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The consumption of tea and coffee in Turkey and emerging new trends

The consumption of tea and coffee in Turkey and emerging new trends The aim of this study is to determine the tea and coffee consumption habits of individuals in Adana and İzmir and to identify how the new trends are effective in consumption patterns. Therefore, the research is based on a comparison of two cities with distinctive culinary culture. Questionnaire technique was used to collect the data. Surveys were administered to 806 people in Adana and İzmir, Turkey. The research shows that tea is preferred in Adana (63.3%), whereas participants in İzmir opt for coffee (53.4%). The ratio of tasting international regional coffees is higher in İzmir than in Adana. In both cities, black tea and Turkish coffee are among the most consumed drinks. Despite the increas- ing tendency of foreign beverages due to the impact of globalization, the local people kept their interest in tea and Turkish coffee drink which is a component of the national intangible cultural heritage of Turkey. It is recommended that foreign businesses should include these traditional drinks on the menu. Keywords: Consumption habits, Tea, Coffee, Turkey include traditional products in line with the demands of Introduction the society. In this context, it is important to determine Intangible cultural heritage is defined as “practices, rep - the extent to which consumers are affected by new trends resentations, narratives, knowledge, skills and related or the sustainability of tea and coffee consumption habits tools, materials and cultural spaces that communities, as a traditional beverage. groups and, in some cases, individuals define as part of In recent years, coffee chain stores have increased and their cultural heritage” [1]. Traditional drinks are also the consumer market for coffee has also expanded. Many classified as the intangible cultural heritage, and they are types of cafes have been opened, and there have been described as beverages produced by using region-specific changes in consumers’ tendencies, which has increased ingredients that may have different regional presentation the interest of researchers on the coffee chain market techniques and cultural characteristics [2]. [4]. It is evident that young and middle age groups with Tourism marketing strategy is intertwined with the a high level of interest are open to the consumption of localization. For instance, multinational companies in new brands and product types. There is an opportunity Turkey such as McDonald’s (Turkish meatballs for Tur- to introduce different products into this market. For this key market, spicy Big Mac, Ayran) [3], Starbucks (Turkish reason, in this study, it is aimed to examine the effects of coffee and various teas) and the Dominos (Turkish, Kay - changing new consumer trends in the globalizing world seri ateşi, Konyalım pizzas) localize the products in their on tea and coffee, which are the traditional beverages of menus as a marketing strategy. Although these compa- Turkey, and to determine the consumption differences nies follow a standard menu policy in all countries, they between the cities of Adana and İzmir, which are in two different regions. *Correspondence: oyabayram_33@hotmail.com; oyildirim@cu.edu.tr School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey © The Author(s) 2022. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http:// creat iveco mmons. org/ licen ses/ by/4. 0/. Yildirim and Karaca Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:8 Page 2 of 11 Turkish-style tea is brewed with ground roasted black Literature review tea in a teapot or samovar over continuous boiling water Tea culture and tea consumption in Turkey and served in small glasses known as distinctive thin Tea is the most popular drink consumed after water waist (Fig.  1). The ideal ratio of tea pouring from the [5]. China and India are regarded as the homeland of “demlik” (top of the teapot) to the glass and the hot water tea. From the sixteenth century onwards, it spread to pouring from the kettle (bottom of the teapot) to the European countries and from there to the rest of the glass is described as “rabbit blood”. For children, the tea world [4]. Formerly considered a relaxing, enjoyable obtained by adding cold water to hot tea is called “pasha and warming beverage, tea has been associated with tea”, and the transition from “pasha tea” to “rabbit blood relaxation and clarity of mind [5]. Turkey was the most tea” symbolizes the transition from childhood to adult- tea-consuming country in the world with approxi- hood. If sugar is desired in the tea, it is added later while mately 6.96 kilos in 2016. This figure is 1.25 kilos per it is in the glass [9]. person per year in China [6]. Turkey ranks 7th in the world in terms of the size of tea cultivation land, 5th in Turkish coffee culture and tradition dry tea production and 1st in per capita tea consump- Although coffee culture is considered as a sub-category tion in 2019. In 2020, 1.445.181 kg of fresh tea was pro- of culinary culture, it has its own tools, techniques, soci- cessed and 280.000 tons of dry tea was obtained. Of the ality, space, economy and identity [11]. The homeland of fresh tea, 46.75% by the private sector and 53.25% by coffee, which dates back to B.C 900, is known today as the government-owned Çaykur was processed [7]. Tea the geography of Ethiopia and Kenya. The invention of is grown on the coastline from the city of Rize to the instant coffee in 1901, the first coffee machine in 1910, Georgian border in the Black Sea region in the north the first coffee grinder in the 1920s and the first auto - of the country. Turkey’s 2020 production period’s tea matic espresso machine in 1933 increased the coffee production areas are 66.4% in Rize, 20.3% in Trabzon, consumption all over the world [12]. Coffee consump - 10.8% in Artvin and 2.4% in Giresun [8]. Many families tion is becoming widespread because of the effort to dif - in Turkey make a living from tea farming [9]. ferentiate and classify itself with the effect of developing Turks met with tea in Central Asia before entering technology. Thus, coffee consumption is consumed both Anatolia in the eleventh century [10]. Turkish peo- in brand coffee shops and with coffee machines that are ple are known for their hospitality, and serving tea to becoming more common at home, or it can be buy take guests is very common in Turkish culture. When con- away [13]. The consumption habits of individuals are sidered together with its teapot, thin-waisted glass, shaped according to global culture; global coffee brands teaspoon, saucer and brewing method, Turkish tea, also structure their marketing and brand strategies by which is the symbol of friendship and hospitality, has considering the consumption habits of the society [14]. a traditional feature. In Turkey, the day starts with tea Although coffee is not grown in Turkey, “Turkish cof - and ends with tea. Since Turks always offer tea to their fee” is known worldwide for its unique cooking technique guests, it is customary for every bride to have a guest and presentation [15], and since 2013, “Turkish Coffee tea set in her dowry. Tea is the main drink of Turkish- and Tradition” has been included on the Representative style breakfast. In addition, tea is as vital a function as List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity [16]: drinking soup or eating bread for Turks [9]. “The tradition itself is a symbol of hospitality, friendship, Turks consume 65% of tea at home, 13% at work, refinement and entertainment that permeates all walks 11% in hospitality, 5% in cafes, 4% in coffees and 2% in of life. An invitation for coffee among friends provides schools. In workplaces, there are tea vendors in charge an opportunity for intimate talk and the sharing of daily of preparing tea and similar beverages, and there are concerns. Turkish coffee also plays an important role on “çay ocağı” (tea houses) in the bazaars and inns that social occasions such as engagement ceremonies and holi- serve drinks to the shops [9]. In every province in Tur- days; its knowledge and rituals are transmitted informally key, there are also “çay bahçesi” (tea gardens) where all by family members through observation and participa- non-alcoholic hot or cold drinks can be served, where tion. Turkish coffee is regarded as part of Turkish cultural you can read newspapers or books, meet friends to chat heritage: it is celebrated in literature and songs, and is an or play backgammon okey. Tradesmen usually offer a indispensable part of ceremonial occasions”. The charac - Turkish tea to every customer as a sign of friendship teristics of Turkish coffee, which are stated in the inter - and hospitality, whether they sell something or not. national registration with UNESCO, meet the five basic Apart from the tea gardens where people sit down and criteria determined by the French for inscription of a get service, there are also tea houses where tea is made gastronomic meal on the Representative List [17]. Turk- and distributed to the shops by one person, where there ish coffee is a cultural value that has an identity handed are sales shops and customers. Y ildirim and Karaca Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:8 Page 3 of 11 Fig. 1 Turkish-style tea--serving tools. a Traditional Turkish tea cup, teaspoon and saucer (https:// tr. aliex press. com/ item/ 40013 66656 290. html) b Traditional copper teapot (https:// www. trend yol. com/ morya/ bakir- cayda nlik- eskit me- ve- isiti ci- ocak-5- 6- kisil ik-2- 4- lt-p- 49313 912) c modern steel teapot (https:// www. krc. com. tr/ urun/ karaca- power steel- kano- cayda nlik- takimi- 316- celik) d wood–coal samovar (https:// www. amazon. com. tr/ Odunlu- K% C3% B6m% C3% BCrl% C3% BC-G% C3% B6r% C3% BCn% C3% BCml% C3% BC- Demli kli- Semav er/ dp/ B093Y KG797/ ref= pd_ lpo_1? pd_ rd_i= B093Y KG797 & psc=1) e Copper tea stove in tea houses (https://m. n11. com/ kutlu- sadra zam-3- demli kli- bakir- cay- kazani- P5054 05572? adBid ding= true) f Tea hanger (http:// www. bakir cim. com/ index. php? route= produ ct/ produ ct& produ ct_ id= 131) down from generation to generation, contributes to “kahve-altı”, meaning pre-coffee [19]. Turkish coffee is mutual respect and intercultural dialogue, is promoted prepared with high-quality moderately roasted Ara- and protected, and registered in the intangible cultural bica coffee beans. Unlike the filter coffees traditionally heritage inventory. consumed in the West, the desired foam Turkish coffee, In this way, “Turkish Coffee” has become one of Tur - which is extremely finely ground, is prepared by adding key’s internationally registered brands. Turkish coffee, cold water and sugar to the “cezve” (coffee pot) and boil - which is stated in various sources that its first use was ing it slowly on the stove [18]. There is more than one started by the Ottomans in the early 1500s, became wide- “fincan” (cup) set in every house in Turkey, and fincan spread during the reign of Sultan Suleiman, and the first had no handles in traditional when first used until the coffeehouse was opened in Tahtakale area, Istanbul, in nineteenth century. Handleless cups were served by put- 1555 [18] (Fig. 2). In Turkey, as in the cities, there is a vil- ting them in sleeves called “zarf ” (envelopes) in order not lage coffee house in every village where the people of the to burn hands. Coffee was roasted on the “kahve tavası” village gather, chat and play card games. Although every- (coffee skillet) and ground fresh [19] (Fig. 3). one goes to the tea garden, women do not usually go to Coffee served with a glass of water and Turkish delight village coffee houses, except in the west of Turkey. There in a small glass is a symbol of hospitality, friendship, is also a strong link between coffee and cigarettes. kindness and fun and is mostly drunk in coffee houses or In ancient times, the elements used in the presenta- homes where people meet to chat, share news and read tion of coffee ceremonies can be unique works of art books [16]. For Turkish society, coffee has many mean - (Fig.  3). The Turkish word for breakfast is derived from ings and ritual uses, which are explained below: Yildirim and Karaca Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:8 Page 4 of 11 Fig. 2 Coffee and coffee houses in Ottoman and Safavid lands, 1500–1800 (https:// sites. lsa. umich. edu/ khams een/ short- form- videos/ 2021/ coffee- and- coffe ehous es- ottom an- safav id- lands/) Fig. 3 a Hand mill (https:// kahhve. com/ sozen- degir menle ri- super- kahve- degir meni- kahve- degir menle ri) b, c coffee skillet and cezve with foldable handle (https:// mehme tefen di. com/ turk- kahve si/ gelen eksel- aracl ar) d, e gold, diamond and emerald embroidered antique cup holder (http:// www. antik alar. com/ osman li- sarayi- hazin esiden- fincan- zarfl ar) f fincan in zarf (https:// www. arzum. com. tr/ ok906- okka- ismail- acar- 2li- fincan- ve- kucuk- tepsi- set- beyaz) g modern Turkish coffee set (https:// www. bbkutu. com/ produ ct/ ikili- kahve- finca ni- lokum luk- bardak- ve- karolu- ahsap- tepsi- seti-4/) Y ildirim and Karaca Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:8 Page 5 of 11 Fortune telling with coffee: After drinking the coffee, Dünyası, Kahve Diyarı, Coffee Mania and Kronotrop the remaining grounds in the cup are turned clockwise are among the fastest growing brands. According to several times and the saucer is covered and turned upside 2020 data, there are 523 Starbucks branches in Tur- down. After it has cooled completely, the shapes formed key, and Turkey is the second country with most Star- by the grounds in both the cup and the plate are inter- bucks branches in Europe [25]. For all these reasons, it is preted by fortune-tellers (interpreters) or friends. It is left desired to examine how these trends in coffee consump - on a wedding ring or other gold ring to allow the cup to tion affect consumer preferences for traditional Turkish cool quickly (Fig. 4). coffee and tea. Marriage rituals (Girl request ceremony): The bride- to-be makes Turkish coffee to the groom and his family Methods and is evaluated according to how well she prepares and The data were collected through a questionnaire form presents Turkish coffee. The bride-to-be just puts a lot of which was formed deriving from the literature. The salt in the groom’s coffee, and the groom is expected to questionnaire includes six demographic information drink this salty coffee to prove what he will endure for the questions and a total of 26 questions about tea and cof- bride. fee varieties consumption habits of the participants. The Traditional chat meetings: The idiom “A cup of cof - sample of the study consists of the participants in the fee commits one to forty years of friendship”, which food and beverage establishments in Adana and Izmir expresses that Turkish coffee has become the symbol of city centre. Both are metropolitan cities, which make friendship and conversation and Turkish proverb “souls them feasible for data collection. These two cities have are after neither coffee nor coffee houses; they are after different culinary traditions and have diverse and suffi - close companionship; coffee is an excuse” is frequently cient number of restaurants/and cafes. İzmir (in the west) used in the country. is Turkey’s third and Adana (in the south) is the sixth There are so many coffee types consumed in Turkey. largest city [26]. Since there is no list of customers com- Some of them are Yemen, menengiç (Pistacia terebin- ing to these enterprises, the research aimed to reach the thus), Nigella sativa, carob, kenger, okra, almond [20], sample size of 384 units calculated by the unlimited uni- myrrh, dibek, cilveli [21], çedene [22] and chickpea [23] verse formula used for the rate by using the easy sampling coffees are among the other types of coffee consumed in method (variance with the highest ratio (p: 0.5) consider- Turkey. Ulusoy [24] stated that Turkish coffee is preferred ing 0.05 error margin). The data were collected between more than foreign coffees. March and June 2016, and 806 face-to-face question- Although Turkish coffee has an important place naires were administered (467 questionnaires in Adana in Turkish tradition, instant coffee consumption has and 339 in İzmir). The data were edited and statistical increased in recent years. According to the International methods such as frequency and percentage were used Coffee Organization, coffee consumption in Turkey has for descriptive analysis. Chi-square analysis was used to increased by an annual average of 15.6%. Therefore, both determine whether there was a difference between the national and international coffee chains have increased participants from the two cities in terms of tea and cof- their investments in Turkey. Starbucks, Tchibo, Caffe fee consumption habits. The limitation of the study is the Nero, Gloria Jeans, MOC, Federal Coffee, Petra, Kahve collection of data from two cities representing two differ - ent regions of Turkey, rather than the whole of Turkey. Results and discussion Participants were based in İzmir (42.1%) and in Adana (57.9%). Table  1 summarizes the demographic charac- teristics of the participants. The number of men par - ticipating in the study was higher in both cities. The participants were mostly students, and this was followed by private sector employees in the second place. Most of the respondents had bachelor’s degree, and this was fol- lowed by high school and associate degree holders. While the participation rate of those aged 16–30 was 62.5% in Adana, it was 70.2% in İzmir. Young people prefer food and beverage enterprises in both cities, but when the Fig. 4 Cups prepared for fortune telling (https:// ich. unesco. org/ en/ two cities are compared, the participation of young peo- RL/ turki sh- coffee- cultu re- and- tradi tion- 00645) ple in İzmir is higher. This result aligns with the finding Yildirim and Karaca Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:8 Page 6 of 11 Table 1 Distribution of participants by demographic variables Table 2 Participants’ basic ideas on tea and coffee Adana İzmir Adana İzmir F % F % F % F % Gender Top three consumed beverages* Female 223 47.8 150 44.2 Tea 347 74.0 201 59.3 Male 244 52.2 189 55.8 Water 235 50.1 162 47.8 Total 467 100 339 100 Turkish coffee 222 47.3 207 61.1 Pearson χ : 0.970, s.d.: 1, p: 0.352 Preference of tea and coffee Occupation Tea 295 63.3 158 46.6 Student 203 43.6 117 34.5 Coffee 171 36.7 181 53.4 Tourism sector employee 11 2.3 15 4.4 Total 466 100 339 100 Artisan 31 6.7 39 11.5 Pearson χ : 22.234, s.d.: 1, p: 0.000 < 0.05 Public sector employee 82 17.6 32 9.4 Things that coffee reminds Private sector employee 84 18.0 73 21.5 Cigarette 86 18.4 118 34.8 Retired 9 1.9 13 3.8 Friend 107 23.0 55 16.2 Housewife 28 6.0 30 8.8 Chat 213 45.7 80 23.6 Other 18 3.9 20 5.9 Dessert 19 4.1 42 12.4 Total 466 100 339 100 Chocolate 41 8.8 44 13.0 Pearson χ : 32.462, s.d.: 9, p: 0.000 < 0.05 Total 466 100 339 100 Age group Pearson χ : 72.633, s.d.: 4, p: 0.000 < 0.05 16–30 290 62.5 238 70.2 *Because multiple options are checked, the total has exceeded 100% and p value cannot be calculated 31–40 95 20.5 61 18.0 41–50 48 10.3 26 7.7 51 and more years 31 6.7 14 4.1 Total 464 100 339 100 that those aged between 20 and 29 in Taiwan consume Pearson χ : 6.186, s.d.: 3, p: 0.103 tea more than anyone else in the country [27]. In Food Married 164 35.1 120 36.0 and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reports, young Single 303 64.9 213 64.0 urban consumers emerge as the fastest growing segment. Total 467 100 333 100 Particularly, young upper-middle-class income consum- Pearson χ : 0.007, s.d.: 1, p: 0.934 ers are looking for stylish products and tend to consume Education them in the sophisticated environments of private tea- Illiterate 1 0.2 2 0.6 houses and select restaurants, hotels and cafes [28]. In Primary education 15 3.2 5 1.5 both cities, middle-income participants consume more Secondary education 12 2.6 10 2.9 tea or coffee than others. Approximately one-quarter of High school 103 22.1 112 33.0 those with bottom of the middle income in İzmir visit Associate degree 80 17.2 66 19.5 cafes for tea and coffee. This rate is higher than those Bachelor’s degree 249 53.4 127 37.5 with above of the middle income. There is a difference Postgraduate 6 1.3 17 5 between the participants from the two cities