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Biogeographic patterns, origin and speciation of the endemic birds from eastern Brazilian mountaintops: a review

Biogeographic patterns, origin and speciation of the endemic birds from eastern Brazilian... We review the main biogeographic and phylogenetic hypotheses about the origin and distribution of the endemic birds from Brazilian mountaintops, a heterogeneous group composed of hummingbirds and passerines living in high-altitude open habitats of campos rupestres, campos de altitude and campos sulinos from southern to north-eastern Brazilian mountaintops (Espinhaço Range, Serra do Mar, Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra Geral). Some authors consider that these birds are probably closely related to other species distributed in cooler areas of South America. We used ranges of these birds, spatial pattern and discontinuities in the distribution of phytophysiognomies to determine potential geographic barriers to dispersal and centres of origin and speciation. We reanalysed biogeographical hypotheses regarding the evolution of the endemic birds from Brazilian mountaintops and their habitats in the light of recent phylogenetic reconstructions that included some of these species. The evolutionary histories of the species Augastes scutatus, Augastes lumachella, Formicivora grantsaui, Polystictus superciliaris and Embernagra longicauda are difficult to assess due to lack of phylogenies that establish their systematic position. For Asthenes luizae, Asthenes moreirae, Cinclodes pabsti and C. espinhacensis, the phylogenies estimate also their lineage divergence times, which allows for inferences concerning connections between the biota of eastern Brazil, southern South America and the Andean mountains. We also identified 26 lowland regions between the mountains that were potentially barriers to dispersal. Phylogenetic relationships strongly highlight the importance of connecting paths and speciation through the south, especially in the cooler areas in South America. These patterns show that eastern Brazil, southern South America and the central and northern Andes are four important centres of origin and radiation for the endemic birds from the eastern Brazilian mountains. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Systematics and Biodiversity Taylor & Francis

Biogeographic patterns, origin and speciation of the endemic birds from eastern Brazilian mountaintops: a review

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References (117)

Publisher
Taylor & Francis
Copyright
© 2014 The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London 2014. All Rights Reserved
ISSN
1478-0933
eISSN
1477-2000
DOI
10.1080/14772000.2014.972477
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

We review the main biogeographic and phylogenetic hypotheses about the origin and distribution of the endemic birds from Brazilian mountaintops, a heterogeneous group composed of hummingbirds and passerines living in high-altitude open habitats of campos rupestres, campos de altitude and campos sulinos from southern to north-eastern Brazilian mountaintops (Espinhaço Range, Serra do Mar, Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra Geral). Some authors consider that these birds are probably closely related to other species distributed in cooler areas of South America. We used ranges of these birds, spatial pattern and discontinuities in the distribution of phytophysiognomies to determine potential geographic barriers to dispersal and centres of origin and speciation. We reanalysed biogeographical hypotheses regarding the evolution of the endemic birds from Brazilian mountaintops and their habitats in the light of recent phylogenetic reconstructions that included some of these species. The evolutionary histories of the species Augastes scutatus, Augastes lumachella, Formicivora grantsaui, Polystictus superciliaris and Embernagra longicauda are difficult to assess due to lack of phylogenies that establish their systematic position. For Asthenes luizae, Asthenes moreirae, Cinclodes pabsti and C. espinhacensis, the phylogenies estimate also their lineage divergence times, which allows for inferences concerning connections between the biota of eastern Brazil, southern South America and the Andean mountains. We also identified 26 lowland regions between the mountains that were potentially barriers to dispersal. Phylogenetic relationships strongly highlight the importance of connecting paths and speciation through the south, especially in the cooler areas in South America. These patterns show that eastern Brazil, southern South America and the central and northern Andes are four important centres of origin and radiation for the endemic birds from the eastern Brazilian mountains.

Journal

Systematics and BiodiversityTaylor & Francis

Published: Jan 2, 2015

Keywords: campos de altitude; campos rupestres; disjunct distribution; Espinhaço Range; geographic barriers; highlands; phylogeny; relictuation; Serra da Mantiqueira; vicariance

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