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The culinary culture, characteristics, and nutritional value of Su cuisine in China

The culinary culture, characteristics, and nutritional value of Su cuisine in China Su cuisine (Jiangsu cuisine) belongs to the Eight Great Cuisines in China. The origin of Su cuisine can be traced back to the Spring and Autumn period (771–476 B.C). The flourish of Su cuisine was the outcome of the economic boom in Tang (618–907) and Song (960–1279) Dynasties. The choice of ingredients is diverse since the region are rich in natural resources. After strict selection of ingredients and exquisite preparation of food, most dishes of Su cuisine have a fine presentation and a natural taste. Famous for the highly skilled processing technique, subtle flavor, and deli- cate appearance, Su cuisine is widely served on various occasions, including the state banquets of China. Currently, Cantonese and Sichuan cuisine are well accepted globally, while the international popularity and influence of Su cuisine remain low. Therefore, this article aims to introduce the culinary culture, characteristics, and traditional dishes of Su cuisine in detail. Moreover, a palatable taste is not equivalent to desirable health outcomes. The wide variety of vegetables, herbs, and high-quality animal proteins used in Su cuisine is allied with the recommended healthy eating behavior. On the other hand, some traditional Su cuisine dishes are rich in refined carbohydrates. Thus, we performed a literature review of the current scientific evidence regarding the health effect and nutritional value of Su cuisine. The related literature was searched in Chinese and English using the CNKI, WanFang Data, PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Embase database. Keywords: Chinese cuisines, Culinary culture, Su cuisine, Regional cuisine Background Originated during the Spring and Autumn period Su cuisine (苏菜), or Jiangsu cuisine, refers to regional (771–476 B.C), Su cuisine has a history of more than cuisines around Jiangsu province, China. Famous for its 2000 years [2]. The first chief on the Chinese record, Keng delicacy and variety, Su cuisine is one of the Eight Great Peng, was born in Jiangsu province [1]. During the Tang Cuisines in Chinese cuisine (八大菜系) [1]. The suf - (618–907) and Song (960–1279) Dynasties, the golden ficient precipitation, well-developed irrigation system, age of Chinese history, economic boom, and frequent and humid subtropical climate explain the ample natural trading led to migration and cultural blend in Jiangsu. A resources in Jiangsu Province. Fertile farmlands alongside wide range of cuisines and cooking techniques from else- adequate coastal regions and lakes supported the flourish where assimilate into Jiangsu’s culinary culture. On the of fishing and agriculture since ancient times. Therefore, other hand, wealthy salt merchants push the elegance of the place has been awarded the title of “the land of rice Su cuisine to another level, attempting to show their taste and fish (鱼米之乡).” and fortune. When mentioning Su cuisine nowadays, it is commonly referring cuisines in both Jiangsu and Zhe- jiang province due to their geographical proximity and *Correspondence: mags@bjmu.edu.cn culinary similarities. Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Since Jiangsu province encompasses a broad area of Peking University, 38 XueYuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China land, regional variations of culinary culture and diversity Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © The Author(s) 2022. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Li and Ma Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:14 Page 2 of 7 of food have emerged. Four sub-regional styles are fur- nightlife.” As crabs become more affordable, high-quality ther diverged from Su cuisine, including Jinling cuisine crawfishes even surpass the price of crabs. Crawfish pro - (金陵菜), Huaiyang cuisine (淮扬菜), Suxi cuisine (苏锡 duction in Jiangsu was ranked in the top five in China in 菜), and Xuhai cuisine (徐海菜) [2], with Huaiyang cui- 2019 [7]. Xuyi (盱眙), a small county in Huaian city (淮 sine being the most prominent and influential style. Due 安市), Jiangsu province, is famous for its crawfish course. to its widely accepted flavor, Huaiyang cuisine is served In 2021, Xuyi crawfish has been listed in the China-EU at the state banquets in China [3]. Although the global Agreement on Geographical Indications [8]. influence of Su cuisine is not as substantial as Sichuan Besides rich aquatic food options, the subtropical cli- and Cantonese cuisine, its popularity and reputation are mate has also brought Su cuisine abundant herbs and equivalent or even superior to the two cuisines above in vegetables. In 2019, the vegetable production in Jiangsu China. In this article, we dissected the characteristics of was ranked the fourth in China, contributing 55.355 mil- Su cuisine to present a long-being-underestimated gour- lion tons in total [9]. Tea leaves, bamboo shoots, mush- met food. Further, we examined the nutritional values to rooms, lotus roots, wild rice stem, water caltrop, Chinese comprehend the fitness of Su cuisine to the modern con - water chestnut, and watershield are indigenous veg- cept of healthy eating. The related literature was searched etables frequently consumed by locals. Herbs, such as in Chinese and English using the CNKI, WanFang Data, purple comme, amomum, tangerine’s peel, nutmeg, cin- PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Embase namon, cloves, Chinese pepper, star anise, cumin, costus database. root, angelica, kaempferia, alpinia, and dried ginger, are the choices of seasonings. The “Thirteen-spices Crawfish” Features (十三香小龙虾) is a well-known course that originated in Ingredients the aforementioned Xuyi county. The dish uses “Thirteen Incorporating a wide variety of animals and plants, Spices,” a mixed powder of more than thirteen spices, as strictly selecting ingredients according to the seasons, the main seasoning, endowing the course a unique and and matching food based on their properties are the out- palatable aroma. Both the variety and quantity of crops standing traits of Su cuisine. With abundant resources, and vegetables are prominent in standard, advocating the a livable climate, and central geological location, food creativity and diversity of Su cuisine. production and supply in Jiangsu have long been effi - cient. Agriculture has thrived in Jiangsu since the time of Culinary techniques civilization. Grain crops, mainly rice and wheat, are the Encompassing an array of delicate food processing tech- staple food of Jiangsu residents. Plentiful agricultural and niques, Su cuisine requires highly skilled workmanship aquaculture production provides numerous ingredient and an aesthetic taste. Thus, it has been