according to Total 466 100 339 100 their education, occupation and income level. Pearson χ : 32.862, s.d.: 6, p: 0.000 < 0.05 The top three drinks consumed in both cities remain Income unchanged, but consumption rates vary. Adana mostly Low 55 11.8 9 2.7 consumes tea and İzmir consumes Turkish coffee. When Bottom of the middle 14 3.0 78 23.0 it comes to the preference of tea or coffee, tea is preferred Middle 287 61.6 181 53.4 in Adana and the participants in İzmir opt for coffee. Above of the middle 95 20.4 64 18.9 Coffee reminds consumers of Adana mostly of chats in High 15 3.2 7 2.1 Adana and of smoking in İzmir (Table 2). Total 466 100 339 100 Pearson χ : 92.820, s.d.: 4, p: 0.000 < 0.05 Y ildirim and Karaca Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:8 Page 7 of 11 Results regarding the tea consumption habits Table 3 Tea consumption habits of participants The findings regarding the tea consumption habits of Adana İzmir the participants are summarized in Table  3. As the table F % F % shows, 59.1% of the participants in Adana and 43.4% of the participants in İzmir consume between 1 and 5 cups Consumption frequency Never 10 2.1 3 .9 of tea per day. Black tea is the most common tea used Once in a month 7 1.5 30 8.8 for brewing tea in both provinces, and this is followed Once/a few weeks 79 16.9 74 21.8 by green tea. This may be due to the positive effects of 1–5 cups per day 276 59.1 147 43.4 green tea on health. Green tea lowers both body fat and 6–10 cups per day 69 14.8 59 17.4 cholesterol levels [29], and drinking a few cups of green More than 10 cups per day 26 5.6 26 7.7 tea every day can prevent cancer [4]. While yellow tea, Total 467 100 339 100 Oolong tea and instant tea are not consumed in Adana Pearson χ : 39.008, s.d.: 5, p: 0.000 < 0.05 at all, they are consumed very little in İzmir. This finding Most consumed tea is similar to Gunes’ [9] finding that 95% of the consumed Black tea 428 92.2 276 81.4 tea is classic black tea and the remaining 5% is tea bag. Green tea 34 7.4 53 15.6 Mainly brewing method in black tea is used in both cities White tea 2 0.4 1 0.3 (A: %57, İ: %47). The most preferred four types of herbal/ Yellow tea 0 0.0 1 0.3 fruit tea bags are linden, sage, rosehip and green tea. In Oolong tea 0 0.0 1 0.3 Adana, people mostly use linden, whereas in İzmir green Instant tea 0 0.0 7 2.1 tea is preferred. In recent years, interest in high-quality Total 464 100 339 100 specialty teas is increasing. Particularly, green tea, herbal Pearson χ : 27.509, s.d.:5, p: 0.000 < 0.05 teas and fruit tea have several health benefits; therefore, Reasons of herbal/fruit tea bags preference* Be of many varieties 114 24.3 238 70.2 product variety and accessibility have also increased. Practical use 307 65.5 207 61.1 All of this characterizes a tea market that attracts an Taste/smell/aroma 35 7.5 26 7.7 increasing number of young customers and a developing Be healthy 42 9.0 39 11.5 middle-income class [6]. There is a difference in the tea Be natural 24 5.1 24 7.1 consumption frequency of the participants of the two cit- To lose weight 49 10.4 65 19.2 ies, the tea they consume the most, and the herbal/fruit Good for stomach problems 40 8.5 44 13.0 tea varieties (p < 0.05). Most consumed herbal/fruit tea bags While the most important factor in prefer of herbal/ Linden 157 34.1 74 21.8 fruit tea bag in Adana is practical usage, it is preferred Sage 65 14.1 50 14.7 for practicality and rich variety in İzmir. Approximately Rosehip tea 89 19.3 57 16.8 one-fifth of the participants in İzmir prefer tea bag to Green tea 79 17.1 77 22.7 lose weight. In Adana, tea bags are not preferred due to Camomile 9 2.0 29 8.6 its taste, smell and aroma. Also, some people reported Blackberry 11 2.4 2 0.6 not to enjoy the tea bags as much as the leaf tea. On the Fennel 4 0.9 6 1.8 other hand, in İzmir, there is no habit of using tea bags Apple 11 2.4 7 2.1 because of thinking they are not natural. The new market Lemon 10 2.2 12 3.5 trends in the beverage sector show that consumers prefer Mint 7 1.5 21 6.2 tea as a healthier alternative to other beverages such as Herbal slimming teas 9 2.0 4 1.2 Other 10 2.2 0 0 fizzy drinks. Ready-to-drink teas and new tea products Total 461 100 339 100 with high added value such as fruity and flavoured teas Pearson χ : 58.730, s.d.: 11, p: 0.000 < 0.05 increased green tea consumption outside Asia [6]. Reasons not to prefer of herbal/fruit tea bags* Unfavourable taste/smell/aroma 153 32.6 67 19.8 Dislike the use of tea bags 148 31.6 83 24.5 Results regarding the coffee consumption habits No habit of using tea bags 58 12.4 98 28.9 The rate of participants who say that they cannot start Non-economic 35 7.5 58 17.1 the day without drinking coffee is 22.4% in İzmir and Not natural 91 19.4 97 28.6 23.7% in Adana. Table 4 presents participants’ coffee con - Not quality 38 8.1 62 18.3 sumption habits. Accordingly, approximately half of the *Because multiple options are checked, the total has exceeded 100% and participants in Adana consume coffee once or several p value cannot be calculated Yildirim and Karaca Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:8 Page 8 of 11 Table 4 Coffee consumption habits of participants Table 4 (continued) Adana İzmir Adana İzmir F % F % F % F % Roasting degree Consumption frequency Lightly roasted 49 10.6 54 15.9 Never 11 2.3 2 0.6 Moderate roasted 364 79.0 220 64.9 Once in a month 45 9.6 18 5.3 Dark roasted 48 10.4 65 19.2 Once/a few weeks 240 51.4 102 30.1 1–5 cups per day 161 34.5 184 54.3 Total 461 100 339 100 6–10 cups per day 6 1.3 25 7.4 Pearson χ : 20.171, s.d.:2, p: 0.000 < 0.05 Coffee consumption in outdoors More than 10 cups per day 4 0.9 8 2.4 Turkish coffee 307 66.1 161 47.5 Total 467 100 339 100 Espresso 4 0.9 20 5.9 Pearson χ : 69.422, s.d.:5, p: 0.000 < 0.05 Filter coffee 37 8.0 51 15.0 Consumption venue Decaf coffee 2 0.4 6 1.8 Home 209 45.0 111 32.7 Instant coffee 20 4.3 14 4.1 Coffee shops 131 28.2 126 37.2 Mocha 16 3.4 5 1.5 Trip/Picnic 7 1.5 1 0.3 Americano 9 2.0 25 7.4 Workplace 67 14.4 75 22.1 Beach 3 0.6 2 0.6 Latte 43 9.2 25 7.4 Social surroundings 41 8.8 16 4.7 Macchiato 9 2.0 10 2.9 Frappuccino 4 0.9 7 2.1 Travel 7 1.5 8 2.4 Cappuccino 13 2.8 15 4.4 Total 465 100 339 100 Total 464 100 339 100 Pearson χ : 27.214, s.d.:6, p: 0.000 < 0.05 Pearson χ : 63.380, s.d.:11, p: 0.000 < 0.05 Coffee consumption in home Turkish coffee 378 81.3 175 51.6 Espresso 6 1.3 2 0.6 times a week, while in İzmir more than half consume Filter coffee 19 4.1 40 11.8 one to five cups of coffee per day. The ratio of those who Decaf coffee 3 0.6 1 0.3 do not consume any coffee is higher in Adana. Based on Instant coffee 29 6.2 109 32.1 these results, it is possible to say that coffee consumption Mocha 4 0.9 1 0.3 is higher in İzmir. Americano 7 1.5 0 - In terms of consumption of coffee during the day, the Latte 13 2.8 4 1.2 coffee is mostly preferred in evening and later in the Macchiato 1 0.2 3 0.9 morning in Adana, while people mostly consume coffee Frappuccino 0 - 2 0.6 at noon in İzmir. The research on coffee consumption Cappuccino 5 1.1 2 0.6 determined that the most important time of the day for Total 465 100 339 100 drinking coffee was breakfast [30]. In Adana, coffee is Pearson χ : 133.508, s.d.:11, p: 0.000 < 0.05 mostly consumed at home and secondly in coffee shops, Consumption time while this is vice versa in İzmir. It is also consumed in Morning 131 28.2 64 18.9 the workplace. Mostly, moderate roasted coffee is con - Mid-morning 26 5.6 22 6.5 sumed in both cities. However, one-fifth of the partici - Noon 99 21.3 140 41,3 pants prefer dark roasted coffee in İzmir. The top three Evening 156 33.5 92 27.1 coffee houses visited by participants are Kahve Dünyası Mid-afternoon 32 6.9 9 2.7 (Turkish brand), Starbucks and Gönül Kahvesi (Turk- Night 21 4.5 12 3.5 ish brand). In Adana, only 32.2% of the participants Total 465 100 339 100 tried international regional coffees and Colombian cof - Pearson χ : 43.585, s.d.:5, p: 0.000 < 0.05 fee was the most popular one. 49% of the participants Coffee density in İzmir prefer 3-in-1 instant coffee and mostly opt for Light and soft 55 11.8 59 17.4 chocolate aroma. Additionally, in both Adana (81.3% at Medium and balanced 351 75.3 210 61.9 home; 66.1% outdoors) and İzmir (51.6% at home; 47.5% Dense and hard 60 12.9 70 20.6 outdoors), Turkish coffee is the most widely consumed Total 466 100 339 100 coffee. These results are similar to those of Ulusoy [24]. Pearson χ : 16.728, s.d.:2, p: 0.000 < 0.05 Y ildirim and Karaca Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:8 Page 9 of 11 The researcher stated that the Turkish coffee culture is the participants prefer copper or steel coffee pots, while very popular, although there is little publicity compared about a quarter prefer electric coffee pot. Copper cof - to foreign coffee and beverage types. However, the ten - fee pot has a long handle that makes it easy to keep it on dency to consume new coffee varieties, especially out - fire, a large base for making the best use of the heat of the doors, is also common in İzmir. These results show that fire, and a beak mouth used for pouring coffee into the İzmir, located in the west of Turkey, is more adapted to cup [18]. While 59.3% of the participants in Adana prefer new trends. Although globalization creates a common Turkish coffee on ember, it is more widely used to make perception that threatens local gastronomic identity and coffee on the cooker in İzmir. This may be related to the image, it may also provide discovery of local gastronomic barbecue culture of Adana. In both cities, participants products and identity [31]. consume coffee with medium sugar. In Adana, milk, Table  5 presents consumption preferences of the par- mastic or menengiç flavours are used for Turkish coffee, ticipants regarding Turkish coffee. In Adana, copper cof - whereas in İzmir, mastic, milk and dibek are preferred. fee pots are preferred in Turkish coffee making. In İzmir, although there is no clear distinction, about one-third of Conclusions The use of traditional food as a gastronomic element due to the competition conditions of the business is an Table 5 Participants’ consumption habits of Turkish coffee important issue in ensuring differences in destinations. Adana