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Urban Green Infrastructure in Jordan: A Perceptive of Hurdles and Challenges

Urban Green Infrastructure in Jordan: A Perceptive of Hurdles and Challenges JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE REAL ESTATE 2022, VOL. 14, NO. 1, 21–41 ARES https://doi.org/10.1080/19498276.2022.2098589 American Real Estate Society Urban Green Infrastructure in Jordan: A Perceptive of Hurdles and Challenges Zayed F. Zeadat Department of Architecture, American University of Madaba, Madaba, Jordan KEYWORDS ABSTRACT Urban green infrastructure; Jordanians live in compact cities with limited green spaces causing several environmental sustainable urban problems that deteriorate the urban quality of life. Many reports and studies demonstrate development; urban Jordan; the benefits of urban green infrastructure (UGI) in overcoming environmental deterioration Relative Importance Index in compacted cities. Nevertheless, Urban Green Infrastructure is still lagging in many Arab countries, and Jordan is no exception. UGI refers to a strategically planned network of con- nected greenspace in urban areas, such as green walls, green roofs, urban trees, and hedges. This study employs the concept of UGI with a particular focus on green walls and roofs. Therefore, this research aims to investigate and determine the key barriers that impede the implementation of UGI in Jordan through qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative study aims to elaborate on root causes that hinder the application of UGI. The quantitative part of the study employs a questionnaire survey to rank the significance of each barrier. This study finds that the shortage of irrigation water and the absence of incentive programs by local authorities were the top two barriers that impede the applica- tion of UGI in Jordan. Introduction 2014; Simons et al., 2014). North Americans spend roughly 90% of their time inside buildings (Simons Urban agglomerations and buildings have played an et al., 2014). essential part in human civilization, advancement of Consequently, buildings’ negative impact on the life, and economic development (Angelidou, 2015; environment has sparked the interest of both Choi, 2009; Fang & Yu, 2017). The United Nations researchers and policymakers (Khasreen et al., 2009). (UN) predicts that 60% of the world population will A movement toward green buildings, also known as live in cities by 2030 (Ceron-Palma  et al., 2012). In sustainable or high-performance buildings (i.e., the Global South, and particularly in the Arab coun- green buildings), has emerged to tackle concerns tries, over 55% live in urban areas, and projections about buildings’ deteriorating environmental impact show that urbanization is expected to grow to 67% (Simons et al., 2014). Following the U.S. by 2050 (UN-HABITAT, 2012; Zeadat, 2018, p. ii). Environmental Protection Agency (2008), the con- The mushrooming population growth in cities cept of green buildings refers to the process of pru- accompanied by little green and open spaces dently using valuable resources (energy, water, and causes a significant environmental threat affecting materials) throughout the building process (i.e., sit- the health and well-being of urban dwellers (Ceron- ing, design, construction, operation, renovation, and Palma et al., 2012; Hossain et al., 2019). Buildings in reuse of a building). Green buildings address two cities consume more than 30% of total world aspects of the building process: resource efficiency energy and emit 33% of greenhouse (GHG) emis- and the impact of buildings on the environment sions (Alawneh et al., 2018, 2019; Ash et al., 2008; Brooks & McArthur, 2019; Choi, 2009; Mahdiyar (Simons et al., 2014). Choi (2009) added that green et al., 2020; Olaleye & Komolafe, 2015; Tewfik & Ali, development efforts should be holistic to consider CONTACT Zayed F. Zeadat z.zeadat@aum.edu.jo Department of Architecture, American University of Madaba, Madaba, Jordan. 2022 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 22 Z. F. ZEADAT micro (i.e., site, neighborhood) and macro levels method (i.e. questionnaire survey), research method- (i.e., regional) and global levels. Accordingly, the ology, and procedures to ensure research validity built environment and the real estate industry, in and reliability were explained in the following sec- particular, have essential roles to play in addressing tion. The penultimate section highlight research climate change and establishing sustainable and findings and the final section discusses the results. green development (Alawneh et al., 2019; Albaali et al., 2021; Alkhalidi & Aljolani, 2020; Olaleye & Jordanian Real Estate Market Komolafe, 2015; Saidi et al., 2021; Tewfik & The Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan is a Middle Ali, 2014). Eastern developing country with more than 11 mil- Significant advancements in sustainable building lion people (Department of Statistics, Jordan, 2022), construction and technology have occurred in the with over 80% of urban residents (Alawneh et al., last two decades (Simons et al., 2014). For instance, 2018). Jordan has a total land area of 89,297 km ,of urban green infrastructure (UGI) (i.e., green roofs, which 92% is desert or rangeland (Alawneh et al., green walls) is the technology of converting imper- 2018). The country has a diverse landscape, ranging vious concrete surfaces into permeable green surfa- from the Jordan rift valley in the West to the desert ces (Carter & Butler, 2008; Getter & Rowe, 2006; flatlands in the east, with a scattering of modestly Subaskar et al., 2018; Vijayaraghavan, 2016). Russo high mountains (Ali & Al Nsairat, 2009). and Cirella (2018) argued that UGI is essential to Jordan’s urbanization results from a dramatic address detrimental environmental problems in population expansion driven by mass immigration compact cities. and a refugee influx from neighboring countries Despite its benefits, the application of UGI in (Shawabkeh et al., 2019). Amman and Irbid host urban Jordan is still in its infancy. With an area of around 39% and 18% of Jordan’s population, 237.86 km and a population of 4.090 million in respectively (Zeadat, 2018, p. 355). Amman has wit- 2017 (Al-Bilbisi, 2019), only 8.694 km of Amman are nessed a “phenomenal” urban transformation in the green space (Jordan Times, 2019). In other words, second half of the 20th century (Potter et al., 2009). Amman’s green space accounts for only 2.5% of the Amman grew horizontally and vertically within a city’s metropolitan area (Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, 2017). minimal land area (Beauregard & Marpillero- According to the World Health Organization, Colomina, 2011; Potter et al., 2009), hosting 40% of Amman needs to allocate at least 36 km (ideally the total housing stock in Jordan (Alnsour, 2015). Al 200 km ) of its urban area as green space (WHO, Rawashdeh and Saleh (2006) reported that Amman 2012). Accordingly, this research aims to understand urban areas doubled 509 times between 1918 and the root causes that hinder the adoption of UGI in 2002. The Planning Cities, Towns, Villages and real estate. This research supports the argument Buildings Act of 1966, no.79, with its amendments that urban policymakers have a great chance to in 2022, is the legal framework guiding urban incorporate green practices into existing building Jordan development. The Act determined seven operations and management. Incorporating ele- land use categories: residential, car parks, commer- ments of UGI in existing buildings will accelerate cial, industrial, office, and mixed-use development. progress in the area of sustainability, as the oper- The most common land use zones in urban Jordan ation of a building might be even more critical than are residential, roads, and commercial (see Figure 1). building design in terms of sustainability (Miller According to Jordan’s Housing and Urban et al., 2010). Development Corporation (HUDC), the total number The remainder of the paper is organized as fol- lows. The following section provides a brief account of housing units was 1,395,000, and it has risen to of real estate and the status of green buildings in 1,507,322 between 2012 and 2015. Jordan. The research then defines the concept of Typically, the real estate market is a vital industry UGI. Afterwards, the qualitative side of the research and a strong incentive for the growth of emerging is presented, explaining the main barriers found in economies (Alawneh et al., 2018, 2019; the literature that hinder the application of UGI in Apanaviciene et al., 2015). The sector is vital to eco- urban agglomerations. Quantitative data collection nomic progress and the core of environmental and JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE REAL ESTATE 23 56.37 21.66 11.57 6.95 1.21 1.63 0.61 RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL SERVICES PARKS INDUSTRY REFUGEES ROADS CAMP Figure 1. Ratio of land use zones areas of the city of Irbid in 2017 (Shawabkeh et al., 2019). social sustainability (Kongela, 2013). Jordan’s real governmental certification scheme that has gained estate business is regarded as the most lucrative widespread acceptance worldwide (Alawneh et al., industry in the economy (Hamouri, 2020; Zighan, 2019). The program contributed to the evolution of 2016). The Jordanian real estate market boosts eco- a global green building rating system to ensure nomic activity by contributing to GDP, offering job energy efficiency and reduce buildings’ detrimental opportunities, and establishing agile investment effects on the environment (Alawneh et al., 2018). opportunities (Hamouri, 2020). Jordan’s real estate Nevertheless, Jordan has only nine officially certified market contributed 4.4% of the country’s GDP in LEED buildings (Alawneh et al., 2019). 2016, amounting to an additional 1,195.8 million Jordanian dinars (JOD) (Alawneh et al., 2018). From Urban Green Infrastructure (452.3) million Jordanian dinars in 1990 to (1,195.8) Reviewing recent studies from academic literature, million Jordanian dinars in 2015, real estate contin- the application of UGI is becoming increasingly ued its upward growth trend (Hamouri, 2020). popular across the Global North (i.e., Canada, Jordan has three types of construction projects: United States, United Kingdom, and Europe) (X. public civil projects, specialist trades projects, and Chen et al., 2019; Ismail et al., 2018; Vijayaraghavan, housing construction projects (Zighan, 2016). The 2016; Zeadat, 2021; Zhang et al., 2012) and in some traditional procurement route (i.e., design-bid-build) south Asian countries such as Malaysia and Hong is the most construction procurement route in the Kong (Chen et al., 2019; Ismail et al., 2018; Zhang Jordanian construction industry (Odeh & Battaineh, et al., 2012). 2002). The traditional procurement route implies Although the popularity of UGI in the environ- that the owner’s perspective drives construction mental management lexicon (Ezema et al., 2016), projects’ strategic vision and future direction the concept is still fuzzy and subject to multiple (Oyegoke et al., 2009). Property owners use the interpretations (Wright, 2011). The concept refers to most common marketing methods to inform people open spaces, parks, natural areas, green buffers, of their proposals, such as real estate speculators, greenbelts, wildlife habitats, wetlands, forest pre- newspapers, social media, and Open Market website serves, farmlands, and golf courses. Some research- (Haddad, 2019). Jordan’s construction methods util- ers link the concept to merely urban green spaces, ize modern building systems, with concrete, glass, and steel dominating construction materials and urban trees, and hedges designed and managed to deliver a wide range of ecosystem services in urban technology (Ali & Al Nsairat, 2009). areas (Klemm et al., 2017; Koch et al., 2020; Most of Jordan’s green buildings were built Liberalesso et al., 2020; Zhu et al., 2019). under the rubric of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) v2.2 construction Theoretically, Benedict and McMahon (2002) defined standard (Alawneh et al., 2018). LEED is a non- UGI as an urban system of an “interconnected 24 Z. F. ZEADAT Figure 2. Schematics of different green roof components (Vijayaraghavan, 2016, p. 744). network of green space that conserves natural ecosys- vegetation on the impervious roof (Mahdiyar et al., tem values and functions and provides associated 2020; Tam et al., 2016). benefits to human populations” (p. 12 cited in Ezema Typically, green roofs contain several layers such et al., 2016). This research confines the concept of as vegetation, growing medium (i.e., soil consisting UGI to only green roofs and green walls. This study of inorganic matter and organic material), filter fab- considered UGI a vegetated surface in infrastruc- ric supported by a multi-layered waterproofing tures (i.e., bridges, tunnels, and overpass) buildings membrane, root barrier, insulation (i.e., if the build- such as green walls and green roofs (Koch et al., ing is heated or cooled) and drainage layer (see 2020; Liberalesso et al., 2020). Figure 2) (Abdin et al., 2018; Goussous et al., 2015; Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Wong & Lau, 2013). Broadly, two main types of green roofs can be Green Roof distinguished in the literature: extensive green roofs Green rooftop gardens are one of the most effective and intensive green roofs (Brudermann & green city approaches for mitigating the effects of Sangkakool, 2017; Ceron-Palma et al., 2012; growing urbanization and compact cities (Hossain Goussous et al., 2015; Hossain et al., 2019; Mahdiyar et al., 2019; Russo & Cirella, 2018). A planted roof is et al., 2020; Rahman et al., 2013; Subaskar et al., a specialized roofing system that has specific com- 2018; Tam et al., 2016; Wong & Lau, 2013; Zhang ponents and depth installed atop and across a rigid et al., 2012). Other researchers added the classifica- roof structure (Abdin et al., 2018; Al-Zu’bi & tion of semi-intensive green roofs (Berardi et al., Mansour, 2017; Ceron-Palma  et al., 2012; Chen et al., 2014; Chen et al., 2019; Ismail et al., 2010, 2018; 2019; Ezema et al., 2016; Goussous et al., 2015;W. Vijayaraghavan, 2016). A semi-extensive green roof Z. W. Ismail et al., 2010, 2018; Subaskar et al., 2018; system is an intermediate between extensive and Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Zhang et al., 2012). Growing intensive green roofs (X. Chen et al., 2019; Ismail plants on top of buildings is a well-developed tech- et al., 2010; Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Zeadat, 2021). It nology with ancient roots dating back to the resembles the extensive green roof in lighter dead Hanging Gardens of Babylon (Al Jadaa et al., 2019; load with a slightly deeper growing medium (soil). Al-Zu’bi and Mansour, 2017; Subaskar et al., 2018; Table 1 shows a comparison between both main Vijayaraghavan, 2016). Green roofs could hold vari- classifications of green roofs. ous vegetation types and sizes ranging from grass, trees, moss, flowers, lichen, sedum, shrubs, and Green Wall bushes (Subaskar et al., 2018). The concept has many terminologies that have been used inter- The second element of UGI is the green wall. Green changeably in the literature, such as eco-roofs, living walls are often referred to it as vertical greening sys- roofs, sky gardens, roof gardens, or skyrise gardens tems (Koch et al., 2020)orfac¸ade-integrated greenery (Ismail et al., 2010; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Tam et al., (see Figure 2)(Andric et al., 2020). Similar to green 2016). These terminologies point to inserting roofs, green walls have been used for centuries since JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE REAL ESTATE 25 Table 1. Classification of green roofs and their main attributes with supporting literature. Main attributes Extensive Intensive Source Soil depth Relatively thin soil layer ranging Deep soil ranging from 200 mm to Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & between 50 mm and 2,000 mm thick Sangkakool, 2017; Ismail et al., 150 mm thick 2010; Tam et al., 2016; Zhang et al., 2012 Maintenance Often plants are left to grow Ordinary maintenance (i.e., Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & spontaneously, assuming self- weeding, fertigation, and Sangkakool, 2017; Hossain et al., maintenance of the roof watering of the plants). 