linked to a noble options, breeding a delicate and intricate cuisine style. lifestyle and culinary arts since ancient times. Precise Neighboring the East China Sea and freshwater lakes heating methods, temperature, and timing are the fun- and rivers, Jiangsu province is blessed with copious damentals to present ingredients in their optimal condi- aquatic organisms. In 2019, the aquaculture production tions. Braising, stewing, steaming, warming, stir-frying, of Jiangsu province was 4.84 million tons (1.07 billion and simmering are commonly applied when preparing Su pounds), according to the National Bureau of Statistics cuisine [10, 11]. Among them, braising, stewing, stir-fry- of China, with 1.37 million tons being marine produc- ing, and steaming appear more often than other heating tion and 3.47 million tons being freshwater production methods [11]. [4]. The high fishery production in Jiangsu province is The exquisite carving and cutting technique are the equivalent to 1/10 of the National totals in the U.S [5]. most extraordinary characteristic of Su cuisine. All ingre- Consequently, fish and crustaceans, ideal sources of high- dients are finely chopped, and all dishes are elegantly quality proteins, are commonly served as the main course shaped in pursuit of perfection. Braised Dry Tofu (大煮 of Su cuisine. 干丝), a delicacy of Su cuisine, demonstrates the cutting For crustaceans, Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir Sinen- skills of Jiangsu’s Chief. A two-centimeter thick Dried sis, 大闸蟹), a nutritious meaty hairy crab, symbolizes of Tofu is cut into thinner slices, sometimes as many as the arrival of Jiangsu’s autumn [6]. Before the successful thirty pieces [12]. The idiom commonly used to describe development of industrial agriculture, the Chinese mit- the thinness is “as thin as the wings of a cicada (薄如蝉 ten crab was not readily available because of its low pro- 翼)” in Chinese. After slicing, the thin slices are further duction. Therefore, crawfish, an invasive species in many shredded into matchsticks, approximately two millim- counties, became the alternative to crabs in Jiangsu. eters wide. Nowadays, crawfish has gained much popularity in the Food carving skills serve more of an artistic purpose younger generation and has been entitled “the soul of compared to cutting skills. Yangzhou city in Jiangsu Li and M a Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:14 Page 3 of 7 province is an ancient city with early civilization and rich dishes, one staple food, and one soup are the common cultural heritage. Food carving in Yangzhou has gained match of a banquet. Here we introduce some typical tra- its fame back in the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912)2 [13]. ditional dishes in Su cuisine. Now, it has been included as the Intangible Cultural Her- itage in Jiangsu [13]. The four essential determinants of Cold dish a complete food carving process are conceptualization, Appetizers are commonly named “cold dishes” in Chi- visualization, carving, and holism [14]. Melons, radishes, nese cuisines, as most of the dishes are served at room carrots, potatoes, and yams are common ingredients temperature. The aforementioned Braised Dry Tofu (大 used for food carving. The intricate details are achieved 煮干丝) is a typical cold dish of Su cuisine. The tofu slices using numerous knife techniques, such as carving, pick- are not seasoned or marinated. However, the broth, made ing, cutting, scraping, stabbing, twisting, gouging, dig- from chicken, shrimp, crab, and ham, is rich in flavor and ging, and engraving, etc. aroma. Marinated Crabs is another popular cold dish of Su cuisine. Crabs are steamed and marinated in brines Flavor and appearance containing Huangjiu (Chinese rice wine), soy sauce, gin- Sour, sweet, salty, bitter, and umami are the well-known ger, pepper, and other spices. After soaking in brine, the five primary tastes. Yet, Su cuisine is pursuing a more umami taste and tender texture of crab meat are signifi - intricate flavor involving not only tastes but also sensa - cantly magnified. Osmanthus Sugar Lotus Root is a sweet tions. The old saying, “seven taste and seven senses (七滋 choice of appetizer and can also be consumed as dessert. 七味),” may be the best to describe the multilayered fla - Lotus root is stuffed with sticky rice and stewed with vors of Su cuisine. The seven tastes contain sour, sweet, Osmanthus and sugar. The flowery fragrance matches bitter, spicy, salty, aromatic, and stinky, while the seven perfectly with the sweet taste. senses include umami, soft, crispy, tender, brittle, thick, and fatty [15]. Su cuisine’s concept of moderation, in Warm dishes every perspective, is allied with one of the most influ - Nanjing Salted Duck (南京咸水鸭), the legendary duck ential and profound philosophies in China, the Golden dish in Jiangsu, has been entitled the geographic indi- Mean. Thus, chiefs tend to even the flavor out, balance cation of China. A more poetic name of Nanjing salted the nutrition, and match the colors. Mild, refreshingly duck is the “Osmanthus Duck (桂花鸭)” since it is com- silky, lightly sweet, and umami tastes constitute the char- monly consumed during the Osmanthus bloom, around acteristics of Su cuisine [2, 10]. Since braising and stew- the Mid-Autumn Festival [16]. The preparation of this ing are strongly preferred by Jiangsu’s chief, the texture of Nanjing specialty is not sophisticated. Duck is marinated meat or poultry courses is usually tender and soft but not with salt and pepper and then simmered in brine made mushy. Condiments and seasonings are not used heavily, of ginger, scallion, star anise, and other scented spices. aiming to preserve the natural taste and reveal the pure Cooked duck is chopped to bitable pieces and lightly beauty of ingredients. Various indigenous plants and colored. Diners then may enjoy the tender and juicy duck aquatic food bring a rich aroma to Su cuisine. A sip of the meat and savor the rich fragrance. original stock is the taste of simplicity. Neighboring the natural habitats of freshwater fish, While the flavor of Su cuisine targets minimalist, the locals are versatile in cooking fish courses. As fish appearance is rather Byzantine. As the taste of the course becomes essential in daily life, native dining etiquette relies more on the freshness and quality of the ingredi- appears spontaneously. A whole fish must be served by ents, the appearance becomes the chiefs’ arena. Dishes the end of the banquet, implying the ending of the gath- are shaped elegantly, displaying the creativity and skillful- ering. Additionally, the fish should not be consumed ness of the chief. As the finishing touch, courses are cov - completely. Leftover fish is a good wish for wealth and ered with alluring colors and decorated with carved food. profit in future because “surplus (余)” and “fish (鱼)” are