İzmir Therefore, it can be used as a method in tourism mar - keting by promoting local food traditions and customs F % F % such as tea and coffee consumption and increasing their Cooking tools gastronomic value. Tea and Turkish coffee as the tradi - Copper coffee pot 266 58.0 108 31.9 tional drinks of Turkey are the main cultural indicators Steel coffee pot 82 17.9 106 31.3 of marketing strategies. The research shows that par - Electric coffee pot 44 9.6 79 23.3 ticipants prefer Turkish coffee and tea compared to the Turkish coffee machine 67 14.5 46 13,6 foreign coffee and beverage types. This is important in Total 459 100 339 100 terms of ensuring the sustainability of traditional drinks Pearson χ : 67.148, s.d.:3, p: 0.000 < 0.05 in tourism and the value of such traditional beverages as Sugar ratio gastronomic attraction. The participants often visit local Black 84 18.3 55 16.2 coffee businesses, which shows the desire to combine tra - A little sugary 75 16.3 70 20.6 ditional line and new trends in both cities. Medium sugary 243 52.8 145 42.8 In Adana, participants’ desire to make coffee with tra - Sugary 50 10.9 56 16.5 ditional method, using copper coffee pots, is an indica - Well-sugary 8 1.7 13 3.8 tion that Turkish coffee culture can be preserved and Total 460 100 339 100 transferred to future generations. Especially in multina- Pearson χ : 14.514, s.d.:4, p: 0.006 < 0.05 tional enterprises, it is important to pay attention to the How it is made traditional way of preparation of coffee for the purposes On ember 271 59.3 116 34.2 of tourism marketing. Also, we can argue that local peo- On the cooker 81 17.8 119 35.1 ple maintain traditional way of brewing tea and hold on to Machine 39 8.5 86 25.4 their cultural traditions. On the other hand, tea should be On sand 66 14.4 18 5.3 considered not only in terms of its economic contribution Total 457 100 339 100 to the enterprises but also in terms of producers. Especially Pearson χ : 99.086, s.d.:3, p: 0.000 < 0.05 in the Black Sea region, it is recommended to develop tea Coffee types* tourism and increase the number of tourists who come to With milk 218 46.5 101 29.8 the province for tea. A tea museum can be a good starting With mastic 206 43.9 205 60.5 point to promote cultural and tourism visits. Myrrh 61 13.0 60 17.7 It is possible to use the different types of coffee depend - Dibek (Mortar) 77 16.4 88 26.0 ing on the regions in Turkey as a means of differentiating the Menengiç 136 29.0 28 8.3 destinations and to register them as geographically marked Cilveli** 12 2.6 32 9.4 products. The geographical indication of the gastronomic products is not at the desired level. The fact that the “national *Multiple options are checked, the total has exceeded 100% and p value cannot be calculated registration” of Turkish coffee (10.09.2012) [32], which has **It is obtained by adding a mixture of double roasted, ground almonds and two a history of at least 600 years, is still at the application stage kinds of spices to the surface of the frothy Turkish coffee Yildirim and Karaca Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:8 Page 10 of 11 heritage [document on the Internet]. UNESCO;2003 [cited 2019 Sep 20]. and the registration of black tea as “Rize Tea” [33] has just Available from: https:// unesd oc. unesco. org/ ark:/ 48223/ pf000 01325 40. been made in 2021, in fact, is an indication that the protec- 2. Kelemci Scheneider G, Ceritoglu AB. The role of the local products in tion measures have been delayed. However, the geographi- a global world—an investigation in İstanbul. Pazarlama ve Pazarlama Araştırmaları Dergisi. 2010;6:29–52. cal indication system protects regional tradition and culture 3. Asker A. Global-local interaction: the “fast-foodization” of simit (savory roll from the negative effects of globalization [34]. covered with sesame seed) as the transformation of local in the case of These results show that the changing consumption hab - Simit Sarayı. Erciyes İletişim Dergisi Academia. 2011;2(1):88–104. 4. Su SW. Tea or coffee: a study of the beverage choice pattern and its its with globalization do not negatively affect Turkey’s tra - affecting factors at teatime in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Asia Pacific Manag Rev. ditional tea and coffee culture. As a result, although the 2007;12(4):245–57. traditions of coffee and tea are still maintained in the coun - 5. Einöther SJL, Rowson M, Ramaekers JG, Giesbrecht T. Infusing pleas- ure: mood effects of the consumption of a single cup of tea. Appetite. try, new trends in consumption outdoor may be preferred 2016;103:302–8. more in the west of the country. Global brands also benefit 6. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Intergovernmental group on from the local characteristics of countries while developing tea, emerging trends in tea consumption: informing a generic promotion process, Hangzhou, the people’s Republic of China [document on the their marketing strategies. Therefore, it would be beneficial Internet]. FAO;2018 [cited 2019 Sep 20]. Available from: http:// www. fao. for both local and multinational beverage establishments to org/3/ MW522 EN/ mw522 en. pdf. include traditional beverages in their menus and to increase 7. Çay İşletmeleri Genel Müdürlüğü. Türkiye çay sektörü raporu 2019. [data table online]. [cited 2021 Dec 26]. Available from: https:// www. caykur. the number and variety of these beverages. This will also gov. tr/ Pages/ Yayin lar/ Yayin Detay. aspx? ItemT ype= 5& ItemId= 721. promote Turkish coffee and tea to foreign tourists. 8. Tarımsal Ekonomi ve Politika Geliştirme Enstitüsü ( TEPGE). Tarım ürünleri piyasa raporu, 2021. Çay, [document on the Internet]. TEPGE;2021 [cited Authors’ information 2021 Dec 26]. Available from: https:// arast irma. tarim orman. gov. tr/ tepge/ Dr. Oya Yildirim is a Lecturer at Accommodation Management Department Belge ler/ PDF% 20Tar% C4% B1m% 20% C3% 9Cr% C3% BCnle ri% 20Piy asalar% School of Tourism and Hotel Management in Cukurova University. Dr. Yildirim C4% B1/ 2021- Hazir an% 20Tar% C4% B1m% 20% C3% 9Cr% C3% BCnle ri% published 16 international and national articles, 15 conference papers and 4 20Rap oru/% C3% 87ay,% 20Haz iran- 2021,% 20Tar% C4% B1m% 20% C3% book chapters. In addition, she took part in one project as a researcher. Her 9Cr% C3% BCnle ri% 20Piy asa% 20Rap oru,% 20TEP GE. pdf research interests are tourism marketing, sustainable tourism, tourism and 9. Gunes S. Turkish tea culture and its product. Millî Folklor. environment, cultural heritage, event and gastronomic tourism 2012;24(93):234–51. Dr. Oya Berkay Karaca is a Professor at School of Tourism and Hotel Manage- 10. Köprülü MF. Türk edebiyatında ilk mutasavvıflar. Ankara: Akçağ Publishing; ment in Cukurova University. She is experienced and oft published researcher in the field of gastronomy. Dr. Karaca published 52 international and national 11. Boltanski L, Chiapell OE. Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme. Paris: Gallimard; articles, 53 papers, 5 chapters and 1 book. In addition, she took part in 20 projects as a director and/or researcher. The book “Traditional Cheeses from 12. Gürsoy D. Deniz Gürsoy’s gastronomy history. Istanbul: Oglak Publishing Selected Regions in Asia, Europe and South America” won the best of the Advertising; 2014. world prize in the Dairy & Cheese category in the 25th Gourmand World 13. Akarcay E. Sometimes coffehouse sometimes café: a theoretical introduc- Cookbook Awards 2020 competition. She has two international scholarships, tion to coffee consumption in globalizing Eskişehir. Galatasaray Üniversi- five publication encouragement awards and two Bachelor’s graduation tesi İletişim Dergisi. 2012;2:181–202. degrees (the first degree in the department and the second degree in the 14. Adalı Aydın G, Bakır ZN. An assessment of venues in the context of Faculty). consumption culture: consumption of kahve cafe(s) by college students. J Strateg Res Soc Sci. 2016;2(3):59–84. 15. Tezcan M. Türk yemek antropolojisi yazıları. Ankara: Kültür Bakanlığı Pub- lishing; 2000. Authors’ contributions 16. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization All authors contributed equally to the article. All authors read and approved (UNESCO). Turkish coffee culture and tradition (No. 00645) [document on the final manuscript. the Internet],) [accessed 10 Dec 2021]. UNESCO;2013 [cited 2019 Sep 23]. Available from: https:// ich. unesco. org/ en/ RL/ turki sh- coffee- cultu re- and- Funding tradi tion- 00645. Not applicable. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding 17. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. (UNESCO). The gastronomic meal of the French (No. 00437) [Internet], [accessed 01 Jan 2022]. Available from: http:// www. unesco. org/ cultu re/ Availability of data and materials ich/ en/d% C3% A9cis ions/5. COM/6. 14. The data collected through questionnaires in this study were transferred to a 18. Yilmaz B, Acar-Tek N, Sözlü S. Turkish cultural heritage: a cup of coffee. J computer program and are kept by the authors. Ethn Foods. 2017;4(4):213–20. 19. Ayvazoğlu B. Turkish coffee culture. “a cup of coffee commits one to forty years of friendship”. Ankara: Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Declarations Tourism General Directorate of Libraries and Publications; 2011. 20. Çelik İ, Karahançer H, Laz C. Anadolu’daki yöresel kahve çeşitleri. 4. Gele- Competing interests neksel Gıdalar Sempozyumu, 17–19 April 2014, Adana, Turkey, 236–39. All contributing authors declare no conflicts of interest. 21. Ökeli H. Arabica ve Robusta arasındaki 10 fark. Kahve Hakkında Her Şey. 2015;23:126. Received: 27 September 2021 Accepted: 14 February 2022 22. Hepsağ F, Hepsağ B, Hayoğlu İ. Çedene kahvesi. 4. Geleneksel Gıdalar Sempozyumu, Adana, Turkey; 2014. p. 103–5. 23. Bozkurt A, Akbulut Ç. Nohut kahvesi. 4. Geleneksel Gıdalar Sempozyumu, Adana, Turkey; 2014. p. 626. 24. Ulusoy K. Coffee and coffeehouse culture in Turkish Society (A verbal References culture and social environmental education study). Millî Folklor. 1. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization 2011;23(89):159–69. (UNESCO). 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Available from: http:// www. fao. org/ news/ story/ en/ item/ 11362 55/ icode/. 