zero climate change exchange, fuel cells can be used in several areas like on-site commitments. As reported in (MBIE, 2019), the proper hydrogen generation, automotive, and portable electronic examination of feasibility for adopting clean hydrogen for devices as discussed. The parameters of PEM fuel cells are heavy vehicles exceeds 30 tons has been discussed in (Concept based on operating conditions, and to accurately estimate its Consulting Group, 2021; Perez et al., 2021). characteristics; research is also in progress with efficient Apart from the development of hydrogen fuel, heavy and very mathematical modelling. It can disclose more about operating heavy-duty vehicles, public lightweight vehicles, and passenger buses parameters linked with the PEM fuel cells (Rao et al., 2019a; require a shift towards utilization of clean hydrogen (Topler and Lordache, 2017; Air Liquide Will Build the First High-pressure Kandidayeni et al., 2019). Studies are also in progress to study the dynamic loading on the performance of PEMFC (Zhang et al., Hydrogen Refueling Station for Long-haul Trucks, 2021). Air 2019b; Huang et al., 2020). The situation arises when Liquide has announced the opening of Europe’s first high- unreasonable loading conditions increase and could even lead pressure hydrogen filling station, which will support the first fleet to failure (Mayyas et al., 2014) thus, adding to the disadvantages of long-haul hydrogen vehicles (Air Liquide Will Build the First of the fuel cells. This could be explained as when PEM FC is used High-pressure Hydrogen Refueling Station for Long-haul Trucks, as a mechanical power source, it undergoes dynamic loading and 2021). This investment is in line with the Group’s objective of response voltage becomes lower than the steady-state conditions; accelerating hydrogen energy adoption through large-scale subsequently, the voltage increases gradually. This could lead to initiatives, notably in the heavy vehicle category. Vulnerabilities of unfavourable operations of PEM fuel cells, and thus, dynamic Hydrogen Energy in Emerging Markets describes strategies and performance needs to be studied. developments for hydrogen civilization efforts implemented by Proton Exchange fuel cells have wide application in various various stakeholders in different countries and at different stages sectors like power plants, transportation, digital devices etc. of the development cycle, including authorities, institutes, research, However, the short life span due to the degradation and industry, and individuals (Topler and Lordache, 2017). Considering reusability of fuel cells limits its applications in the these facts, Germany has taken the lead in the global market for the commercial sector (Chen et al., 2019). Considering the lifespan commercialization of Hydrogen vehicles, along with the collaborators of fuel cells in mobile applications, it is 3,000 h, but the demand from Japan, Korea and the United States (Galich and Marz, 2012; rises to 5000 h to be used commercially. As per DOE Trencher and Edianto, 2021). Hydrogen and fuelcelltechnologies (United States Department of Energy), the set future goals for have the potential to help create a more environmentally friendly and transportation and stationary applications of PEM fuel cells as emission-free transportation and energy system (Galich and Marz, 5,000 h and 40000 h, respectively, by 2020 with performance 2012). Policymakers and automotive players throughout the world degradation that should be less than 10% (Ren et al., 2020). attempt to expedite the electrification of road transport using The considerable difference between stationary and hydrogen (Trencher and Edianto, 2021). They examined and transportation can be attributed to different designs as fuel contrasted the factors impacting the production and market penetration of privately owned fuel cell electric passenger vehicles cells in vehicles encounters harsh conditions like the open- circuit voltage, dynamic load, startup and shutdown, overload (FCEVs) and fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) in public transportation and freezing thaw. Thus, the decay of fuel cells in vehicular fleets. applications is also thoroughly studied by developing various test protocols. With the performance of fuel cells, cost factors are also 4.1 Hydrogen Vehicles in consideration like The Strategic Analysis Inc. studied the most In the present time, railway is the most economical transportation influencing factors on the cost of FC’s in 2012 and 2017 (Li et al., preferred by the common citizen as well as it is also used for goods 2020). The report (2012) concluded that the fuel cell stack and transportation. The conventional railway depends upon the fossil platinum loading are the most important factors which affect the fuels leads to the emission of GHGs and the generation of sound cost of the fuel cells. Since then, the study has also