The subtle flavor and appealing presentation are broadly pronounced the same in Chinese [17]. favored by people nationwide, making Su cuisine the Squirrel Fish (松鼠鱼), or sweet and sour mandarin most popular choice of a banquet in China. fish, is the most appreciated delicacy of Suxi cuisine. Fresh and fatty mandarin fish is deep-fried and elegantly Traditional dishes shaped with sweet and sour sauce covering the whole Since there is no concrete standard of a formal banquet, fish. The name “squirrel” describes its elaborate shape, the types, forms, and servings size of the dishes may vary like a squirrel. The dish was documented in the Records because of regional differences and personal preferences. of the Grand Historian 2000 ago. In the Spring and In general, ten to twelve dishes are served for a group Autumn period (771–476 B.C), Zhu Zhuan (专诸), one of ten people. Four to six cold dishes, eight to ten warm of the top four assassins in Chinese history, learned the Li and Ma Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:14 Page 4 of 7 “All-fish banquet (全鱼宴)” from the founding chief in Similarly, plain noodles are plain in its flavor and ingredi - Suzhou [18]. In 515 B.C, Zhu Zhuan assassinated Liao, ents, only containing noodles and spices. Silver silk noo- the king of State Wu, by hiding a sword inside the fish dles are as thin as silk thread. The cooking time of silver dish. Squirrel fish was one course of the “All-fish ban - silk noodles is much shorter than regular noodles due quet.” Besides its dramatic history, the caramelized flavor to their thinness. Vegan noodles are originated from the and bright color of squirrel fish attract numerous gour - Guangfu temple, the toppings of which are made from mets and foodies. mushrooms, tofu, and bamboo shoots. Fish Hiding in Mutton (羊方藏鱼)is a typical tradi- tional Chinese delicacy created by Chief Peng around Soups 4300  years ago [19]. The preparation of this dish may Duck blood and vermicelli soup (鸭血粉丝汤) is a tra- seem rustic: seasonal fish is wrapped with deboned lamb ditional soup originated in Jiangsu. Duck blood, duck ribs and stewed with spices. Yet, the perfect match cre- organs, dried tofu, shrimps, and vermicelli are cooked ates a fascinating interaction. Fish and mutton neutralize as a mixture, generating a dense and diverse taste of the the unpleasant scent of each other and generate a mouth- soup [22]. The dish is commonly consumed in the morn - watering aroma and distinctive umami taste. Interest- ing as a main course of breakfast since it is rich in car- ingly, the Chinese character for umami, “鲜,” consists of bohydrates and proteins. Another popular but simpler fish “ 鱼” on the left side and sheep “羊” on the right side. soup is the Chinese carp soup (清炖鲢鱼汤), a milky Therefore, the origin of the character “鲜” is associated white soup made from carp. Fresh carp is cleaned and with this specialty per se. pan-fried before stewing with ginger, scallion, and pep- Lion’s Head (狮子头), originated in the Northern and per. The cleaning and frying of freshwater carp minimize Southern dynasties (420–589), is large pork meatballs the fishy smell while keeping the umami flavor. Last but shaped similar to the head of a lion [20]. Two cooking not least, Umami Fried Pork Skin soup (肉皮三鲜汤) is methods are commonly applied, braising with soy sauce a homemade choice of locals in Jiangsu. Deep-fried pork and stewing with light broth. Soy sauce colors the meat- skins are boiled with bamboo shoots, mushrooms, cab- balls in reddish-brown, which is, therefore, named “red- bages, ham, sea cucumbers, and tendons. The fat of the braising.” The red-braised meatballs are set in gravy and pork skin renders a thick but smooth texture of the soup. have a saltier and thicker taste. On the other hand, less flavor can be experienced when eating the light-broth- Nutritional value and possible health effect stewed meatballs. uTh s, the light-broth-stewed Lion’s The idea “food is medicine” is deeply rooted in Chinese head serves more like a soup than a main course. culinary culture. As one of the earliest schools in China, Su cuisine tends to pair ingredients based on their nutri- Staple food tional and medical properties. However, these empirical Grains, particularly rice, are the staple food in most matches and techniques may or may not agree with mod- Asian diets. The iconic Yangzhou fried rice (扬州炒饭) ern science. Here, we demonstrate an evidence-based has been served in almost every Chinese restaurant in discussion of Su cuisine’s nutrition value from a modern foreign countries. The authentic Yangzhou fried rice is health perspective. more exquisite in selecting ingredients and food prepa- The recipes of Su cuisine incorporate a wide range of ration. Rice from Taizhou city, Jiangsu, is favored over fatty fish, an ideal source of high-quality proteins, min - other rice types [21]. Although adjustment of the ingre- erals, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) [10]. Con- dients may occur from recipe to recipe, rice, eggs, ham, suming high-quality proteins from fish decreases energy shrimps, scallion, carrots, peas, and mushrooms are used intake and improves lipid profiles [23]. Additionally, in almost all recipes. Some local recipes may include the effectiveness of n − 3 fatty acids in fish on hyperten - rare delights, such as sea cucumbers. The wide variety of sion and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been well mixed food provides a vivid and attractive color that does established [23, 24]. The high vitamin D content in fish not need further garnishment. This delectable but not is essential for calcium homeostasis and is associated overwhelming specialty pairs well with all types of dishes. with an anti-inflammatory effect. Furthermore, the trace Various choices of noodles, such as belly noodles ( minerals in fish, iodine and selenium, maintain a proper 肚皮面), plain noodles (清汤面), meaty noodles (大肉 thyroid function [25]. Thus, the habitual consumption 面), vegan noodles (素面), fish soup noodles (鱼汤面), of fish in Su cuisine is allied with current dietary recom - fried noodles (炒面), silver silk noodles (银丝面), etc., mendations. Although fish consumption exerts various are a gustatory way to experience the culture in Jiangsu. health benefits, one should not indulge in an all-fish feast The name “belly noodles” mainly describes the toppings, because certain types of fish, particularly large marine pork belly fat chopped into small cubes and deep-fried. fish, tend to accumulate mercury. Research has found Li and M a Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:14 Page 5 of 7 that modest fish consumption, 1–2 servings/week, out - The complex interaction between food and health weighed the risk for most adults [26]. outcomes is evaluated in some nutrition epidemiology Selecting seasonal ingredients is another