2019; Ismail et al., 2010; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Tam et al., 2016; Zhang et al., 2012; Water needs Limited or no need for Need for regular irrigation and Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & regular irrigation drainage systems Sangkakool, 2017; Hossain et al., 2019; Tam et al., 2016 Dead load on supporting structure Lightweight (80–150 kg/m ) More significant weight loading Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & (300–1000 kg/m ) that requires Sangkakool, 2017; Chen et al., rigorous structural design 2019; Hossain et al., 2019; Ismail et al., 2010; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Nelms et al., 2005; Rahman et al., 2013; Tam et al., 2016 Capital cost Relatively inexpensive (US$52 to Relatively higher upfront cost Chen et al., 2019; Hossain et al., 2 2 US$128 per m ) (US$128 to US$650 per m ) 2019; Hui, 2010; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Tam et al., 2016; Zhang et al., 2012 Suitability Suitable for building retrofitting due Suitable for newly Ismail et al., 2010; Mahdiyar et al., to their lower weight. Also, it is constructed buildings 2020; Tam et al., 2016 recommended for roofs ranging from 0 to 30% slope Accessibility Usually no access for recreation or Often visually and physically Hossain et al., 2019; Mahdiyar et al., other uses due to the accessible for recreational 2020; Rahman et al., 2013; Tam unavailability of adequate purposes or as an outdoor et al., 2016 infrastructure. open space Utilization Limited for maintenance purposes Diverse roof utilization (i.e., for Hossain et al., 2019; Ismail et al., or thermal insulation purposes recreation, growing food, open 2010; Tam et al., 2016 space), especially in cities with limited green spaces. It could simulate wildlife growth and develop a more complex ecosystem. Types of planted vegetation Can support only small and self- Greater diversity of plants’ sizes and Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & generative plants such as could accommodate trees. Sangkakool, 2017; Hossain et al., cactuses, sedums, small grasses, 2019; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; herbs, flowers, and herbaceous Rahman et al., 2013; Tam et al., plants with a shallow 2016; Zhang et al., 2012 rooting system Thermal insulation Enhancement of roof thermal Enhance insulation properties Ismail et al., 2010; Tam et al., 2016 insulation u-value. Aesthetics It may be visually unattractive due It can be made very attractive Ismail et al., 2010; Tam et al., 2016 to limited maintenance, especially in dry and hot seasons. the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and in the Roman than roof area) (Andric et al., 2020;Koch etal., 2020). and Greek Empires (Collins et al., 2017;Kohler, 2008). Moreover, technical problems are less apparent in The green walls have been used to enhance thermal green walls than in green roofs (Koch et al., 2020). insulations and for esthetical purposes (Andric et al., Generally speaking, there are two types of green 2020). Compared to green roofs, vegetation in a green walls according to their growing type: living wall sys- wall is installed vertically rather than horizontally on tems (LWS) (see Figures 3 and 4) and green facades the building wall. Plants are installed within planter (GF) (see Figure 4) (Cameron et al., 2014; Chiquet boxes inserted into the wall or in a supporting struc- et al., 2013; Collins et al., 2017;K€ohler, 2008 cited in ture (see Figure 3) (Andric et al., 2020; Azkorra et al., Koch et al., 2020). Some researchers added biowalls 2015; Collins et al., 2017; Romanova et al., 2019). as a third designation (Cameron et al., 2014). Biowalls Compared to other UGI elements, green walls have a are used indoors to improve indoor air quality and higher potential to be applied due to the availability control humidity. Green facades are the simplest and of wall surfaces (vertical surfaces are more prominent the cheapest form of green walls where self-adhering 26 Z. F. ZEADAT Figure 3. Schematics of different green wall components (http:perperwww.denory-gw.com). Figure 4. Living green wall module, with plants and empty (Romanova et al., 2019,p. 90). climbing plants (creepers) rooting in the soil cover a elements attached to a wall. Each cell is then filled vertical surface by allowing them to grow freely with soil, and vegetation is planted accordingly. (Andric et al., 2020; Chiquet et al., 2013). On the one Furthermore, an artificial irrigation system is needed hand, covering the desired vertical area may take a to reach the vegetation and supply sufficient water long time, but it requires less maintenance. LWS, in and nutrients. Contrary to GF, the end product can contrast, are costlier and require more significant be seen immediately, but the installation cost and maintenance efforts (Cameron et al., 2014; Koch maintenance are much higher than GF (Perini & et al., 2020). LWS requires installing many cells or Rosasco, 2013 cited in Koch et al., 2020;see compartments (geotextile felts) along steel structural Figure 5). JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE REAL ESTATE 27 Figure 5. Direct green fac¸ade (Koch et al., 2020, p. 2). Advantages and Benefits of UGI F. Chen, 2013; X. Chen et al., 2019; Liberalesso et al., 2020; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Olaleye & Komolafe, There is a plethora of discussion in the academic lit- 2015; Sangkakool et al., 2018; Tewfik & Ali, 2014; erature on environmental planning on the variety of Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Wong & Lau, 2013). High benefits that UGI could bring to the urban context installation and construction cost, compared to con- (Choi, 2009; Hossain et al., 2019; Subaskar et al., ventional roofs, has been reported by many 2018; Zeadat, 2021) (see Table 2). Researchers argue researchers as the most significant barriers to the that the development of UGI in cities runs in paral- adoption of UGI in urban areas (Albaali et al., 2021; lel with sustainable urban development goals, Al Jadaa et al., 2019; Chen, 2013; X. Chen et al., including the economic, social, and environmental 2019; Liberalesso et al., 2020; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; dimensions (Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, 2017). Generally Olaleye & Komolafe, 2015; Sangkakool et al., 2018; speaking, UGI has been used extensively in the Tewfik & Ali, 2014; Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Wong & developed countries of the West to mitigate the Lau, 2013). UGI installation costs could be burden- negative impacts of urban growth and achieve some for some building owners for three main rea- more resilient and sustainable cities (Ding & Knaap, sons (Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Ceron-Palma 2002; Liberalesso et al., 2020; Russo & Cirella, 2018). et al., 2012; Chen et al., 2019; Ezema et al., 2016; While green buildings are rapidly gaining traction Mahdiyar et al., 2020). in most developed countries, the concept and prac- Firstly, the additional cost of design: This includes tice of sustainable construction have yet to establish architectural landscape design and structural design ground in most developing economies (Olaleye & cost of an intensive green roof or living green walls Komolafe, 2015). Understanding and defining root (Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Ngan, 2004; causes is essential to overcoming barriers that hin- Ulubeyli & Arslan, 2017; Chen et al., 2019). der the adoption of UGI in urban areas (Ezema Landscape design is required in the application of et al., 2016; Subaskar et al., 2018; Vijayaraghavan, UGI to determine the types and places of vegeta- tion to be used in UGI (Zeadat, 2021). Also, specific 2016). This section aims to present and discuss bar- structural design is essential for intensive green riers that hinder UGI application found through a roofs due to the heavy dead load of soil and live review of relevant literature. loads (i.e., foot traffic from public use) on build- ing structures. Economic and Fiscal Barriers Secondly, the additional construction cost (Hou & The economic and fiscal barrier is the first and fore- Zhang, 2011; Zhu et al., 2009). Construction cost most barrier that is mentioned extensively in the lit- includes the costs for vegetation (trees, bushes, erature (Albaali et al., 2021; Al Jadaa et al., 2019;C. shrubs) and the costs associated with the trained 28 Z. F. ZEADAT Table 2. Advantages of UGI with its supporting literature barriers that hinder the adoption of UGI in urban areas. Advantages per supporting reference Supporting reference(s) Improve thermal insulation of building Abdin et al., 2018; He et al., 2020; Al Jadaa et al., 2019; Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, 2017; Azkorra et al., 2015; Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Cameron et al., 2014; Chen, 2013; Chen et al., 2019; Chiquet et al., 2013; Coma et al., 2017; Ezema et al., 2016; Goussous et al., 2015; Hossain et al., 2019; Ismail et al., 2012; Khan & Asif, 2017; Koch et al., 2020; Liberalesso et al., 2020; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Rahman et al., 2013; Sangkakool et al., 2018; Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Wong & Lau, 2013; Zhang et al., 2012. Mitigate stormwater runoff in Abdin et al., 2018; Al Jadaa et al., 2019; Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, 2017; Azkorra et al., 2015; Berardi urban areas et al., 2014; Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Cameron et al., 2014; Carter & Fowler, 2008; Chen, 2013; Chen et al., 2019; Chiquet et al., 2013; Ezema et al., 2016; Hossain et al., 2019; Z. Ismail et al., 2012; Koch et al., 2020; Rahman et al., 2013; Sangkakool et al., 2018; Subaskar et al., 2018; Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Zhang et al., 2012. Enhancing ecological and biodiversity Al Jadaa et al., 2019; Andric et al., 2020; Azkorra et al., 2015; Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Ceron-Palma et al., 2012; Chiquet et al., 2013; Collins et al., 2017; Ezema et al., 2016; Hossain et al., 2019; Ismail et al., 2010; Ismail et al., 2012; Koch et al., 2020; Liberalesso et al., 2020; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Zhang et al., 2012. Good stormwater quality in urban areas Hossain et al., 2019; Vijayaraghavan, 2016. Health and well-being of citizens of Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Ezema et al., 2016; Ismail et al., 2010; Liberalesso et al., 2020; urban areas Mahdiyar et al., 2020. Reduce air pollution in urban areas Al Jadaa et al., 2019; Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Cameron et al., 2014; X. Chen et al., 2019; Chiquet et al., 2013; Ezema et al., 2016; Hossain et al., 2019; Ismail et al., 2010; Koch et al., 2020; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Rahman et al., 2013; Sangkakool et al., 2018; Subaskar et al., 2018; Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Zhang et al., 2012. Reducing urban heat island Al Jadaa et al., 2019; Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, 2017; Andric et al., 2020; Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Cameron et al., 2014; Chen et al., 2019; Ezema et al., 2016; Hossain et al., 2019; Ismail et al., 2012; Koch et al., 2020; Liberalesso et al., 2020; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Sangkakool et al., 2018; Subaskar et al., 2018; Tam et al., 2016; Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Wong & Lau, 2013; Zhang et al., 2012. Increase property value Berardi et al., 2014; Liberalesso et al., 2020; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Rahman et al., 2013. Providing career opportunities Chen et al., 2019. Extending roof life Berardi et al., 2014; Vijayaraghavan, 2016. Social benefits (i.e., recreational space) Ismail et al., 2010; Koch et al., 2020; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Rahman et al., 2013. Improving the acoustical characteristics Azkorra et al., 2015; Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Cameron et al., of the surrounding environment 2014; Chiquet et al., 2013; Collins et al., 2017; Ezema et al., 2016; Hossain et al., 2019; Ismail et al., 2010; Ismail et al., 2012; Koch et al., 2020; Liberalesso et al., 2020; Vijayaraghavan, 2016 Improves aesthetics Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, 2017; Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Cameron et al., 2014; Chen, 2013; Chen et al., 2019; Collins et al., 2017; Ezema et al., 2016; Goussous et al., 2015; Ismail et al., 2010; Ismail et al., 2012; Khan & Asif, 2017; Rahman et al., 2013; Subaskar et al., 2018; Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Wong & Lau, 2013 and well-experienced workforce requirement due to a tedious and complicated task. Typically, UGI installation complexity. Also, the additional con- requires frequent drainage checks, pesticides, grass struction cost includes construction material, neces- cuts, and removing dead or undesired plants may be sary layering, and supporting infrastructure necessary. Also, fertilizers and irrigation are often (Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Ceron-Palma needed in regions with long, hot, and dry summer et al., 2012; Mahdiyar et al., 2020). seasons (Chen et al., 2019;Mahdiyar etal., 2020; Thirdly, operation and maintenance costs. Sangkakool et al., 2018; Vijayaraghavan, 2016). Generally speaking, the lifecycle cost depends on the type of UGI: extensive or intensive green roof, living Building’s Primary Stakeholder Perception wall system or green facades. Intensive and semi- Generally, primary stakeholders in construction proj- intensive green roofs and living walls need additional ects are driven by economics, not altruism, when maintenance, administration, and operation investing in green real estate (Miller et al., 2010; (Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Chen et al., 2019; Olaleye & Komolafe, 2015). Primary stakeholders Hou & Zhang, 2011;Tewfik & Ali, 2014;Ulubeyli & are more concerned about the cost of retrofitting or Arslan, 2017; Vijayaraghavan, 2016). It is worth adding installing UGI elements in buildings and how this disposal costs at the end of the roof’s lifetime, includ- would affect their bottom line. The conservative ing dismantling and removing multiple layers and attitude of real estate developers and building own- transporting them to landfills (Vijayaraghavan, 2016). Chen et al. (2019) and Ismail et al. (2012) described ers in developing nations would result in minimal maintaining intensive or semi-intensive green roofs as interest in implementing UGI (Olaleye & Komolafe, JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE REAL ESTATE 29 2015). New construction processes, alternative tech- in cities of developing nations (Ismail et al., 2018; nologies, materials, material recycling, waste man- Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Brooks & McArthur, 2019). agement, and green building systems are rarely Logistical barrier entails the unavailability of ad-hoc kept by contractors and builders in developing construction material in the local market or/and lim- nations (Tewfik & Ali, 2014). ited vegetation suitable to the climatic condition of Primary stakeholders have a strong influence on the region. However, Bond and Perrett (2012) and decisions related to the adoption of new construc- Shen et al. (2017) argued that logistical shortcom- tion technology (Choi, 2009). On the supply side, pri- ings have a minimal impact, and thus this barrier is mary stakeholders bring a wide range of green considered insignificant in many studies (cited in building design techniques and construction Brooks & McArthur, 2019, p. 137). approaches to the market, making green real estate development appealing to the private sector (Simons Availability of Roof Space et al., 2014). On the demand side, owners consider Many researchers stressed the unavailability or lim- investing in green real estate for various economic, ited roof space as a barrier to adopting green roofs productivity, environmental, and social benefits (Ceron-Palma et al., 2012; Mahdiyar et al.,2020; (Simons et al., 2014, 2017;Zeadat, 2021). Therefore, Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Wong & Lau, 2013). In add- their perception and acceptance are critical in apply- ition to the building’s multi-ownership hurdle, ing UGI. It is worth mentioning that lack of interest applying a green roof might constrain the usage of and support is to be found in potential adopters and Photovoltaic (PV) solar panels, water tanks, and other building primary stakeholders due to limited HVAC utilities on rooftops. awareness and knowledge of the benefits of UGI (see Table 2) (Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Chen et al., 2019;Ezema et al., 2016; Ismail et al., 2018; Shortage of Irrigation Water Mahdiyar et al., 2020;Wong & Lau, 2013). Researchers highlighted the difficulty of using UGI in hot and dry regions in most Arab cities (Attia & Absence of Incentives Policies Mahmoud, 2009;Schweitzer & Erell, 2014). Harsh cli- matic conditions and low precipitations in most Arab Five central incentive policies have been used world- urban areas make it difficult to adopt intensive green wide to promote the adoption of UGI (Zeadat, 2021). roofs and LWS. Moderate to high levels of precipita- These are indirect and direct financial incentives poli- tions are essential to the success and durability of cies, obligations by law, supporting scientific research UGI (Ascione et al., 2013; Berardi et al., 2014; and granting context-based sustainability certificates Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Tam et al., 2016). Andric et al. (Zeadat, 2021). Lack of political support offered by (2020) and Mahdiyar et al. (2020)argued the impact the central government and the absence of suitable of global warming on the durability and sustainability legislation at the local level is considered one of the of vegetation planted on green walls and green roofs top barriers to UGI implementation (Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, 2017; Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; due to prolonged and frequent heat waves. Ezema et al., 2016; Ismail et al., 2018; Mahdiyar et al., 2020). Vijayaraghavan (2016)believes that policy- Risk of Damages to Buildings makers have a vital role in the success of UGI by Green walls and green roofs have often been stig- enacting legislation that promotes the application of matized as destructive to building envelopes and UGI. Urban policymakers have the power to clear impaired building structures and utilities (Chen common doubts and the ability to issue exemptions et al., 2019; Shafique et al., 2018; Tabatabaee et al., to reduce building fees and taxes. 