29. Nagao T, Komine Y, Soga S, Meguro S, Has T, Tanaka Y, Tokimitsu I. Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(1):122–9. 30. Samoggia A, Riedel B. Coffee consumption and purchasing behaviour review: insights for further research. Appetite. 2018;129:70–81. 31. Mak AHN, Lumbers M, Eves A. Globalisation and food consumption in tourism. Ann Tour Res. 2012;39(1):171–96. 32. Turkish patent and trademark institution. Turkish coffee [Internet], [accessed 01 Jan 2022]. Available from: https:// ci. turkp atent. gov. tr/ cogra fi- isare tler/ detay/ 38076. 33. Turkish patent and trademark institution. Rize Tea [Internet], [accessed 01 Jan 2022]. Available from: https:// ci. turkp atent. gov. tr/ cogra fi- isare tler/ detay/ 38339. 34. Sato J, Kohsaka R. Japanese sake and evolution of technology: a com- parative view with wine and its implications for regional branding and tourism. J Ethn Foods. 2017;4:88–93. Publisher’s Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in pub- lished maps and institutional affiliations. Re Read ady y to to submit y submit your our re researc search h ? Choose BMC and benefit fr ? Choose BMC and benefit from om: : fast, convenient online submission thorough peer review by experienced researchers in your field rapid publication on acceptance support for research data, including large and complex data types • gold Open Access which fosters wider collaboration and increased citations maximum visibility for your research: over 100M website views per year At BMC, research is always in progress. Learn more biomedcentral.com/submissions http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Ethnic Foods Springer Journals

The consumption of tea and coffee in Turkey and emerging new trends

Journal of Ethnic Foods , Volume 9 (1) – Mar 3, 2022

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Copyright © The Author(s) 2022
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10.1186/s42779-022-00124-9
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Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine the tea and coffee consumption habits of individuals in Adana and İzmir and to identify how the new trends are effective in consumption patterns. Therefore, the research is based on a comparison of two cities with distinctive culinary culture. Questionnaire technique was used to collect the data. Surveys were administered to 806 people in Adana and İzmir, Turkey. The research shows that tea is preferred in Adana (63.3%), whereas participants in İzmir opt for coffee (53.4%). The ratio of tasting international regional coffees is higher in İzmir than in Adana. In both cities, black tea and Turkish coffee are among the most consumed drinks. Despite the increas- ing tendency of foreign beverages due to the impact of globalization, the local people kept their interest in tea and Turkish coffee drink which is a component of the national intangible cultural heritage of Turkey. It is recommended that foreign businesses should include these traditional drinks on the menu. Keywords: Consumption habits, Tea, Coffee, Turkey include traditional products in line with the demands of Introduction the society. In this context, it is important to determine Intangible cultural heritage is defined as “practices, rep - the extent to which consumers are affected by new trends resentations, narratives, knowledge, skills and related or the sustainability of tea and coffee consumption habits tools, materials and cultural spaces that communities, as a traditional beverage. groups and, in some cases, individuals define as part of In recent years, coffee chain stores have increased and their cultural heritage” [1]. Traditional drinks are also the consumer market for coffee has also expanded. Many classified as the intangible cultural heritage, and they are types of cafes have been opened, and there have been described as beverages produced by using region-specific changes in consumers’ tendencies, which has increased ingredients that may have different regional presentation the interest of researchers on the coffee chain market techniques and cultural characteristics [2]. [4]. It is evident that young and middle age groups with Tourism marketing strategy is intertwined with the a high level of interest are open to the consumption of localization. For instance, multinational companies in new brands and product types. There is an opportunity Turkey such as McDonald’s (Turkish meatballs for Tur- to introduce different products into this market. For this key market, spicy Big Mac, Ayran) [3], Starbucks (Turkish reason, in this study, it is aimed to examine the effects of coffee and various teas) and the Dominos (Turkish, Kay - changing new consumer trends in the globalizing world seri ateşi, Konyalım pizzas) localize the products in their on tea and coffee, which are the traditional beverages of menus as a marketing strategy. Although these compa- Turkey, and to determine the consumption differences nies follow a standard menu policy in all countries, they between the cities of Adana and İzmir, which are in two different regions. *Correspondence: oyabayram_33@hotmail.com; oyildirim@cu.edu.tr School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey © The Author(s) 2022. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http:// creat iveco mmons. org/ licen ses/ by/4. 0/. Yildirim and Karaca Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:8 Page 2 of 11 Turkish-style tea is brewed with ground roasted black Literature review tea in a teapot or samovar over continuous boiling water Tea culture and tea consumption in Turkey and served in small glasses known as distinctive thin Tea is the most popular drink consumed after water waist (Fig.  1). The ideal ratio of tea pouring from the [5]. China and India are regarded as the homeland of “demlik” (top of the teapot) to the glass and the hot water tea. From the sixteenth century onwards, it spread to pouring from the kettle (bottom of the teapot) to the European countries and from there to the rest of the glass is described as “rabbit blood”. For children, the tea world [4]. Formerly considered a relaxing, enjoyable obtained by adding cold water to hot tea is called “pasha and warming beverage, tea has been associated with tea”, and the transition from “pasha tea” to “rabbit blood relaxation and clarity of mind [5]. Turkey was the most tea” symbolizes the transition from childhood to adult- tea-consuming country in the world with approxi- hood. If sugar is desired in the tea, it is added later while mately 6.96 kilos in 2016. This figure is 1.25 kilos per it is in the glass [9]. person per year in China [6]. Turkey ranks 7th in the world in terms of the size of tea cultivation land, 5th in Turkish coffee culture and tradition dry tea production and 1st in per capita tea consump- Although coffee culture is considered as a sub-category tion in 2019. In 2020, 1.445.181 kg of fresh tea was pro- of culinary culture, it has its own tools, techniques, soci- cessed and 280.000 tons of dry tea was obtained. Of the ality, space, economy and identity [11]. The homeland of fresh tea, 46.75% by the private sector and 53.25% by coffee, which dates back to B.C 900, is known today as the government-owned Çaykur was processed [7]. Tea the geography of Ethiopia and Kenya. The invention of is grown on the coastline from the city of Rize to the instant coffee in 1901, the first coffee machine in 1910, Georgian border in the Black Sea region in the north the first coffee grinder in the 1920s and the first auto - of the country. Turkey’s 2020 production period’s tea matic espresso machine in 1933 increased the coffee production areas are 66.4% in Rize, 20.3% in Trabzon, consumption all over the world [12]. Coffee consump - 10.8% in Artvin and 2.4% in Giresun [8]. Many families tion is becoming widespread because of the effort to dif - in Turkey make a living from tea farming [9]. ferentiate and classify itself with the effect of developing Turks met with tea in Central Asia before entering technology. Thus, coffee consumption is consumed both Anatolia in the eleventh century [10]. Turkish peo- in brand coffee shops and with coffee machines that are ple are known for their hospitality, and serving tea to becoming more common at home, or it can be buy take guests is very common in Turkish culture. When con- away [13]. The consumption habits of individuals are sidered together with its teapot, thin-waisted glass, shaped according to global culture; global coffee brands teaspoon, saucer and brewing method, Turkish tea, also structure their marketing and brand strategies by which is the symbol of friendship and hospitality, has considering the consumption habits of the society [14]. a traditional feature. In Turkey, the day starts with tea Although coffee is not grown in Turkey, “Turkish cof - and ends with tea. Since Turks always offer tea to their fee” is known worldwide for its unique cooking technique guests, it is customary for every bride to have a guest and presentation [15], and since 2013, “Turkish Coffee tea set in her dowry. Tea is the main drink of Turkish- and Tradition” has been included on the Representative style breakfast. In addition, tea is as vital a function as List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity [16]: drinking soup or eating bread for Turks [9]. “The tradition itself is a symbol of hospitality, friendship, Turks consume 65% of tea at home, 13% at work, refinement and entertainment that permeates all walks 11% in hospitality, 5% in cafes, 4% in coffees and 2% in of life. An invitation for coffee among friends provides schools. In workplaces, there are tea vendors in charge an opportunity for intimate talk and the sharing of daily of preparing tea and similar beverages, and there are concerns. Turkish coffee also plays an important role on “çay ocağı” (tea houses) in the bazaars and inns that social occasions such as engagement ceremonies and holi- serve drinks to the shops [9]. In every province in Tur- days; its knowledge and rituals are transmitted informally key, there are also “çay bahçesi” (tea gardens) where all by family members through observation and participa- non-alcoholic hot or cold drinks can be served, where tion. Turkish