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Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties

Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in... HBRC Journal (2012) 8, 193–203 Housing and Building National Research Center HBRC Journal http://ees.elsevier.com/hbrcj Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties a b, a Omar M. Omar , Ghada D. Abd Elhameed , Mohamed A. Sherif , Hassan A. Mohamadien Department of Civil Construction and Architecture, Faculty of Industrial Education, Suez, Egypt Building Materials Research and Quality Control Institute, Housing and Building National Research Center, Egypt Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Suez Canal University, Egypt Received 14 May 2012; accepted 10 June 2012 KEYWORDS Abstract Green concrete are generally composed of recycling materials as hundred or partial percent substitutes for aggregate, cement, and admixture in concrete. Limestone waste is obtained as a by- Hardened concrete product during the production of aggregates through the crushing process of rocks in rubble crusher properties; LSW; units. Using quarry waste as a substitute of sand in construction materials would resolve the environ- Marble powder; mental problems caused by the large-scale depletion of the natural sources of river and mining sands. Concrete This paper reports the experimental study undertaken to investigate the influence of partial replace- ment of sand with limestone waste (LSW), with marble powder (M.P) as an additive on the concrete properties. The replacement proportion of sand with limestone waste, 25%, 50%, and 75% were prac- ticed in the concrete mixes except in the concrete mix. Besides, proportions of 5%, 10% and 15% mar- ble powder were practiced in the concrete mixes. The effects of limestone waste as fine aggregate on several fresh and hardened properties of the concretes were investigated. The investigation included testing of compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, and permeability. It was found that limestone waste as fine aggregate enhanced the slump test of the fresh concretes. But the unit weight concretes were not affected. However, the good performance was observed when limestone waste as fine aggregate was used in presence of marble powder. ª 2012 Housing and Building National Research Center. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Introduction Corresponding author. In recent years, green concrete has draws serious attention of E-mail address: ghadadiaa1@yahoo.com (G.D. Abd Elhameed). researchers and investigators because a concept of thinking Peer review under responsibility of Housing and Building National environment (Environmentally friendly). The materials used Research Center. in the production of concrete poses the problem of acute short- age in many areas. That there are many wastes of some indus- tries and quarries can be used as hundred or partial percent Production and hosting by Elsevier substitutes for concrete materials. 1687-4048 ª 2012 Housing and Building National Research Center. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hbrcj.2012.10.005 194 O.M. Omar et al. Marble powder obtained as a by-product of marble sawing tensile strength with the substitution rate of 25%, 50% and and shaping [1]. Waste marble powder "WMP" is an inert 75% are fairly greater than values obtained with natural aggre- material which is obtained as an industrial by product during gates. The concrete with 100% substitution rate provided poor sawing, shaping, and polishing of marble and causes a serious results in strength. environmental problem [2]. M.S. Hameed et al. [3] studied that the green concrete Research program capable for sustainable development is characterized by appli- cation of industrial wastes to reduce consumption of natural The experimental test program was designed to achieve the re- resources, energy and pollution of the environment. Green search objectives of the study. The program consists of two concrete is very cheap to produce, because, waste products phases; phase I with cement content 350 kg/m . One mix was are used as a partial substitute for cement, charges for the control (normal concrete mix), three mix incorporating lime disposal of waste are avoided, energy consumption in produc- stone waste 25%, 50% and 75% replacement from sand. tion is lower, and durability is greater. Green concrete gives Twelve mixes incorporating lime stone waste 25%, 50% and an excellent result in strength and quality aspect. Waste can 75% replacement from sand with marble powder as additive be used to produce new products or can be used as admix- by percent 5, 10, and 15% by cement weight. Phase II, the tures so that natural sources are used more efficiency and above experiment is repeated with the same components but the environment is protected from waste deposits. They con- with different content of cement. This content is 450 kg/m . cluded that the replacement of fine aggregate with 50% mar- The mechanical properties of green concrete were measured ble powder and 50% quarry rock dust green concrete gives in term of compressive strength, indirect tensile (splitting ten- an excellent result in workability and it satisfy the self com- sile), flexural strengths, static modulus of elasticity test, and pacting concrete performance which is the slump flow is permeability test. The properties were measured at age 28 days 657 mm without affecting the strength of concrete. Slump indirect tensile (splitting tensile), flexural strengths, static mod- flow increases with the increase of marble sludge powder con- ulus of elasticity test, and permeability test. For compressive tent. V funnel time decreases with the increase of marble strength were measured at 7, 28 and 90 days. sludge powder content. Also, they found that the compressive of concrete made of quarry rock dust are nearly 14% more Materials properties than the conventional concrete. K. Shi-Cong, and P. Chi-Sun [4] the slump of crushed fine Test specimens were prepared from available local materials. stone CFS concrete mixes was decreased with an increase in These include natural siliceous sand, crushed stone from Suez CFS content probably due to the angular shape of the CFS area, ordinary Portland cement OPC Suez Cement Company, when compared to river sand. Also, H. Donza et al. [5] found tap drinking water, marble powder, chemical admixture, that when crushed sand was incorporated in concrete, the in- limestone waste from Suez area. Testing of these materials crease of water demand due to the shape and texture of the was carried out according to Egyptian standard specification. crushed sand can be mitigated by using a water reducing A superplasticizer namely (ADDICRETE BVF) was used. It admixture. is supplied from chemicals for modern building company. It R. Ilangovana et al. [6] found that the natural river sand, if meets the requirements of superplasticizer according to replaced by hundred percent quarry rock dust from quarries, ASTM C494-80 type A and F [9]. The chemical properties may sometimes give equal or better than the reference concrete of the LSW used are shown in Table 1. Table 2 shows the made with Natural Sand, in terms of compressive and flexural physical and mechanical properties of LSW used. Marble strength studies. Also, they concluded that the replacement of powder is brought from factories of Egyptian marble com- fine aggregate with 50% marble powder and 50% quarry rock pany. Its physical properties and Chemical analysis is given dust gives an excellent result in tensile strength. in Tables 3 and 4. V. Corinaldesi et al. [7] concluded that the marble pow- der proved to be very effective in assuring very good cohe- Concrete mix siveness of mortar and concrete, even in the presence of a superplasticizing admixture, provided that water to cement Mixing was done in a standard drum-type mixer. Course and ratio was adequately low. On the basis of the low thixotropy fine aggregate were first mixed in dry state until the mixture be- values obtained, it seems that the use of marble powder come homogenous. All binder materials (cement, and marble would not be accompanied by an evident tendency to energy