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The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia

The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 138-171 ARTICLE June 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia 1,2,7 1,3 1 1 Thiago Orsi Laranjeiras , Luciano Nicolás Naka , Catherine L. Bechtoldt , Thiago Vernaschi Vieira da Costa , 1 1,4 1 1 Christian Borges Andretti , Marconi Campos Cerqueira , Marcela de Fátima Torres , Gisiane Lima Rodrigues , 5 1 1 1 Marcos Pérsio Dantas Santos , Claudeir Ferreira Vargas , Angela Midori Furuya Pacheco , Carla Haisler Sardelli , 6 1 Juan Mazar-Barnett and Mario Cohn-Haft . Programa de Coleções e Acervos Científicos, Coleção de Aves, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Av. André Araújo, 2936, Petrópolis, CEP 69083-000, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade, Rua Alfredo Cruz, 283, Centro, CEP 69301-140, Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. Laboratório de Ornitologia, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CEP 50670-001, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Biology Departament, University of Puerto Rico - Rio Piedras, San Juan, Puerto Rico Laboratório de Ecologia e Zoologia de Vertebrados, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Rua Augusto Corrêa, 01, Guamá, Caixa postal 479, CEP 66075-110, Belém, Pará, Brazil. Deceased Corresponding author: thiago.laranjeiras@icmbio.gov.br Received on 05 February 2014. Accepted on 20 May 2014. ABSTRACT: While many published maps of avian species richness indicate northern Amazonia to be somewhat species-poor, recent surveys reveal that this area actually possesses one of the most species-rich avifaunas in the Neotropical lowlands. Our surveys indicate that at least 520 bird species occur in Viruá National Park (VNP) and adjacent areas, which is located in the Brazilian state of Roraima (northern Amazonia). Here, we present the results of our ornithological efforts since 2001, based on audio-visual and mist- netting surveys, vouchered by tape and digital recordings, photographs, and collected specimens. VNP is dominated by Amazonian white-sand forest (locally known as campina and campinarana) on an extensive floodplain influenced by muddy-, clear-, and black- water rivers, forming a complex mosaic of habitats that includes várzea, igapó, and hilltop “islands” with terra-firme forest. The high avian diversity found at VNP is likely due to both biogeographic- and local-scale processes. Each habitat contains a particular avian assemblage. Patches of terra-firme forest have a typical Guianan avifauna. Campina and campinarana contain unique species, including some poorly known and range-restricted (e.g., Aprositornis disjuncta), as well as species typical of the northern Roraiman savannas (e.g., Icterus nigrogularis). The várzea of the Rio Branco (with its associated river islands) is particularly species-rich, including the endemic Cercomacra carbonaria and isolated populations of white-river-island specialists (e.g., Mazaria propinqua). VNP protects important ecological ecotones and biogeographical contact zones, as well as 27 threatened and 45 migratory bird species. On the other hand, 71 species reported for our study area have been found outside the current boundaries of the park. Ongoing proposals of expanding the limits of the park would absorb most of these species. With its outstanding bird species richness and wide variety of habitats, VNP emerges as an important site for Amazonian avian research, tourism, and conservation. Despite the park’s protected status, the Brazilian government plans to build a hydroelectric dam in the region, representing the main threat to its avifauna and overall biodiversity. KEYWORDS: ornithological inventory; species richness; threatened species; white sand forest; Rio Branco INTRODUCTION forming a complex mosaic of riparian habitats (including várzeas and igapós). Despite being located in what is supposed to be one of the poorest regions of the Amazon Viruá National Park (VNP), located in the center of the Brazilian state of Roraima, represents an environmentally (Rahbek & Graves 2001; Bass et al. 2010; Jetz et al. 2012), complex, relatively intact, and until recently, poorly the environmental