distinct char- studies. Using data from the 2006 China Health and acteristic of Su cuisine. Yet, the benefit of this choice is Nutrition Survey (CHNS), one study identified four not concrete due to the vague definition of “seasonal dietary patterns of residents in Jiangsu, Western, tra- food.” In most definitions, seasonal food is produced out - ditional, high wheat, and hedonic [34]. Among them, doors during the natural growing season without extra the traditional dietary pattern, characterized by high energy input. Therefore, growing seasonal food decreases consumptions in eggs, tofu, aquatic products, poultry, the emission of greenhouse gas and promotes environ- organ meat, and pickled vegetables, resembles Su cui- mental sustainability [27]. Moreover, certain food may sine. The traditional dietary pattern did not increase be more affordable and available in the local producing nor decrease the risk of insulin resistance. region. On the other hand, only depending on seasonal Another observational study sampled 1739 individu- food may limit the food choices, resulting in insufficient als from 12 different areas in Jiangsu province in 2014, nutrient intake [28]. Seasonal food is also highly depend- aiming to examine the relationship between dietary ent on seasonal laborers, a potential cause of instability in patterns and overweight and obesity among adults [35]. employment [28]. Therefore, incorporating but not solely The traditional dietary pattern determined in this study relying on seasonal food may be a more desirable choice. mainly consisted of poultry, light-colored vegetables, Scrumptious indigenous plants are frequently sorted red meat, cereals and tubers products, condiment, oils, in Su cuisines. Besides their unique taste, indigenous and dark-colored vegetables. Interestingly, such dietary vegetables in Jiangsu are rich in nutrients, providing pattern is associated with a higher risk of overweight beneficial health effects. For instance, watershield (Bra - and obesity in men. Explanations discussed in the study senia schreberi, 莼菜), an aquatic plant found in Amer- include the high intake of refined carbohydrates, in the ica and Asia, is often added to soups of Su cuisine. Its form of cereals and tubers, and increased consumption leaves are coated with gelatinous mucilage, mainly con- of saturated fat from animal products. sisting of polysaccharides [29]. The antibacterial effect A more recent study analyzed data of 13,944 partici- of watershield extract has been illustrated by Elakovich pants from Jiangsu, who participated in the nutrition et  al. [30]. In a more recent animal study, the consump- and diet investigation projects in 2002, 2007, and 2014 tion of the watershield mucilage significantly decreases [36]. Three dietary patterns were determined, with the total plasma cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and modern dietary pattern (pattern I) covering the highest very low-density lipoprotein [29]. Another healthy local percent of variance. The main components of pattern vegetable is Chinese water chestnuts, containing mul- I are pork, poultry, vegetables, seafood, pastry, other tiple bioactive compounds. The phenolic compounds animal meats, fruits, milk and its products, soft drink, acted as a free-radical scavenger, significantly inhibited whole grains, nuts, and seeds. Additionally, wheat con- lipid peroxidation in a vitro study [31]. In addition to its sumption is low in this dietary pattern. A higher risk of antioxidant activity, the polysaccharides in Chinese water metabolic syndrome was observed among people who chestnut have also shown immunomodulatory activities were following the modern dietary pattern. [32]. Notably, the nutritional and medical properties of Thus, following recommendations of the dietary these healthful vegetables are subject to variations due to guidelines when consuming Su cuisine is crucial in the differences in processing methods and seasoning. maintaining a healthy eating pattern and preventing Although a single recipe of Su cuisine may provide adverse health outcomes. When habitually consuming dense energy, it is insufficient to support daily nutrition Su cuisine, incorporating exotic sources of vitamins and requirements. For instance, a standard serving (830 g) of minerals, such as fresh fruits, and paring the dishes to Yangzhou fried rice is mainly composed of carbohydrates meet recommended dietary intakes are approaches to (394.5  g), contributing to most of the energy, 722.7  kcal ensure sufficient but not excessive nutrient consump - out of 2543.0  kcal [21]. An evaluation of the nutritional tion while enjoying the delicacy. Additionally, cooking value of Su cuisine has shown that the famous courses methods and seasoning should be considered along of Su cuisine may fulfill the energy and macronutrients with the ingredients. For instance, deep fry or pan-fried demand, but not the micronutrients needs [33]. There - vegetables with salty seasoning may undermine the fore, thinking in a holistic perspective by considering the intended health benefit. synergistic effect of food is essential in determining the Acknowledgments health effect of Su cuisine. Not applicable. Li and Ma Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:14 Page 6 of 7 Author contributions 7. National Fisheries Technology Extension Center, China Society of Fisher- HL: conceptualization, writing, and editing of the original draft. GM: con- ies. Industry Development Report of Chinese Crawfish (2020). 2020 [cited ceptualization, revision and supervision of the study. Both authors read and 2021 Nov 4]. 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Available from https:// www. cambr idge. org/ core/ journ als/ briti sh- journ al- of- nutri tion/ artic le/ dieta ry- patte rns- are- assoc iated- with- insul in- resis tance- in- chine se- adults- witho ut- known- diabe tes/ 1FF3B D159A A22F7 A4905 0F64E E9112 35. Wang Y, Tian T, Pan D, Zhang J, Xie W, Wang S, et al. The relationship between dietary patterns and overweight and obesity among adult Re Read ady y to to submit y submit your our re researc search h ? Choose BMC and benefit fr ? Choose BMC and benefit from om: : in Jiangsu Province of China: a structural equation model. BMC Public Health. 2021 Jun 25 [cited 2021 Dec 27];21:1225. Available from https:// fast, convenient online submission www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/ pmc/ artic les/ PMC82 29268/. thorough peer review by experienced researchers in your field 36. Wang Y, Dai Y, Tian T, Zhang J, Xie W, Pan D, et al. The effects of dietary pattern on metabolic syndrome in Jiangsu Province of China: based on rapid publication on acceptance a nutrition and diet investigation project in Jiangsu Province. Nutrients. support for research data, including large and complex data types 2021;13(12):4451. • gold Open Access which fosters wider collaboration and increased citations maximum visibility for your research: over 100M website views per year Publisher’s Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in pub- At BMC, research is always in progress. lished maps and institutional affiliations. Learn more biomedcentral.com/submissions http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Ethnic Foods Springer Journals