2019). For instance, climbing plants on a green fac¸ade have damaged mortar and brick surfaces Logistical Barrier caused by the plant attachment mechanism (Andric Many researchers have reported logistical shortcom- et al., 2020; Chen et al., 2019; Chiquet et al., 2013). ings as a barrier that hinders the application of UGI Also, concerns associated with intensive green roofs 30 Z. F. ZEADAT include possible damages resulting from erosion, analysis information of green features (Choi, 2009). clogged drainage layers, and filter layer leakage. It Without this information, primary stakeholders will has been reported that the roots of invasive trees find it difficult to justify the often-higher upfront planted on top of a green roof could cause damage cost of UGI (Choi, 2009). The lack of scientific data to the root barrier layer, causing water leakage to implies that primary stakeholders are likely to have buildings (Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Ismail concerns about UGI results and benefits (Olaleye & et al., 2010; Sangkakool et al., 2018). Leaking prob- Komolafe, 2015). Knowledge gab is often associated lems in green roofs are difficult to identify and with the dearth of adequate scientific research. The more expensive to repair (Ismail et al., 2012). dearth of local research on practical UGI design Conventionally, contractors identify leaking in green issues, particularly in developing countries, under- roofs by removing a large amount of growing mines the evolvement of technical codes for UGI media to expose the membrane to locate the leak systems (Al Jadaa et al., 2019; Hui, 2010). The main (Ismail et al., 2012). obstacle that impedes the advancement of scientific Moreover, researchers listed fire risk (tall and research is the lack of scientific data and simulation dried grasses are often considered a fire hazard), cli- models (Ceron-Palma et al., 2012; Ismail et al., 2018; mate and PESTs, and weed spread as concerns over Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Sangkakool et al., 2018). the safety of buildings among property owners in case of improper management and lack of inspec- Unavailability of Skilled Labor or Qualified tion on green roof systems, particularly in multi- Contractors ownership properties (Chen et al., 2019; Rahman et al., 2013; Subaskar et al., 2018). A critical barrier is a lack of experience and qualified human resources for either UGI design, implementa- tion, or maintenance (Al Jadaa et al., 2019; Chen Absence of UGI Construction Codes and Standards et al., 2019; Ezema et al., 2016; Hossain et al., 2019; Abuilding code isasetof rules that establish built Mahdiyar et al., 2020). The unavailability of qualified items’ requirements in construction projects. Building architects and construction firms would elongate the codes and standards are often designed to fit the project schedule (Choi, 2009). Delays frequently result nature of conventional buildings (Choi, 2009). in increased risks and cost overruns, which many Generally, the construction industry provides limited developers would want to avoid, given their limited technical standards or specifications for green build- budgets and timelines (Choi, 2009). Developing ings (Chen et al., 2019;Tewfik & Ali, 2014;Wark & nations often face the limited availability of skilled Wark, 2003; Zhang et al., 2012). Without established labor, causing a cumbersome growth of UGI in the and recognized standards and codes, the benefits of building industry (Ceron-Palma et al., 2012; Ismail UGI cannot be fully appreciated (Wark & Wark, 2003). et al., 2018;Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Subaskar et al., The absence of local code or technical guidelines hin- 2018). A lack of professionalism and knowledge gap ders the practical and precise application of UGI ele- might lead to poorly implemented green roof proj- ments in buildings (Hui, 2010). Contractors and ects and discredit green roofs and green walls consultants alike may be reluctant to adopt elements among the building construction community and the of UGIin their projectsdue to alack of consolidated public (Sangkakool et al., 2018). standards and regulations for designing and installing green roof systems. The lack of consolidated standards and regulations for designing and installing green roof Research Design systems is associated with the limited number of This research is an exploratory study. It incorporates research and studies in this area (Al Jadaa et al., 2019). both qualitative and quantitative research strategies to enhance the validity and reliability of research Inadequate Research and Knowledge Gap findings (i.e., triangulation) (see Table 3) (Okopi, One of the most noted hurdles to UGI application is 2021). Six steps have been followed to justify and the lack of reliable performance and cost-benefits validate research results (see Table 3). JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE REAL ESTATE 31 Table 3. Sequential diagram of studies methodologies. Importance Index (RRI). RRI is a reliable technique Step 1 Identifying barriers to UGI application for analyzing structured questionnaires with ordinal Step 2 Questionnaire survey preparation measurement of attitudes (Abraham, 2003; Dixit Step 3 Questionnaire distribution and collection of feedback Step 4 Analysis of data using RRI. and Cronbach’s alpha et al., 2019; Durdyev et al., 2012; Huo et al., 2018; Step 5 Discussion of survey results Step 6 Conclusion and recommendations Sodangi et al., 2014). The importance of RRI lies in the ability to “[find] the contribution a particular vari- able makes to the prediction of a criterion variable In the beginning, an extensive literature review both by itself and in combination with other predictor identified barriers to adopting UGI in urban areas. variables” (Somiah et al., 2015, p. 120). This study Secondary data were gathered from academic adopted Akadiri’s(2011, p. 239) classification guide articles,textbooks,published journals,and of RRI to determine the level of impact for each bar- research books of conference proceedings. rier on the adoption of UGI in urban Jordan (see However, the identified barriers may not apply to Table 5). the Jordanian context since it is prone to differen- cesin legislative,operational,and cultural issues Validity and Reliability of the Quantitative Study (Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Hossain et al., 2019;W.Z.W.Ismail etal., 2018; Liberalesso et al., When items form a scale (i.e., Likert scale), it is vital 2020;Mahdiyar etal., 2020). Therefore, it is funda- to ensure their reliability (Jarkas et al., 2015; Pallant, mental to engage well-informed Jordanian consul- 2013, chapter 9; Shah et al., 2021; Tsiga et al., 2016). tants and contractors to evaluate barriers to UGI Reliability of scale is used to “calculate the stability implementation. A self-administered survey was of a scale from the internal consistency of an item by conducted between November and December measuring the construct” (Santos, 1999, cited in 2021 (see Table 4). Each question in the question- Tsiga et al., 2016, p. 6). The alpha coefficient ranges naire was phrased and checked for clarity of from 0 to 1, whereby the greater the value is con- expression. In order to avoid ambiguity and ensure sidered more reliable for the study (Shah et al., objectivity, each question was available in both 2021; Nunnaly, 1978 cited in Jarkas et al., 2015). A Arabic and English. Before being distributed, a minimum value of 0.5 is considered to validate the pilot survey was conducted with ten selected con- consistency and reliability of the data collected tractors and consultants to enhance the integrity (Shah et al., 2021), while others believe that the and clarity of the questionnaire. Feedback from Cronbach alpha coefficient should be above .7 (Huo the pilot survey was reflected in the design before et al., 2018; Kazaz et al., 2016). This study reported the final distribution. the Cronbach alpha coefficient of .781 for the scale Research respondents were asked to give opin- measuring barriers. Accordingly, the current study ions on each barrier’s relative significance according reported an excellent Cronbach alpha coefficient, to the Jordanian context. The Likert scale has been thus ensuring the scale’s internal consistency. used to collect consultants’ and contractors’ opin- Pearson’s correlation coefficient was employed to ions in value of 1 (not important) to 5 (extremely ensure the research results’ validity. The Pearson important) for the significance of barriers. A ques- correlation value of the twelve items exceeds the tionnaire survey has been distributed through sev- set critical value of .13, which is significant (less eral methods like a hard copy, email, Google forms than the p value of .05). and in-person interviews. A total of 120 consultants It is worth mentioning that this study employed and 83 contractors registered in the Jordanian the Spearman Rank Correlation coefficient to test Engineers Syndicate and Jordanian Contractors the strength of agreement between the rankings of Association, respectively, completed the research contractors and consultants for each barrier (Odeh questionnaire, out of which 65.02% had more than & Battaineh, 2002). In other words, it reveals if there 20 years of experience working in either building is agreement or disagreement among contractors design or construction in Jordan. and consultants on their respective rankings to bar- Data are then gathered and analyzed through a riers. The higher value of r (approaching 1) indi- non-parametric technique called the Relative cates a strong agreement between contractors and 32 Z. F. ZEADAT Table 4. Research questionnaire. Barriers Not important Slighlty important Moderately important Strongly important Extremely important Additional cost of design (structural and ww w w w architectural design) Additional cost of construction materials ww w w w and plants Lifecycle cost (i.e., operation, ww w w w maintenance, disposal) Weak public appreciation ww w w w Lack of interest and support by building owners ww w w w Absence of incentive programs by municipalities ww w w w Lack of political support offered by the ww w w w central government Unavailability of ad-hoc construction material in ww w w w the local market Lack of plants for green walls and green roofs ww w w w convenient to Jordan’s climate Limited availability of roof space ww w w w Irrigation water shortage ww w w w Hot and dry climate of Jordan during most ww w w w months of the year Unavailability of skilled labor and contractors to ww w w w construct green roofs or green walls Dearth of local scientific research ww w w w Risk of damages to the building (water ww w w w leakages, structural failure, fire) Absence of industry codes and regulations ww w w w and believed that UGI is applicable in Jordan. Table 5. Classification guide to determine the importance level of RII. Research findings reveal that lack of irrigation water is RRI values Importance level the most critical barrier that hinders UGI application in 0.8 RII  1 High (H) urban Jordan, while the lack of plants for UGI conveni- 0.6 RII < 0.8 High–medium (H-M) 0.4 RII < 0.6 Medium (M) ent to Jordan’s climate is considered by research par- 0.2 RII < 0.4 Medium–low (M-L) ticipants as the least effective barrier (see Table 6). 0 RII < 0.2 Low consultants to rank the causes of delays. Microsoft Irrigation Water Shortage Excel was used to calculate Spearman correlation Lack of irrigation water ranked first by both consul- coefficients, which resulted in the value of .5941. According to Cohen (1988, pp. 79–81), this indicates tants and contractors. Water shortage is a severe challenge in Jordan, a problem that severely a very good agreement between the two groups. impacts every business that depends on water to Furthermore, the association among the rankings continue operating and succeeding (Alawneh et al., of consultants and contractors is checked by 2018;Albaalietal., 2020;Ali & Al Nsairat, 2009; hypothesis testing at a significance level of 95%, by which the p value is equal to .05. This study calcu- Hadadin et al., 2010). Jordan’swater shortage is the most significant constraint to the country’s lated the p value using Excel by implementing the TDIST function. The reported p value in this study is growth and development, as water plays an essen- tial role in food production, health, urban resident equal to .015, meaning that the null hypothesis is welfare, survival, and social and economic develop- rejected and a significant positive correlation ment (Ali & Al Nsairat, 2009). Jordan is listed between the ranks of contractors and consultants is among the world’spoorest countriesdue to the demonstrated. lack of adequate rainfall and scarce natural water resources (Goussous et al., 2015; Hossain et al., Results and Discussion 2019). Jordan’s acute water deficit is caused by a Research participants (96.7%) believe that urban scarcity of natural surface water resources and lin- Jordan needs to apply UGI and would like to see gering droughts affecting the country (Ali & Al more green roofs and walls as part of building facili- Nsairat, 2009;Al-Zu’bi and Mansour, 2017). Jordan ties. However, 85.85% of participants were optimistic is classified as a semiarid to arid region, with JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE REAL ESTATE 33 Table 6. Barriers that hinder UGI application in urban Jordan with descriptive statistics. Standard RII level of SN Factor Mean Minimum Maximum deviation Overall RII importance Overall rank Consultant’s RII Consultant rank Contractor’s RII Contractor rank 1 Irrigation water shortage 4.33 1 5 .959 0.8669 High 1 0.8764 1 0.8539 3 2 Absence of incentive programs by municipalities (i.e., 4.19 2 5 .877 0.8377 High 2 0.7967 4 0.8943 1 local government) 3 Lack of political support offered by the 4.09 1 5 .854 0.8179 High 3 0.7902 6 0.8561 2 central government 4 Lack of interest and support by building owners and 4.01 1 5 1.115 0.8018 High 4 0.8130 3 0.7865 6 real estate developers 5 Lifecycle cost (i.e., operation, maintenance, disposal) 3.98 1 5 .887 0.7962 High–medium 5 0.8390 2 0.7370 7 6 Absence of industry code and regulations 3.97 1 5 1.085 0.79433 High–medium 6 0.7804 8 0.8134 4 7 Dearth of scientific local research 3.81 1 5 1.056 0.7622 High–medium 7 0.7300 12 0.8067 5 8 Risk of damages to building (water leakages, structural 3.80 1 5 1.085 0.7594 High–medium 8 0.7951 5 0.7101 10 failure, fire, … etc.) 9 Additional cost of construction materials and plants 3.75 1 5 1.204 0.7490 High–medium 9 0.7821 7 0.7033 12 10 Hot and dry climate of Jordan during most months 3.67 1 5 1.194 0.7349 High–medium 10 0.7463 11 0.7191 9 of year 11 Additional cost of design (structural and 3.66 1 5 .858 0.7311 High–medium 11 0.7756 9 0.6696 13 architectural design) 12 Weak public appreciation 3.65 1 5 1.137 0.7292 High–medium 12 0.7284 13 0.7303 8 13 Unavailability of skilled Labor and contractors to 3.54 1 5 1.149 0.7075 High–medium 13 0.7560 10 0.6404 16 construct Green roofs or green walls 14 limited availability of roof space 3.51 1 5 1.059 0.7028 High–medium 14 0.6991 15 0.7078 11 15 Unavailability of ad-hoc construction material in the 3.44 1 5 1.140 0.6886 High–medium 15 0.7073 14 0.6629 14 local market 16 Lack of plants for green walls and green roofs 3.29 .968 0.6584 High–medium 