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Ironing Out Deficiencies: Evidence from the United States on the Economic Effects of Iron Deficiency

Ironing Out Deficiencies: Evidence from the United States on the Economic Effects of Iron Deficiency ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency reduces productive capacity in adults and impairs cognitive development in children. In 1943, the United States government required the fortification of bread with iron to reduce iron deficiency in the working-age population during World War II. This nationwide fortification of grain products increased per capita consumption of iron by 16 percent. I find that areas with lower levels of iron consumption prior to the mandate experienced greater increases in income and school enrollment in the 1940s. A long-term followup suggests that adults in 1970 with more exposure to fortification during childhood earned higher wages. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Human Resources University of Wisconsin Press

Ironing Out Deficiencies: Evidence from the United States on the Economic Effects of Iron Deficiency

Journal of Human Resources , Volume 50 (4) – Oct 30, 2015

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Publisher
University of Wisconsin Press
Copyright
©by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System
ISSN
1548-8004
Publisher site
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Abstract

ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency reduces productive capacity in adults and impairs cognitive development in children. In 1943, the United States government required the fortification of bread with iron to reduce iron deficiency in the working-age population during World War II. This nationwide fortification of grain products increased per capita consumption of iron by 16 percent. I find that areas with lower levels of iron consumption prior to the mandate experienced greater increases in income and school enrollment in the 1940s. A long-term followup suggests that adults in 1970 with more exposure to fortification during childhood earned higher wages.

Journal

Journal of Human ResourcesUniversity of Wisconsin Press

Published: Oct 30, 2015

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