powder) were added to the dry mixture, and mixing continued loss during concrete placing, as it is usual for other ultra- until the mixture become homogenous. Finally, the mixing fine mineral additions (such as silica fume) that are able water containing the superplasticizer admixture was added to to confer high cohesiveness to the concrete mixture. In terms the rotating mixer and mixing continued to assure complete of mechanical performance, 10% substitution of sand by the homogeneity. The concrete mixes were designed at fixed marble powder in the presence of a superplasticizing admix- water–cement ratio of 0.47. In phase I, and II, the concrete ture provided maximum compressive strength at the same mixes were designed to have a near constant slump in the range workability level, comparable to that of the reference mix- of 90–110 mm. ture after 28 days of curing. Moreover, an even more posi- tive effect of marble powder is evident at early ages, due to its filler ability. Details of specimen H. Hebhoub et al. [8] concluded that the recycled aggre- gates affected tensile strengths at a certain rate of substitution. Compression test at 7, 28, and 90 days was carried out on The sand formulation showed a significant strength gain, the 150 · 150 · 150 mm cubes [10,11]. Splitting test at 28 days Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties 195 Table 1 The chemical characteristics of the LSW. Property% SiO Al O Fe O CaO MgO SO NaOK O CL Loss on Ignition (L.O.I) 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 Results% 6.49 0.78 0.36 34.95 14.44 0.67 0.10 0.40 0.61 41 Table 5 Result of the compressive strength specimens phase I. Table 2 Physical and mechanical properties of lime stone Mix symbol % (LSW) % (M.P) Compressive strength (MPa) waste (LSW). 7 days 28 days 90 days Property Results % Limits N 0.0 0.0 26.2 33.5 36.7 ** 350 Specific weight 2.61 Not more than 2.7 N 25 27.9 38.1 39.7 25–350 Bulk density (t/m3) 1.68 – N 50 29.3 37.7 40.9 50–350 ** Water absorption% 2.1 Not more than 2.5 N 75 28.1 31.8 35.2 75–350 ** Fine dust content% 15.17 Not more than 5 M 0.0 5 29.3 35.2 38.4 1–350 ** Limits of ECCS203-2008 [10]. M 10 31.7 39 42.3 2–350 M 15 33.7 40.6 44.5 3–350 M 25 5 31.1 38.5 41.6 4–350 M 10 36.2 42.2 44.8 5–350 M 15 38.8 44.1 46.5 Table 3 Chemical properties of marble powder. 6–350 M 50 5 31.2 38.3 41.9 7–350 Property% SiO Al O Fe O CaO MgO Na OK OCL 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 M 10 34.9 41.7 44.3 8–350 Results% 14.08 2.69 1.94 42.14 2.77 0.91 0.63 0.04 M 15 36.5 43.6 46.4 9–350 M 75 5 28.5 35.5 37.2 10–350 M 10 30.1 38.6 41.6 11–350 M 15 31.2 40.7 43.4 12–350 Table 4 Physical properties of marble powder. Property Test results Table 6 Result of the compressive strength specimens phase 2 * 3 Specific surface area (cm /gm) 11.4 10 II. bulk density (kg/m) 520 Specific gravity 2.5 Mix symbol % (LSW) % (M.P) Compressive strength (MPa) color Light gray 7 days 28 days 90 days N 0.0 0.0 29.7 41.7 45.8 N 25 31.5 41.9 48.4 25–450 was carried out on 150 · 300 mm cylinder [10,12]. Flexural N 50 28.9 40.3 45.2 50–450 N 75 27.1 38.2 44.3 strength test at 28 days was carried out on 100 · 100 · 75–450 M 0.0 5 35.5 44.1 49.7 1–450 500 mm prisms [10]. Static modulus of elasticity at 28 days M 10 37.9 48.4 52.8 2–450 was carried out on 150 · 300 mm cylinder [10]. Water perme- M 15 40.7 51.2 56 3–450 ability test at 28 days was carried out on 150 · 150 mm M 25 5 36.4 44.3 50.3 4–450 cylinder. M 10 37.1 46.9 53 5–450 All the test specimens were demoded after 24 h and then M 15 39.8 50.2 55.1 6–450 stored under water in curing tanks with room temperature M 50 5 33.6 43.4 46.9 7-450 (25 ± 2 C). The test was carried out according to Egyptian M 10 36.4 46.8 50.1 8–450 Stander Specifications ESS 1658–1991 Part 7 [13]. M 15 37.8 48.4 53.2 9–450 M 75 5 31.5 42.5 46.5 10–450 M 10 33.1 46.9 48.8 11–450 Test results M 15 35 49.1 51.8 12–450 Effect of cement content The compressive strength was studied at 7, 28, and 90 days. Compressive strength From Tables 5 and 6 and Fig. 1, the effect of the cement con- tent on the compressive strength of similar mixes can be seen. According to these results, the compressive strength of mix Normal concrete phase I containing cement content of 450 kg/m is higher than the Effect oflimestone waste (LSW). Compressive strength test re- strength of mix prepared with 350 kg/m . sults of normal concrete with LSW with different replacement The increase in the cement content resulted in an increase in percentages are presented in Table 5 and Fig. 2 for 0.0, 25, 50, the compressive strength of the normal concrete mixes as and 75%, respectively. Using LSW with levels 25% and 50% expected. About 24% strength gain was obtained when the increased compressive strength of normal concrete about 3 3 cement content increased from 350 kg/m to 450 kg/m at (6%, 13%, 8%) , (10%, 12%, 11%) at 7, 28 and 90 days 25 50 28 days, similar findings have been reported in earlier studies respectively, as compared with the normal concrete N . [14]. Using LSW with level 75% increased compressive strength 196 O.M. Omar et al. N*-350 N*-450 45.8 41.7 36.7 29.7 33.5 26.2 7 days 28 days 90 days Fig. 1 Effect of cement content in mix control on the compressive strength. phase I (350 kg/m ). N*-350 N25-350 N50-350 N75-350 40.9 39.7 38.1 40 37.7 36.7 35.2 33.5 31.8 29.3 28.1 30 27.9 26.2 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Days Fig. 2 Effect of 25%, 50% and 75% LSW as a replacement from sand, as compared to normal strength concrete, phase I (350 kg/m ). of normal concrete about 6% at 7 days as compared with the ment weight, at 28 days respectively. This is development in normal concrete N . On the other hand, there is reduction compressive strength may be related to the chemical and physi- about 5% and 4% at 28 and 90 days respectively, when cal effect of M.P. Moreover, this is development in compressive replacement level of 75%, as compared with the normal con- strength may be due to that the active (SiO ) in M.P can react crete N . The loss of the compressive strength at a replace- with the Ca (OH) in concrete to form secondary calcium silicate ment level 75% can be related to its physical and chemical hydrate and make it chemically stable and structurally dense, effects for limestone powder. Moreover, the percentage of free this results in agreement with M.S. Hameed et al. [3]. calcium hydroxide during the reaction of cement is increase, Compressive strength of the concrete has increased with when powder content in LSW increases similar findings have increasing percentages of M.P additions at all curing ages. The been reported in earlier studies [3]. highest compressive strength appears when the highest propor- tion of M.P specimen, especially at early curing ages [15]. Effect of marble powder (M.P). Compressive strength test re- sults of normal concrete with M.P with different addition per- Green concrete centages 5, 10, and 15% respectively, are presented in Fig. 3. Effect of LSW content, with M.P. Compressive strength of Using M.P as an additive in the same concrete mixes, it can be green concrete with 25%, 50%, and 75% LSW replacement seen that, the compressive strength increased about 5%, 16% at different percentages 5, 10, and 15% M.P respectively, are and 21% for 5%, 10% and 15% M.P as addition from the ce- presented in Figs. 4–6 and Table 5. It can be observed that, Compressive Strength (MPa) Compressive Strength (MPa) Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties 197 N*-350 5% (M.P)+0.0%(LSW) 10% (M.P)+0.0%(LSW) 15% (M.P)+0.0%(LSW) 44.5 42.3 40.6 38.4 36.7 35.2 33.7 33.5 31.7 29.3 26.2 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Days Fig. 3 Effect of MP contents as an addition material from the cement weight, on compressive strength, phase I (350 kg/m ). N25-350 5% (M.P)+25%(LSW) 10% (M.P)+25%(LSW) 15% (M.P)+25%(LSW) 46.5 44.8 44.1 42.2 41.6 39.7 38.8 38.5 38.1 36.2 31.1 27.9 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Days Fig. 4 Effect of 25% LSW as a partial replacement of sand weight, with 5%, 10% and 15% MP by weight from cement, phase I (350 kg/ m ). the compressive strength gradually increased at different ages. 50%, and 