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Concussion among female athletes in Iceland: Stress, depression, anxiety, and quality of life

Concussion among female athletes in Iceland: Stress, depression, anxiety, and quality of life Abstract The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between self-reported concussion history and stress, depression, anxiety, and quality of life among Icelandic female athletes. Participants were 508 Icelandic female athletes, aged 18–45 (M = 26.99, SD = 7.14), that had, or were currently training and competing in the two top leagues in basketball, soccer, and handball, in the top league in ice-hockey and national tournaments in mixed martial arts, taekwondo, karate, and boxing. Participants completed an online questionnaire regarding their age, sport, and concussion history before answering standard mental health scales concerning stress (PSS), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), and quality of life (QOLS). Female athletes reporting a history of concussions scored higher on PSS, PHQ-9, and GAD-7 than those reporting no history of concussion. Scores on the QOLS were not significantly different between the groups. Female athletes that had sustained a concussion were 3.48 to 4.85 times more likely (depending on the number of concussions) to score above the clinical cut-off on PHQ-9 than those that had not sustained a concussion. Athletes that reported 2–3 or  ≥ 4 concussions were 3.52 and 3.40 times more likely to score above the clinical cut-off on GAD-7, respectively. Results indicate that Icelandic female athletes with a history of concussion report more symptoms of distress than those with no history of concussion, and the higher number of concussions sustained, the worse they feel. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Nordic Psychology Taylor & Francis

Concussion among female athletes in Iceland: Stress, depression, anxiety, and quality of life

Concussion among female athletes in Iceland: Stress, depression, anxiety, and quality of life

Abstract

Abstract The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between self-reported concussion history and stress, depression, anxiety, and quality of life among Icelandic female athletes. Participants were 508 Icelandic female athletes, aged 18–45 (M = 26.99, SD = 7.14), that had, or were currently training and competing in the two top leagues in basketball, soccer, and handball, in the top league in ice-hockey and national tournaments in mixed martial arts,...
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Publisher
Taylor & Francis
Copyright
© 2021 The Editors of Nordic Psychology
ISSN
1904-0016
eISSN
1901-2276
DOI
10.1080/19012276.2021.2004916
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between self-reported concussion history and stress, depression, anxiety, and quality of life among Icelandic female athletes. Participants were 508 Icelandic female athletes, aged 18–45 (M = 26.99, SD = 7.14), that had, or were currently training and competing in the two top leagues in basketball, soccer, and handball, in the top league in ice-hockey and national tournaments in mixed martial arts, taekwondo, karate, and boxing. Participants completed an online questionnaire regarding their age, sport, and concussion history before answering standard mental health scales concerning stress (PSS), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), and quality of life (QOLS). Female athletes reporting a history of concussions scored higher on PSS, PHQ-9, and GAD-7 than those reporting no history of concussion. Scores on the QOLS were not significantly different between the groups. Female athletes that had sustained a concussion were 3.48 to 4.85 times more likely (depending on the number of concussions) to score above the clinical cut-off on PHQ-9 than those that had not sustained a concussion. Athletes that reported 2–3 or  ≥ 4 concussions were 3.52 and 3.40 times more likely to score above the clinical cut-off on GAD-7, respectively. Results indicate that Icelandic female athletes with a history of concussion report more symptoms of distress than those with no history of concussion, and the higher number of concussions sustained, the worse they feel.

Journal

Nordic PsychologyTaylor & Francis

Published: Nov 13, 2021

Keywords: concussion; athletes; stress; depression; anxiety; quality of life

References