focused on a pollution. In the line, to meet zero-emission and zero sound railway low Pt-based catalyst that made significant development in Pt-M transportation, InnoTrans in 2016 of Berlin developed the Coradia iLint. This has been commercialized and launched in 2020 to run for alloys, Pt-based core shell, and Pt-based nanostructure. Gradually this development led to Pt-free catalysts like carbon alloy catalysts 100 km between Cuxhaven, Bremerhaven, Bremervoerde and in commercial markets in Japan. Thus, it can be stated that PEM Buxtehude in northern Germany (Low et al., 2020). fuel cells holds the potential to establish a hydrogen economy for Understanding the requirement and need for replacing clean a secure and sustainable future. hydrogen fuel transportation with the second largest railway Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 11 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility (Committee on Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs, 2006; Cecere et al., 2014; van Biert et al., 2016), Japan (Dawson, 2004; Dale Reed and Lister, 2011), Europe (Negoro, 2007), India (Sekigawa and Mecham, 1996; Chopinet et al., 2011), China (Rao et al., 2019b) and Russia (Lele, 2006) have already reported the developmental progress for hydrogen fuel technology adaptation. The advancement of transportation in different segments and requirements has led to the development of unmanned vehicles. The most popular sector under this category is unmanned cars and unmanned Arial vehicles (UAV) (Tan, 2013). For UAV applications, various countries have focused the efficiency to cover longer distances and enhanced performance by replacing conventional fuel with clean hydrogen fuels (Sergienko, 1993; Wang et al., 2013). The development of Hydrogen mobility in different sectors are tabulated in Table 4. It has been studied and reported that utilization of hydrogen FIGURE 15 | Scope of hydrogen fuel in different mobility sectors. fuel cell vehicles has been pointed in the United States and 5,899 hydrogen vehicles developed for commercialization (Bayrak et al., 2020). For the promotion of hydrogen utilized vehicles, network in the world, the Indian Railway has also started developing companies like Toyota Mirai, Honda Clarity, Renault–Nissan, and testing passenger fuel cell train set (Jhunjhunwala et al., 2018). General Motors and Honda have formed alliances for the joint Conventional fuel engines utilized in the shipping industries production (Giacoppo et al., 2017; Dudek et al., 2021). release the air pollutants and GHGs into the environment. In the regulation of these harmful gases, International Maritime 4.2 Fuel Cells Electronic Vehicles Organization (IMO) has passed an article to prevent pollution Vehicle manufacturers began producing hydrogen fuel passenger from the ships under (World’sFirst Hydrogen TrainRunsRoute vehicles in 2002 (Tanç et al., 2018) due to an increase in the in Germany, 2021; Traction: India to trial fuel cell trainset, 2021). number of researchers interested in Fuel Cell Electronic Vehicles Enhanced efficiency of the marine fuel cells for various applications of (FCEVs). They’ve been manufacturing a variety of models up to onboard ships has motivated the researchers to focus on hydrogen now. In addition to passenger automobiles (Lee et al., 2019; Tanç fuel-based marine engines. Electricity generation, emergency power et al., 2020), these manufacturers are known to work with light supply and power propulsion are the major power requirement in an commercial vehicles (Matulić et al., 2019), buses (de Miranda onboard ship, which can be generated through clean hydrogen fuel et al., 2017), and trucks (Lee et al., 2018). Table 5, lists all cells by replacing conventional fuels (Sattler, 2000; IMO, 2012a; IMO, commercially available FCEVs, as well as their manufacturers 2012b). Fuel cells have a lot of potential for usage on ships. Fuel cells and special features. on merchant ships and naval surface ships can be used for a variety of In recent years, the majority of passenger car manufacturers have purposes, including: (1) emergency power generation; (2) electric started developing FCEVs. General Motors, Toyota, and Honda energy generation, particularly in waters and harbours with strict produce their own FC stacks, whereas Ford, Mazda, environmental regulations; (3) small power output for propulsion in DaimlerChrysler, Mazda, Hyundai, Fiat, and Volkswagen purchase special operating modes (e.g., very quiet run); and (4) electric power them from FC manufacturers. It is apparent from the specifications of generation for the ship’s network and, if necessary, the propulsion available FCEVs that battery hybridization is currently favoured. network on ships equipped with fuel cells (e.g., naval vessels as all- Furthermore, automakers such as Honda, Hyundai, and Mercedes electric ships, AES) (Sattler, 2000). The actual requirement, have