heterogeneity found at the park fosters known region of the Amazon basin. White-sand forests high avian species richness. The sandy, waterlogged soils of the park sustain low- (campinas and campinaranas) dominate the landscape. stature forests, of low logging worth, and are generally Perched just above these waterlogged habitats, scattered hills support lowland terra firme forest. The entire region considered too poor for agriculture. This has resulted in is drained by muddy-, clear-, and black-water rivers, a very low human impact in the park, which is virtually The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. uninhabited and almost entirely pristine (Schaeffer et village of Vista Alegre, the islands of the Rio Branco, the al. 2009). On the other hand, a large hydroelectric dam right margin of Rio Anauá near the confluence with the imminently planned for the Rio Branco 30 km north of Rio Branco, and the left margin of the Rio Barauana. the park (MME 2011), represents a serious threat to the The two latter have been officially included in a request park’s natural hydrological cycle and, consequently, to the to expand the boundaries of the park, which is currently biodiversity of the entire region (Campos 2011). under consideration by the Brazilian government (see Biodiversity inventories are vital to understanding proposed VNP limits in Figure 1; MMA 2010). Four ecological and biogeographical processes, and are additional protected areas have been created in the especially urgent when an entire ecosystem is under region, including two Ecological Stations (Niquiá and threat. Avifaunal surveys, in particular, are useful to Caracaraí), a National Forest (Anauá), and a National establish conservation priorities. Many species are habitat Park (Serra da Mocidade), forming a 1,200,000-ha specialists and can be good indicators of habitat integrity network of protected land. (Stotz et al. 1996). Birds are also better known than most The climate at VNP is warm and wet, with a other animal groups and a list of the birds recorded in a mean annual temperature of 26ºC, with mean annual given area provides baseline data that can be monitored precipitation ranging from 2,000-2,300 mm in the south and followed in the future (Lees et al. 2014). Recent and 1,700-2,000 mm in the north (Barbosa 1997; Schaefer avian inventories conducted throughout Amazonia have et al. 2009). Rainfall concentrates from May to July and resulted in a better understanding of the association the dry period occurs from December to March-April. between birds and vegetation types, regional variation in species abundance, and significant range extensions Habitats for many species (e.g., Cohn-Haft et al. 1997, 2007a; VNP is located in an ecotone area, which is mostly Naka 2004; Robbins et al. 2007; Whittaker 2009; Aleixo covered by Amazonian white-sand forests (campinas et al. 2011; Borges & Almeida 2011; Lees et al. 2012). and campinaranas; Figure 1). Other habitats present in Furthermore, extensive bird inventories have helped the park are seasonally flooded riverine forests, such as recognize and delimitate areas of endemism (Naka várzeas and igapós; terra-firme forests on more elevated 2011; Borges & Silva 2012). Finally, avian inventories areas, forming forested hilltop “islands”; aquatic offer distribution data to support better delimitations of environments; and a small extent of open savanna on the protected areas and Important Bird Areas (De Luca et park’s northern limit. Small human-altered areas are also al. 2009), both of which are important to protect more present. Elevation ranges from 50-60 m at the margin habitat and encourage ecotourism (Laranjeiras & Naka of the Rio Branco to 360 m at the Serra do Viruá. Bird 2014), which supports economic development. habitat characterization and terminology follow Naka et Here, we present the results of several years of al. (2006). More details on the vegetation and soil types ornithological surveys at VNP and adjacent areas. present at VNP are available elsewhere (Schaefer et al. Our results include a comprehensive list of the park’s 2009; Adeney 2009; Gribel et al. 2009; Mendonça 2011; avifauna, its distribution across habitats, and notes Rossetti et al. 2012; Damasco et al. 2013). and commentaries