coffee is regarded as part of Turkish cultural you can read newspapers or books, meet friends to chat heritage: it is celebrated in literature and songs, and is an or play backgammon okey. Tradesmen usually offer a indispensable part of ceremonial occasions”. The charac - Turkish tea to every customer as a sign of friendship teristics of Turkish coffee, which are stated in the inter - and hospitality, whether they sell something or not. national registration with UNESCO, meet the five basic Apart from the tea gardens where people sit down and criteria determined by the French for inscription of a get service, there are also tea houses where tea is made gastronomic meal on the Representative List [17]. Turk- and distributed to the shops by one person, where there ish coffee is a cultural value that has an identity handed are sales shops and customers. Y ildirim and Karaca Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:8 Page 3 of 11 Fig. 1 Turkish-style tea--serving tools. a Traditional Turkish tea cup, teaspoon and saucer (https:// tr. aliex press. com/ item/ 40013 66656 290. html) b Traditional copper teapot (https:// www. trend yol. com/ morya/ bakir- cayda nlik- eskit me- ve- isiti ci- ocak-5- 6- kisil ik-2- 4- lt-p- 49313 912) c modern steel teapot (https:// www. krc. com. tr/ urun/ karaca- power steel- kano- cayda nlik- takimi- 316- celik) d wood–coal samovar (https:// www. amazon. com. tr/ Odunlu- K% C3% B6m% C3% BCrl% C3% BC-G% C3% B6r% C3% BCn% C3% BCml% C3% BC- Demli kli- Semav er/ dp/ B093Y KG797/ ref= pd_ lpo_1? pd_ rd_i= B093Y KG797 & psc=1) e Copper tea stove in tea houses (https://m. n11. com/ kutlu- sadra zam-3- demli kli- bakir- cay- kazani- P5054 05572? adBid ding= true) f Tea hanger (http:// www. bakir cim. com/ index. php? route= produ ct/ produ ct& produ ct_ id= 131) down from generation to generation, contributes to “kahve-altı”, meaning pre-coffee [19]. Turkish coffee is mutual respect and intercultural dialogue, is promoted prepared with high-quality moderately roasted Ara- and protected, and registered in the intangible cultural bica coffee beans. Unlike the filter coffees traditionally heritage inventory. consumed in the West, the desired foam Turkish coffee, In this way, “Turkish Coffee” has become one of Tur - which is extremely finely ground, is prepared by adding key’s internationally registered brands. Turkish coffee, cold water and sugar to the “cezve” (coffee pot) and boil - which is stated in various sources that its first use was ing it slowly on the stove [18]. There is more than one started by the Ottomans in the early 1500s, became wide- “fincan” (cup) set in every house in Turkey, and fincan spread during the reign of Sultan Suleiman, and the first had no handles in traditional when first used until the coffeehouse was opened in Tahtakale area, Istanbul, in nineteenth century. Handleless cups were served by put- 1555 [18] (Fig. 2). In Turkey, as in the cities, there is a vil- ting them in sleeves called “zarf ” (envelopes) in order not lage coffee house in every village where the people of the to burn hands. Coffee was roasted on the “kahve tavası” village gather, chat and play card games. Although every- (coffee skillet) and ground fresh [19] (Fig. 3). one goes to the tea garden, women do not usually go to Coffee served with a glass of water and Turkish delight village coffee houses, except in the west of Turkey. There in a small glass is a symbol of hospitality, friendship, is also a strong link between coffee and cigarettes. kindness and fun and is mostly drunk in coffee houses or In ancient times, the elements used in the presenta- homes where people meet to chat, share news and read tion of coffee ceremonies can be unique works of art books [16]. For Turkish society, coffee has many mean - (Fig.  3). The Turkish word for breakfast is derived from ings and ritual uses, which are explained below: Yildirim and Karaca Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:8 Page 4 of 11 Fig. 2 Coffee and coffee houses in Ottoman and Safavid lands, 1500–1800 (https:// sites. lsa. umich. edu/ khams een/ short- form- videos/ 2021/ coffee- and- coffe ehous es- ottom an- safav id- lands/) Fig. 3 a Hand mill (https:// kahhve. com/ sozen- degir menle ri- super- kahve- degir meni- kahve- degir menle ri) b, c coffee skillet and cezve with foldable handle (https:// mehme tefen di. com/ turk- kahve si/ gelen eksel- aracl ar) d, e gold, diamond and emerald embroidered antique cup holder (http:// www. antik alar. com/ osman li- sarayi- hazin esiden- fincan- zarfl ar) f fincan in zarf (https:// www. arzum. com. tr/ ok906- okka- ismail- acar- 2li- fincan- ve- kucuk- tepsi- set- beyaz) g modern Turkish coffee set (https:// www. bbkutu. com/ produ ct/ ikili- kahve- finca ni- lokum luk- bardak- ve- karolu- ahsap- tepsi- seti-4/) Y ildirim and Karaca Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:8 Page 5 of 11 Fortune telling with coffee: After drinking the coffee, Dünyası, Kahve Diyarı, Coffee Mania and Kronotrop the remaining grounds in the cup are turned clockwise are among the fastest growing brands. According to several times and the saucer is covered and turned upside 2020 data, there are 523 Starbucks branches in Tur- down. After it has cooled completely, the shapes formed key, and Turkey is the second country with most Star- by the grounds in both the cup and the plate are inter- bucks branches in Europe [25]. For all these reasons, it is preted by fortune-tellers (interpreters) or friends. It is left desired to examine how these trends in coffee consump - on a wedding ring or other gold ring to allow the cup to tion affect consumer preferences for traditional Turkish cool quickly (Fig. 4). coffee and tea. Marriage rituals (Girl request ceremony): The bride- to-be makes Turkish coffee to the groom and his family Methods and is evaluated according to how well she prepares and The data were collected through a questionnaire form presents Turkish coffee. The bride-to-be just puts a lot of which was formed deriving from the literature. The salt in the groom’s coffee, and the groom is expected to questionnaire includes six demographic information drink this salty coffee to prove what he will endure for the questions and a total of 26 questions about tea and cof- bride. fee varieties consumption habits of the participants. The Traditional chat meetings: The idiom “A cup of cof - sample of the study consists of the participants in the fee commits one to forty years of friendship”, which food and beverage establishments in Adana and Izmir expresses that Turkish coffee has become the symbol of city centre. Both are metropolitan cities, which make friendship and conversation and Turkish proverb “souls them feasible for data collection. These two cities have are after neither coffee nor coffee houses; they are after different culinary traditions and have diverse and suffi - close companionship; coffee is an excuse” is frequently cient number of restaurants/and cafes. İzmir (in the west) used in the country. is Turkey’s third and Adana (in the south) is the sixth There are so many coffee types consumed in Turkey. largest city [26]. Since there is no list of customers com- Some of them are Yemen, menengiç (Pistacia terebin- ing to these enterprises, the research aimed to reach the thus), Nigella sativa, carob, kenger, okra, almond [20], sample size of 384 units calculated by the unlimited uni- myrrh, dibek, cilveli [21], çedene [22] and chickpea [23] verse formula used for the rate by using the easy sampling coffees are among the other types of coffee consumed in method (variance with the highest ratio (p: 0.5) consider- Turkey. Ulusoy [24] stated that Turkish coffee is preferred ing 0.05 error margin). The data were collected between more than foreign coffees. March and June 2016, and 806 face-to-face question- Although Turkish coffee has an important place naires were administered (467 questionnaires in Adana in Turkish tradition, instant coffee consumption has and 339 in İzmir). The data were edited and statistical increased in recent years. According to the International methods such as frequency and percentage were used Coffee Organization, coffee consumption in Turkey has for descriptive analysis. Chi-square analysis was used to increased by an annual average of 15.6%. Therefore, both determine whether there was a difference between the national and international coffee chains have increased participants from the two cities in terms of tea and cof- their investments in Turkey. Starbucks, Tchibo, Caffe fee consumption habits. The limitation of the study is the Nero, Gloria Jeans, MOC, Federal Coffee, Petra, Kahve collection of data from two cities representing two differ - ent regions of Turkey, rather than the whole of Turkey. Results and discussion Participants were based in İzmir (42.1%) and in Adana (57.9%). Table  1 summarizes the demographic charac- teristics of the participants. The number of men par - ticipating in the study was higher in both cities. The participants were mostly students, and this was followed by private sector employees in the second place. Most of the respondents had bachelor’s degree, and this was fol- lowed by high school and associate degree holders. While the participation rate of those aged 16–30 was 62.5% in Adana, it was 70.2% in İzmir. Young people prefer food and beverage enterprises in both cities, but when the Fig. 4 Cups prepared for fortune telling (https:// ich. unesco. org/ en/ two cities are compared, the participation of young peo- RL/ turki sh- coffee- cultu re- and- tradi tion- 00645) ple in İzmir is higher. This result aligns with the finding Yildirim and Karaca Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:8 Page 6 of 11 Table 1 Distribution of participants by demographic variables Table 2 Participants’ basic ideas on tea and coffee Adana İzmir Adana İzmir F % F % F % F % Gender Top three consumed beverages* Female 223 47.8 150 44.2 Tea 347 74.0 201 59.3 Male 244 52.2 189 55.8 Water 235 50.1 162 47.8 Total 467 100 339 100 Turkish coffee 222 47.3 207 61.1 Pearson χ : 0.970, s.d.: 1, p: 0.352 Preference of tea and coffee Occupation Tea 295 63.3 158 46.6 Student 203 43.6 117 34.5 Coffee 171 36.7 181 53.4 Tourism sector employee 11 2.3 15 4.4 Total 466 