75%, respectively. Using LSW with level 25% in- Using (25%, 50%, and 75%) LSW with 15% M.P increased creased compressive strength of normal concrete about 5%, the compressive strength about 15%,16%, and 27%) as com- 0.5%, 5% at 7, 28 and 90 days respectively, as compared with pared with normal mix N ,N ,N at 28 days, the normal concrete N . On the other hand using LSW with 25–350 50–350 75–350 respectively. On the other hand using LSW with M.P increased levels 50% and 75% decreased compressive strength of normal the compressive strength about (9%, 8% and 8%) , (5%, 7% concrete about (2%, 3%, 1%) , (8%, 8%, 3%) at 7, 25 50–450 75–450 and 7%) , (1%, 0.1% and 0.2%) ,respectively as compared 28 and 90 days respectively, as compared with the normal con- 50 75 with concrete containing M.P only as additive materials, at crete N . The reduction in the compressive strength of con- 28 days. crete is probably due to the large amount of calcium hydroxide resulting from the hydration process of the cement and LSW. Normal concrete phase II Moreover, the loss of the compressive strength at a replace- ment level 50% and 75% can be related to the increasing of Effect oflimestone waste (LSW). Compressive strength test re- relative of powder for limestone waste as a replacement from sults of normal concrete with LSW with different replacement sand. percentages are presented in Table 6 and Fig. 7 for 0.0%, 25%, Compressive Strength ( MPa) Compressive Strength ( MPa) 198 O.M. Omar et al. N50-350 5% (M.P)+50%(LSW) 10% (M.P)+50%(LSW) 15% (M.P)+50%(LSW) 46.4 44.3 43.6 41.9 41.7 40.9 38.3 37.7 36.5 34.9 31.2 29.3 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Days Fig. 5 Effect of 50% LSW as a partial replacement of sand weight, with 5%, 10% and 15% MP by weight from cement, phase I (350 kg/ m ). N75-350 5% (M.P)+75%(LSW) 10% (M.P)+75%(LSW) 15% (M.P)+75%(LSW) 43.4 41.6 40.7 38.6 37.2 35.5 35.2 31.8 31.2 30.1 28.5 28.1 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Days Fig. 6 Effect of 75% LSW as a partial replacement of sand weight, with 5%, 10% and 15% MP by weight from cement, phase I (350 kg/ m ). Effect of marble powder (M.P). Compressive strength test re- Compressive strength of the concrete has increased with sults of normal concrete with M.P with different addition per- increasing percentages of M.P additions at all curing ages. centages 5%, 10% and 15%, respectively, are presented in The highest compressive strength appears when the highest Table 6 and Fig. 8. Using M.P as an additive in the same con- proportion of M.P specimen, especially at early curing ages, crete mixes, it can be seen that, the compressive strength in- this result in agreement with reference [15]. creased about 5%, 16% and 20% for 5%, 10% and 15% Green concrete M.P as an addition from the cement weight, at 28 days respec- tively. This is development in compressive strength may be re- Effect of LSW content, with M.P. Compressive strength of lated to the chemical and physical effect of M.P. Moreover, green concrete with 25%, 50%, and 75% LSW replacement at different percentages 5, 10, and 15% M.P, respectively, this is development in compressive strength may be due to that are presented in Figs. 9–11 and Table 6. It can be observed the active (SiO ) in marble powder can react with the Ca (OH) 2 2 that, the compressive strength markedly increased at different in concrete to form secondary calcium silicate hydrate and ages. The highest increase at 15% M.P. Using (25%, 50%, and make it chemically stable and structurally dense, this result 75%) LSW with 15% M.P increased the compressive strength in agreement with reference [3]. Compressive Strength ( MPa) Compressive Strength ( MPa) Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties 199 N*-450 N25-450 N50-450 N75-450 48.4 45.8 45.2 44.3 41.9 41.7 40.3 38.2 31.5 29.7 28.9 27.1 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Deys Fig. 7 Effect of 25%, 50% and 75% LSW as a replacement from sand, as compared to normal strength concrete, phase II (450 kg/m ). N*-450 5%(M.P)+0.0%(LSW) 10%(M.P)+0.0%(LSW) 15%(M.P)+0.0%(LSW) 52.8 51.2 49.7 48.4 45.8 44.1 41.7 40.7 37.9 35.5 29.7 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Days Fig. 8 Effect of MP contents as an addition materials from cement weight, phase II (450 kg/m ). about 19%, 20%, and 28% as compared with normal mix cease at LSW is increased more than 50%. Similar findings N ,N , and N at 28 days, respectively. More- have been reported is earlier studies [4]. 25–450 50–450 75–450 over, using LSW with 10% and 15%M.P decreased the com- pressive strength about (4% and 2%) , (4% and 6%) , and Tensile strength 25 50 (3% and 5%) as compared with concrete containing M.P only as additive materials, at 28 days, respectively. Tables 7 and 8 and Figs. 12 and 13 shows the results of the split- The increase of strength due to the presence of M.P can be ting tensile strength for normal concrete specimens and speci- related to its physical and chemical effects. The principal phys- mens having 50% LSW as a replacement from sand by ical effect of M.P is that used as filler, which because of its fine- weight, with M.P with 15% as addition by weight from cement. ness it can fit into spaces between the cement grains and the The above experiment is being done on the phases I and II. strength gain up to 7 days is mainly due to this action. The addition of M.P to the concrete improves the compressive Effect of LSW content, with M.P strength of concrete; it slightly increased strength compared Splitting tensile strength of green concrete with 50% LSW to that with LSW. From the above results, it can be observed replacement at different percentages 15% M.P are presented that the partial replacement of river sand with LSW and addi- in Figs. 12 and 13 and Tables 5 and 6. It can be observed that, tion of M.P with 5, 10% and 15% by weigh from cement, may the splitting tensile strength markedly increased at 28 days. be useful in improving the compressive strength of concrete Using 50% LSW with 15% M.P increased the splitting tensile but it is not such as concrete that contain LSW with S.F the strength about 17% as compared with normal concrete mix same proportions. In general the compressive strength is de- N . On the other hand using 50% LSW with 15% M.P Compressive Strength (MPa) Compressive strength MPa 200 O.M. Omar et al. N25-450 5% (M.P)+25%(LSW) 10% (M.P)+25%(LSW) 15% (M.P)+25%(LSW) 55.1 50.3 50.2 48.4 46.9 44.3 41.9 39.8 40 37.1 36.4 31.5 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Days Fig. 9 Effect of 25% LSW as a partial replacement of sand weight, with 5%, 10% and 15% MP by weight from cement, phase II (450 kg/m ). N50-450 5% (M.P)+50%(LSW) 10% (M.P)+50%(LSW) 15% (M.P)+50%(LSW) 53.2 50.1 48.4 46.8 46.9 45.2 43.4 40.3 37.8 36.4 33.6 28.9 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Days Fig. 10 Effect of 50% LSW as a partial replacement of sand weight, with 5%, 10% and 15% MP by weight from cement, phase II (450 kg/m ). increased the splitting tensile strength about 8% as compared Flexural strength with normal concrete mix N . Uniform dispersion and dis- organized in shape of LSW is vital to the development of ce- Tables 9 and 10 and Figs. 14 and 15 show the results of the ment strength which effectively take advantage of the bond Flexural strength for normal concrete specimens and speci- strength properties of LSW. mens having 50% LSW as a replacement from sand by weight, As shown from (Tables 5 and6), the ratio of the indirect ten- with M.P by 15% as addition by weight from cement. The sile strength to the compressive strength (f /f ) of the mix con- above experiment is being done on the phases I and II. sp cu taining 50% from LSW as replacement from sand weight, and 15% M.P as an addition by weight from cement, was generally Effect of LSW Content, with M.P similar to that of the corresponding normal concrete mix at the Flexural strength of green concrete with 50% LSW replace- same cement content. This result agree with [14] who concluded ment at percentage 15% M.P, are presented in Figs. 14 and that a very small growing in this noticed for the concrete con- 15 and Tables 9 and 10. It can be observed that, the flexural taining, 