16 0.6601 16 0.6561 15 convenient to Jordan’s climate that is available in the local market 34 Z. F. ZEADAT annual rainfall ranging from 134 to 200 mm over rate, density bonus) are the most effective incentive 92% of its geographical area (Alawneh et al., 2018), policy to promote UGI in Jordan. putting Jordan in the category of an absolute water deficit (Ali & Al Nsairat, 2009). Reflecting the Building’s Primary Stakeholder Perception climatic condition and scarceness of water resour- In order to achieve sustainable development, aware- ces, a significant issue for Amman landscape main- ness about the benefits of UGI among primary tenance is irrigation water supply (Potter et al., stakeholders is critical for its application (Rahman 2009). As a result of population expansion, access- et al., 2013). Mahdiyar et al. (2020) argued that ible water resources per capita are expected to building owners are the least informed and experi- declinefrom less than160m /capita/year to enced about sustainable options among the con- around 90 m /capita/year by 2025. Karteris et al., struction stakeholders. Many research respondents (2016) argued the possibility of successfully adopt- agreed that building owners need to be convinced ing UGI in deserted and semiarid regions such as that the green roof or green walls bring various the Mediterranean basin. Average precipitations in benefits to buildings per se and their surroundings. Amman are as low as 276 mm (Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, For instance, a green roof elongates the life span of 2017) per annum, which is considered very low the waterproofing membrane, thus saving cost in compared to many European and North American the long run (Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, 2017; Ismail et al., cities that adopted the model of UGI in urban 2010; Subaskar et al., 2018). Chen et al. (2019) and areas. However, Mahdiyar et al. (2020) and Karteris Goussous et al. (2015) saw that building clients et al. (2016) agreed that the adoption of UGI is could be convinced through the lifecycle cost-bene- possibleinthe Mediterranean basin. Andric et al. fit from energy savings and rainwater reuse. (2020)and Al-Zu’bi and Mansour (2017)suggested Moreover, the development of UGI is still in its the plantation of native plants (dry-tolerant spe- infancy stage, and the public in Jordan may lack cies) and recycling greywater from the building to knowledge and awareness about the benefits of irrigate green roofs and living green walls. UGI and its feasibility in Jordan (weak public appre- Greywater is waste water from non-toileted plumb- ciation). Changing the mentality and perception of ing systems such as hand basin, laundry, showers, primary stakeholders regarding green building tech- and kitchen activities and typically account for nologies is very important to the widespread of 65–90% of the domestic wastewater production green roofs and green walls projects. Although this (Vijayaraghavan, 2016). barrier has been ranked 12th by research respond- ents, this study argues the necessity of culture culti- Lack of Political Support Offered by Planning vation among Jordanians to ensure widespread Authorities adoption of green building principles in general and Although the limited green spaces in urban Jordan, UGI in specific. Without the support from the public, UGI, or other green building elements have not particularly building primary stakeholders, the devel- received profound support from local, regional and opment of UGI in urban Jordan will be stagnant or national governments. As a result of Jordan’s utili- cumbersome, leading to distrust among potential tarian approach to governance, local authorities adopters. Moreover, this study suggests further have insufficient incentive programs and move- research to examine building users’ willingness to ments to encourage green building technology and pay (WTP) for green buildings in Jordan. UGI (Al-Asad & Emtaireh, 2011 cited in Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, 2017). The absence of political support Economic and Fiscal Barriers from the central and local governments is more Additional construction cost and the cost of the apparent in developing countries as governmental authorities are still unable to apprehend the variety structural and architectural design of UGI has been of benefits of UGI. According to Zeadat (2021), indir- ranked the first and most significant barrier in many ect financial incentives (i.e., tax reductions, reduc- countries (Al Jadaa et al., 2019; Chen, 2013; Chen tion in stormwater utility fee, reduction of interest et al., 2019; Liberalesso et al., 2020; Mahdiyar et al., JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE REAL ESTATE 35 2020; Sangkakool et al., 2018; Vijayaraghavan, 2016; For instance, two studies have partially addressed Wong & Lau, 2013). On the contrary, according to this topic in the Jordanian context (Al-Zu’bi & the Jordanian context, research respondents ranked Mansour, 2017; Goussous et al., 2015), but no the earlier barrier as the 9th most significant hurdle, research has been found to discover its full potential while the latter ranked 11th. This research demon- in Jordan. In order to fill this gap, this study contrib- strates the erroneous belief that the cost and finan- utes to a more systematic understanding of those cial risks of UGI construction outweigh its benefits. factors, which are important constraints that impede Both Kats (2013) and Morris and Langdon (2007) the spread of green roofs and green walls in Jordan. argued that green buildings cost around 2% extra to build than conventional buildings, which is insig- Absence of UGI Construction Codes and Standards nificant compared to the benefits of UGI, as demon- It is of strategic importance to bear in mind the strated in empirical investigations. Moreover, legislative and operational context of the Jordanian Langdon (2007 cited in Miller et al., 2010) examines built environment for developing context-based UGI construction costs in New York City for 38 high-rise standards and guidelines. This study stressed that residential buildings and 25 commercial interiors, organizations, municipalities, and countries should and he noticed that the cost difference for new develop guidelines, manuals, and codes for green structures is less than 1%. walls and green roofs systems to suit their needs Literature highlights many architectural, struc- and circumstances. Authorities of Jordan can adopt tural, and mechanical arrangements that need to be and adapt codes and standards from counties with considered when designing green roofs or green well-established systems and a long history of suc- walls (Chen et al., 2019). Unlike designing the con- cessful UGI implementation. Ismail et al. (2012) and ventional roofing system of reinforced concrete Hui (2010) reported that some countries such as coarse (RCC), which is familiar to most consultants Germany, Canada, Japan, Australia, UAE, UK, and the and contractors in Jordan, the concept of UGI is USA had developed their standards and guidelines nascent worldwide and requires more sophisticated concerning green roof and green walls systems. considerations such as (structural analysis, water- The “Jordan Green Building Guide” was published proof engineering, and irrigation design (Chen et al., in 2013, covering seven areas: green building manage- 2019). Thus a higher design fee is required when ment, site sustainability, water efficiency requirements, designing a green roof or green wall. energy efficiency requirements, healthy indoor envir- In Jordan, maintenance of UGI is another critical onment, materials and resources (Tewfik & Ali, 2014). barrier that concerns building owners and facility Construction practices and technology in Jordan managers in Jordan. Among other economic bar- riers, operations and maintenance costs have been should implement the aforementioned guiding princi- ples and be culminated into a code. Adopting Jordan ranked fifth. Multi-ownership of most of the build- Green Building Guide would promote building con- ing’s roofs in Jordan makes it even harder to admin- struction standards and practice, thus delivering a sig- ister the maintenance cost. The durability of nificant shift and reform of building rules. Moreover, extensive roofs or green living walls requires fre- Jordan Green Building Guide could play an essential quent maintenance to ensure durability. role in laying out a clear path for Jordan’s green building rating system (Albaali et al., 2021). Inadequate Research and Knowledge Gap Since each country has its climatic condition and Risk of Physical Damages to Buildings form of urbanization, local research is of utmost Many contractors and consultants comment on water importance for the success of green building and leakage due to improper design and lousy finishing UGI (Vijayaraghavan, 2016). The last two decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in the publica- quality. Although still possible, this barrier did not tion rate regarding UGI in the Global North (Tam receive much attention and ranked 8th among et al., 2016). In comparison, limited studies have research respondents. This study agreed with been done from the perspective of the Arab region. Brudermann and Sangkakool (2017) that any roof 36 Z. F. ZEADAT would possibly leak, but the risk to building’sstruc- equipped to offer UGI once Jordanian authorities ture as a barrier is an issue that belongs to the past enact its codes and standards. However, the problem and is not very relevant in well-managed construc- revolves around the limited number of professional tion projects. Proper design and professional installa- landscape architects to advise selecting suitable tion could avoid structural risk or building water plants according to green walls or green roofs. leakages. But if it occurs, modern technology pro- vides specialists with Electric Field Vector Mapping Conclusion (EFVM)) to locate a leak in the green roof rather than This study demonstrates that urban green infrastruc- the conventional way of removing the entire area of ture (UGI) has excellent potential to address adverse the growing medium (Ismail et al., 2012). Moreover, impacts of urban growth and improve the environ- many pieces of research prove that some greenery mental performance of a building. However, UGI used to cover building fac¸ades (e.g., Hedera spp.) application is limited in developing countries, and protects walls by ameliorating temperature and rela- Jordan is no exception. There is a lack of under- tive humidity extremes (Sternberg et al., 2010 cited standing of the root causes regarding the limited in Chiquetetal., 2013). Extensive green roofs double widespread of UGI in Jordan. This study aims to the life span of the roof system to serve up to highlight the main barriers hindering the adoption 25 years by protecting the waterproof membrane of UGI in urban Jordan. Accordingly, this study from UV, heat and cold waves, and mechanical dam- adopted a mixed approach of qualitative and quan- age (Kosareo & Ries, 2007;Vijayaraghavan, 2016). titative methods to achieve the research’s primary objective. The qualitative nature implies a content Availability of Roof Spaces analysis and a critical literature review of relevant journals, articles, reports, and conference proceed- A quick review of Jordan rooftops shows that most ings. A total of 16 barriers that hinder the applica- roofs are used for solar panels, HVAC mechanical tion of UGI were retrieved from the literature. equipment, solar water heating, or water tanks. Following this, 214 consultants and contractors filled Therefore, green roofs minimize the surface area for and ranked each barrier from being not necessary solar panels and other devices. This barrier has been to extremely important. Research results stressed ranked 14th among other barriers despite the import- that shortages of irrigation water and water scarcity ance of roof space due to the advancement in tech- is the primary and critical barrier that hinders the nologies that makes it possible to merge both green adoption of UGI in urban Jordan. Grey water recy- roofs and Photovoltaic (PV) named Hybrid cling in buildings was suggested to overcome Photovoltaic (PV)-green roofs (Lamnatou & this barrier. Chemisana, 2015). Also, studies well documented that Three areas require further development in this the cooler the temperature, the better PV perform- study—the first area of improvement related to ance (Kaiser et al., 2014). Consequently, green roofs research design and enhancing the generalizability decrease the surface and ambient air temperature and validity of research results. Improvement lies in through the evapo-transpirative mechanism, thus promoting diversity among research respondents to enhancing PV performance (Vijayaraghavan, 2016). involve a variety of respondents’ backgrounds from academics, city planners, real estate developers, and Logistical Barrier city council officials, which will yield more profound Most research respondents believe that ad-hoc con- and richer results. Secondly, and regarding research struction materials and plants for green roofs and analysis tools, adopting a fuzzy-based constrained green walls are available in the Jordanian market optimization approach would yield more accurate (both barriers ranked 15th and 16th, respectively). results than the RRI method as a prioritization The study stressed that various plants in the approach (Mahdiyar et al., 2020). RRI is a conven- Jordanian market are suitable for hot and dry cli- tional type of ranking that provides less accuracy matic conditions and drought tolerance. In addition, than the fuzzy-based constrained optimization most building contractors in Jordan are capable and approach (Mahdiyar et al., 2020). JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE REAL ESTATE 37 as a case study. JES. Journal of Engineering Sciences, 46(6), Notes 738–753. https://doi.org/10.21608/jesaun.2018.115008 Abraham, G. L. (2003). Critical success factors for the con- 1. Sixty-nine percent of total housing units take the form struction industry. In: Molenaar, Keith R. & Paul S. of apartment blocks. Chinowsky. Construction research congress: Wind of change: 2. This is published in a report conducted by Friedrich- Integration and innovation (pp. 1–9). Amer Society of Civil Ebert-Stiftung (FES) office in Amman and Jordan’s Royal Engineers. https://doi.org/10.1061/40671(2003)63 Scientific Society (RSS) in 2013. Akadiri, O. P. (2011). Development of a multi-criteria approach 3. Jordan is classed as a lower middle-income country by for the selection of sustainable materials for building proj- the United Nations (Alawneh et al., 2018). ects. PhD thesis, University of Wolverhampton. 4. LEED Version 1.0 was released in 1998. LEED Green Alawneh, R., Ghazali, F., Ali, H., & Asif, M. (2019). A new index Building Rating System Version 2.0 was launched in March for assessing the contribution of energy efficiency in LEED 2000 after major revisions and upgrades on Version 1.0. 2009 certified green buildings to achieving UN sustainable Afterward, LEED issued Versions 2.1, 2.2, and 3.0 in 2002, development goals in Jordan. International Journal of 2005, and 2009, respectively (Alawneh et al., 2019). Green Energy, 16(6), 490–499. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 5. The Netherlands embassy in Jordan is Jordan’s first 15435075.2019.1584104 LEED certified building (Saidi et al., 2021). Alawneh, R., Ghazali, F. E. M., Ali, H., & Asif, M. (2018). 6. Among this contest, Germany is taking the leadership Assessing the contribution of water and energy efficiency role in promoting UGI in urban areas (Zeadat, 2021; in green buildings to achieve United Nations Sustainable Zhang et al., 2012). In contrast, UGI in cities of the Development Goals in Jordan. 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Critical success fac- ment: Evidence from Jordan [PhD thesis]. University of tors for the construction industry. PM World Journal, 5(8), 1–12. Huddersfield. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Sustainable Real Estate Taylor & Francis

Urban Green Infrastructure in Jordan: A Perceptive of Hurdles and Challenges

Journal of Sustainable Real Estate , Volume 14 (1): 21 – Dec 31, 2022

Urban Green Infrastructure in Jordan: A Perceptive of Hurdles and Challenges

Abstract

Abstract Jordanians live in compact cities with limited green spaces causing several environmental problems that deteriorate the urban quality of life. Many reports and studies demonstrate the benefits of urban green infrastructure (UGI) in overcoming environmental deterioration in compacted cities. Nevertheless, Urban Green Infrastructure is still lagging in many Arab countries, and Jordan is no exception. UGI refers to a strategically planned network of connected greenspace in urban areas,...