on some highlighted species of Campina and campinarana. These habitats biogeographic and conservation concern. This study will represent the dominant vegetation type in the park, improve our understanding of avian distribution patterns covering ~45% of the area (Schaeffer 2009). We have in Roraima and northern Amazonia, and will be useful included here more open (campina) and more forested for the management of one of the most diverse avian (campinarana) areas, which share similar poorly drained communities in the world. sandy soils. Plant species richness is very variable between these vegetation types. Typical elements in the campina are the endemic small palm Barcella odora, species of METHODS Cyperaceae (Lagenocarpus spp.), and several species in the family Poaceae. In the campinarana, the canopy is Study Area taller and generally more uniform, reaching up to 15 m. It is formed predominantly by trees of the Vochysiaceae Viruá National Park, 230,000 ha, is located in the center family, especially Ruizterania retusa and Vochysia ferruginea of the state of Roraima in northern Brazil (1°20'N; (Gribel et al. 2009) 61°10'W), nearly 150 km south of Boa Vista (Figure 1). Terra-firme. Although this represents the dominant The park is bounded by the Rio Branco to the west, the forest type in Amazonia, it covers only ~6% of the park BR-174 highway to the northeast, the Estrada Perdida (Schaeffer 2009). Terra-firme forests are more species (lost road) to the east, and the Rio Anauá to the south. rich than campina or campinarana, but are restricted in We have also included in our surveys some areas that are the park to the slopes of two hilly areas (Serra do Viruá outside the current boundaries of the park, including the and Serra do Preto) and to areas that do not flood along Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. the Rio Branco and Rio Baruana. The plant species Survey localities composition is considerably variable between localities, and plant richness is higher along the Rio Baruana. The We concentrated our ornithological surveys at nine major canopy is tall, with emergent trees that can reach 40-45 localities (Table 1). m in height. The understory is generally open and rich in 1. Serra do Viruá. A small hill (maximum elevation palms, such as inajá (Maximiliana maripa) and bacaba 360 m above sea level) with slopes covered mainly by (Oenocarpus bacaba; Gribel et al. 2009). terra-firme forest. Administrative buildings and a 60-km Várzea. This represents the main habitat found trail system across a 25-km area (5 x 5 km) are located along the Rio Branco and river islands, but is only present in this section of the park. The trail system also crosses within the boundaries of the park along a thin stretch igapós, campinas, and campinaranas. We concentrated our on the western side of VNP, covering only ~5% of the surveys on this trail system, and also along a 5-km road park’s area (Schaeffer 2009). The várzea is composed that gives access to the administrative buildings (Estrada of a series of successional vegetation types that are do Portão), covered by secondary forests, and another seasonally flooded by white-water rivers in Amazonia. 2-km road that borders the hill (Estrada do Neri). It includes grassy sandbars, sandbar scrubs, river-edge 2. Estrada Perdida. An abandoned stretch of the forest (dominated by Cecropia spp.), and tall forests with BR-174 highway that crosses ~40 km of campinas and well-developed canopy (transitional forest). There are no campinaranas, but also a few human-altered areas, igapós, studies on the floristic composition of these habitats at and Moriche palm swamps (buritizais). There are some VNP, but jauari palms (Astrocaryum jauari) and jacareúva trails, including the Estrada do Preto (that gives access trees (Calophyllum brasiliense) are common in these areas. to the Serra do Preto), that cross a mosaic of all these Igapó. This forested habitat occurs in areas that vegetation types. are seasonally flooded by black-water and nutrient-poor 3. Igarapé do Aliança. This site includes mainly rivers, and covers ~40% of the park’s area (Schaeffer 2009). seasonally flooded forests, including igapós along the The stature, plant species richness, and composition are Aliança stream and várzeas in the confluence with the very variable at different sites and rivers. Along the Rio Rio Branco, but also patches of adjacent terra-firme forest Iruá, igapós are floristically diverse but lower in stature, and aquatic habitats. Two 5-km trails run next to the resembling campinarana, with palms virtually absent; the stream. We also surveyed early-successional vegetation igapós of the Anauá and Baruana rivers seem to be more and várzea forest in the Aliança, Pascoal, Inajatuba, structured, with a common presence of trees in the family Muriru, and Ajarani islands on the Rio Branco. Fabacae (Gribel et al. 2009). 