recently developed plug-in FCEVs. Proton Exchange replacement and advantage of combustion fuel engine by clean Membrane Fuel Cell is the most prevalent FC stack, and its hydrogen fuel cell-based engine have been discussed in detail in efficiency for FCEVs is improving continuously. Detail (Leo et al., 2010; Tronstad et al., 2017). Submarines are now the most specifications of the commercialized presently dominating FCEV common marine use of fuel cells. In this industry, hydrogen/oxygen forsaleorleasing (Wasserstoffautos, 2021) are tabulated in Table 6. polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are often utilized (Leo For a shift from a carbon-based (fossil fuel) energy system to a et al., 2010). The scope of hydrogen fuel in different mobility sectors is hydrogen-based economy, three key technological hurdles depicted in Figure 15. (Chang et al., 2019) must be overcome that are as follows. The target to achieve limited emission fuel to protect the climate, world aviation industries have also focused on clean 1) To compete with other options, the cost of efficient and hydrogen as an efficient candidate for short and long-range sustainable hydrogen generation and transport must be aviation and space transportation (de-Troya et al., 2016). The considerably decreased. research and development in aviation and space sector industries 2) In order to, offer an appropriate driving range, new have reported continuous progress for choosing clean hydrogen generations of hydrogen storage technologies for vehicle fuel. The aviation and space industries of the United States applications must be created. Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 12 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility TABLE 4 | Development of Hydrogen Mobility in different sectors. Mobility type Country Status Ref no. Heavy Duty Vehicles New Zealand � Examination of feasibility (MBIE, 2019; Concept Consulting Group, 2021; Perez et al., 2021) � Energy strategy � Assessment of Potential Paris � Development of Vehicles Air Liquide Will Build the First High-pressure Hydrogen Refueling Station for Long-haul Trucks, (2021) � Fuel Station Light weight vehicles Germany � Development (Galich and Marz, 2012; Topler and Lordache, 2017; Trencher and � Commercialization Edianto, 2021) Japan � Development of cars by 2030 Low et al. (2020) South Korea � Development Low et al. (2020) � Commercialization US � Development Low et al. (2020) � Commercialization Railway transportation India � Development Jhunjhunwala et al. (2018) � Research Northern � Commercialized (Germany) World’s First Hydrogen Train Runs Route in Germany, (2021) Germany India � Developmental (India) [137] � Commercialization Process Shipping industries United Kingdom � Developmental stage (Sattler, 2000; IMO, 2012a; IMO, 2012b) Norway � Risk & Safety aspects Analysis (Tronstad et al., 2017; Leo et al., 2010; de-Troya et al., 2016; van Biert et al., 2016) Aviation and Space United states � Developmental Progress (Dawson, 2004; Committee on Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs, 2006; Dale Reed and Lister, 2011) Japan � Progress, Testing and Safety Negoro, (2007) Assessment India � Developmental Progress (Lele, 2006; Rao et al., 2019b) Europe � Testing Tan, (2013) China � Testing Wang et al. (2013) Russia � Testing Sergienko, (1993) Unmanned Cars, Unmanned Arial Turkey � Developmental Progress (Sergienko, 1993; Tan, 2013; Wang et al., 2013) vehicles Italy � Progress, Testing and Safety (Giacoppo et al., 2017; Bayrak et al., 2020) Assessment China � Developmental Progress Chang et al. (2019) 3) Fuel-cell and other hydrogen-based technologies must be less minimize reliance/dependency on fossil fuels and reduce carbon expensive while having a longer useful life. emissions from the transportation industry in the long run. In this context, the future market of hydrogen transportation 4.3 Techno Economic Aspects and distribution are determined mainly by four factors (Edwards The cost and performance competitiveness of fuel cell electric vehicles et al., 2008; Olabi et al., 2021): (a) Cost of hydrogen in future, (b) (FCEV) in the car industry will determine their future. FCEV the rate of advancement of various hydrogen-based technologies, adoption in the present transportation industry is still modest. (c) restriction in GHG emission, and (d) the cost of competing for Many governments have yet to take a firm stance on hydrogen alternative transportation systems. Hydrogen has the potential to for transportation. In this regard, comprehensive energy plans for the be a long-term option for sustainable mobility with several social, road transportation sector are required. The use of energy systems economic, and environmental benefits (Forsberg, 2005). It can modelling (ESM) to support energy planning is frequently advised in Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 13 