50% LSW and 15% M.P as well as the normal concrete strength markedly increased at 15% M.P. Using 50% LSW mix with the increase of the cement content. with 15% M.P increased the compressive strength about, 7% Compressive Strength MPa Compressive Strength MPa Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties 201 N75-450 5% (M.P)+75%(LSW) 10% (M.P)+75%(LSW) 15% (M.P)+75%(LSW) 51.8 49.1 48.8 50 46.9 46.5 44.3 42.5 38.2 33.1 31.5 30 27.1 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Days Fig. 11 Effect of 75% LSW as a partial replacement of sand weight, with 5%, 10% and 15% MP by weight from cement, phase II (450 kg/m ). Table 7 The tensile strength of concrete specimens, for as compared with normal concrete mix N . On the other selected mixes, phase I. hand using 50% LSW 15% M.P increased the flexural strength 3 about 8% as compared with normal concrete mix N . Mix symbol % (LSW) % (M.P) 350 Kg/m f day f /f sp,28 sp cu Modulus of elasticity MPa N 0 0 3.7 11 Effect of LSW content, with M.P M 0 15 4.1 10.1 3–350 It is obvious from the results of modulus of elasticity of green M 50 15 4.5 10.3 9–350 concrete that the modulus of elasticity increased for with increasing the limestone waste with MP in cement content 350 kg/m . The limited gain of the modulus of elasticity were Table 8 The tensile strength of concrete specimens, for 1.2% and 5.3% as compared with normal concrete mix selected mixes, phase II. N . on the other hand The limited gain of the modulus of elasticity was up to 1.5%, and 3.8% as compared with normal Mix symbol (LSW) (M.P) 450 Kg/m concrete mix N . f day f /f sp,28 sp cu MPa Water permeability N 0 0 4.7 11.3 M 0 15 5.6 10.9 3–450 The water permeability of concrete are presents the average M 50 15 5.1 10.5 9–450 coefficient of permeability, K, for the three concrete test C=350 kg/m3 at 28 days 4.5 4.1 3.7 N*-350 M3-350 M9-350 Fig. 12 Effect of LSW with 15% M.P on the tensile strength, phase I (350 kg/m ). Compressive Strength MPa Tensile Strength (MPa) 202 O.M. Omar et al. C=450 kg/m3 at 28 days 5.6 5.1 4.7 N*-450 M3-450 M9-450 Fig. 13 Effect of LSW with 15% M.P on the tensile strength, phase II (450 kg/m ). cylinders. It can be observed that the coefficient of permeabil- Table 9 Flexural strength of concrete specimens, for selected ity, K, decreases as the dust content increases. The mixes, phase I. coefficient of permeability was 6.8 · 10 cm/sec for normal Mix symbol (LSW) (MP) 350 Kg/m concrete mix N , and 4.62 · 10 cm/sec for mix content f day f /f sp,28 sp cu 15% M.P. As the same time the coefficient of permeability MPa -10 was 4.87 · 10 cm/sec for mix content 50% LSW, with N 0 0 5.69 18.2 15% M.P. M 0 15 6.2 16 3–350 As the same time is happen in concrete containing cement M 50 15 6.14 16.9 3 9–350 450 kg/m , it can be observed that the coefficient of permeabil- ity, K, decreases as the dust content increases. The coefficient of permeability was 6.03 · 10 cm/sec for normal concrete mix N , and 4.87 · 10 cm/sec for mix content 15% M.P. As the same time the coefficient of permeability was Table 10 Flexural strength of concrete specimens, for selected 5.13 · 10 cm/sec for mix content 50% LSW, with 15% mixes, phase II. M.P. The addition of LSW to the concrete improves the imper- 3 meability of concrete because it blocks the passages connecting Mix symbol (LSW) (MP) 350 Kg/m capillary pores and the water channels. This blockage is af- f day f /f sp,28 sp cu fected by the amount of dust content in the LSW, and the MPa more water passages were blocked, the more reduction in the N 0 0 7.6 17.7 450 permeability of concrete specimens is observed. The permeabil- M 0 15 8.4 16.4 3–450 ity is decease at LSW is increased, similar findings have been M 50 15 8.2 16.9 9–450 reported is earlier studies [16]. C = 350kg/m3 at 28 days 6.2 6.14 5.69 N*-350 M3-350 M9-350 Fig. 14 Effect of 15%M.P and LSW on the flexural strength, phase I (350 kg/m ). Tensile Strength (MPa) Flexure Strength (MPa) Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties 203 C=450 kg/m3 at 28 days 8.4 8.2 7.6 N*-450 M3-450 M9-450 Fig. 15 Effect of 15% M.P and LSW on the flexural strength, phase II (450 kg/m ). [3] M.S. Hameed, A.S.S. Sekar, Properties of green concrete Conclusions containing quarry rock dust and marble sludge powder as fine aggregate. India, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied From the analysis and discussion of test results obtained from Sciences 4 (4) (2009) 83–89. this research, the following conclusions can be drawn [4] K. Shi-Cong, P. Chi-Sun, Properties of concrete prepared with crushed fine stone, furnace bottom ash and fine recycled 1. The workability of green concrete did not affected by the aggregate as fine aggregates. China, Construction and Building LWS percentage. Materials 23 (2009) 2877–2886. 2. Using LSW up to 50% replacement increase the compres- [5] H. Donza, O. Cabrera, E.F. Irassar, High-strength concrete with sive strength about 12% at 28 days. different fine aggregate. Argentina, Cement and Concrete 3. When increasing cement content from 350 kg/cm to Research. 32 (2002) 1755–1761. [6] R. Ilangovana, N. Mahendrana, K. Nagamanib, Strength and 450 kg/cm in presents of the LSW with different percent- durability properties of concrete containing quarry rock dust as age increased the compressive strength about 6% at fine aggregate. India, ARPN Journal of Engineering and 28 days. 3 Applied Sciences 3 (5) (2008) 20–26. 4. Cement content of 350 kg/m , its better performance, and [7] V. Corinaldesi, G. Moriconi, T.R. Naik, Characterization of more economical from cement content of 450 kg/m . marble powder for its use in mortar and concrete United States, 5. Presences of marble powder with LSW (up to 50%) Construction and Building Materials. 24 (2009) 113–117. increase the compressive strength in mixes with low cement [8] H. Hebhoub, H. Aoun, M. Belachia, H. Houari, E. Ghorbel, content (350 kg/cm ) about 7%. Use of waste marble aggregates in concrete. France, 6. Indirect tensile strength increased about 17% when using Construction and Building Materials 25 (2010) 1167–1171. 50%LSW and 15%M.P with different cement content. [9] ASTM C494–80 type A and F. Standard specification for chemical admixtures for concrete. 7. Flexural strength increased about 8% when using [10] ECCS Egyptian code ECCS 203–2008. 50%LSW and 15%M.P with different cement content. [11] ESS Part 5 Egyptian Standard Specifications. Method for 8. Using MP up to 15% as admixture enhancement the com- making test cubes from fresh concrete. 1658–1991. pressive strength. [12] ESS Part 4 Egyptian Standard Specifications. Method for 9. The rate of the strength gain decreased as the percentage of making test cylinders from fresh concrete. 1658–1991. limestone waste replacement increase more than 50 percent [13] ESS Part 7. Method of normal curing of test specimens. 1658– in cement content 350, and 450 kg/m3. [14] A.A. Sammy. Mechanical properties for composite cement materials with different fiber. M. Sc faculty of engineering, materials engineering dept. Zagazig University 2007. References [15] B. Demirel, The effect of the using waste marble dust as fine sand on the mechanical properties of the concrete. Turkey, [1] V. Corinaldesi, G. Moriconi, T.R. Naik, Characterization of International Journal of the Physical Sciences 5 (9) (2010) 1372– marble powder for its use in mortar and concrete. United States, Construction and Building Materials 24 (2009) 113–117. [16] T. Celik, K. Marar, Effects of crushed stone dust on some [2] A. Ergu¨ n, Effects of the usage of diatomite and waste marble properties of concrete Turkey, Cement and Concrete Research. powder as partial replacement of cement on the mechanical 26 (7) (1996) 1121–1130. properties of concrete. Turkey, Construction and Building Materials 25 (2010) 806–812. Flexure Strength (MPa) http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png HBRC Journal Taylor & Francis

Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties

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Taylor & Francis
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© 2012 Housing and Building National Research Center. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.