The culinary culture, characteristics, and nutritional value of Su cuisine in China

Journal of Ethnic Foods , Volume 9 (1) – Apr 28, 2022

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Abstract

Su cuisine (Jiangsu cuisine) belongs to the Eight Great Cuisines in China. The origin of Su cuisine can be traced back to the Spring and Autumn period (771–476 B.C). The flourish of Su cuisine was the outcome of the economic boom in Tang (618–907) and Song (960–1279) Dynasties. The choice of ingredients is diverse since the region are rich in natural resources. After strict selection of ingredients and exquisite preparation of food, most dishes of Su cuisine have a fine presentation and a natural taste. Famous for the highly skilled processing technique, subtle flavor, and deli- cate appearance, Su cuisine is widely served on various occasions, including the state banquets of China. Currently, Cantonese and Sichuan cuisine are well accepted globally, while the international popularity and influence of Su cuisine remain low. Therefore, this article aims to introduce the culinary culture, characteristics, and traditional dishes of Su cuisine in detail. Moreover, a palatable taste is not equivalent to desirable health outcomes. The wide variety of vegetables, herbs, and high-quality animal proteins used in Su cuisine is allied with the recommended healthy eating behavior. On the other hand, some traditional Su cuisine dishes are rich in refined carbohydrates. Thus, we performed a literature review of the current scientific evidence regarding the health effect and nutritional value of Su cuisine. The related literature was searched in Chinese and English using the CNKI, WanFang Data, PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Embase database. Keywords: Chinese cuisines, Culinary culture, Su cuisine, Regional cuisine Background Originated during the Spring and Autumn period Su cuisine (苏菜), or Jiangsu cuisine, refers to regional (771–476 B.C), Su cuisine has a history of more than cuisines around Jiangsu province, China. Famous for its 2000 years [2]. The first chief on the Chinese record, Keng delicacy and variety, Su cuisine is one of the Eight Great Peng, was born in Jiangsu province [1]. During the Tang Cuisines in Chinese cuisine (八大菜系) [1]. The suf - (618–907) and Song (960–1279) Dynasties, the golden ficient precipitation, well-developed irrigation system, age of Chinese history, economic boom, and frequent and humid subtropical climate explain the ample natural trading led to migration and cultural blend in Jiangsu. A resources in Jiangsu Province. Fertile farmlands alongside wide range of cuisines and cooking techniques from else- adequate coastal regions and lakes supported the flourish where assimilate into Jiangsu’s culinary culture. On the of fishing and agriculture since ancient times. Therefore, other hand, wealthy salt merchants push the elegance of the place has been awarded the title of “the land of rice Su cuisine to another level, attempting to show their taste and fish (鱼米之乡).” and fortune. When mentioning Su cuisine nowadays, it is commonly referring cuisines in both Jiangsu and Zhe- jiang province due to their geographical proximity and *Correspondence: mags@bjmu.edu.cn culinary similarities. Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Since Jiangsu province encompasses a broad area of Peking University, 38 XueYuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China land, regional variations of culinary culture and diversity Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © The Author(s) 2022. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Li and Ma Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:14 Page 2 of 7 of food have emerged. Four sub-regional styles are fur- nightlife.” As crabs become more affordable, high-quality ther diverged from Su cuisine, including Jinling cuisine crawfishes even surpass the price of crabs. Crawfish pro - (金陵菜), Huaiyang cuisine (淮扬菜), Suxi cuisine (苏锡 duction in Jiangsu was ranked in the top five in China in 菜), and Xuhai cuisine (徐海菜) [2], with Huaiyang cui- 2019 [7]. Xuyi (盱眙), a small county in Huaian city (淮 sine being the most prominent and influential style. Due 安市), Jiangsu province, is famous for its crawfish course. to its widely accepted flavor, Huaiyang cuisine is served In 2021, Xuyi crawfish has been listed in the China-EU at the state banquets in China [3]. Although the global Agreement on Geographical Indications [8]. influence of Su cuisine is not as substantial as Sichuan Besides rich aquatic food options, the subtropical cli- and Cantonese cuisine, its popularity and reputation are mate has also brought Su cuisine abundant herbs and equivalent or even superior to the two cuisines above in vegetables. In 2019, the vegetable production in Jiangsu China. In this article, we dissected the characteristics of was ranked the fourth in China, contributing 55.355 mil- Su cuisine to present a long-being-underestimated gour- lion tons in total [9]. Tea leaves, bamboo shoots, mush- met food. Further, we examined the nutritional values to rooms, lotus roots, wild rice stem, water caltrop, Chinese comprehend the fitness of Su cuisine to the modern con - water chestnut, and watershield are indigenous veg- cept of healthy eating. The related literature was searched etables frequently consumed by locals. Herbs, such as in Chinese and English using the CNKI, WanFang Data, purple comme, amomum, tangerine’s peel, nutmeg, cin- PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Embase namon, cloves, Chinese pepper, star anise, cumin, costus database. root, angelica, kaempferia, alpinia, and dried ginger, are the choices of seasonings. The “Thirteen-spices Crawfish” Features (十三香小龙虾) is a well-known course that originated in Ingredients the aforementioned Xuyi county. The dish uses “Thirteen Incorporating a wide variety of animals and plants, Spices,” a mixed powder of more than thirteen spices, as strictly selecting ingredients according to the seasons, the main seasoning, endowing the course a unique and and matching food based on their properties are the out- palatable aroma. Both the variety and quantity of crops standing traits of Su cuisine. With abundant resources, and vegetables are prominent in standard, advocating the a livable climate, and central geological location, food creativity and diversity of Su cuisine. production and supply in Jiangsu have long been