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility TABLE 5 | Commercially available FCEVs. Model Manufacturer Appearance Type Range Top FC (type) Interval Leased/ Ref no. (km) speed (Year) Marked in (km/h) Gumpert Gumpert FC and 820 300 Direct 2021 Germany, Rolandgumpert, (2021) Nathalie Aiways Battery Methanol China Automobile hybridization Fuel Cell (RG) (DMFC) Hyundai Hyundai FC, Battery 600 179 PEMFC 2018- South Korea, Hyundai, (2021) Nexo and UC Present California, and hybridization Europe Toyota Toyota FC and 502 160 PEMFC 2015- Japan, Energy.Gov, (2021) Mirai Battery Present California, hybridization Europe, Québec and United Arab Emirates Honda Honda FC and 590 178 PEMFC 2016–2021 Japan, Automobiles.Honda, Clarity Battery Southern (2021) hybridization California, Europe Hyundai Hyundai FC and 594 160 PEMFC 2014–2018 South Korea, Environment ix35 FCEV Battery California, Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell, hybridization Europe and (2021) Vancouver Mercedes- Daimler AG FC and 402 132 PEMFC 2010–14 southern Mercedes-Benz, Benz Battery California (2021) F-Cell (B hybridization class) Honda Honda FC and 560 160 PEMFC 2008–2015 United States, Matsunaga et al. (2009) FCX Clarity Battery Europe and hybridization Japan Chevrolet General FC and 320 141 PEMFC 2007–2009 California and Eberle et al. (2016) Equinox Motors Battery New York FC hybridization (Continued on following page) Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 14 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility TABLE 5 | (Continued) Commercially available FCEVs. Model Manufacturer Appearance Type Range Top FC (type) Interval Leased/ Ref no. (km) speed (Year) Marked in (km/h) Mercedes- Daimler AG Full FCEV 160–180 132 PEMFC 2005–2007 United States, Mercedes-Benz-Cars, Benz Europe, (2021) F-Cell Singapore and (A-Class Japan based) Nissan Nissan FC, Battery 500 150 PEFC 2003–2013 Japan and Nissan-Global, (2021) X-Trail and UC California FCV (2005 hybridization Model) 2003 FC and 350 145 PEFC Model Battery hybridization Ford Ford FC and 320 129 PEMFC 2003–2006 California, Hydrogencarsnow, Focus FCV Battery Florida and (2021) hybridization Canada Honda Honda FC and UC 315 140 PEMFC 2002–2007 America, Global.Honda, (2021) FCX-V4 hybridization Japan this context, since it provides a scientific basis for the prospective of the hydrogen production mix that might meet the hydrogen evaluation of energy systems based on technical and economic factors demand for road transport under various scenarios for FCEV across time (Bhattacharyya and Timilsina, 2010). Furthermore, by penetration in Spain has been addressed (Navas-Anguita et al., using life-cycle sustainability variables in the future evaluation, ESM 2020). Due to the reasonable costs of natural gas and the maturity studies might be improved (García-Gusano et al., 2016). A variety of of the technology, the hydrogen demand associated with the eventual pathways and important conversion technologies for biomass and penetration of FCEV in the Spanish road transport system may be organic solid waste to hydrogen have been investigated (Aziz, 2021). totally met by conventional steam reforming of natural gas. The The potential for a techno-economic and environmental assessment worldwide view on hydrogen energy systems, on the other hand, TABLE 6 | Technical specifications of FCEVs which are presently dominating the market. Model Type Range (km) Electric motor Tank capacity Fuel consumption (kW) (kg) (H ) Kg/100 km Toyota MIRAI II Fuel cell vehicle 650 135 5.6 0.76 Hyundai NEXO Fuel cell vehicle-5th generation 756 120 6.33 0.84 Mercedes-Benz GLC F-CELL Electric vehicle with fuel cell and li-ion battery 478 141.557 (Li-ion battery 13.8 kWh) 4.4 0.97 Honda Clarity Fuel Cell Fuel cell vehicle 589 130 5 Hyundai ix35 4th generation Fuel cell vehicle 594 100 5.64 1 Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 15 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility refers to a hydrogen economy based on environmentally friendly (Aditiya and Aziz, 2021). Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei solutions. Lin et al. (Lin et al., 2013) used a cost-based consumer Darussalam, the Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, choice model to examine the market adoption and social advantages Japan, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand are among of FCEVs from 2015 to 2050. For the Indian urban driving cycle, the countries assessed. According to the findings, countries Shakdwipee and Banerjee compared fuel cell cars against petrol and with active hydrogen policies and high R&D capacity may lead CNG automobiles (Manish Shakdwipee, 2006). Primary energy the strategy, whilst countries with high primary energy supply consumption (MJ/km), CO emissions (kg CO /km), and cost capacity and an economic edge would aid the group in catering 2 2 (Rs./km) were used as comparison criteria. Fuel cell vehicles, they