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1687-4048
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10.1016/j.hbrcj.2012.10.005
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HBRC Journal (2012) 8, 193–203 Housing and Building National Research Center HBRC Journal http://ees.elsevier.com/hbrcj Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties a b, a Omar M. Omar , Ghada D. Abd Elhameed , Mohamed A. Sherif , Hassan A. Mohamadien Department of Civil Construction and Architecture, Faculty of Industrial Education, Suez, Egypt Building Materials Research and Quality Control Institute, Housing and Building National Research Center, Egypt Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Suez Canal University, Egypt Received 14 May 2012; accepted 10 June 2012 KEYWORDS Abstract Green concrete are generally composed of recycling materials as hundred or partial percent substitutes for aggregate, cement, and admixture in concrete. Limestone waste is obtained as a by- Hardened concrete product during the production of aggregates through the crushing process of rocks in rubble crusher properties; LSW; units. Using quarry waste as a substitute of sand in construction materials would resolve the environ- Marble powder; mental problems caused by the large-scale depletion of the natural sources of river and mining sands. Concrete This paper reports the experimental study undertaken to investigate the influence of partial replace- ment of sand with limestone waste (LSW), with marble powder (M.P) as an additive on the concrete properties. The replacement proportion of sand with limestone waste, 25%, 50%, and 75% were prac- ticed in the concrete mixes except in the concrete mix. Besides, proportions of 5%, 10% and 15% mar- ble powder were practiced in the concrete mixes. The effects of limestone waste as fine aggregate on several fresh and hardened properties of the concretes were investigated. The investigation included testing of compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, and permeability. It was found that limestone waste as fine aggregate enhanced the slump test of the fresh concretes. But the unit weight concretes were not affected. However, the good performance was observed when limestone waste as fine aggregate was used in presence of marble powder. ª 2012 Housing and Building National Research Center. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Introduction Corresponding author. In recent years, green concrete has draws serious attention of E-mail address: ghadadiaa1@yahoo.com (G.D. Abd Elhameed). researchers and investigators because a concept of thinking Peer review under responsibility of Housing and Building National environment (Environmentally friendly). The materials used Research Center. in the production of concrete poses the problem of acute short- age in many areas. That there are many wastes of some indus- tries and quarries can be used as hundred or partial percent Production and hosting by Elsevier substitutes for concrete materials. 1687-4048 ª 2012 Housing and Building National Research Center. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hbrcj.2012.10.005 194 O.M. Omar et al. Marble powder obtained as a by-product of marble sawing tensile strength with the substitution rate of 25%, 50% and and shaping [1]. Waste marble powder "WMP" is an inert 75% are fairly greater than values obtained with natural aggre- material which is obtained as an industrial by product during gates. The concrete with 100% substitution rate provided poor sawing, shaping, and polishing of marble and causes a serious results in strength. environmental problem [2]. M.S. Hameed et al. [3] studied that the green concrete Research program capable for sustainable development is characterized by appli- cation of industrial wastes to reduce consumption of natural The experimental test program was designed to achieve the re- resources, energy and pollution of the environment. Green search objectives of the study. The program consists of two concrete is very cheap to produce, because, waste products phases; phase I with cement content 350 kg/m . One mix was are used as a partial substitute for cement, charges for the control (normal concrete mix), three mix incorporating lime disposal of waste are avoided, energy consumption in produc- stone waste 25%, 50% and 75% replacement from sand. tion is lower, and durability is greater. Green concrete gives Twelve mixes incorporating lime stone waste 25%, 50% and an excellent result in strength and quality aspect. Waste can 75% replacement from sand with marble powder as additive be used to produce new products or can be used as admix- by percent 5, 10, and 15% by cement weight. Phase II, the tures so that natural sources are used more efficiency and above experiment is repeated with the same components but the environment is protected from waste deposits. They con- with different content of cement. This content is 450 kg/m . cluded that the replacement of fine aggregate with 50% mar- The mechanical properties of green concrete were measured ble powder and 50% quarry rock dust green concrete gives in term of compressive strength, indirect tensile (splitting ten- an excellent result in workability and it satisfy the self com- sile), flexural strengths, static modulus of elasticity test, and pacting concrete performance which is the slump flow is permeability test. The properties were measured at age 28 days 657 mm without affecting the strength of concrete. Slump indirect tensile (splitting tensile), flexural strengths, static mod- flow increases with the increase of marble sludge powder con- ulus of elasticity test, and permeability test. For compressive tent. V funnel time decreases with the increase of marble strength were measured at 7, 28 and 90 days. sludge powder content. Also, they found that the compressive of concrete made of quarry rock dust are nearly 14% more Materials properties than the conventional concrete. K. Shi-Cong, and P. Chi-Sun [4] the slump of crushed fine Test specimens were prepared from available local materials. stone CFS concrete mixes was decreased with an increase in These include natural siliceous sand, crushed stone from Suez CFS content probably due to the angular shape of the CFS area, ordinary Portland cement OPC Suez Cement Company, when compared to river sand. Also, H. Donza et al. [5] found tap drinking water, marble powder, chemical admixture, that when crushed sand was incorporated in concrete, the in- limestone waste from Suez area. Testing of these materials crease of water demand due to the shape and texture of the was carried out according to Egyptian standard specification. crushed sand can be mitigated by using a water reducing A superplasticizer namely (ADDICRETE BVF) was used. It admixture. is supplied from chemicals for modern building company. It R. Ilangovana et al. [6] found that the natural river sand, if meets the requirements of superplasticizer according to replaced by hundred percent quarry rock dust from quarries, ASTM C494-80 type A and F [9]. The chemical properties may sometimes give equal or better than the reference concrete of the LSW used are shown in Table 1. Table 2 shows the made with Natural Sand, in terms of compressive and flexural physical and mechanical properties of LSW used. Marble strength studies. Also, they concluded that the replacement of powder is brought from factories of Egyptian marble com- fine aggregate with 50% marble powder and 50% quarry rock pany. Its physical properties and Chemical analysis is given dust gives an excellent result in tensile strength. in Tables 3 and 4. V. Corinaldesi et al. [7] concluded that the marble pow- der proved to be very effective in assuring very good cohe- Concrete mix siveness of mortar and concrete, even in the presence of a superplasticizing admixture, provided that water to cement Mixing was done in a standard drum-type mixer. Course and ratio was adequately low. On the basis of the low thixotropy fine aggregate were first mixed in dry state until the mixture be- values obtained, it seems that the use of marble powder come homogenous. All binder materials (cement, and marble would not be accompanied by an evident tendency to energy powder) were added to the dry mixture, and mixing continued loss during concrete placing, as it is usual for other ultra- until the mixture become homogenous. Finally, the mixing fine mineral additions (such as silica fume) that are able water containing the superplasticizer admixture was added to to confer high cohesiveness to the concrete mixture. In terms the rotating mixer and mixing continued to assure complete of mechanical performance, 10% substitution of sand by the homogeneity. The concrete mixes were designed at fixed marble powder in the presence of a superplasticizing admix- water–cement ratio of 0.47. In phase I, and II, the concrete ture provided maximum compressive strength at the same mixes were designed to have a near constant slump in the range workability level, comparable to that of the reference mix- of 90–110 mm. ture after 28 days of curing. Moreover, an even more posi- tive effect of marble powder is evident at early ages, due to its filler ability. Details of specimen H. Hebhoub et al. [8] concluded that the recycled aggre- gates affected tensile strengths at a certain rate of substitution. Compression test at 7, 28, and 90 days was carried out on The sand formulation showed a significant strength gain, the 150 · 150 · 150 mm cubes [10,11]. Splitting test at 28 days Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties 195 Table 1 The chemical characteristics of the LSW. Property% SiO Al O Fe O CaO MgO SO NaOK O CL Loss on Ignition (L.O.I) 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 Results% 6.49 0.78 0.36 34.95 14.44 0.67 0.10 0.40 0.61 41 Table 5 Result of the compressive strength specimens phase I. Table 2 Physical and mechanical properties of lime stone Mix symbol % (LSW) % (M.P) Compressive strength (MPa) waste (LSW). 7 days 28 days 90 days Property Results % Limits N 0.0 0.0 26.2 33.5 36.7 ** 350 Specific weight 2.61 Not more than 2.7 N 25 27.9 38.1 39.7 25–350 Bulk density (t/m3) 1.68 – N 50 29.3 37.7 40.9 50–350 ** Water absorption% 2.1 Not more than 2.5 N 75 28.1 31.8 35.2 75–350 ** Fine dust content% 15.17 Not more than 5 M 0.0 5 29.3 35.2 38.4 1–350 ** Limits of ECCS203-2008 [10]. M 10 31.7 39 42.3 2–350 M 15 33.7 40.6 44.5 3–350 M 25 5 31.1 38.5 41.6 4–350 M 10 36.2 42.2 44.8 5–350 M 15 38.8 44.1 46.5 Table 3 Chemical properties of marble powder. 6–350 M 50 5 31.2 38.3 41.9 7–350 Property% SiO Al O Fe O CaO MgO Na OK OCL 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 M 10 34.9 41.7 44.3 8–350 Results% 14.08 2.69 1.94 42.14 2.77 0.91 0.63 0.04 M 15 36.5 43.6 46.4 9–350 M 75 5 28.5 35.5 37.2 10–350 M 10 30.1 38.6 41.6 11–350 M 15 31.2 40.7 43.4 12–350 Table 4 Physical properties of marble powder. Property Test results Table 6 Result of the compressive strength specimens phase 2 * 3 Specific surface area (cm /gm) 11.4 10 II. bulk density (kg/m) 520 Specific gravity 2.5 Mix symbol % (LSW) % (M.P) Compressive strength (MPa) color Light gray 7 days 28 days 90 days N 0.0 0.0 29.7 41.7 45.8 N 25 31.5 41.9 48.4 25–450 was carried out on 150 · 300 mm cylinder [10,12]. Flexural N 50 28.9 40.3 45.2 50–450 N 75 27.1 38.2 44.3 strength test at 28 days was carried out on 100 · 100 · 75–450 M 0.0 5 35.5 44.1 49.7 1–450 500 mm prisms [10]. Static modulus of elasticity at 28 days M 10 37.9 48.4 52.8 2–450 was carried out on 150 · 300 mm cylinder [10]. Water perme- M 15 40.7 51.2 56 3–450 ability test at 28 days was carried out on 150 · 150 mm M 25 5 36.4 44.3 50.3 4–450 cylinder. M 10 37.1 46.9 53 5–450 All the test specimens were demoded after 24 h and then M 15 39.8 50.2 55.1 6–450 stored under water in curing tanks with room temperature M 50 5 33.6 43.4 46.9 7-450 (25 ± 2 C). The test was carried out according to Egyptian M 10 36.4 46.8 50.1 8–450 Stander Specifications ESS 1658–1991 Part 7 [13]. M 15 37.8 48.4 53.2 9–450 M 75 5 31.5 42.5 46.5 10–450 M 10 33.1 46.9 48.8 11–450 Test results M 15 35 49.1 51.8 12–450 Effect of cement content The compressive strength was studied at 7, 28, and 90 days. Compressive strength From Tables 5 and 6 and Fig. 1, the effect of the cement con- tent on the compressive strength of similar mixes can be seen. According to these results, the compressive strength of mix Normal concrete phase I containing cement content of 450 kg/m is higher than the Effect oflimestone waste (LSW). Compressive strength test re- strength of mix prepared with 350 kg/m . sults of normal concrete with LSW with different replacement The increase in the cement content resulted in an increase in percentages are presented in Table 5 and Fig. 2 for 0.0, 25, 50, the compressive strength of the normal concrete mixes as and 75%, respectively. Using LSW with levels 25% and 50% expected. About 24% strength gain was obtained when the increased compressive strength of normal concrete about 3 3 cement content increased from 350 kg/m to 450 kg/m at (6%, 13%, 8%) , (10%, 12%, 11%) at 7, 28 and 90 days 25 50 28 days, similar findings have been reported in earlier studies respectively, as compared with the normal concrete N . [14]. Using LSW with level 75% increased compressive strength 196 O.M. Omar et al. N*-350 N*-450 45.8 41.7 36.7 29.7 33.5 26.2 7 days 28 days 90 days Fig. 1 Effect of cement content in mix control on the compressive strength. phase I (350 kg/m ). N*-350 N25-350 N50-350 N75-350 40.9 39.7 38.1 40 37.7 36.7 35.2 33.5 31.8 29.3 28.1 30 27.9 26.2 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Days Fig. 2 Effect of 25%, 50% and 75% LSW as a replacement from sand, as compared to normal strength concrete, phase I (350 kg/m ). of normal concrete about 6% at 7 days as compared with the ment weight, at 28 days respectively. This is development in normal concrete N . On the other hand, there is reduction compressive strength may be related to the chemical and physi- about 5% and 4% at 28 and 90 days respectively, when cal effect of M.P. Moreover, this is development in compressive replacement level of 75%, as compared with the normal con- strength may be due to that the active (SiO ) in M.P can react crete N . The loss of the compressive strength at a replace- with the Ca (OH) in concrete to form secondary calcium silicate ment level 75% can be related to its physical and chemical hydrate and make it chemically stable and structurally dense, effects for limestone powder. Moreover, the percentage of free this results in agreement with M.S. Hameed et al. [3]. calcium hydroxide during the reaction of cement is increase, Compressive strength of the concrete has increased with when powder content in LSW increases similar findings have increasing percentages of M.P additions at all curing ages. The been reported in earlier studies [3]. highest compressive strength appears when the highest propor- tion of M.P specimen, especially at early curing ages [15]. Effect of marble powder (M.P). Compressive strength test re- sults of normal concrete with M.P with different addition per- Green concrete centages 5, 10, and 15% respectively, are presented in Fig. 3. Effect of LSW content, with M.P. Compressive strength of Using M.P as an additive in the same concrete mixes, it can be green concrete with 25%, 50%, and 75% LSW replacement seen that, the compressive strength increased about 5%, 16% at different percentages 5, 10, and 15% M.P respectively, are and 21% for 5%, 10% and 15% M.P as addition from the ce- presented in Figs. 4–6 and Table 5. It can be observed that, Compressive Strength (MPa) Compressive Strength (MPa) Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties 197 N*-350 5% (M.P)+0.0%(LSW) 10% (M.P)+0.0%(LSW) 15% (M.P)+0.0%(LSW) 44.5 42.3 40.6 38.4 36.7 35.2 33.7 33.5 31.7 29.3 26.2 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Days Fig. 3 Effect of MP contents as an addition material from the cement weight, on compressive strength, phase I (350 kg/m ). N25-350 5% (M.P)+25%(LSW) 10% (M.P)+25%(LSW) 15% (M.P)+25%(LSW) 46.5 44.8 44.1 42.2 41.6 39.7 38.8 38.5 38.1 36.2 31.1 27.9 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Days Fig. 4 Effect of 25% LSW as a partial replacement of sand weight, with 5%, 10% and 15% MP by