100 339 100 Artisan 31 6.7 39 11.5 Pearson χ : 22.234, s.d.: 1, p: 0.000 < 0.05 Public sector employee 82 17.6 32 9.4 Things that coffee reminds Private sector employee 84 18.0 73 21.5 Cigarette 86 18.4 118 34.8 Retired 9 1.9 13 3.8 Friend 107 23.0 55 16.2 Housewife 28 6.0 30 8.8 Chat 213 45.7 80 23.6 Other 18 3.9 20 5.9 Dessert 19 4.1 42 12.4 Total 466 100 339 100 Chocolate 41 8.8 44 13.0 Pearson χ : 32.462, s.d.: 9, p: 0.000 < 0.05 Total 466 100 339 100 Age group Pearson χ : 72.633, s.d.: 4, p: 0.000 < 0.05 16–30 290 62.5 238 70.2 *Because multiple options are checked, the total has exceeded 100% and p value cannot be calculated 31–40 95 20.5 61 18.0 41–50 48 10.3 26 7.7 51 and more years 31 6.7 14 4.1 Total 464 100 339 100 that those aged between 20 and 29 in Taiwan consume Pearson χ : 6.186, s.d.: 3, p: 0.103 tea more than anyone else in the country [27]. In Food Married 164 35.1 120 36.0 and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reports, young Single 303 64.9 213 64.0 urban consumers emerge as the fastest growing segment. Total 467 100 333 100 Particularly, young upper-middle-class income consum- Pearson χ : 0.007, s.d.: 1, p: 0.934 ers are looking for stylish products and tend to consume Education them in the sophisticated environments of private tea- Illiterate 1 0.2 2 0.6 houses and select restaurants, hotels and cafes [28]. In Primary education 15 3.2 5 1.5 both cities, middle-income participants consume more Secondary education 12 2.6 10 2.9 tea or coffee than others. Approximately one-quarter of High school 103 22.1 112 33.0 those with bottom of the middle income in İzmir visit Associate degree 80 17.2 66 19.5 cafes for tea and coffee. This rate is higher than those Bachelor’s degree 249 53.4 127 37.5 with above of the middle income. There is a difference Postgraduate 6 1.3 17 5 between the participants from the two cities according to Total 466 100 339 100 their education, occupation and income level. Pearson χ : 32.862, s.d.: 6, p: 0.000 < 0.05 The top three drinks consumed in both cities remain Income unchanged, but consumption rates vary. Adana mostly Low 55 11.8 9 2.7 consumes tea and İzmir consumes Turkish coffee. When Bottom of the middle 14 3.0 78 23.0 it comes to the preference of tea or coffee, tea is preferred Middle 287 61.6 181 53.4 in Adana and the participants in İzmir opt for coffee. Above of the middle 95 20.4 64 18.9 Coffee reminds consumers of Adana mostly of chats in High 15 3.2 7 2.1 Adana and of smoking in İzmir (Table 2). Total 466 100 339 100 Pearson χ : 92.820, s.d.: 4, p: 0.000 < 0.05 Y ildirim and Karaca Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:8 Page 7 of 11 Results regarding the tea consumption habits Table 3 Tea consumption habits of participants The findings regarding the tea consumption habits of Adana İzmir the participants are summarized in Table  3. As the table F % F % shows, 59.1% of the participants in Adana and 43.4% of the participants in İzmir consume between 1 and 5 cups Consumption frequency Never 10 2.1 3 .9 of tea per day. Black tea is the most common tea used Once in a month 7 1.5 30 8.8 for brewing tea in both provinces, and this is followed Once/a few weeks 79 16.9 74 21.8 by green tea. This may be due to the positive effects of 1–5 cups per day 276 59.1 147 43.4 green tea on health. Green tea lowers both body fat and 6–10 cups per day 69 14.8 59 17.4 cholesterol levels [29], and drinking a few cups of green More than 10 cups per day 26 5.6 26 7.7 tea every day can prevent cancer [4]. While yellow tea, Total 467 100 339 100 Oolong tea and instant tea are not consumed in Adana Pearson χ : 39.008, s.d.: 5, p: 0.000 < 0.05 at all, they are consumed very little in İzmir. This finding Most consumed tea is similar to Gunes’ [9] finding that 95% of the consumed Black tea 428 92.2 276 81.4 tea is classic black tea and the remaining 5% is tea bag. Green tea 34 7.4 53 15.6 Mainly brewing method in black tea is used in both cities White tea 2 0.4 1 0.3 (A: %57, İ: %47). The most preferred four types of herbal/ Yellow tea 0 0.0 1 0.3 fruit tea bags are linden, sage, rosehip and green tea. In Oolong tea 0 0.0 1 0.3 Adana, people mostly use linden, whereas in İzmir green Instant tea 0 0.0 7 2.1 tea is preferred. In recent years, interest in high-quality Total 464 100 339 100 specialty teas is increasing. Particularly, green tea, herbal Pearson χ : 27.509, s.d.:5, p: 0.000 < 0.05 teas and fruit tea have several health benefits; therefore, Reasons of herbal/fruit tea bags preference* Be of many varieties 114 24.3 238 70.2 product variety and accessibility have also increased. Practical use 307 65.5 207 61.1 All of this characterizes a tea market that attracts an Taste/smell/aroma 35 7.5 26 7.7 increasing number of young customers and a developing Be healthy 42 9.0 39 11.5 middle-income class [6]. There is a difference in the tea Be natural 24 5.1 24 7.1 consumption frequency of the participants of the two cit- To lose weight 49 10.4 65 19.2 ies, the tea they consume the most, and the herbal/fruit Good for stomach problems 40 8.5 44 13.0 tea varieties (p < 0.05). Most consumed herbal/fruit tea bags While the most important factor in prefer of herbal/ Linden 157 34.1 74 21.8 fruit tea bag in Adana is practical usage, it is preferred Sage 65 14.1 50 14.7 for practicality and rich variety in İzmir. Approximately Rosehip tea 89 19.3 57 16.8 one-fifth of the participants in İzmir prefer tea bag to Green tea 79 17.1 77 22.7 lose weight. In Adana, tea bags are not preferred due to Camomile 9 2.0 29 8.6 its taste, smell and aroma. Also, some people reported Blackberry 11 2.4 2 0.6 not to enjoy the tea bags as much as the leaf tea. On the Fennel 4 0.9 6 1.8 other hand, in İzmir, there is no habit of using tea bags Apple 11 2.4 7 2.1 because of thinking they are not natural. The new market Lemon 10 2.2 12 3.5 trends in the beverage sector show that consumers prefer Mint 7 1.5 21 6.2 tea as a healthier alternative to other beverages such as Herbal slimming teas 9 2.0 4 1.2 Other 10 2.2 0 0 fizzy drinks. Ready-to-drink teas and new tea products Total 461 100 339 100 with high added value such as fruity and flavoured teas Pearson χ : 58.730, s.d.: 11, p: 0.000 < 0.05 increased green tea consumption outside Asia [6]. Reasons not to prefer of herbal/fruit tea bags* Unfavourable taste/smell/aroma 153 32.6 67 19.8 Dislike the use of tea bags 148 31.6 83 24.5 Results regarding the coffee consumption habits No habit of using tea bags 58 12.4 98 28.9 The rate of participants who say that they cannot start Non-economic 35 7.5 58 17.1 the day without drinking coffee is 22.4% in İzmir and Not natural 91 19.4 97 28.6 23.7% in Adana. Table 4 presents participants’ coffee con - Not quality 38 8.1 62 18.3 sumption habits. Accordingly, approximately half of the *Because multiple options are checked, the total has exceeded 100% and participants in Adana consume coffee once or several p value cannot be calculated Yildirim and Karaca Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:8 Page 8 of 11 Table 4 Coffee consumption habits of participants Table 4 (continued) Adana İzmir Adana İzmir F % F % F % F % Roasting degree Consumption frequency Lightly roasted 49 10.6 54 15.9 Never 11 2.3 2 0.6 Moderate roasted 364 79.0 220 64.9 Once in a month 45 9.6 18 5.3 Dark roasted 48 10.4 65 19.2 Once/a few weeks 240 51.4 102 30.1 1–5 cups per day 161 34.5 184 54.3 Total 461 100 339 100 6–10 cups per day 6 1.3 25 7.4 Pearson χ : 20.171, s.d.:2, p: 0.000 < 0.05 Coffee consumption in outdoors More than 10 cups per day 4 0.9 8 2.4 Turkish coffee 307 66.1 161 47.5 Total 467 100 339 100 Espresso 4 0.9 20 5.9 Pearson χ : 69.422, s.d.:5, p: 0.000 < 0.05 Filter coffee 37 8.0 51 15.0 Consumption venue Decaf coffee 2 0.4 6 1.8 Home 209 45.0 111 32.7 Instant coffee 20 4.3 14 4.1 Coffee shops 131 28.2 126 37.2 Mocha 16 3.4 5 1.5 Trip/Picnic 7 1.5 1 0.3 Americano 9 2.0 25 7.4 Workplace 67 14.4 75 22.1 Beach 3 0.6 2 0.6 Latte 43 9.2 25 7.4 Social surroundings 41 8.8 16 4.7 Macchiato 9 2.0 10 2.9 Frappuccino 4 0.9 7 2.1 Travel 7 1.5 8 2.4 Cappuccino 13 2.8 15 4.4 Total 465 100 339 100 Total 464 100 339 100 Pearson χ : 27.214, s.d.:6, p: 0.000 < 0.05 Pearson χ : 63.380, s.d.:11, p: 0.000 < 0.05 Coffee consumption in home Turkish coffee 378 81.3 175 51.6 Espresso 6 1.3 2 0.6 times a week, while in İzmir more than half consume Filter coffee 19 4.1 40 11.8 one to five cups of coffee per day. The ratio of those who Decaf coffee 3 0.6 1 0.3 do not consume any coffee is higher in Adana. Based on Instant coffee 29 6.2 109 32.1 these results, it is possible to say that coffee consumption Mocha 4 0.9 1 0.3 is higher in İzmir. Americano 7 1.5 0 - In terms of consumption of coffee during the day, the Latte 13 2.8 4 1.2 coffee is mostly preferred in evening and later in the Macchiato 1 0.2 3 0.9 morning in Adana, while people mostly consume coffee Frappuccino 0 - 2 0.6 at noon in İzmir. The research on coffee consumption Cappuccino 5 1.1 2 0.6 determined that the most important time of the day for Total 465 100 339 100 drinking coffee was breakfast [30]. In Adana, coffee is Pearson χ : 133.508, s.d.:11, p: 0.000 < 0.05 mostly consumed at home and secondly in coffee shops, Consumption time while this is vice versa in İzmir. It is also consumed in Morning 131 28.2 64 18.9 the workplace. Mostly, moderate roasted coffee is con - Mid-morning 26 5.6 22 6.5 sumed in both cities. However, one-fifth of the partici - Noon 99 21.3 140 41,3 pants prefer dark roasted coffee in İzmir. The top three Evening 156 33.5 92 27.1 coffee houses visited by participants are Kahve Dünyası Mid-afternoon 32 6.9 9 2.7 (Turkish brand), Starbucks and Gönül Kahvesi (Turk- Night 21 4.5 12 3.5 ish brand). In Adana, only 32.2% of the participants Total 465 100 339 100 tried international regional coffees and Colombian cof - Pearson χ : 43.585, s.d.:5, p: 0.000 < 0.05 fee was the most popular one. 49% of the participants Coffee density in İzmir prefer 3-in-1 instant coffee and mostly opt for Light and soft 55 11.8 59 17.4 chocolate aroma. Additionally, in both Adana (81.3% at Medium and balanced 351 75.3 210 61.9 home; 66.1% outdoors) and İzmir (51.6% at home; 47.5% Dense and hard 60 12.9 70 20.6 outdoors), Turkish coffee is the most widely consumed Total 466 100 339 100 