energy and commercial resources, respectively. The feasibility of discovered, are more energy efficient and environmentally friendlier using hydrogen cars in various modes of transportation, than gasoline automobiles. Fuel cell vehicles consume 43% less energy including personal automobiles, taxis, and shared mobility, and emit 40% less CO than gasoline automobiles. A techno- was investigated (Turon., 2020). Hype is the first hydrogen- economic analysis is conducted to assess the feasibility of powered taxi fleet in the world. The first five cars were deploying Fuel Cell Electric Trucks (FCET) on the Oslo- introduced to the system on 7 December 2015 at COP 21 by Trondheim route in Norway (Diva-Portal, 2022). The output of Société du Taxi Electrique Parisien (“STEP”)(Hype, 2019). The the infrastructure’s techno-economic model, which included various fleet now consists of about 100 cars. Before the end of 2020, 600 configurations and combinations of both hydrogen producing units cars are expected to be in use. The system’s taxis have a range of (HPU) and hydrogen refuelling stations (HRS), was given in the form more than 500 km. As a result, their charging time might be as of a cost curve function based on the FCET’s fleet size. The cheapest long as 5 min (Hype, 2019). In 2016, the first attempts were made set-up was found, consisting of a 350-bar HRS for a type 3 onboard to develop a car-sharing system based on hydrogen-powered tank with hydrogen production connected directly to it. Future cost vehicles. The Linde Group commenced operations at that time by curves for FCETs and infrastructure that indicate development in launching a service under the BeeZero brand in Munich, 2030 were investigated. Chen and Melaina (Chen and Melaina, 2019) Germany. The system has a 50-vehicle fleet. Unfortunately, the established a techno-economic analysis framework to analyse the cost system failed to work in June 2018 after 2 years of operation (Gas and performance of main vehicle technologies (internal combustion, World Portal, 2018). The corporation claims that economic hybrid, plug-in hybrid, battery and fuel cell electric) under various unprofitability was the cause for its demise. Unfortunately, one advancement scenarios for the years 2035 and 2050. Based on a 5- of the issues that car-sharing companies face is this type of issue years or 15-years ownership term, their findings suggest that the (Gas World Portal, 2018). This is because car-sharing is a new prices permilefor FCEVsare 36%or22% more than thoseofregular type of urban transportation that is now being developed among gasoline automobiles in the 2035 scenarios. FCEVs have 15-years today’s communities that are accustomed to owning rather than ownership costs that are equivalent to gasoline automobiles with renting a car (Turoń and Cokorilo, 2018). The introduction of comparable engineering performance in 2050 scenarios. Fuel cell cars hydrogen automobiles in the form of zero-emission buses is have a cheaper driving cost in all of the 2035 and 2050 scenarios when another alternative that allows the vehicle to reach the biggest compared to electric vehicles with a 200-mile range. To encourage the number of people. A bus that uses electric energy generated by use of hydrogen as a passenger car fuel, the cost of an FCV must be hydrogen in fuel cells or merely the engine whose cycle does not reduced to at least the same level as that of an electric vehicle. result in the production of greenhouse gases or other substances covered by the greenhouse gas emission management system (Polish Electromobility Act, 2018). An operator operating in 4.4 Selected Implemented Projects, Policies Cologne or Wuppertal, Germany, is an example of how this and Challenges type of bus may be implemented. Furthermore, this mode of Throughout the world many demonstration projects are transportation was so well received that a tender for the supply of implemented on hydrogen mobility. Some important a fleet of 40 cars was signed. Despite numerous dubious appraisals implemented projects are discussed here. Han (2014) and public worries, primarily due to ignorance, hydrogen- investigated the hydrogen fuel cell car demonstration projects powered cars appear to have a chance to becoming a viable in China, as well as their marketing methods. Their research alternative to conventional automobiles. The current condition of indicated that hydrogen fuel cells are the most promising such vehicle use in various nations reflects a growing interest in technology for reducing urban air pollution, saving energy, green transportation technology and the hunt for diverse achieving sustainable mobility, and promoting technical solutions that can assist transportation’s long-term growth. change in the automobile sector. The Chinese government has Many nations have strong hydrogen support policies, and adopted an ambitious strategy and is providing significant