weight from cement, phase I (350 kg/ m ). the compressive strength gradually increased at different ages. 50%, and 75%, respectively. Using LSW with level 25% in- Using (25%, 50%, and 75%) LSW with 15% M.P increased creased compressive strength of normal concrete about 5%, the compressive strength about 15%,16%, and 27%) as com- 0.5%, 5% at 7, 28 and 90 days respectively, as compared with pared with normal mix N ,N ,N at 28 days, the normal concrete N . On the other hand using LSW with 25–350 50–350 75–350 respectively. On the other hand using LSW with M.P increased levels 50% and 75% decreased compressive strength of normal the compressive strength about (9%, 8% and 8%) , (5%, 7% concrete about (2%, 3%, 1%) , (8%, 8%, 3%) at 7, 25 50–450 75–450 and 7%) , (1%, 0.1% and 0.2%) ,respectively as compared 28 and 90 days respectively, as compared with the normal con- 50 75 with concrete containing M.P only as additive materials, at crete N . The reduction in the compressive strength of con- 28 days. crete is probably due to the large amount of calcium hydroxide resulting from the hydration process of the cement and LSW. Normal concrete phase II Moreover, the loss of the compressive strength at a replace- ment level 50% and 75% can be related to the increasing of Effect oflimestone waste (LSW). Compressive strength test re- relative of powder for limestone waste as a replacement from sults of normal concrete with LSW with different replacement sand. percentages are presented in Table 6 and Fig. 7 for 0.0%, 25%, Compressive Strength ( MPa) Compressive Strength ( MPa) 198 O.M. Omar et al. N50-350 5% (M.P)+50%(LSW) 10% (M.P)+50%(LSW) 15% (M.P)+50%(LSW) 46.4 44.3 43.6 41.9 41.7 40.9 38.3 37.7 36.5 34.9 31.2 29.3 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Days Fig. 5 Effect of 50% LSW as a partial replacement of sand weight, with 5%, 10% and 15% MP by weight from cement, phase I (350 kg/ m ). N75-350 5% (M.P)+75%(LSW) 10% (M.P)+75%(LSW) 15% (M.P)+75%(LSW) 43.4 41.6 40.7 38.6 37.2 35.5 35.2 31.8 31.2 30.1 28.5 28.1 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Days Fig. 6 Effect of 75% LSW as a partial replacement of sand weight, with 5%, 10% and 15% MP by weight from cement, phase I (350 kg/ m ). Effect of marble powder (M.P). Compressive strength test re- Compressive strength of the concrete has increased with sults of normal concrete with M.P with different addition per- increasing percentages of M.P additions at all curing ages. centages 5%, 10% and 15%, respectively, are presented in The highest compressive strength appears when the highest Table 6 and Fig. 8. Using M.P as an additive in the same con- proportion of M.P specimen, especially at early curing ages, crete mixes, it can be seen that, the compressive strength in- this result in agreement with reference [15]. creased about 5%, 16% and 20% for 5%, 10% and 15% Green concrete M.P as an addition from the cement weight, at 28 days respec- tively. This is development in compressive strength may be re- Effect of LSW content, with M.P. Compressive strength of lated to the chemical and physical effect of M.P. Moreover, green concrete with 25%, 50%, and 75% LSW replacement at different percentages 5, 10, and 15% M.P, respectively, this is development in compressive strength may be due to that are presented in Figs. 9–11 and Table 6. It can be observed the active (SiO ) in marble powder can react with the Ca (OH) 2 2 that, the compressive strength markedly increased at different in concrete to form secondary calcium silicate hydrate and ages. The highest increase at 15% M.P. Using (25%, 50%, and make it chemically stable and structurally dense, this result 75%) LSW with 15% M.P increased the compressive strength in agreement with reference [3]. Compressive Strength ( MPa) Compressive Strength ( MPa) Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties 199 N*-450 N25-450 N50-450 N75-450 48.4 45.8 45.2 44.3 41.9 41.7 40.3 38.2 31.5 29.7 28.9 27.1 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Deys Fig. 7 Effect of 25%, 50% and 75% LSW as a replacement from sand, as compared to normal strength concrete, phase II (450 kg/m ). N*-450 5%(M.P)+0.0%(LSW) 10%(M.P)+0.0%(LSW) 15%(M.P)+0.0%(LSW) 52.8 51.2 49.7 48.4 45.8 44.1 41.7 40.7 37.9 35.5 29.7 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Days Fig. 8 Effect of MP contents as an addition materials from cement weight, phase II (450 kg/m ). about 19%, 20%, and 28% as compared with normal mix cease at LSW is increased more than 50%. Similar findings N ,N , and N at 28 days, respectively. More- have been reported is earlier studies [4]. 25–450 50–450 75–450 over, using LSW with 10% and 15%M.P decreased the com- pressive strength about (4% and 2%) , (4% and 6%) , and Tensile strength 25 50 (3% and 5%) as compared with concrete containing M.P only as additive materials, at 28 days, respectively. Tables 7 and 8 and Figs. 12 and 13 shows the results of the split- The increase of strength due to the presence of M.P can be ting tensile strength for normal concrete specimens and speci- related to its physical and chemical effects. The principal phys- mens having 50% LSW as a replacement from sand by ical effect of M.P is that used as filler, which because of its fine- weight, with M.P with 15% as addition by weight from cement. ness it can fit into spaces between the cement grains and the The above experiment is being done on the phases I and II. strength gain up to 7 days is mainly due to this action. The addition of M.P to the concrete improves the compressive Effect of LSW content, with M.P strength of concrete; it slightly increased strength compared Splitting tensile strength of green concrete with 50% LSW to that with LSW. From the above results, it can be observed replacement at different percentages 15% M.P are presented that the partial replacement of river sand with LSW and addi- in Figs. 12 and 13 and Tables 5 and 6. It can be observed that, tion of M.P with 5, 10% and 15% by weigh from cement, may the splitting tensile strength markedly increased at 28 days. be useful in improving the compressive strength of concrete Using 50% LSW with 15% M.P increased the splitting tensile but it is not such as concrete that contain LSW with S.F the strength about 17% as compared with normal concrete mix same proportions. In general the compressive strength is de- N . On the other hand using 50% LSW with 15% M.P Compressive Strength (MPa) Compressive strength MPa 200 O.M. Omar et al. N25-450 5% (M.P)+25%(LSW) 10% (M.P)+25%(LSW) 15% (M.P)+25%(LSW) 55.1 50.3 50.2 48.4 46.9 44.3 41.9 39.8 40 37.1 36.4 31.5 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Days Fig. 9 Effect of 25% LSW as a partial replacement of sand weight, with 5%, 10% and 15% MP by weight from cement, phase II (450 kg/m ). N50-450 5% (M.P)+50%(LSW) 10% (M.P)+50%(LSW) 15% (M.P)+50%(LSW) 53.2 50.1 48.4 46.8 46.9 45.2 43.4 40.3 37.8 36.4 33.6 28.9 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Days Fig. 10 Effect of 50% LSW as a partial replacement of sand weight, with 5%, 10% and 15% MP by weight from cement, phase II (450 kg/m ). increased the splitting tensile strength about 8% as compared Flexural strength with normal concrete mix N . Uniform dispersion and dis- organized in shape of LSW is vital to the development of ce- Tables 9 and 10 and Figs. 14 and 15 show the results of the ment strength which effectively take advantage of the bond Flexural strength for normal concrete specimens and speci- strength properties of LSW. mens having 50% LSW as a replacement from sand by weight, As shown from (Tables 5 and6), the ratio of the indirect ten- with M.P by 15% as addition by weight from cement. The sile strength to the compressive strength (f /f ) of the mix con- above experiment is being done on the phases I and II. sp cu taining 50% from LSW as replacement from sand weight, and 15% M.P as an addition by weight from cement, was generally Effect of LSW Content, with M.P similar to that of the corresponding normal concrete mix at the Flexural strength of green concrete with 50% LSW replace- same cement content. This result agree with [14] who concluded ment at percentage 15% M.P, are