effi - cient. Agriculture has thrived in Jiangsu since the time of Culinary techniques civilization. Grain crops, mainly rice and wheat, are the Encompassing an array of delicate food processing tech- staple food of Jiangsu residents. Plentiful agricultural and niques, Su cuisine requires highly skilled workmanship aquaculture production provides numerous ingredient and an aesthetic taste. Thus, it has been linked to a noble options, breeding a delicate and intricate cuisine style. lifestyle and culinary arts since ancient times. Precise Neighboring the East China Sea and freshwater lakes heating methods, temperature, and timing are the fun- and rivers, Jiangsu province is blessed with copious damentals to present ingredients in their optimal condi- aquatic organisms. In 2019, the aquaculture production tions. Braising, stewing, steaming, warming, stir-frying, of Jiangsu province was 4.84 million tons (1.07 billion and simmering are commonly applied when preparing Su pounds), according to the National Bureau of Statistics cuisine [10, 11]. Among them, braising, stewing, stir-fry- of China, with 1.37 million tons being marine produc- ing, and steaming appear more often than other heating tion and 3.47 million tons being freshwater production methods [11]. [4]. The high fishery production in Jiangsu province is The exquisite carving and cutting technique are the equivalent to 1/10 of the National totals in the U.S [5]. most extraordinary characteristic of Su cuisine. All ingre- Consequently, fish and crustaceans, ideal sources of high- dients are finely chopped, and all dishes are elegantly quality proteins, are commonly served as the main course shaped in pursuit of perfection. Braised Dry Tofu (大煮 of Su cuisine. 干丝), a delicacy of Su cuisine, demonstrates the cutting For crustaceans, Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir Sinen- skills of Jiangsu’s Chief. A two-centimeter thick Dried sis, 大闸蟹), a nutritious meaty hairy crab, symbolizes of Tofu is cut into thinner slices, sometimes as many as the arrival of Jiangsu’s autumn [6]. Before the successful thirty pieces [12]. The idiom commonly used to describe development of industrial agriculture, the Chinese mit- the thinness is “as thin as the wings of a cicada (薄如蝉 ten crab was not readily available because of its low pro- 翼)” in Chinese. After slicing, the thin slices are further duction. Therefore, crawfish, an invasive species in many shredded into matchsticks, approximately two millim- counties, became the alternative to crabs in Jiangsu. eters wide. Nowadays, crawfish has gained much popularity in the Food carving skills serve more of an artistic purpose younger generation and has been entitled “the soul of compared to cutting skills. Yangzhou city in Jiangsu Li and M a Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:14 Page 3 of 7 province is an ancient city with early civilization and rich dishes, one staple food, and one soup are the common cultural heritage. Food carving in Yangzhou has gained match of a banquet. Here we introduce some typical tra- its fame back in the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912)2 [13]. ditional dishes in Su cuisine. Now, it has been included as the Intangible Cultural Her- itage in Jiangsu [13]. The four essential determinants of Cold dish a complete food carving process are conceptualization, Appetizers are commonly named “cold dishes” in Chi- visualization, carving, and holism [14]. Melons, radishes, nese cuisines, as most of the dishes are served at room carrots, potatoes, and yams are common ingredients temperature. The aforementioned Braised Dry Tofu (大 used for food carving. The intricate details are achieved 煮干丝) is a typical cold dish of Su cuisine. The tofu slices using numerous knife techniques, such as carving, pick- are not seasoned or marinated. However, the broth, made ing, cutting, scraping, stabbing, twisting, gouging, dig- from chicken, shrimp, crab, and ham, is rich in flavor and ging, and engraving, etc. aroma. Marinated Crabs is another popular cold dish of Su cuisine. Crabs are steamed and marinated in brines Flavor and appearance containing Huangjiu (Chinese rice wine), soy sauce, gin- Sour, sweet, salty, bitter, and umami are the well-known ger, pepper, and other spices. After soaking in brine, the five primary tastes. Yet, Su cuisine is pursuing a more umami taste and tender texture of crab meat are signifi - intricate flavor involving not only tastes but also sensa - cantly magnified. Osmanthus Sugar Lotus Root is a sweet tions. The old saying, “seven taste and seven senses (七滋 choice of appetizer and can also be consumed as dessert. 七味),” may be the best to describe the multilayered fla - Lotus root is stuffed with sticky rice and stewed with vors of Su cuisine. The seven tastes contain sour, sweet, Osmanthus and sugar. The flowery fragrance matches bitter, spicy, salty, aromatic, and stinky, while the seven perfectly with the sweet taste. senses include umami, soft, crispy, tender, brittle, thick, and fatty [15]. Su cuisine’s concept of moderation, in Warm dishes every perspective, is allied with one of the most influ - Nanjing Salted Duck (南京咸水鸭), the legendary duck ential and profound philosophies in China, the Golden dish in Jiangsu, has been entitled the geographic indi- Mean. Thus, chiefs tend to even the flavor out, balance cation of China. A more poetic name of Nanjing salted the nutrition, and match the colors. Mild, refreshingly duck is the “Osmanthus Duck (桂花鸭)” since it is com- silky, lightly sweet, and umami tastes constitute the char- monly consumed during the Osmanthus bloom, around acteristics of Su cuisine [2, 10]. Since braising and stew- the Mid-Autumn Festival [16]. The preparation of this ing are strongly preferred by Jiangsu’s chief, the texture of Nanjing specialty is not sophisticated. Duck is marinated meat or poultry courses is usually tender and soft but not with salt and pepper and then simmered in brine made mushy. Condiments and seasonings are not used heavily, of ginger, scallion, star anise, and other scented spices. aiming to preserve the natural taste and reveal the pure Cooked duck is chopped to bitable pieces and lightly beauty of ingredients. Various indigenous plants and colored. Diners then may enjoy the tender and juicy duck aquatic food bring a rich aroma to Su cuisine. A sip of the meat and savor the rich fragrance. original stock is the taste of simplicity. Neighboring the natural habitats of freshwater fish, While the flavor of Su cuisine targets minimalist, the locals are versatile in cooking fish courses. As fish appearance is rather Byzantine. As the taste of the course becomes essential in daily life, native dining etiquette relies more on the freshness and quality of the ingredi- appears spontaneously. A whole fish must be served by ents, the appearance becomes the chiefs’ arena. Dishes the end of the banquet, implying the ending of the gath- are shaped elegantly, displaying the creativity and skillful- ering. Additionally, the fish should not be consumed ness of the chief. As the finishing touch, courses are cov - completely. Leftover fish is a good wish for wealth and ered with alluring colors and decorated with carved food. profit in future because “surplus (余)” and “fish (鱼)” are The subtle flavor and appealing presentation are broadly pronounced the same in Chinese [17]. favored by people nationwide, making Su cuisine the Squirrel Fish (松鼠鱼), or sweet and sour mandarin most popular choice of a banquet in China. fish, is the most appreciated delicacy of Suxi cuisine. Fresh and fatty mandarin fish is deep-fried and elegantly Traditional dishes shaped with sweet and sour sauce covering the whole Since there is no concrete standard of a formal banquet, fish. The name “squirrel” describes its elaborate shape, the types, forms, and servings size of the dishes may vary like a squirrel. The dish was documented in the Records because of regional differences and personal preferences. of the Grand Historian 2000 ago. In the Spring and In general, ten to twelve dishes are served for a group Autumn period (771–476 B.C), Zhu Zhuan (专诸), one of ten people. Four to six cold dishes, eight to ten warm of the top four assassins in Chinese history, learned the Li and Ma Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:14 Page 4 of 7 “All-fish banquet (全鱼宴)” from the founding chief in Similarly, plain noodles are plain in its flavor and ingredi - Suzhou [18]. In 515 B.C, Zhu Zhuan assassinated Liao, ents, only containing noodles and spices. Silver silk noo- the king of State Wu, by hiding a sword inside the fish dles are as thin as silk thread. The cooking time of silver dish. Squirrel fish was one course of the “All-fish ban - silk noodles is much shorter than regular noodles due quet.” Besides its dramatic history, the caramelized flavor to their thinness. Vegan noodles are originated from the and bright color of squirrel fish attract numerous gour - Guangfu temple, the toppings of which are made from mets and foodies. mushrooms, tofu, and bamboo shoots. Fish Hiding in Mutton (羊方藏鱼)is a typical tradi- tional Chinese delicacy created by Chief Peng around Soups 4300  years ago [19]. The preparation of this dish may Duck blood and vermicelli soup (鸭血粉丝汤) is a tra- seem rustic: seasonal fish is wrapped with deboned lamb ditional soup originated in Jiangsu. Duck blood, duck ribs and stewed with spices. Yet, the perfect match cre- organs, dried tofu, shrimps, and vermicelli are cooked ates a fascinating interaction. Fish and mutton neutralize as a mixture, generating a dense and diverse taste of the the unpleasant scent of each other and generate a mouth- soup [22]. The dish is commonly consumed in the morn - watering aroma and distinctive umami taste. Interest- ing as a main course of breakfast since it is rich in car- ingly, the Chinese character for umami, “鲜,” consists of bohydrates and proteins. Another popular but simpler fish “ 鱼” on the left side and sheep “羊” on the right side. soup is the Chinese carp soup (清炖鲢鱼汤), a milky Therefore, the origin of the character “鲜” is associated white soup made from carp. Fresh carp is cleaned and with this specialty per se. pan-fried before stewing with ginger, scallion, and pep- Lion’s Head (狮子头), originated in the Northern and per. The cleaning and frying of freshwater carp minimize Southern dynasties (420–589), is large pork meatballs the fishy smell while keeping the umami flavor. Last but shaped similar to the head of a lion [20]. Two cooking not least, Umami Fried Pork Skin soup (肉皮三鲜汤) is methods are commonly applied, braising with soy sauce a homemade choice of locals in Jiangsu. Deep-fried pork and stewing with light broth. Soy sauce colors the meat- skins are boiled with bamboo shoots, mushrooms, cab- balls in reddish-brown, which is, therefore, named “red- bages, ham, sea cucumbers, and tendons. The fat of the braising.” The red-braised meatballs are set in gravy and pork skin renders a thick but smooth texture of the soup. have a saltier and thicker taste. On the other hand, less flavor can be experienced when eating the light-broth- Nutritional value and possible health effect stewed meatballs. uTh s, the light-broth-stewed Lion’s The idea “food is medicine” is deeply rooted in Chinese head serves more like a soup than a main course. culinary culture. As one of the earliest schools in China, Su cuisine tends to pair ingredients based on their nutri- Staple food tional and medical properties. However, these empirical Grains, particularly rice, are the staple food in most matches and techniques may or may not agree with mod- Asian diets. The iconic Yangzhou fried rice (扬州炒饭) ern science. Here, we demonstrate an evidence-based has been served in almost every Chinese restaurant in discussion of Su cuisine’s nutrition value from a modern foreign countries. The authentic Yangzhou fried rice is health perspective. more exquisite in selecting ingredients and food prepa- The recipes of Su cuisine incorporate a wide range of ration. Rice from Taizhou city, Jiangsu, is favored over fatty fish, an ideal source of high-quality proteins, min - other rice types [21]. Although adjustment of the ingre- erals, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) [10]. Con- dients may occur from recipe to recipe, rice, eggs, ham, suming high-quality proteins from fish decreases energy shrimps, scallion, carrots, peas, and mushrooms are used intake and improves lipid profiles [23]. Additionally, in almost all recipes. Some local recipes may include the effectiveness of n − 3 fatty acids in fish on hyperten - rare delights, such as sea cucumbers. The wide variety of sion and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been well mixed food provides a vivid and attractive color that does established [23, 24]. The high vitamin D content in fish not need further garnishment. This delectable but not is essential for calcium homeostasis and is associated overwhelming specialty pairs well with all types of dishes. with an anti-inflammatory effect. Furthermore, the trace Various choices of noodles, such as belly noodles ( minerals in fish, iodine and selenium, maintain a proper 肚皮面), plain noodles (清汤面), meaty noodles (大肉 thyroid function [25]. Thus, the habitual consumption 面), vegan noodles (素面), fish soup noodles (鱼汤面), of fish in Su cuisine is allied with current dietary recom - fried noodles (炒面), silver silk noodles (银丝面), etc., mendations. Although fish consumption exerts various are a gustatory way to experience the culture in Jiangsu. health benefits, one should not indulge in an all-fish feast The name “belly noodles” mainly describes the toppings, because certain types of fish, particularly large marine pork belly