hydrogen energy will become an essential element of the future financial assistance for the development of hydrogen and global energy plan. Japan, the European Union, the United States, related technologies. Aditiya and Aziz examined the possibility and South Korea all responded enthusiastically and pushed of establishing an inter-state hydrogen energy system on selected aggressively, with national policy support focusing on countries in the Asia-Pacific region, based on individual hydrogen energy fuel cell cars. Foreign subsidy programmes evaluations from the nexus of technology, social, and primarily targeted the consumption connection and were paid economic perspectives, and utilising the respective strengths to in the form of a purchase tax credit or a purchase subsidy. The identify an inter-state hydrogen network strategy in the Asia- United States is the first country to use hydrogen and fuel cells as Pacific region, dubbed the “Asia-Pacific Hydrogen Valley” an energy source. It first proposed the notion of “hydrogen Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 16 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility economy” in 1970, and in 1990, it passed the Hydrogen Research, world. Even though some governments are willing to invest in the Development, and Demonstration Act. The National Roadmap building of hydrogen charging stations, demand remains low, and for Hydrogen Energy Development was announced by the US these terminals do not now make enough profit. Hydrogen Department of Energy in November 2002, kicking off the produced from renewable sources is highly costly and methodical execution of the National Hydrogen Energy Plan inefficient when compared to hydrogen produced from natural (Wang et al., 2015). The United States of America designated gas. Furthermore, hydrogen is still exceedingly explosive. It must October 8 as National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Day of be kept and transported in big containers under pressure. This Remembrance in 2018. The total number of fuel-cell cars sold creates security, logistical, and financial issues that continue to and leased in the United States as of 1 April 2020 was 8,285. Japan obstruct its usage (Solarimpulse, 2022). According to hydrogen has implemented a variety of beneficial regulations aimed at features and behaviour, hydrogen monitoring needs, including speeding up the commercialization of hydrogen energy and fuel international partnerships and formal agreements, legislation, cells, with encouraging outcomes. Japan was the first country in codes, and standards, Foorginezhad et al. (Foorginezhad, 2021) the world to establish a comprehensive government strategy for investigated the safety difficulties with hydrogen fuel cell cars. the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technology, and the The detection performance of hydrogen sensor types relevant to Basic Hydrogen Energy Strategy 2017 recommended that the fuel cell cars, such as catalytic hydrogen, electrochemical, semi- government prepare for hydrogen and fuel cell development. conductive metal-oxide, thermal conductivity, optical, palladium Japan aims to build 320 hydrogen refuelling stations in 2025 and (alloy) film-based, and combination technology-based sensors, is 900 in 2030, according to the Basic Hydrogen Energy Strategy also reviewed. Finally, future options for sensing and monitoring issued in late 2017 (Wei and Chen, 2020). The Japanese technologies, as well as obstacles ahead in the use of hydrogen fuel government has spent hundreds of billions of yen on cells in automobiles as a replacement for traditional equivalents, development and promotion of hydrogen and fuel cell are presented. technologies during the last 30 years. The EU sees hydrogen energy as a critical component of energy security and transformation. The EU Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Action 5 CONCLUSION Plan (FCH JU) initiative offers major funding for the development and promotion of national energy and fuel cells To reduce climate change and the adverse effect of pollutants across Europe. For the years 2014–2020, the entire budget was from conventional fuel vehicles, sustainable transportation €665 million (European Commission, 2020). In Europe, there development and commercialization have evolved rapidly in the last few years. The purpose of this study is to draw were 152 hydrogen refuelling stations in service by the end of 2018, with expectations to increase to 770 in 2025 and 1,500 in attention towards the sustainable mobility and implementation 2030, with roughly 1,080 fuel cell passenger cars being deployed. of sustainable development since there is substantial potential for Since 2014, China has enacted a number of policies and measures establishing convergence between climate change mitigation reflecting the country’s commitment to the growth of the efforts and sustainable