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Abstract

JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE REAL ESTATE 2022, VOL. 14, NO. 1, 21–41 ARES https://doi.org/10.1080/19498276.2022.2098589 American Real Estate Society Urban Green Infrastructure in Jordan: A Perceptive of Hurdles and Challenges Zayed F. Zeadat Department of Architecture, American University of Madaba, Madaba, Jordan KEYWORDS ABSTRACT Urban green infrastructure; Jordanians live in compact cities with limited green spaces causing several environmental sustainable urban problems that deteriorate the urban quality of life. Many reports and studies demonstrate development; urban Jordan; the benefits of urban green infrastructure (UGI) in overcoming environmental deterioration Relative Importance Index in compacted cities. Nevertheless, Urban Green Infrastructure is still lagging in many Arab countries, and Jordan is no exception. UGI refers to a strategically planned network of con- nected greenspace in urban areas, such as green walls, green roofs, urban trees, and hedges. This study employs the concept of UGI with a particular focus on green walls and roofs. Therefore, this research aims to investigate and determine the key barriers that impede the implementation of UGI in Jordan through qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative study aims to elaborate on root causes that hinder the application of UGI. The quantitative part of the study employs a questionnaire survey to rank the significance of each barrier. This study finds that the shortage of irrigation water and the absence of incentive programs by local authorities were the top two barriers that impede the applica- tion of UGI in Jordan. Introduction 2014; Simons et al., 2014). North Americans spend roughly 90% of their time inside buildings (Simons Urban agglomerations and buildings have played an et al., 2014). essential part in human civilization, advancement of Consequently, buildings’ negative impact on the life, and economic development (Angelidou, 2015; environment has sparked the interest of both Choi, 2009; Fang & Yu, 2017). The United Nations researchers and policymakers (Khasreen et al., 2009). (UN) predicts that 60% of the world population will A movement toward green buildings, also known as live in cities by 2030 (Ceron-Palma  et al., 2012). In sustainable or high-performance buildings (i.e., the Global South, and particularly in the Arab coun- green buildings), has emerged to tackle concerns tries, over 55% live in urban areas, and projections about buildings’ deteriorating environmental impact show that urbanization is expected to grow to 67% (Simons et al., 2014). Following the U.S. by 2050 (UN-HABITAT, 2012; Zeadat, 2018, p. ii). Environmental Protection Agency (2008), the con- The mushrooming population growth in cities cept of green buildings refers to the process of pru- accompanied by little green and open spaces dently using valuable resources (energy, water, and causes a significant environmental threat affecting materials) throughout the building process (i.e., sit- the health and well-being of urban dwellers (Ceron- ing, design, construction, operation, renovation, and Palma et al., 2012; Hossain et al., 2019). Buildings in reuse of a building). Green buildings address two cities consume more than 30% of total world aspects of the building process: resource efficiency energy and emit 33% of greenhouse (GHG) emis- and the impact of buildings on the environment sions (Alawneh et al., 2018, 2019; Ash et al., 2008; Brooks & McArthur, 2019; Choi, 2009; Mahdiyar (Simons et al., 2014). Choi (2009) added that green et al., 2020; Olaleye & Komolafe, 2015; Tewfik & Ali, development efforts should be holistic to consider CONTACT Zayed F. Zeadat z.zeadat@aum.edu.jo Department of Architecture, American University of Madaba, Madaba, Jordan. 2022 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 22 Z. F. ZEADAT micro (i.e., site, neighborhood) and macro levels method (i.e. questionnaire survey), research method- (i.e., regional) and global levels. Accordingly, the ology, and procedures to ensure research validity built environment and the real estate industry, in and reliability were explained in the following sec- particular, have essential roles to play in addressing tion. The penultimate section highlight research climate change and establishing sustainable and findings and the final section discusses the results. green development (Alawneh et al., 2019; Albaali et al., 2021; Alkhalidi & Aljolani, 2020; Olaleye & Jordanian Real Estate Market Komolafe, 2015; Saidi et al., 2021; Tewfik & The Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan is a Middle Ali, 2014). Eastern developing country with more than 11 mil- Significant advancements in sustainable building lion people (Department of Statistics, Jordan, 2022), construction and technology have occurred in the with over 80% of urban residents (Alawneh et al., last two decades (Simons et al., 2014). For instance, 2018). Jordan has a total land area of 89,297 km ,of urban green infrastructure (UGI) (i.e., green roofs, which 92% is desert or rangeland (Alawneh et al., green walls) is the technology of converting imper- 2018). The country has a diverse landscape, ranging vious concrete surfaces into permeable green surfa- from the Jordan rift valley in the West to the desert ces (Carter & Butler, 2008; Getter & Rowe, 2006; flatlands in the east, with a scattering of modestly Subaskar et al., 2018; Vijayaraghavan, 2016). Russo high mountains (Ali & Al Nsairat, 2009). and Cirella (2018) argued that UGI is essential to Jordan’s urbanization results from a dramatic address detrimental environmental problems in population expansion driven by mass immigration compact cities. and a refugee influx from neighboring countries Despite its benefits, the application of UGI in (Shawabkeh et al., 2019). Amman and Irbid host urban Jordan is still in its infancy. With an area of around 39% and 18% of Jordan’s population, 237.86 km and a population of 4.090 million in respectively (Zeadat, 2018, p. 355). Amman has wit- 2017 (Al-Bilbisi, 2019), only 8.694 km of Amman are nessed a “phenomenal” urban transformation in the green space (Jordan Times, 2019). In other words, second half of the 20th century (Potter et al., 2009). Amman’s green space accounts for only 2.5% of the Amman grew horizontally and vertically within a city’s metropolitan area (Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, 2017). minimal land area (Beauregard & Marpillero- According to the World Health Organization, Colomina, 2011; Potter et al., 2009), hosting 40% of Amman needs to allocate at least 36 km (ideally the total housing stock in Jordan (Alnsour, 2015). Al 200 km ) of its urban area as green space (WHO, Rawashdeh and Saleh (2006) reported that Amman 2012). Accordingly, this research aims to understand urban areas doubled 509 times between 1918 and the root causes that hinder the adoption of UGI in 2002. The Planning Cities, Towns, Villages and real estate. This research supports the argument Buildings Act of 1966, no.79, with its amendments that urban policymakers have a great chance to in 2022, is the legal framework guiding urban incorporate green practices into existing building Jordan development. The Act determined seven operations and management. Incorporating ele- land use categories: residential, car parks, commer- ments of UGI in existing buildings will accelerate cial, industrial, office, and mixed-use development. progress in the area of sustainability, as the oper- The most common land use zones in urban Jordan ation of a building might be even more critical than are residential, roads, and commercial (see Figure 1). building design in terms of sustainability (Miller According to Jordan’s Housing and Urban et al., 2010). Development Corporation (HUDC), the total number The remainder of the paper is organized as fol- lows. The following section provides a brief account of housing units was 1,395,000, and it has risen to of real estate and the status of green buildings in 1,507,322 between 2012 and 2015. Jordan. The research then defines the concept of Typically, the real estate market is a vital industry UGI. Afterwards, the qualitative side of the research and a strong incentive for the growth of emerging is presented, explaining the main barriers found in economies (Alawneh et al., 2018, 2019; the literature that hinder the application of UGI in Apanaviciene et al., 2015). The sector is vital to eco- urban agglomerations. Quantitative data collection nomic progress and the core of environmental and JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE REAL ESTATE 23 56.37 21.66 11.57 6.95 1.21 1.63 0.61 RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL SERVICES PARKS INDUSTRY REFUGEES ROADS CAMP Figure 1. Ratio of land use zones areas of the city of Irbid in 2017 (Shawabkeh et al., 2019). social sustainability (Kongela, 2013). Jordan’s real governmental certification scheme that has gained estate business is regarded as the most lucrative widespread acceptance worldwide (Alawneh et al., industry in the economy (Hamouri, 2020; Zighan, 2019). The program contributed to the evolution of 2016). The Jordanian real estate market boosts eco- a global green building rating system to ensure nomic activity by contributing to GDP, offering job energy efficiency and reduce buildings’ detrimental opportunities, and establishing agile investment effects on the environment (Alawneh et al., 2018). opportunities (Hamouri, 2020). Jordan’s real estate Nevertheless, Jordan has only nine officially certified market contributed 4.4% of the country’s GDP in LEED buildings (Alawneh et al., 2019). 2016, amounting to an additional 1,195.8 million Jordanian dinars (JOD) (Alawneh et al., 2018). From Urban Green Infrastructure (452.3) million Jordanian dinars in 1990 to (1,195.8) Reviewing recent studies from academic literature, million Jordanian dinars in 2015, real estate contin- the application of UGI is becoming increasingly ued its upward growth trend (Hamouri, 2020). popular across the Global North (i.e., Canada, Jordan has three types of construction projects: United States, United Kingdom, and Europe) (X. public civil projects, specialist trades projects, and Chen et al., 2019; Ismail et al., 2018; Vijayaraghavan, housing construction projects (Zighan, 2016). The 2016; Zeadat, 2021; Zhang et al., 2012) and in some traditional procurement route (i.e., design-bid-build) south Asian countries such as Malaysia and Hong is the most construction procurement route in the Kong (Chen et al., 2019; Ismail et al., 2018; Zhang Jordanian construction industry (Odeh & Battaineh, et al., 2012). 2002). The traditional procurement route implies Although the popularity of UGI in the environ- that the owner’s perspective drives construction mental management lexicon (Ezema et al., 2016), projects’ strategic vision and future direction the concept is still fuzzy and subject to multiple (Oyegoke et al., 2009). Property owners use the interpretations (Wright, 2011). The concept refers to most common marketing methods to inform people open spaces, parks, natural areas, green buffers, of their proposals, such as real estate speculators, greenbelts, wildlife habitats, wetlands, forest pre- newspapers, social media, and Open Market website serves, farmlands, and golf courses. Some research- (Haddad, 2019). Jordan’s construction methods util- ers link the concept to merely urban green spaces, ize modern building systems, with concrete, glass, and steel dominating construction materials and urban trees, and hedges designed and managed to deliver a wide range of ecosystem services in urban technology (Ali & Al Nsairat, 2009). areas (Klemm et al., 2017; Koch et al., 2020; Most of Jordan’s green buildings were built Liberalesso et al., 2020; Zhu et al., 2019). under the rubric of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) v2.2 construction Theoretically, Benedict and McMahon (2002) defined standard (Alawneh et al., 2018). LEED is a non- UGI as an urban system of an “interconnected 24 Z. F. ZEADAT Figure 2. Schematics of different green roof components (Vijayaraghavan, 2016, p. 744). network of green space that conserves natural ecosys- vegetation on the impervious roof (Mahdiyar et al., tem values and functions and provides associated 2020; Tam et al., 2016). benefits to human populations” (p. 12 cited in Ezema Typically, green roofs contain several layers such et al., 2016). This research confines the concept of as vegetation, growing medium (i.e., soil consisting UGI to only green roofs and green walls. This study of inorganic matter and organic material), filter fab- considered UGI a vegetated surface in infrastruc- ric supported by a multi-layered waterproofing tures (i.e., bridges, tunnels, and overpass) buildings membrane, root barrier, insulation (i.e., if the build- such as green walls and green roofs (Koch et al., ing is heated or cooled) and drainage layer (see 2020; Liberalesso et al., 2020). Figure 2) (Abdin et al., 2018; Goussous et al., 2015; Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Wong & Lau, 2013). Broadly, two main types of green roofs can be Green Roof distinguished in the literature: extensive green roofs Green rooftop gardens are one of the most effective and intensive green roofs (Brudermann & green city approaches for mitigating the effects of Sangkakool, 2017; Ceron-Palma et al., 2012; growing urbanization and compact cities (Hossain Goussous et al., 2015; Hossain et al., 2019; Mahdiyar et al., 2019; Russo & Cirella, 2018). A planted roof is et al., 2020; Rahman et al., 2013; Subaskar et al., a specialized roofing system that has specific com- 2018; Tam et al., 2016; Wong & Lau, 2013; Zhang ponents and depth installed atop and across a rigid et al., 2012). Other researchers added the classifica- roof structure (Abdin et al., 2018; Al-Zu’bi & tion of semi-intensive green roofs (Berardi et al., Mansour, 2017; Ceron-Palma  et al., 2012; Chen et al., 2014; Chen et al., 2019; Ismail et al., 2010, 2018; 2019; Ezema et al., 2016; Goussous et al., 2015;W. Vijayaraghavan, 2016). A semi-extensive green roof Z. W. Ismail et al., 2010, 2018; Subaskar et al., 2018; system is an intermediate between extensive and Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Zhang et al., 2012). Growing intensive green roofs (X. Chen et al., 2019; Ismail plants on top of buildings is a well-developed tech- et al., 2010; Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Zeadat, 2021). It nology with ancient roots dating back to the resembles the extensive green roof in lighter dead Hanging Gardens of Babylon (Al Jadaa et al., 2019; load with a slightly deeper growing medium (soil). Al-Zu’bi and Mansour, 2017; Subaskar et al., 2018; Table 1 shows a comparison between both main Vijayaraghavan, 2016). Green roofs could hold vari- classifications of green roofs. ous vegetation types and sizes ranging from grass, trees, moss, flowers, lichen, sedum, shrubs, and Green Wall bushes (Subaskar et al., 2018). The concept has many terminologies that have been used inter- The second element of UGI is the green wall. Green changeably in the literature, such as eco-roofs, living walls are often referred to it as vertical greening sys- roofs, sky gardens, roof gardens, or skyrise gardens tems (Koch et al., 2020)orfac¸ade-integrated greenery (Ismail et al., 2010; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Tam et al., (see Figure 2)(Andric et al., 2020). Similar to green 2016). These terminologies point to inserting roofs, green walls have been used for centuries since JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE REAL ESTATE 25 Table 1. Classification of green roofs and their main attributes with supporting literature. Main attributes Extensive Intensive Source Soil depth Relatively thin soil layer ranging Deep soil ranging from 200 mm to Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & between 50 mm and 2,000 mm thick Sangkakool, 2017; Ismail et al., 150 mm thick 2010; Tam et al., 2016; Zhang et al., 2012 Maintenance Often plants are left to grow Ordinary maintenance (i.e., Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & spontaneously, assuming self- weeding, fertigation, and Sangkakool, 2017; Hossain et al., maintenance of the roof watering of the plants). 