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Ultra-luminous X-ray sources as supercritical accretion disks: Spectral energy distributions

Ultra-luminous X-ray sources as supercritical accretion disks: Spectral energy distributions We describe a model of spectral energy distribution in supercritical accretion disks (SCAD) based on the conception by Shakura and Sunyaev. We apply this model to five ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs). In this approach, the disk becomes thick at distances to the center less than the spherization radius, and the temperature dependence is T ∝ r −1/2. In this region the disk luminosity is L bol ∼ L Edd $$\ln \left( {{{\dot M} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\dot M} {\dot M_{Edd} }}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {\dot M_{Edd} }}} \right)$$ , and strong wind arises forming a wind funnel above the disk. Outside the spherization radius, the disk is thin and its total luminosity is Eddington, L Edd. The thin disk heats the wind from below. From the inner side of the funnel the wind is heated by the supercritical disk. In this paper we do not consider Comptonization in the inner hot winds which must cover the deep supercritical disk regions. Our model is technically similar to the DISKIR model of Gierlinski et al. The models differ in disk type (standard—supercritical) and irradiation (disk—wind).We propose to distinguish between these two models in the X-ray region of about 0.3–1 keV, where the SCAD model has a flat νF ν spectrum, and the DISKIR model never has a flat part, as it is based on the standard α-disk. An important difference between the models can be found in their resulting black hole masses. In application to the ULX spectra, the DISKIR model yields black hole masses of a few hundred solar masses, whereas the SCAD model produces stellar-mass (about 10M⊙) black holes. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Astrophysical Bulletin Springer Journals

Ultra-luminous X-ray sources as supercritical accretion disks: Spectral energy distributions

Astrophysical Bulletin , Volume 68 (2) – May 22, 2013

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2013 by Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Subject
Physics; Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
ISSN
1990-3413
eISSN
1990-3421
DOI
10.1134/S1990341313020028
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

We describe a model of spectral energy distribution in supercritical accretion disks (SCAD) based on the conception by Shakura and Sunyaev. We apply this model to five ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs). In this approach, the disk becomes thick at distances to the center less than the spherization radius, and the temperature dependence is T ∝ r −1/2. In this region the disk luminosity is L bol ∼ L Edd $$\ln \left( {{{\dot M} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\dot M} {\dot M_{Edd} }}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {\dot M_{Edd} }}} \right)$$ , and strong wind arises forming a wind funnel above the disk. Outside the spherization radius, the disk is thin and its total luminosity is Eddington, L Edd. The thin disk heats the wind from below. From the inner side of the funnel the wind is heated by the supercritical disk. In this paper we do not consider Comptonization in the inner hot winds which must cover the deep supercritical disk regions. Our model is technically similar to the DISKIR model of Gierlinski et al. The models differ in disk type (standard—supercritical) and irradiation (disk—wind).We propose to distinguish between these two models in the X-ray region of about 0.3–1 keV, where the SCAD model has a flat νF ν spectrum, and the DISKIR model never has a flat part, as it is based on the standard α-disk. An important difference between the models can be found in their resulting black hole masses. In application to the ULX spectra, the DISKIR model yields black hole masses of a few hundred solar masses, whereas the SCAD model produces stellar-mass (about 10M⊙) black holes.

Journal

Astrophysical BulletinSpringer Journals

Published: May 22, 2013

References