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Treatment Options For Postmenopausal Women with Tamoxifen-Resistant Advanced Breast Cancer

Treatment Options For Postmenopausal Women with Tamoxifen-Resistant Advanced Breast Cancer Tamoxifen resistance can be classified into de novo (with disease progression within 6 months of treatment) and acquired (with an initial clinical benefit of at least 6 months followed by subsequent disease progression). Further endocrine therapy tends to be the treatment of choice when acquired resistance develops, especially when there has been a long duration of response to tamoxifen, in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer. These endocrine agents used to be progestogens (e.g. megestrol acetate) or aminoglutethimide. They have now been replaced by third-generation aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane) which have shown superior efficacy and tolerability compared with the traditional agents. The pure anti-estrogen, fulvestrant, has also been shown to be at least equivalent to anastrozole and is currently being evaluated in phase III trials. Recently, the third-generation aromatase inhibitors are challenging the role of tamoxifen as a first line endocrine agent. It is, therefore, envisaged that the use of endocrine agents at the time of tamoxifen resistance (when used as a second-line therapy) would become more complex and depend on the response of prior agents used. For patients with de novo resistance, chemotherapy is the standard treatment option, although for those who refuse chemotherapy or are deemed unfit a second-line endocrine agent could be tried. Newer biological therapies such as monoclonal antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab), tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ZD1839) and cell cycle inhibitors (e.g. CCI-779) are either available for clinical use or being investigated in trials. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Cancer Springer Journals

Treatment Options For Postmenopausal Women with Tamoxifen-Resistant Advanced Breast Cancer

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2002 by Adis International Limited
Subject
Pharmacy; Pharmacy
ISSN
1175-6357
DOI
10.2165/00024669-200201040-00006
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Tamoxifen resistance can be classified into de novo (with disease progression within 6 months of treatment) and acquired (with an initial clinical benefit of at least 6 months followed by subsequent disease progression). Further endocrine therapy tends to be the treatment of choice when acquired resistance develops, especially when there has been a long duration of response to tamoxifen, in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer. These endocrine agents used to be progestogens (e.g. megestrol acetate) or aminoglutethimide. They have now been replaced by third-generation aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane) which have shown superior efficacy and tolerability compared with the traditional agents. The pure anti-estrogen, fulvestrant, has also been shown to be at least equivalent to anastrozole and is currently being evaluated in phase III trials. Recently, the third-generation aromatase inhibitors are challenging the role of tamoxifen as a first line endocrine agent. It is, therefore, envisaged that the use of endocrine agents at the time of tamoxifen resistance (when used as a second-line therapy) would become more complex and depend on the response of prior agents used. For patients with de novo resistance, chemotherapy is the standard treatment option, although for those who refuse chemotherapy or are deemed unfit a second-line endocrine agent could be tried. Newer biological therapies such as monoclonal antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab), tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ZD1839) and cell cycle inhibitors (e.g. CCI-779) are either available for clinical use or being investigated in trials.

Journal

American Journal of CancerSpringer Journals

Published: Aug 9, 2012

References