2019; Ismail et al., 2010; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Tam et al., 2016; Zhang et al., 2012; Water needs Limited or no need for Need for regular irrigation and Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & regular irrigation drainage systems Sangkakool, 2017; Hossain et al., 2019; Tam et al., 2016 Dead load on supporting structure Lightweight (80–150 kg/m ) More significant weight loading Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & (300–1000 kg/m ) that requires Sangkakool, 2017; Chen et al., rigorous structural design 2019; Hossain et al., 2019; Ismail et al., 2010; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Nelms et al., 2005; Rahman et al., 2013; Tam et al., 2016 Capital cost Relatively inexpensive (US$52 to Relatively higher upfront cost Chen et al., 2019; Hossain et al., 2 2 US$128 per m ) (US$128 to US$650 per m ) 2019; Hui, 2010; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Tam et al., 2016; Zhang et al., 2012 Suitability Suitable for building retrofitting due Suitable for newly Ismail et al., 2010; Mahdiyar et al., to their lower weight. Also, it is constructed buildings 2020; Tam et al., 2016 recommended for roofs ranging from 0 to 30% slope Accessibility Usually no access for recreation or Often visually and physically Hossain et al., 2019; Mahdiyar et al., other uses due to the accessible for recreational 2020; Rahman et al., 2013; Tam unavailability of adequate purposes or as an outdoor et al., 2016 infrastructure. open space Utilization Limited for maintenance purposes Diverse roof utilization (i.e., for Hossain et al., 2019; Ismail et al., or thermal insulation purposes recreation, growing food, open 2010; Tam et al., 2016 space), especially in cities with limited green spaces. It could simulate wildlife growth and develop a more complex ecosystem. Types of planted vegetation Can support only small and self- Greater diversity of plants’ sizes and Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & generative plants such as could accommodate trees. Sangkakool, 2017; Hossain et al., cactuses, sedums, small grasses, 2019; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; herbs, flowers, and herbaceous Rahman et al., 2013; Tam et al., plants with a shallow 2016; Zhang et al., 2012 rooting system Thermal insulation Enhancement of roof thermal Enhance insulation properties Ismail et al., 2010; Tam et al., 2016 insulation u-value. Aesthetics It may be visually unattractive due It can be made very attractive Ismail et al., 2010; Tam et al., 2016 to limited maintenance, especially in dry and hot seasons. the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and in the Roman than roof area) (Andric et al., 2020;Koch etal., 2020). and Greek Empires (Collins et al., 2017;Kohler, 2008). Moreover, technical problems are less apparent in The green walls have been used to enhance thermal green walls than in green roofs (Koch et al., 2020). insulations and for esthetical purposes (Andric et al., Generally speaking, there are two types of green 2020). Compared to green roofs, vegetation in a green walls according to their growing type: living wall sys- wall is installed vertically rather than horizontally on tems (LWS) (see Figures 3 and 4) and green facades the building wall. Plants are installed within planter (GF) (see Figure 4) (Cameron et al., 2014; Chiquet boxes inserted into the wall or in a supporting struc- et al., 2013; Collins et al., 2017;K€ohler, 2008 cited in ture (see Figure 3) (Andric et al., 2020; Azkorra et al., Koch et al., 2020). Some researchers added biowalls 2015; Collins et al., 2017; Romanova et al., 2019). as a third designation (Cameron et al., 2014). Biowalls Compared to other UGI elements, green walls have a are used indoors to improve indoor air quality and higher potential to be applied due to the availability control humidity. Green facades are the simplest and of wall surfaces (vertical surfaces are more prominent the cheapest form of green walls where self-adhering 26 Z. F. ZEADAT Figure 3. Schematics of different green wall components (http:perperwww.denory-gw.com). Figure 4. Living green wall module, with plants and empty (Romanova et al., 2019,p. 90). climbing plants (creepers) rooting in the soil cover a elements attached to a wall. Each cell is then filled vertical surface by allowing them to grow freely with soil, and vegetation is planted accordingly. (Andric et al., 2020; Chiquet et al., 2013). On the one Furthermore, an artificial irrigation system is needed hand, covering the desired vertical area may take a to reach the vegetation and supply sufficient water long time, but it requires less maintenance. LWS, in and nutrients. Contrary to GF, the end product can contrast, are costlier and require more significant be seen immediately, but the installation cost and maintenance efforts (Cameron et al., 2014; Koch maintenance are much higher than GF (Perini & et al., 2020). LWS requires installing many cells or Rosasco, 2013 cited in Koch et al., 2020;see compartments (geotextile felts) along steel structural Figure 5). JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE REAL ESTATE 27 Figure 5. Direct green fac¸ade (Koch et al., 2020, p. 2). Advantages and Benefits of UGI F. Chen, 2013; X. Chen et al., 2019; Liberalesso et al., 2020; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Olaleye & Komolafe, There is a plethora of discussion in the academic lit- 2015; Sangkakool et al., 2018; Tewfik & Ali, 2014; erature on environmental planning on the variety of Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Wong & Lau, 2013). High benefits that UGI could bring to the urban context installation and construction cost, compared to con- (Choi, 2009; Hossain et al., 2019; Subaskar et al., ventional roofs, has been reported by many 2018; Zeadat, 2021) (see Table 2). Researchers argue researchers as the most significant barriers to the that the development of UGI in cities runs in paral- adoption of UGI in urban areas (Albaali et al., 2021; lel with sustainable urban development goals, Al Jadaa et al., 2019; Chen, 2013; X. Chen et al., including the economic, social, and environmental 2019; Liberalesso et al., 2020; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; dimensions (Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, 2017). Generally Olaleye & Komolafe, 2015; Sangkakool et al., 2018; speaking, UGI has been used extensively in the Tewfik & Ali, 2014; Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Wong & developed countries of the West to mitigate the Lau, 2013). UGI installation costs could be burden- negative impacts of urban growth and achieve some for some building owners for three main rea- more resilient and sustainable cities (Ding & Knaap, sons (Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Ceron-Palma 2002; Liberalesso et al., 2020; Russo & Cirella, 2018). et al., 2012; Chen et al., 2019; Ezema et al., 2016; While green buildings are rapidly gaining traction Mahdiyar et al., 2020). in most developed countries, the concept and prac- Firstly, the additional cost of design: This includes tice of sustainable construction have yet to establish architectural landscape design and structural design ground in most developing economies (Olaleye & cost of an intensive green roof or living green walls Komolafe, 2015). Understanding and defining root (Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Ngan, 2004; causes is essential to overcoming barriers that hin- Ulubeyli & Arslan, 2017; Chen et al., 2019). der the adoption of UGI in urban areas (Ezema Landscape design is required in the application of et al., 2016; Subaskar et al., 2018; Vijayaraghavan, UGI to determine the types and places of vegeta- tion to be used in UGI (Zeadat, 2021). Also, specific 2016). This section aims to present and discuss bar- structural design is essential for intensive green riers that hinder UGI application found through a roofs due to the heavy dead load of soil and live review of relevant literature. loads (i.e., foot traffic from public use) on build- ing structures. Economic and Fiscal Barriers Secondly, the additional construction cost (Hou & The economic and fiscal barrier is the first and fore- Zhang, 2011; Zhu et al., 2009). Construction cost most barrier that is mentioned extensively in the lit- includes the costs for vegetation (trees, bushes, erature (Albaali et al., 2021; Al Jadaa et al., 2019;C. shrubs) and the costs associated with the trained 28 Z. F. ZEADAT Table 2. Advantages of UGI with its supporting literature barriers that hinder the adoption of UGI in urban areas. Advantages per supporting reference Supporting reference(s) Improve thermal insulation of building Abdin et al., 2018; He et al., 2020; Al Jadaa et al., 2019; Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, 2017; Azkorra et al., 2015; Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Cameron et al., 2014; Chen, 2013; Chen et al., 2019; Chiquet et al., 2013; Coma et al., 2017; Ezema et al., 2016; Goussous et al., 2015; Hossain et al., 2019; Ismail et al., 2012; Khan & Asif, 2017; Koch et al., 2020; Liberalesso et al., 2020; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Rahman et al., 2013; Sangkakool et al., 2018; Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Wong & Lau, 2013; Zhang et al., 2012. Mitigate stormwater runoff in Abdin et al., 2018; Al Jadaa et al., 2019; Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, 2017; Azkorra et al., 2015; Berardi urban areas et al., 2014; Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Cameron et al., 2014; Carter & Fowler, 2008; Chen, 2013; Chen et al., 2019; Chiquet et al., 2013; Ezema et al., 2016; Hossain et al., 2019; Z. Ismail et al., 2012; Koch et al., 2020; Rahman et al., 2013; Sangkakool et al., 2018; Subaskar et al., 2018; Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Zhang et al., 2012. Enhancing ecological and biodiversity Al Jadaa et al., 2019; Andric et al., 2020; Azkorra et al., 2015; Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Ceron-Palma et al., 2012; Chiquet et al., 2013; Collins et al., 2017; Ezema et al., 2016; Hossain et al., 2019; Ismail et al., 2010; Ismail et al., 2012; Koch et al., 2020; Liberalesso et al., 2020; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Zhang et al., 2012. Good stormwater quality in urban areas Hossain et al., 2019; Vijayaraghavan, 2016. Health and well-being of citizens of Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Ezema et al., 2016; Ismail et al., 2010; Liberalesso et al., 2020; urban areas Mahdiyar et al., 2020. Reduce air pollution in urban areas Al Jadaa et al., 2019; Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Cameron et al., 2014; X. Chen et al., 2019; Chiquet et al., 2013; Ezema et al., 2016; Hossain et al., 2019; Ismail et al., 2010; Koch et al., 2020; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Rahman et al., 2013; Sangkakool et al., 2018; Subaskar et al., 2018; Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Zhang et al., 2012. Reducing urban heat island Al Jadaa et al., 2019; Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, 2017; Andric et al., 2020; Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Cameron et al., 2014; Chen et al., 2019; Ezema et al., 2016; Hossain et al., 2019; Ismail et al., 2012; Koch et al., 2020; Liberalesso et al., 2020; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Sangkakool et al., 2018; Subaskar et al., 2018; Tam et al., 2016; Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Wong & Lau, 2013; Zhang et al., 2012. Increase property value Berardi et al., 2014; Liberalesso et al., 2020; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Rahman et al., 2013. Providing career opportunities Chen et al., 2019. Extending roof life Berardi et al., 2014; Vijayaraghavan, 2016. Social benefits (i.e., recreational space) Ismail et al., 2010; Koch et al., 2020; Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Rahman et al., 2013. Improving the acoustical characteristics Azkorra et al., 2015; Berardi et al., 2014; Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Cameron et al., of the surrounding environment 2014; Chiquet et al., 2013; Collins et al., 2017; Ezema et al., 2016; Hossain et al., 2019; Ismail et al., 2010; Ismail et al., 2012; Koch et al., 2020; Liberalesso et al., 2020; Vijayaraghavan, 2016 Improves aesthetics Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, 2017; Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Cameron et al., 2014; Chen, 2013; Chen et al., 2019; Collins et al., 2017; Ezema et al., 2016; Goussous et al., 2015; Ismail et al., 2010; Ismail et al., 2012; Khan & Asif, 2017; Rahman et al., 2013; Subaskar et al., 2018; Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Wong & Lau, 2013 and well-experienced workforce requirement due to a tedious and complicated task. Typically, UGI installation complexity. Also, the additional con- requires frequent drainage checks, pesticides, grass struction cost includes construction material, neces- cuts, and removing dead or undesired plants may be sary layering, and supporting infrastructure necessary. Also, fertilizers and irrigation are often (Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Ceron-Palma needed in regions with long, hot, and dry summer et al., 2012; Mahdiyar et al., 2020). seasons (Chen et al., 2019;Mahdiyar etal., 2020; Thirdly, operation and maintenance costs. Sangkakool et al., 2018; Vijayaraghavan, 2016). Generally speaking, the lifecycle cost depends on the type of UGI: extensive or intensive green roof, living Building’s Primary Stakeholder Perception wall system or green facades. Intensive and semi- Generally, primary stakeholders in construction proj- intensive green roofs and living walls need additional ects are driven by economics, not altruism, when maintenance, administration, and operation investing in green real estate (Miller et al., 2010; (Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Chen et al., 2019; Olaleye & Komolafe, 2015). Primary stakeholders Hou & Zhang, 2011;Tewfik & Ali, 2014;Ulubeyli & are more concerned about the cost of retrofitting or Arslan, 2017; Vijayaraghavan, 2016). It is worth adding installing UGI elements in buildings and how this disposal costs at the end of the roof’s lifetime, includ- would affect their bottom line. The conservative ing dismantling and removing multiple layers and attitude of real estate developers and building own- transporting them to landfills (Vijayaraghavan, 2016). Chen et al. (2019) and Ismail et al. (2012) described ers in developing nations would result in minimal maintaining intensive or semi-intensive green roofs as interest in implementing UGI (Olaleye & Komolafe, JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE REAL ESTATE 29 2015). New construction processes, alternative tech- in cities of developing nations (Ismail et al., 2018; nologies, materials, material recycling, waste man- Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Brooks & McArthur, 2019). agement, and green building systems are rarely Logistical barrier entails the unavailability of ad-hoc kept by contractors and builders in developing construction material in the local market or/and lim- nations (Tewfik & Ali, 2014). ited vegetation suitable to the climatic condition of Primary stakeholders have a strong influence on the region. However, Bond and Perrett (2012) and decisions related to the adoption of new construc- Shen et al. (2017) argued that logistical shortcom- tion technology (Choi, 2009). On the supply side, pri- ings have a minimal impact, and thus this barrier is mary stakeholders bring a wide range of green considered insignificant in many studies (cited in building design techniques and construction Brooks & McArthur, 2019, p. 137). approaches to the market, making green real estate development appealing to the private sector (Simons Availability of Roof Space et al., 2014). On the demand side, owners consider Many researchers stressed the unavailability or lim- investing in green real estate for various economic, ited roof space as a barrier to adopting green roofs productivity, environmental, and social benefits (Ceron-Palma et al., 2012; Mahdiyar et al.,2020; (Simons et al., 2014, 2017;Zeadat, 2021). Therefore, Vijayaraghavan, 2016; Wong & Lau, 2013). In add- their perception and acceptance are critical in apply- ition to the building’s multi-ownership hurdle, ing UGI. It is worth mentioning that lack of interest applying a green roof might constrain the usage of and support is to be found in potential adopters and Photovoltaic (PV) solar panels, water tanks, and other building primary stakeholders due to limited HVAC utilities on rooftops. awareness and knowledge of the benefits of UGI (see Table 2) (Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Chen et al., 2019;Ezema et al., 2016; Ismail et al., 2018; Shortage of Irrigation Water Mahdiyar et al., 2020;Wong & Lau, 2013). Researchers highlighted the difficulty of using UGI in hot and dry regions in most Arab cities (Attia & Absence of Incentives Policies Mahmoud, 2009;Schweitzer & Erell, 2014). Harsh cli- matic conditions and low precipitations in most Arab Five central incentive policies have been used world- urban areas make it difficult to adopt intensive green wide to promote the adoption of UGI (Zeadat, 2021). roofs and LWS. Moderate to high levels of precipita- These are indirect and direct financial incentives poli- tions are essential to the success and durability of cies, obligations by law, supporting scientific research UGI (Ascione et al., 2013; Berardi et al., 2014; and granting context-based sustainability certificates Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Tam et al., 2016). Andric et al. (Zeadat, 2021). Lack of political support offered by (2020) and Mahdiyar et al. (2020)argued the impact the central government and the absence of suitable of global warming on the durability and sustainability legislation at the local level is considered one of the of vegetation planted on green walls and green roofs top barriers to UGI implementation (Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, 2017; Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; due to prolonged and frequent heat waves. Ezema et al., 2016; Ismail et al., 2018; Mahdiyar et al., 2020). Vijayaraghavan (2016)believes that policy- Risk of Damages to Buildings makers have a vital role in the success of UGI by Green walls and green roofs have often been stig- enacting legislation that promotes the application of matized as destructive to building envelopes and UGI. Urban policymakers have the power to clear impaired building structures and utilities (Chen common doubts and the ability to issue exemptions et al., 2019; Shafique et al., 2018; Tabatabaee et al., to reduce building fees and taxes. 