4. Ilha do Palhal. An island on the Rio Branco covered Savanna. This open vegetation type in VNP is with early-successional vegetation and tall várzea forest. restricted to the surroundings of Vista Alegre at the Our surveys also included other aquatic environments northern edge of the park, covering only 170 ha (less than nearby and along the margins of the Rio Branco. 0.1% of the study area). This region is currently outside 5. Boca do Anauá. A group of riverine islands with the boundaries of the park, but has been included in a early-successional vegetation and tall várzea forests in proposed expansion of the park’s area (MMA 2010). The the confluence of the Branco and Anauá rivers. We also savannas are characterized by the sparse presence of small surveyed other aquatic environments near these islands, trees, with predominance of caimbé (Curatella americana) and the lower course of the Rio Anauá. and murici (Byrsonima spp.), over continuous grassland. 6. Rio Iruá. The main watercourse inside VNP, Aquatic environments. Water-related habitats, which drains most of its territory. This river crosses including rivers, lakes with floating vegetation, and several different vegetation types, mainly campinaranas, sandbanks, cover ~4% of the park (Schaeffer 2009). At forming low igapós. We concentrated our surveys along VNP, natural lakes appear a few kilometers inland from the lower course of the river, near the confluence with the margin of the Branco, Anauá, and Baruana rivers and the Rio Anauá. in low-lying areas in some campinas. Along the Estrada 7. Campinho do Rio Anauá. An open area Perdida and the main highway (BR-174), the removal of with campinas along the margins of the Rio Anauá, soil for road construction has formed extensive artificial surrounded by campinaranas, igapós, and other aquatic ponds. environments. A 5-km trail from the river crosses and Human-altered areas. These areas include borders these vegetation types. pastures and other human land uses that have caused 8. Trilha do Baruana. This is a highly heterogeneous deforestation or degradation of natural habitats. In our 5-km trail, which encounters igapós, terra-firme forests, study area, human-altered areas are limited to the park’s and campinaranas, ending at an open campina. In this administrative buildings on the Serra do Viruá, the village site, we also surveyed the aquatic environments and igapó of Vista Alegre, the Rio Baruana access, the margins of surrounding the entrance of the trail in the river, as well the BR-174 highway, and along the Estrada Perdida. as human altered areas around the campsite. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 FIGURE 1. Location of Viruá National Park in northern South America (upper right) and in Roraima (lower right) and the distribution of major habitats and survey localities along rivers and main roads (left). va – Vila de Vista Alegre; sv – Serra do Viruá; ep – Estrada Perdida; ba – Trilha do Baruana; al – Igarapé do Aliança; ip – Ilha do Palhal; an – Boca do Anauá; ri – Rio Iruá; ca – Campinho do Rio Anauá. The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. 