presented in Figs. 14 and that a very small growing in this noticed for the concrete con- 15 and Tables 9 and 10. It can be observed that, the flexural taining, 50% LSW and 15% M.P as well as the normal concrete strength markedly increased at 15% M.P. Using 50% LSW mix with the increase of the cement content. with 15% M.P increased the compressive strength about, 7% Compressive Strength MPa Compressive Strength MPa Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties 201 N75-450 5% (M.P)+75%(LSW) 10% (M.P)+75%(LSW) 15% (M.P)+75%(LSW) 51.8 49.1 48.8 50 46.9 46.5 44.3 42.5 38.2 33.1 31.5 30 27.1 7 days 28 days 90 days Age per Days Fig. 11 Effect of 75% LSW as a partial replacement of sand weight, with 5%, 10% and 15% MP by weight from cement, phase II (450 kg/m ). Table 7 The tensile strength of concrete specimens, for as compared with normal concrete mix N . On the other selected mixes, phase I. hand using 50% LSW 15% M.P increased the flexural strength 3 about 8% as compared with normal concrete mix N . Mix symbol % (LSW) % (M.P) 350 Kg/m f day f /f sp,28 sp cu Modulus of elasticity MPa N 0 0 3.7 11 Effect of LSW content, with M.P M 0 15 4.1 10.1 3–350 It is obvious from the results of modulus of elasticity of green M 50 15 4.5 10.3 9–350 concrete that the modulus of elasticity increased for with increasing the limestone waste with MP in cement content 350 kg/m . The limited gain of the modulus of elasticity were Table 8 The tensile strength of concrete specimens, for 1.2% and 5.3% as compared with normal concrete mix selected mixes, phase II. N . on the other hand The limited gain of the modulus of elasticity was up to 1.5%, and 3.8% as compared with normal Mix symbol (LSW) (M.P) 450 Kg/m concrete mix N . f day f /f sp,28 sp cu MPa Water permeability N 0 0 4.7 11.3 M 0 15 5.6 10.9 3–450 The water permeability of concrete are presents the average M 50 15 5.1 10.5 9–450 coefficient of permeability, K, for the three concrete test C=350 kg/m3 at 28 days 4.5 4.1 3.7 N*-350 M3-350 M9-350 Fig. 12 Effect of LSW with 15% M.P on the tensile strength, phase I (350 kg/m ). Compressive Strength MPa Tensile Strength (MPa) 202 O.M. Omar et al. C=450 kg/m3 at 28 days 5.6 5.1 4.7 N*-450 M3-450 M9-450 Fig. 13 Effect of LSW with 15% M.P on the tensile strength, phase II (450 kg/m ). cylinders. It can be observed that the coefficient of permeabil- Table 9 Flexural strength of concrete specimens, for selected ity, K, decreases as the dust content increases. The mixes, phase I. coefficient of permeability was 6.8 · 10 cm/sec for normal Mix symbol (LSW) (MP) 350 Kg/m concrete mix N , and 4.62 · 10 cm/sec for mix content f day f /f sp,28 sp cu 15% M.P. As the same time the coefficient of permeability MPa -10 was 4.87 · 10 cm/sec for mix content 50% LSW, with N 0 0 5.69 18.2 15% M.P. M 0 15 6.2 16 3–350 As the same time is happen in concrete containing cement M 50 15 6.14 16.9 3 9–350 450 kg/m , it can be observed that the coefficient of permeabil- ity, K, decreases as the dust content increases. The coefficient of permeability was 6.03 · 10 cm/sec for normal concrete mix N , and 4.87 · 10 cm/sec for mix content 15% M.P. As the same time the coefficient of permeability was Table 10 Flexural strength of concrete specimens, for selected 5.13 · 10 cm/sec for mix content 50% LSW, with 15% mixes, phase II. M.P. The addition of LSW to the concrete improves the imper- 3 meability of concrete because it blocks the passages connecting Mix symbol (LSW) (MP) 350 Kg/m capillary pores and the water channels. This blockage is af- f day f /f sp,28 sp cu fected by the amount of dust content in the LSW, and the MPa more water passages were blocked, the more reduction in the N 0 0 7.6 17.7 450 permeability of concrete specimens is observed. The permeabil- M 0 15 8.4 16.4 3–450 ity is decease at LSW is increased, similar findings have been M 50 15 8.2 16.9 9–450 reported is earlier studies [16]. C = 350kg/m3 at 28 days 6.2 6.14 5.69 N*-350 M3-350 M9-350 Fig. 14 Effect of 15%M.P and LSW on the flexural strength, phase I (350 kg/m ). Tensile Strength (MPa) Flexure Strength (MPa) Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties 203 C=450 kg/m3 at 28 days 8.4 8.2 7.6 N*-450 M3-450 M9-450 Fig. 15 Effect of 15% M.P and LSW on the flexural strength, phase II (450 kg/m ). [3] M.S. Hameed, A.S.S. Sekar, Properties of green concrete Conclusions containing quarry rock dust and marble sludge powder as fine aggregate. India, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied From the analysis and discussion of test results obtained from Sciences 4 (4) (2009) 83–89. this research, the following conclusions can be drawn [4] K. Shi-Cong, P. Chi-Sun, Properties of concrete prepared with crushed fine stone, furnace bottom ash and fine recycled 1. The workability of green concrete did not affected by the aggregate as fine aggregates. China, Construction and Building LWS percentage. Materials 23 (2009) 2877–2886. 2. Using LSW up to 50% replacement increase the compres- [5] H. Donza, O. Cabrera, E.F. Irassar, High-strength concrete with sive strength about 12% at 28 days. different fine aggregate. Argentina, Cement and Concrete 3. When increasing cement content from 350 kg/cm to Research. 32 (2002) 1755–1761. [6] R. Ilangovana, N. Mahendrana, K. Nagamanib, Strength and 450 kg/cm in presents of the LSW with different percent- durability properties of concrete containing quarry rock dust as age increased the compressive strength about 6% at fine aggregate. India, ARPN Journal of Engineering and 28 days. 3 Applied Sciences 3 (5) (2008) 20–26. 4. Cement content of 350 kg/m , its better performance, and [7] V. Corinaldesi, G. Moriconi, T.R. Naik, Characterization of more economical from cement content of 450 kg/m . marble powder for its use in mortar and concrete United States, 5. Presences of marble powder with LSW (up to 50%) Construction and Building Materials. 24 (2009) 113–117. increase the compressive strength in mixes with low cement [8] H. Hebhoub, H. Aoun, M. Belachia, H. Houari, E. Ghorbel, content (350 kg/cm ) about 7%. Use of waste marble aggregates in concrete. France, 6. Indirect tensile strength increased about 17% when using Construction and Building Materials 25 (2010) 1167–1171. 50%LSW and 15%M.P with different cement content. [9] ASTM C494–80 type A and F. Standard specification for chemical admixtures for concrete. 7. Flexural strength increased about 8% when using [10] ECCS Egyptian code ECCS 203–2008. 50%LSW and 15%M.P with different cement content. [11] ESS Part 5 Egyptian Standard Specifications. Method for 8. Using MP up to 15% as admixture enhancement the com- making test cubes from fresh concrete. 1658–1991. pressive strength. [12] ESS Part 4 Egyptian Standard Specifications. Method for 9. The rate of the strength gain decreased as the percentage of making test cylinders from fresh concrete. 1658–1991. limestone waste replacement increase more than 50 percent [13] ESS Part 7. Method of normal curing of test specimens. 1658– in cement content 350, and 450 kg/m3. [14] A.A. Sammy. Mechanical properties for composite cement materials with different fiber. M. Sc faculty of engineering, materials engineering dept. Zagazig University 2007. References [15] B. Demirel, The effect of the using waste marble dust as fine sand on the mechanical properties of the concrete. Turkey, [1] V. Corinaldesi, G. Moriconi, T.R. Naik, Characterization of International Journal of the Physical Sciences 5 (9) (2010) 1372– marble powder for its use in mortar and concrete. United States, Construction and Building Materials 24 (2009) 113–117. [16] T. Celik, K. Marar, Effects of crushed stone dust on some [2] A. Ergu¨ n, Effects of the usage of diatomite and waste marble properties of concrete Turkey, Cement and Concrete Research. powder as partial replacement of cement on the mechanical 26 (7) (1996) 1121–1130. properties of concrete. Turkey, Construction and Building Materials 25 (2010) 806–812. Flexure Strength (MPa)

Journal

HBRC JournalTaylor & Francis

Published: Dec 1, 2012

Keywords: Hardened concrete properties; LSW; Marble powder; Concrete

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