2019). For instance, climbing plants on a green fac¸ade have damaged mortar and brick surfaces Logistical Barrier caused by the plant attachment mechanism (Andric Many researchers have reported logistical shortcom- et al., 2020; Chen et al., 2019; Chiquet et al., 2013). ings as a barrier that hinders the application of UGI Also, concerns associated with intensive green roofs 30 Z. F. ZEADAT include possible damages resulting from erosion, analysis information of green features (Choi, 2009). clogged drainage layers, and filter layer leakage. It Without this information, primary stakeholders will has been reported that the roots of invasive trees find it difficult to justify the often-higher upfront planted on top of a green roof could cause damage cost of UGI (Choi, 2009). The lack of scientific data to the root barrier layer, causing water leakage to implies that primary stakeholders are likely to have buildings (Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Ismail concerns about UGI results and benefits (Olaleye & et al., 2010; Sangkakool et al., 2018). Leaking prob- Komolafe, 2015). Knowledge gab is often associated lems in green roofs are difficult to identify and with the dearth of adequate scientific research. The more expensive to repair (Ismail et al., 2012). dearth of local research on practical UGI design Conventionally, contractors identify leaking in green issues, particularly in developing countries, under- roofs by removing a large amount of growing mines the evolvement of technical codes for UGI media to expose the membrane to locate the leak systems (Al Jadaa et al., 2019; Hui, 2010). The main (Ismail et al., 2012). obstacle that impedes the advancement of scientific Moreover, researchers listed fire risk (tall and research is the lack of scientific data and simulation dried grasses are often considered a fire hazard), cli- models (Ceron-Palma et al., 2012; Ismail et al., 2018; mate and PESTs, and weed spread as concerns over Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Sangkakool et al., 2018). the safety of buildings among property owners in case of improper management and lack of inspec- Unavailability of Skilled Labor or Qualified tion on green roof systems, particularly in multi- Contractors ownership properties (Chen et al., 2019; Rahman et al., 2013; Subaskar et al., 2018). A critical barrier is a lack of experience and qualified human resources for either UGI design, implementa- tion, or maintenance (Al Jadaa et al., 2019; Chen Absence of UGI Construction Codes and Standards et al., 2019; Ezema et al., 2016; Hossain et al., 2019; Abuilding code isasetof rules that establish built Mahdiyar et al., 2020). The unavailability of qualified items’ requirements in construction projects. Building architects and construction firms would elongate the codes and standards are often designed to fit the project schedule (Choi, 2009). Delays frequently result nature of conventional buildings (Choi, 2009). in increased risks and cost overruns, which many Generally, the construction industry provides limited developers would want to avoid, given their limited technical standards or specifications for green build- budgets and timelines (Choi, 2009). Developing ings (Chen et al., 2019;Tewfik & Ali, 2014;Wark & nations often face the limited availability of skilled Wark, 2003; Zhang et al., 2012). Without established labor, causing a cumbersome growth of UGI in the and recognized standards and codes, the benefits of building industry (Ceron-Palma et al., 2012; Ismail UGI cannot be fully appreciated (Wark & Wark, 2003). et al., 2018;Mahdiyar et al., 2020; Subaskar et al., The absence of local code or technical guidelines hin- 2018). A lack of professionalism and knowledge gap ders the practical and precise application of UGI ele- might lead to poorly implemented green roof proj- ments in buildings (Hui, 2010). Contractors and ects and discredit green roofs and green walls consultants alike may be reluctant to adopt elements among the building construction community and the of UGIin their projectsdue to alack of consolidated public (Sangkakool et al., 2018). standards and regulations for designing and installing green roof systems. The lack of consolidated standards and regulations for designing and installing green roof Research Design systems is associated with the limited number of This research is an exploratory study. It incorporates research and studies in this area (Al Jadaa et al., 2019). both qualitative and quantitative research strategies to enhance the validity and reliability of research Inadequate Research and Knowledge Gap findings (i.e., triangulation) (see Table 3) (Okopi, One of the most noted hurdles to UGI application is 2021). Six steps have been followed to justify and the lack of reliable performance and cost-benefits validate research results (see Table 3). JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE REAL ESTATE 31 Table 3. Sequential diagram of studies methodologies. Importance Index (RRI). RRI is a reliable technique Step 1 Identifying barriers to UGI application for analyzing structured questionnaires with ordinal Step 2 Questionnaire survey preparation measurement of attitudes (Abraham, 2003; Dixit Step 3 Questionnaire distribution and collection of feedback Step 4 Analysis of data using RRI. and Cronbach’s alpha et al., 2019; Durdyev et al., 2012; Huo et al., 2018; Step 5 Discussion of survey results Step 6 Conclusion and recommendations Sodangi et al., 2014). The importance of RRI lies in the ability to “[find] the contribution a particular vari- able makes to the prediction of a criterion variable In the beginning, an extensive literature review both by itself and in combination with other predictor identified barriers to adopting UGI in urban areas. variables” (Somiah et al., 2015, p. 120). This study Secondary data were gathered from academic adopted Akadiri’s(2011, p. 239) classification guide articles,textbooks,published journals,and of RRI to determine the level of impact for each bar- research books of conference proceedings. rier on the adoption of UGI in urban Jordan (see However, the identified barriers may not apply to Table 5). the Jordanian context since it is prone to differen- cesin legislative,operational,and cultural issues Validity and Reliability of the Quantitative Study (Brudermann & Sangkakool, 2017; Hossain et al., 2019;W.Z.W.Ismail etal., 2018; Liberalesso et al., When items form a scale (i.e., Likert scale), it is vital 2020;Mahdiyar etal., 2020). Therefore, it is funda- to ensure their reliability (Jarkas et al., 2015; Pallant, mental to engage well-informed Jordanian consul- 2013, chapter 9; Shah et al., 2021; Tsiga et al., 2016). tants and contractors to evaluate barriers to UGI Reliability of scale is used to “calculate the stability implementation. A self-administered survey was of a scale from the internal consistency of an item by conducted between November and December measuring the construct” (Santos, 1999, cited in 2021 (see Table 4). Each question in the question- Tsiga et al., 2016, p. 6). The alpha coefficient ranges naire was phrased and checked for clarity of from 0 to 1, whereby the greater the value is con- expression. In order to avoid ambiguity and ensure sidered more reliable for the study (Shah et al., objectivity, each question was available in both 2021; Nunnaly, 1978 cited in Jarkas et al., 2015). A Arabic and English. Before being distributed, a minimum value of 0.5 is considered to validate the pilot survey was conducted with ten selected con- consistency and reliability of the data collected tractors and consultants to enhance the integrity (Shah et al., 2021), while others believe that the and clarity of the questionnaire. Feedback from Cronbach alpha coefficient should be above .7 (Huo the pilot survey was reflected in the design before et al., 2018; Kazaz et al., 2016). This study reported the final distribution. the Cronbach alpha coefficient of .781 for the scale Research respondents were asked to give opin- measuring barriers. Accordingly, the current study ions on each barrier’s relative significance according reported an excellent Cronbach alpha coefficient, to the Jordanian context. The Likert scale has been thus ensuring the scale’s internal consistency. used to collect consultants’ and contractors’ opin- Pearson’s correlation coefficient was employed to ions in value of 1 (not important) to 5 (extremely ensure the research results’ validity. The Pearson important) for the significance of barriers. A ques- correlation value of the twelve items exceeds the tionnaire survey has been distributed through sev- set critical value of .13, which is significant (less eral methods like a hard copy, email, Google forms than the p value of .05). and in-person interviews. A total of 120 consultants It is worth mentioning that this study employed and 83 contractors registered in the Jordanian the Spearman Rank Correlation coefficient to test Engineers Syndicate and Jordanian Contractors the strength of agreement between the rankings of Association, respectively, completed the research contractors and consultants for each barrier (Odeh questionnaire, out of which 65.02% had more than & Battaineh, 2002). In other words, it reveals if there 20 years of experience working in either building is agreement or disagreement among contractors design or construction in Jordan. and consultants on their respective rankings to bar- Data are then gathered and analyzed through a riers. The higher value of r (approaching 1) indi- non-parametric technique called the Relative cates a strong agreement between contractors and 32 Z. F. ZEADAT Table 4. Research questionnaire. Barriers Not important Slighlty important Moderately important Strongly important Extremely important Additional cost of design (structural and ww w w w architectural design) Additional cost of construction materials ww w w w and plants Lifecycle cost (i.e., operation, ww w w w maintenance, disposal) Weak public appreciation ww w w w Lack of interest and support by building owners ww w w w Absence of incentive programs by municipalities ww w w w Lack of political support offered by the ww w w w central government Unavailability of ad-hoc construction material in ww w w w the local market Lack of plants for green walls and green roofs ww w w w convenient to Jordan’s climate Limited availability of roof space ww w w w Irrigation water shortage ww w w w Hot and dry climate of Jordan during most ww w w w months of the year Unavailability of skilled labor and contractors to ww w w w construct green roofs or green walls Dearth of local scientific research ww w w w Risk of damages to the building (water ww w w w leakages, structural failure, fire) Absence of industry codes and regulations ww w w w and believed that UGI is applicable in Jordan. Table 5. Classification guide to determine the importance level of RII. Research findings reveal that lack of irrigation water is RRI values Importance level the most critical barrier that hinders UGI application in 0.8 RII  1 High (H) urban Jordan, while the lack of plants for UGI conveni- 0.6 RII < 0.8 High–medium (H-M) 0.4 RII < 0.6 Medium (M) ent to Jordan’s climate is considered by research par- 0.2 RII < 0.4 Medium–low (M-L) ticipants as the least effective barrier (see Table 6). 0 RII < 0.2 Low consultants to rank the causes of delays. Microsoft Irrigation Water Shortage Excel was used to calculate Spearman correlation Lack of irrigation water ranked first by both consul- coefficients, which resulted in the value of .5941. According to Cohen (1988, pp. 79–81), this indicates tants and contractors. Water shortage is a severe challenge in Jordan, a problem that severely a very good agreement between the two groups. impacts every business that depends on water to Furthermore, the association among the rankings continue operating and succeeding (Alawneh et al., of consultants and contractors is checked by 2018;Albaalietal., 2020;Ali & Al Nsairat, 2009; hypothesis testing at a significance level of 95%, by which the p value is equal to .05. This study calcu- Hadadin et al., 2010). Jordan’swater shortage is the most significant constraint to the country’s lated the p value using Excel by implementing the TDIST function. The reported p value in this study is growth and development, as water plays an essen- tial role in food production, health, urban resident equal to .015, meaning that the null hypothesis is welfare, survival, and social and economic develop- rejected and a significant positive correlation ment (Ali & Al Nsairat, 2009). Jordan is listed between the ranks of contractors and consultants is among the world’spoorest countriesdue to the demonstrated. lack of adequate rainfall and scarce natural water resources (Goussous et al., 2015; Hossain et al., Results and Discussion 2019). Jordan’s acute water deficit is caused by a Research participants (96.7%) believe that urban scarcity of natural surface water resources and lin- Jordan needs to apply UGI and would like to see gering droughts affecting the country (Ali & Al more green roofs and walls as part of building facili- Nsairat, 2009;Al-Zu’bi and Mansour, 2017). Jordan ties. However, 85.85% of participants were optimistic is classified as a semiarid to arid region, with JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE REAL ESTATE 33 Table 6. Barriers that hinder UGI application in urban Jordan with descriptive statistics. Standard RII level of SN Factor Mean Minimum Maximum deviation Overall RII importance Overall rank Consultant’s RII Consultant rank Contractor’s RII Contractor rank 1 Irrigation water shortage 4.33 1 5 .959 0.8669 High 1 0.8764 1 0.8539 3 2 Absence of incentive programs by municipalities (i.e., 4.19 2 5 .877 0.8377 High 2 0.7967 4 0.8943 1 local government) 3 Lack of political support offered by the 4.09 1 5 .854 0.8179 High 3 0.7902 6 0.8561 2 central government 4 Lack of interest and support by building owners and 4.01 1 5 1.115 0.8018 High 4 0.8130 3 0.7865 6 real estate developers 5 Lifecycle cost (i.e., operation, maintenance, disposal) 3.98 1 5 .887 0.7962 High–medium 5 0.8390 2 0.7370 7 6 Absence of industry code and regulations 3.97 1 5 1.085 0.79433 High–medium 6 0.7804 8 0.8134 4 7 Dearth of scientific local research 3.81 1 5 1.056 0.7622 High–medium 7 0.7300 12 0.8067 5 8 Risk of damages to building (water leakages, structural 3.80 1 5 1.085 0.7594 High–medium 8 0.7951 5 0.7101 10 failure, fire, … etc.) 9 Additional cost of construction materials and plants 3.75 1 5 1.204 0.7490 High–medium 9 0.7821 7 0.7033 12 10 Hot and dry climate of Jordan during most months 3.67 1 5 1.194 0.7349 High–medium 10 0.7463 11 0.7191 9 of year 11 Additional cost of design (structural and 3.66 1 5 .858 0.7311 High–medium 11 0.7756 9 0.6696 13 architectural design) 12 Weak public appreciation 3.65 1 5 1.137 0.7292 High–medium 12 0.7284 13 0.7303 8 13 Unavailability of skilled Labor and contractors to 3.54 1 5 1.149 0.7075 High–medium 13 0.7560 10 0.6404 16 construct Green roofs or green walls 14 limited availability of roof space 3.51 1 5 1.059 0.7028 High–medium 14 0.6991 15 0.7078 11 15 Unavailability of ad-hoc construction material in the 3.44 1 5 1.140 0.6886 High–medium 15 0.7073 14 0.6629 14 local market 16 Lack of plants for green walls and green roofs 3.29 .968 0.6584 High–medium 16 0.6601 16 0.6561 15 convenient to Jordan’s climate that is available in the local market 34 