coffee. These results are similar to those of Ulusoy [24]. Pearson χ : 16.728, s.d.:2, p: 0.000 < 0.05 Y ildirim and Karaca Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:8 Page 9 of 11 The researcher stated that the Turkish coffee culture is the participants prefer copper or steel coffee pots, while very popular, although there is little publicity compared about a quarter prefer electric coffee pot. Copper cof - to foreign coffee and beverage types. However, the ten - fee pot has a long handle that makes it easy to keep it on dency to consume new coffee varieties, especially out - fire, a large base for making the best use of the heat of the doors, is also common in İzmir. These results show that fire, and a beak mouth used for pouring coffee into the İzmir, located in the west of Turkey, is more adapted to cup [18]. While 59.3% of the participants in Adana prefer new trends. Although globalization creates a common Turkish coffee on ember, it is more widely used to make perception that threatens local gastronomic identity and coffee on the cooker in İzmir. This may be related to the image, it may also provide discovery of local gastronomic barbecue culture of Adana. In both cities, participants products and identity [31]. consume coffee with medium sugar. In Adana, milk, Table  5 presents consumption preferences of the par- mastic or menengiç flavours are used for Turkish coffee, ticipants regarding Turkish coffee. In Adana, copper cof - whereas in İzmir, mastic, milk and dibek are preferred. fee pots are preferred in Turkish coffee making. In İzmir, although there is no clear distinction, about one-third of Conclusions The use of traditional food as a gastronomic element due to the competition conditions of the business is an Table 5 Participants’ consumption habits of Turkish coffee important issue in ensuring differences in destinations. Adana İzmir Therefore, it can be used as a method in tourism mar - keting by promoting local food traditions and customs F % F % such as tea and coffee consumption and increasing their Cooking tools gastronomic value. Tea and Turkish coffee as the tradi - Copper coffee pot 266 58.0 108 31.9 tional drinks of Turkey are the main cultural indicators Steel coffee pot 82 17.9 106 31.3 of marketing strategies. The research shows that par - Electric coffee pot 44 9.6 79 23.3 ticipants prefer Turkish coffee and tea compared to the Turkish coffee machine 67 14.5 46 13,6 foreign coffee and beverage types. This is important in Total 459 100 339 100 terms of ensuring the sustainability of traditional drinks Pearson χ : 67.148, s.d.:3, p: 0.000 < 0.05 in tourism and the value of such traditional beverages as Sugar ratio gastronomic attraction. The participants often visit local Black 84 18.3 55 16.2 coffee businesses, which shows the desire to combine tra - A little sugary 75 16.3 70 20.6 ditional line and new trends in both cities. Medium sugary 243 52.8 145 42.8 In Adana, participants’ desire to make coffee with tra - Sugary 50 10.9 56 16.5 ditional method, using copper coffee pots, is an indica - Well-sugary 8 1.7 13 3.8 tion that Turkish coffee culture can be preserved and Total 460 100 339 100 transferred to future generations. Especially in multina- Pearson χ : 14.514, s.d.:4, p: 0.006 < 0.05 tional enterprises, it is important to pay attention to the How it is made traditional way of preparation of coffee for the purposes On ember 271 59.3 116 34.2 of tourism marketing. Also, we can argue that local peo- On the cooker 81 17.8 119 35.1 ple maintain traditional way of brewing tea and hold on to Machine 39 8.5 86 25.4 their cultural traditions. On the other hand, tea should be On sand 66 14.4 18 5.3 considered not only in terms of its economic contribution Total 457 100 339 100 to the enterprises but also in terms of producers. Especially Pearson χ : 99.086, s.d.:3, p: 0.000 < 0.05 in the Black Sea region, it is recommended to develop tea Coffee types* tourism and increase the number of tourists who come to With milk 218 46.5 101 29.8 the province for tea. A tea museum can be a good starting With mastic 206 43.9 205 60.5 point to promote cultural and tourism visits. Myrrh 61 13.0 60 17.7 It is possible to use the different types of coffee depend - Dibek (Mortar) 77 16.4 88 26.0 ing on the regions in Turkey as a means of differentiating the Menengiç 136 29.0 28 8.3 destinations and to register them as geographically marked Cilveli** 12 2.6 32 9.4 products. The geographical indication of the gastronomic products is not at the desired level. The fact that the “national *Multiple options are checked, the total has exceeded 100% and p value cannot be calculated registration” of Turkish coffee (10.09.2012) [32], which has **It is obtained by adding a mixture of double roasted, ground almonds and two a history of at least 600 years, is still at the application stage kinds of spices to the surface of the frothy Turkish coffee Yildirim and Karaca Journal of Ethnic Foods (2022) 9:8 Page 10 of 11 heritage [document on the Internet]. UNESCO;2003 [cited 2019 Sep 20]. and the registration of black tea as “Rize Tea” [33] has just Available from: https:// unesd oc. unesco. org/ ark:/ 48223/ pf000 01325 40. been made in 2021, in fact, is an indication that the protec- 2. Kelemci Scheneider G, Ceritoglu AB. The role of the local products in tion measures have been delayed. However, the geographi- a global world—an investigation in İstanbul. Pazarlama ve Pazarlama Araştırmaları Dergisi. 2010;6:29–52. cal indication system protects regional tradition and culture 3. Asker A. Global-local interaction: the “fast-foodization” of simit (savory roll from the negative effects of globalization [34]. covered with sesame seed) as the transformation of local in the case of These results show that the changing consumption hab - Simit Sarayı. Erciyes İletişim Dergisi Academia. 2011;2(1):88–104. 4. Su SW. Tea or coffee: a study of the beverage choice pattern and its its with globalization do not negatively affect Turkey’s tra - affecting factors at teatime in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Asia Pacific Manag Rev. ditional tea and coffee culture. As a result, although the 2007;12(4):245–57. traditions of coffee and tea are still maintained in the coun - 5. Einöther SJL, Rowson M, Ramaekers JG, Giesbrecht T. Infusing pleas- ure: mood effects of the consumption of a single cup of tea. Appetite. try, new trends in consumption outdoor may be preferred 2016;103:302–8. more in the west of the country. Global brands also benefit 6. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Intergovernmental group on from the local characteristics of countries while developing tea, emerging trends in tea consumption: informing a generic promotion process, Hangzhou, the people’s Republic of China [document on the their marketing strategies. Therefore, it would be beneficial Internet]. FAO;2018 [cited 2019 Sep 20]. Available from: http:// www. fao. for both local and multinational beverage establishments to org/3/ MW522 EN/ mw522 en. pdf. include traditional beverages in their menus and to increase 7. Çay İşletmeleri Genel Müdürlüğü. Türkiye çay sektörü raporu 2019. [data table online]. [cited 2021 Dec 26]. Available from: https:// www. caykur. the number and variety of these beverages. This will also gov. tr/ Pages/ Yayin lar/ Yayin Detay. aspx? ItemT ype= 5& ItemId= 721. promote Turkish coffee and tea to foreign tourists. 8. Tarımsal Ekonomi ve Politika Geliştirme Enstitüsü ( TEPGE). Tarım ürünleri piyasa raporu, 2021. Çay, [document on the Internet]. TEPGE;2021 [cited Authors’ information 2021 Dec 26]. Available from: https:// arast irma. tarim orman. gov. tr/ tepge/ Dr. Oya Yildirim is a Lecturer at Accommodation Management Department Belge ler/ PDF% 20Tar% C4% B1m% 20% C3% 9Cr% C3% BCnle ri% 20Piy asalar% School of Tourism and Hotel Management in Cukurova University. Dr. Yildirim C4% B1/ 2021- Hazir an% 20Tar% C4% B1m% 20% C3% 9Cr% C3% BCnle ri% published 16 international and national articles, 15 conference papers and 4 20Rap oru/% C3% 87ay,% 20Haz iran- 2021,% 20Tar% C4% B1m% 20% C3% book chapters. In addition, she took part in one project as a researcher. Her 9Cr% C3% BCnle ri% 20Piy asa% 20Rap oru,% 20TEP GE. pdf research interests are tourism marketing, sustainable tourism, tourism and 9. Gunes S. Turkish tea culture and its product. Millî Folklor. environment, cultural heritage, event and gastronomic tourism 2012;24(93):234–51. Dr. Oya Berkay Karaca is a Professor at School of Tourism and Hotel Manage- 10. Köprülü MF. Türk edebiyatında ilk mutasavvıflar. Ankara: Akçağ Publishing; ment in Cukurova University. She is experienced and oft published researcher in the field of gastronomy. Dr. Karaca published 52 international and national 11. Boltanski L, Chiapell OE. Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme. Paris: Gallimard; articles, 53 papers, 5 chapters and 1 book. In addition, she took part in 20 projects as a director and/or researcher. The book “Traditional Cheeses from 12. Gürsoy D. Deniz Gürsoy’s gastronomy history. Istanbul: Oglak Publishing Selected Regions in Asia, Europe and South America” won the best of the Advertising; 2014. world prize in the Dairy & Cheese category in the 25th Gourmand World 13. Akarcay E. 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Japanese sake and evolution of technology: a com- parative view with wine and its implications for regional branding and tourism. J Ethn Foods. 2017;4:88–93. Publisher’s Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in pub- lished maps and institutional affiliations. Re Read ady y to to submit y submit your our re researc search h ? Choose BMC and benefit fr ? Choose BMC and benefit from om: : fast, convenient online submission thorough peer review by experienced researchers in your field rapid publication on acceptance support for research data, including large and complex data types • gold Open Access which fosters wider collaboration and increased citations maximum visibility for your research: over 100M website views per year At BMC, research is always in progress. Learn more biomedcentral.com/submissions

Journal

Journal of Ethnic FoodsSpringer Journals

Published: Mar 3, 2022

Keywords: Consumption habits; Tea; Coffee; Turkey

References