development goals in the transportation hydrogen and fuel cell industries, as well as the obvious trend sector. Focusing on the rise in environmental concerns like of Chinese policies supporting the hydrogen industry’s greenhouse gas emissions and environmental sustainability, development. According to the Ministry of Industry and hydrogen energy-based technology is considered the potential Information Technology’s (MIIT) 2018 fuel cell vehicle for future transportation. Technical aspects presenting hydrogen subsidy criteria, the state provides up to 200,000, 300,000, and generation and storage methods reveal that hydrogen is the only 500,000 yuan in subsidies for fuel cell passenger cars, medium future fuel satisfying the criteria for sustainable mobility and designing hydrogen-based vehicles. commercial vehicles, and large commercial vehicles, respectively (Liu and Zhong, 2019). As a first step toward the National The review also presents exciting insights into hydrogen-based vehicles in the marine, railways and aerospace industry and Hydrogen Mission, the Indian government announced the first phase of its Green Hydrogen Policy in 2021. The mission’s goal is concludes that hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles should be to turn India into a green hydrogen centre that will assist the commercialized worldwide. The review findings would also country reach its climate goals. It aims to produce five million guide academia about various technical features of fuel cell metric tonnes per annum (MMTPA) of green hydrogen by 2030, electric vehicles, and they would benefit from recommending as well as build renewable energy capacity in the process (Power- more advanced technologies for the coming future. However, the Technology, 2022). transportation and distribution of hydrogen is another significant Successful implementation of Hydrogen policy required challenge, and this is a crucial consideration while transitioning extensive R&D to overcome the technical challenges to to a hydrogen economy. Investigation into hydrogen fuel vehicles expedite the acceptance of hydrogen as future of sustainable and their utilization in different mobility sectors have been mobility. The majority of hydrogen is now generated in a rigorously reviewed. Undeveloped hydrogen technologies have a high implementation cost for proper commercialization, traditional manner, coming from the burning of fossil fuels, which emits a significant quantity of CO2. As a result, the discouraging vehicle manufacturers from adopting the primary difficulty is to create hydrogen utilising sustainable technology. energy sources. This is a major step forward in the direction Nevertheless, a potentially significant advantage in terms of of green hydrogen. Only a few recharge stations exist across the zero-emission to climate has attracted the researchers for its Frontiers in Energy Research | www.frontiersin.org 17 May 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 893475 Chakraborty et al. Hydrogen for Sustainable Mobility early development and progress to enhance more widespread. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS Different nations’ governments must coordinate their energy requirements for the future to increase the use of hydrogen as a Writing—Original draft, conceptualization, analysis, transportation fuel. Policy and regulatory measures and visualization and data curation, SC; writing—original draft, increased worldwide funding for research and visualization, investigation, methodology, SD; resources, commercialization initiatives would undoubtedly pave the supervision and data curation, RE; Writing—original draft, visualization, validation and investigation, AK; way for taking the first steps toward a hydrogen economy, which guarantees energy security. Hydrogen holds much Writing—Original draft, visualization, review and editing, DE; promise in the transportation industry if the appropriate review and editing, SM; data curation, PK; review and editing, ZS. steps and procedures are taken to make it safe, dependable, All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the and robust. manuscript. Hydrogen Catalyzed by Ag Nanocrystals. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 35 (13), REFERENCES 7177–7182. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2009.12.142 Bicer, Y., and Dincer, I. (2017). Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen, Abdalla, A. M., Hossain, S., Nisfindy, O. B., Azad, A. T., Dawood, M., and Azad, A. Methanol and Electric Vehicles from Well to Wheel. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 42 K. (2018). Hydrogen Production, Storage, Transportation and Key Challenges (6), 3767–3777. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.07.252 with Applications: A Review. Energy Convers. Manag. 165, 602–627. doi:10. Bicer, Y., and Khalid, F. (2020). 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