Z. F. ZEADAT annual rainfall ranging from 134 to 200 mm over rate, density bonus) are the most effective incentive 92% of its geographical area (Alawneh et al., 2018), policy to promote UGI in Jordan. putting Jordan in the category of an absolute water deficit (Ali & Al Nsairat, 2009). Reflecting the Building’s Primary Stakeholder Perception climatic condition and scarceness of water resour- In order to achieve sustainable development, aware- ces, a significant issue for Amman landscape main- ness about the benefits of UGI among primary tenance is irrigation water supply (Potter et al., stakeholders is critical for its application (Rahman 2009). As a result of population expansion, access- et al., 2013). Mahdiyar et al. (2020) argued that ible water resources per capita are expected to building owners are the least informed and experi- declinefrom less than160m /capita/year to enced about sustainable options among the con- around 90 m /capita/year by 2025. Karteris et al., struction stakeholders. Many research respondents (2016) argued the possibility of successfully adopt- agreed that building owners need to be convinced ing UGI in deserted and semiarid regions such as that the green roof or green walls bring various the Mediterranean basin. Average precipitations in benefits to buildings per se and their surroundings. Amman are as low as 276 mm (Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, For instance, a green roof elongates the life span of 2017) per annum, which is considered very low the waterproofing membrane, thus saving cost in compared to many European and North American the long run (Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, 2017; Ismail et al., cities that adopted the model of UGI in urban 2010; Subaskar et al., 2018). Chen et al. (2019) and areas. However, Mahdiyar et al. (2020) and Karteris Goussous et al. (2015) saw that building clients et al. (2016) agreed that the adoption of UGI is could be convinced through the lifecycle cost-bene- possibleinthe Mediterranean basin. Andric et al. fit from energy savings and rainwater reuse. (2020)and Al-Zu’bi and Mansour (2017)suggested Moreover, the development of UGI is still in its the plantation of native plants (dry-tolerant spe- infancy stage, and the public in Jordan may lack cies) and recycling greywater from the building to knowledge and awareness about the benefits of irrigate green roofs and living green walls. UGI and its feasibility in Jordan (weak public appre- Greywater is waste water from non-toileted plumb- ciation). Changing the mentality and perception of ing systems such as hand basin, laundry, showers, primary stakeholders regarding green building tech- and kitchen activities and typically account for nologies is very important to the widespread of 65–90% of the domestic wastewater production green roofs and green walls projects. Although this (Vijayaraghavan, 2016). barrier has been ranked 12th by research respond- ents, this study argues the necessity of culture culti- Lack of Political Support Offered by Planning vation among Jordanians to ensure widespread Authorities adoption of green building principles in general and Although the limited green spaces in urban Jordan, UGI in specific. Without the support from the public, UGI, or other green building elements have not particularly building primary stakeholders, the devel- received profound support from local, regional and opment of UGI in urban Jordan will be stagnant or national governments. As a result of Jordan’s utili- cumbersome, leading to distrust among potential tarian approach to governance, local authorities adopters. Moreover, this study suggests further have insufficient incentive programs and move- research to examine building users’ willingness to ments to encourage green building technology and pay (WTP) for green buildings in Jordan. UGI (Al-Asad & Emtaireh, 2011 cited in Al-Zu’bi & Mansour, 2017). The absence of political support Economic and Fiscal Barriers from the central and local governments is more Additional construction cost and the cost of the apparent in developing countries as governmental authorities are still unable to apprehend the variety structural and architectural design of UGI has been of benefits of UGI. According to Zeadat (2021), indir- ranked the first and most significant barrier in many ect financial incentives (i.e., tax reductions, reduc- countries (Al Jadaa et al., 2019; Chen, 2013; Chen tion in stormwater utility fee, reduction of interest et al., 2019; Liberalesso et al., 2020; Mahdiyar et al., JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE REAL ESTATE 35 2020; Sangkakool et al., 2018; Vijayaraghavan, 2016; For instance, two studies have partially addressed Wong & Lau, 2013). On the contrary, according to this topic in the Jordanian context (Al-Zu’bi & the Jordanian context, research respondents ranked Mansour, 2017; Goussous et al., 2015), but no the earlier barrier as the 9th most significant hurdle, research has been found to discover its full potential while the latter ranked 11th. This research demon- in Jordan. In order to fill this gap, this study contrib- strates the erroneous belief that the cost and finan- utes to a more systematic understanding of those cial risks of UGI construction outweigh its benefits. factors, which are important constraints that impede Both Kats (2013) and Morris and Langdon (2007) the spread of green roofs and green walls in Jordan. argued that green buildings cost around 2% extra to build than conventional buildings, which is insig- Absence of UGI Construction Codes and Standards nificant compared to the benefits of UGI, as demon- It is of strategic importance to bear in mind the strated in empirical investigations. Moreover, legislative and operational context of the Jordanian Langdon (2007 cited in Miller et al., 2010) examines built environment for developing context-based UGI construction costs in New York City for 38 high-rise standards and guidelines. This study stressed that residential buildings and 25 commercial interiors, organizations, municipalities, and countries should and he noticed that the cost difference for new develop guidelines, manuals, and codes for green structures is less than 1%. walls and green roofs systems to suit their needs Literature highlights many architectural, struc- and circumstances. Authorities of Jordan can adopt tural, and mechanical arrangements that need to be and adapt codes and standards from counties with considered when designing green roofs or green well-established systems and a long history of suc- walls (Chen et al., 2019). Unlike designing the con- cessful UGI implementation. Ismail et al. (2012) and ventional roofing system of reinforced concrete Hui (2010) reported that some countries such as coarse (RCC), which is familiar to most consultants Germany, Canada, Japan, Australia, UAE, UK, and the and contractors in Jordan, the concept of UGI is USA had developed their standards and guidelines nascent worldwide and requires more sophisticated concerning green roof and green walls systems. considerations such as (structural analysis, water- The “Jordan Green Building Guide” was published proof engineering, and irrigation design (Chen et al., in 2013, covering seven areas: green building manage- 2019). Thus a higher design fee is required when ment, site sustainability, water efficiency requirements, designing a green roof or green wall. energy efficiency requirements, healthy indoor envir- In Jordan, maintenance of UGI is another critical onment, materials and resources (Tewfik & Ali, 2014). barrier that concerns building owners and facility Construction practices and technology in Jordan managers in Jordan. Among other economic bar- riers, operations and maintenance costs have been should implement the aforementioned guiding princi- ples and be culminated into a code. Adopting Jordan ranked fifth. Multi-ownership of most of the build- Green Building Guide would promote building con- ing’s roofs in Jordan makes it even harder to admin- struction standards and practice, thus delivering a sig- ister the maintenance cost. The durability of nificant shift and reform of building rules. Moreover, extensive roofs or green living walls requires fre- Jordan Green Building Guide could play an essential quent maintenance to ensure durability. role in laying out a clear path for Jordan’s green building rating system (Albaali et al., 2021). Inadequate Research and Knowledge Gap Since each country has its climatic condition and Risk of Physical Damages to Buildings form of urbanization, local research is of utmost Many contractors and consultants comment on water importance for the success of green building and leakage due to improper design and lousy finishing UGI (Vijayaraghavan, 2016). The last two decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in the publica- quality. Although still possible, this barrier did not tion rate regarding UGI in the Global North (Tam receive much attention and ranked 8th among et al., 2016). In comparison, limited studies have research respondents. This study agreed with been done from the perspective of the Arab region. Brudermann and Sangkakool (2017) that any roof 36 Z. F. ZEADAT would possibly leak, but the risk to building’sstruc- equipped to offer UGI once Jordanian authorities ture as a barrier is an issue that belongs to the past enact its codes and standards. However, the problem and is not very relevant in well-managed construc- revolves around the limited number of professional tion projects. Proper design and professional installa- landscape architects to advise selecting suitable tion could avoid structural risk or building water plants according to green walls or green roofs. leakages. But if it occurs, modern technology pro- vides specialists with Electric Field Vector Mapping Conclusion (EFVM)) to locate a leak in the green roof rather than This study demonstrates that urban green infrastruc- the conventional way of removing the entire area of ture (UGI) has excellent potential to address adverse the growing medium (Ismail et al., 2012). Moreover, impacts of urban growth and improve the environ- many pieces of research prove that some greenery mental performance of a building. However, UGI used to cover building fac¸ades (e.g., Hedera spp.) application is limited in developing countries, and protects walls by ameliorating temperature and rela- Jordan is no exception. There is a lack of under- tive humidity extremes (Sternberg et al., 2010 cited standing of the root causes regarding the limited in Chiquetetal., 2013). Extensive green roofs double widespread of UGI in Jordan. This study aims to the life span of the roof system to serve up to highlight the main barriers hindering the adoption 25 years by protecting the waterproof membrane of UGI in urban Jordan. Accordingly, this study from UV, heat and cold waves, and mechanical dam- adopted a mixed approach of qualitative and quan- age (Kosareo & Ries, 2007;Vijayaraghavan, 2016). titative methods to achieve the research’s primary objective. The qualitative nature implies a content Availability of Roof Spaces analysis and a critical literature review of relevant journals, articles, reports, and conference proceed- A quick review of Jordan rooftops shows that most ings. A total of 16 barriers that hinder the applica- roofs are used for solar panels, HVAC mechanical tion of UGI were retrieved from the literature. equipment, solar water heating, or water tanks. Following this, 214 consultants and contractors filled Therefore, green roofs minimize the surface area for and ranked each barrier from being not necessary solar panels and other devices. This barrier has been to extremely important. Research results stressed ranked 14th among other barriers despite the import- that shortages of irrigation water and water scarcity ance of roof space due to the advancement in tech- is the primary and critical barrier that hinders the nologies that makes it possible to merge both green adoption of UGI in urban Jordan. Grey water recy- roofs and Photovoltaic (PV) named Hybrid cling in buildings was suggested to overcome Photovoltaic (PV)-green roofs (Lamnatou & this barrier. Chemisana, 2015). Also, studies well documented that Three areas require further development in this the cooler the temperature, the better PV perform- study—the first area of improvement related to ance (Kaiser et al., 2014). Consequently, green roofs research design and enhancing the generalizability decrease the surface and ambient air temperature and validity of research results. Improvement lies in through the evapo-transpirative mechanism, thus promoting diversity among research respondents to enhancing PV performance (Vijayaraghavan, 2016). involve a variety of respondents’ backgrounds from academics, city planners, real estate developers, and Logistical Barrier city council officials, which will yield more profound Most research respondents believe that ad-hoc con- and richer results. Secondly, and regarding research struction materials and plants for green roofs and analysis tools, adopting a fuzzy-based constrained green walls are available in the Jordanian market optimization approach would yield more accurate (both barriers ranked 15th and 16th, respectively). results than the RRI method as a prioritization The study stressed that various plants in the approach (Mahdiyar et al., 2020). RRI is a conven- Jordanian market are suitable for hot and dry cli- tional type of ranking that provides less accuracy matic conditions and drought tolerance. In addition, than the fuzzy-based constrained optimization most building contractors in Jordan are capable and approach (Mahdiyar et al., 2020). JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE REAL ESTATE 37 as a case study. JES. Journal of Engineering Sciences, 46(6), Notes 738–753. https://doi.org/10.21608/jesaun.2018.115008 Abraham, G. L. (2003). Critical success factors for the con- 1. Sixty-nine percent of total housing units take the form struction industry. In: Molenaar, Keith R. & Paul S. of apartment blocks. Chinowsky. Construction research congress: Wind of change: 2. This is published in a report conducted by Friedrich- Integration and innovation (pp. 1–9). Amer Society of Civil Ebert-Stiftung (FES) office in Amman and Jordan’s Royal Engineers. https://doi.org/10.1061/40671(2003)63 Scientific Society (RSS) in 2013. Akadiri, O. P. (2011). Development of a multi-criteria approach 3. Jordan is classed as a lower middle-income country by for the selection of sustainable materials for building proj- the United Nations (Alawneh et al., 2018). ects. PhD thesis, University of Wolverhampton. 4. LEED Version 1.0 was released in 1998. LEED Green Alawneh, R., Ghazali, F., Ali, H., & Asif, M. (2019). A new index Building Rating System Version 2.0 was launched in March for assessing the contribution of energy efficiency in LEED 2000 after major revisions and upgrades on Version 1.0. 2009 certified green buildings to achieving UN sustainable Afterward, LEED issued Versions 2.1, 2.2, and 3.0 in 2002, development goals in Jordan. International Journal of 2005, and 2009, respectively (Alawneh et al., 2019). Green Energy, 16(6), 490–499. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 5. The Netherlands embassy in Jordan is Jordan’s first 15435075.2019.1584104 LEED certified building (Saidi et al., 2021). Alawneh, R., Ghazali, F. E. M., Ali, H., & Asif, M. (2018). 6. Among this contest, Germany is taking the leadership Assessing the contribution of water and energy efficiency role in promoting UGI in urban areas (Zeadat, 2021; in green buildings to achieve United Nations Sustainable Zhang et al., 2012). In contrast, UGI in cities of the Development Goals in Jordan. Building and Environment, Global South and the Arab region, in particular, is 146, 119–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.09. sparse and needs further development (Attia & Mahmoud, 2009; Blank et al., 2013). Albaali, G., Shahateet, M., Al-Naif, K., Altayeb, S., & Saidi, A. G. 7. According to Kamalirad et al. (2017), business (2020). Examining the economic impact of renewable stakeholders, hence building construction, are classified energy in green buildings: A case study of Jordan. into either primary or secondary stakeholders. Primary International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 10(6), stakeholders include building developers, owners and 31. https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.9947 property managers, architects, and construction Albaali, G., Shahateet, M. I., Daoud, H. E., & Saidi, A. G. (2021). companies. 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Journal

Journal of Sustainable Real EstateTaylor & Francis

Published: Dec 31, 2022

Keywords: Urban green infrastructure; sustainable urban development; urban Jordan; Relative Importance Index

References