fat chopped into small cubes and deep-fried. fish, tend to accumulate mercury. Research has found Li and M a Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:14 Page 5 of 7 that modest fish consumption, 1–2 servings/week, out - The complex interaction between food and health weighed the risk for most adults [26]. outcomes is evaluated in some nutrition epidemiology Selecting seasonal ingredients is another distinct char- studies. Using data from the 2006 China Health and acteristic of Su cuisine. Yet, the benefit of this choice is Nutrition Survey (CHNS), one study identified four not concrete due to the vague definition of “seasonal dietary patterns of residents in Jiangsu, Western, tra- food.” In most definitions, seasonal food is produced out - ditional, high wheat, and hedonic [34]. Among them, doors during the natural growing season without extra the traditional dietary pattern, characterized by high energy input. Therefore, growing seasonal food decreases consumptions in eggs, tofu, aquatic products, poultry, the emission of greenhouse gas and promotes environ- organ meat, and pickled vegetables, resembles Su cui- mental sustainability [27]. Moreover, certain food may sine. The traditional dietary pattern did not increase be more affordable and available in the local producing nor decrease the risk of insulin resistance. region. On the other hand, only depending on seasonal Another observational study sampled 1739 individu- food may limit the food choices, resulting in insufficient als from 12 different areas in Jiangsu province in 2014, nutrient intake [28]. Seasonal food is also highly depend- aiming to examine the relationship between dietary ent on seasonal laborers, a potential cause of instability in patterns and overweight and obesity among adults [35]. employment [28]. Therefore, incorporating but not solely The traditional dietary pattern determined in this study relying on seasonal food may be a more desirable choice. mainly consisted of poultry, light-colored vegetables, Scrumptious indigenous plants are frequently sorted red meat, cereals and tubers products, condiment, oils, in Su cuisines. Besides their unique taste, indigenous and dark-colored vegetables. Interestingly, such dietary vegetables in Jiangsu are rich in nutrients, providing pattern is associated with a higher risk of overweight beneficial health effects. For instance, watershield (Bra - and obesity in men. Explanations discussed in the study senia schreberi, 莼菜), an aquatic plant found in Amer- include the high intake of refined carbohydrates, in the ica and Asia, is often added to soups of Su cuisine. Its form of cereals and tubers, and increased consumption leaves are coated with gelatinous mucilage, mainly con- of saturated fat from animal products. sisting of polysaccharides [29]. The antibacterial effect A more recent study analyzed data of 13,944 partici- of watershield extract has been illustrated by Elakovich pants from Jiangsu, who participated in the nutrition et  al. [30]. In a more recent animal study, the consump- and diet investigation projects in 2002, 2007, and 2014 tion of the watershield mucilage significantly decreases [36]. Three dietary patterns were determined, with the total plasma cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and modern dietary pattern (pattern I) covering the highest very low-density lipoprotein [29]. Another healthy local percent of variance. The main components of pattern vegetable is Chinese water chestnuts, containing mul- I are pork, poultry, vegetables, seafood, pastry, other tiple bioactive compounds. The phenolic compounds animal meats, fruits, milk and its products, soft drink, acted as a free-radical scavenger, significantly inhibited whole grains, nuts, and seeds. Additionally, wheat con- lipid peroxidation in a vitro study [31]. In addition to its sumption is low in this dietary pattern. A higher risk of antioxidant activity, the polysaccharides in Chinese water metabolic syndrome was observed among people who chestnut have also shown immunomodulatory activities were following the modern dietary pattern. [32]. Notably, the nutritional and medical properties of Thus, following recommendations of the dietary these healthful vegetables are subject to variations due to guidelines when consuming Su cuisine is crucial in the differences in processing methods and seasoning. maintaining a healthy eating pattern and preventing Although a single recipe of Su cuisine may provide adverse health outcomes. When habitually consuming dense energy, it is insufficient to support daily nutrition Su cuisine, incorporating exotic sources of vitamins and requirements. For instance, a standard serving (830 g) of minerals, such as fresh fruits, and paring the dishes to Yangzhou fried rice is mainly composed of carbohydrates meet recommended dietary intakes are approaches to (394.5  g), contributing to most of the energy, 722.7  kcal ensure sufficient but not excessive nutrient consump - out of 2543.0  kcal [21]. An evaluation of the nutritional tion while enjoying the delicacy. Additionally, cooking value of Su cuisine has shown that the famous courses methods and seasoning should be considered along of Su cuisine may fulfill the energy and macronutrients with the ingredients. For instance, deep fry or pan-fried demand, but not the micronutrients needs [33]. There - vegetables with salty seasoning may undermine the fore, thinking in a holistic perspective by considering the intended health benefit. synergistic effect of food is essential in determining the Acknowledgments health effect of Su cuisine. Not applicable. Li and Ma Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:14 Page 6 of 7 Author contributions 7. National Fisheries Technology Extension Center, China Society of Fisher- HL: conceptualization, writing, and editing of the original draft. GM: con- ies. Industry Development Report of Chinese Crawfish (2020). 2020 [cited ceptualization, revision and supervision of the study. Both authors read and 2021 Nov 4]. 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The effects of dietary pattern on metabolic syndrome in Jiangsu Province of China: based on rapid publication on acceptance a nutrition and diet investigation project in Jiangsu Province. Nutrients. support for research data, including large and complex data types 2021;13(12):4451. • gold Open Access which fosters wider collaboration and increased citations maximum visibility for your research: over 100M website views per year Publisher’s Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in pub- At BMC, research is always in progress. lished maps and institutional affiliations. Learn more biomedcentral.com/submissions

Journal

Journal of Ethnic FoodsSpringer Journals

Published: Apr 28, 2022

Keywords: Chinese cuisines; Culinary culture; Su cuisine; Regional cuisine

References