9. Vila de Vista Alegre. A small village located predominantly during our fieldwork (see above), but along the Rio Branco, where the BR-174 bridge crosses also data gathered from unpublished sources (visitor the river. We surveyed mainly the savanna, but also the reports). We tentatively assign species to their main várzeas along the Rio Branco, small patches of terra-firme habitats, and provide their local status (qualitative forest, artificial ponds, and open areas near the bridge. abundance categories), based on our own observations in the park. Qualitative abundance was determined Fieldwork subjectively, combining number of detections during our main expeditions in 2006 and 2008 and our Fieldwork involved a series of complementary bird impressions in the field. Species believed to be widespread surveying techniques in order to detect a maximum in the appropriate habitat were assigned as common; number of species in different habitat types. We conducted species believed to occur in most, but not all seemingly auditory and sight observations, playback trials, and mist- appropriate habitat, were assigned as uncommon; and net surveys. Birds were documented with vocalization species observed in less than four occasions (including recordings, photographs, and specimens. Surveys took records obtained through visitor reports) were assigned place usually in the early morning (05:00 – 12:00 h) and as rare. Our abundance assignments are clearly late afternoon (15:00 – 18:00 h) and sporadically at night dependent on survey effort and methods in each habitat, (18:00 – 21:00 h). and our ratings should be interpreted as hypotheses of MCH, LNN, and MFT first visited VNP in May abundance that can be tested by quantitative census 2001. Subsequently, we conducted major expeditions techniques (Cerqueira et al. 2013). Information on in 2002, 2006, and 2008, sampling most habitats regional occurrence, seasonality, and conservation and localities, and using all bird sampling techniques status is based on published sources (Stattersfield et described above. Some of us also visited the park for al. 1998; Naka et al. 2006; ICMBio 2014; CBRO short periods (< 2 days) during these years, for a total 2014; BirdLife International 2014). We also present of ~30 days of opportunistic observations, mainly the physical evidence used for the inclusion of each around the park’s headquarters and the Estrada Perdida. species in the list (specimen, audio recordings, and In August 2009, TOL started identifying areas for photographs), including the catalog number of at least birdwatching purposes, and since then he has visited one voucher, when available. Species lacking evidence the park periodically. Also, since 2012, LNN and TOL refer to lack of visual or auditory records during our began conducting systematic surveys along the Rio surveys. Taxonomy and species nomenclature follow Branco. Survey effort totals > 134 days (see Table 2 for the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee all surveying periods and efforts). (CBRO 2014), except for the Caprimulgidae, the genus Cercomacra, the species Mazaria (Synallaxis) Species list propinqua, and the genus Tachyphonus and Eucometis, where we follow, respectively, Sigurdsson & Cracraft We present a list of all bird species recorded at VNP (2014), Tello et al. (2014), Claramunt (2014), and and adjacent areas, which includes data obtained Burns et al. (2014). TABLE 1. Ornithological survey effort and sampled habitats in each main study locality at Viruá National Park and adjacent areas. Locality General geographic coordinates Effort Habitats Serra do Viruá 1°29'30.46"N; 61°00'21.33"W 47 tf, ig, cp, cm, at Estrada Perdida 1°24'34.72"N; 60°59'15.97"W 29 cp, cm, at, ig Igarapé do Aliança 1°27'46.20"N; 61°14'51.04"W 26 vz, ig, tf, wa Ilha do Palhal 1°14'19.91"N; 61°19'16.10"W 10 vz, aq Boca do Anauá 0°57'59.06"N; 61°21'56.40"W 5 vz, aq Rio Iruá 0°59'37.39"N; 61°15'23.93"W 5 ig, cm, aq Campinho do Rio Anauá 0°57'32.19"N; 61°09'33.25"W 5 ig, cp, cm, aq Rio Baruana 1°25'02.40"N; 60°50'46.30"W 5 ig), tf, cp, cm, at, aq Vila de Vista Alegre 1°42'42.37"N; 61°08'46.27"W 2 sa, vz, tf, at Habitats: cp – campina; cm – campinarana; tf – terra-firme forest; vz – várzea; ig – igapó; sv – savanna; aq – aquatic environment; at – human-altered areas Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. TABLE 2. Dates of ornithological surveys at Viruá National Park and adjacent areas, including effort (in days) and localities. Period Team Effort Localities May 2001 MCH, LNN, MFT 2 sv, ep Oct 2001 LNN, JMB 7 an Aug 2002 MPDS 15 sv, ep, al, ip May 2006 TOL 8 sv, ep Oct 2006 LNN, MCH, CB 20 All except ba, va Mar-Apr 2008 AMFP, CBA, CFV, CHS, GLR, MCC, MCH, MFT, TOL, TVVC 23 All Aug 2009 TOL 6 sv Jan 2010 TOL, MFT 4 ep Apr 2010 TOL, MFT, LNN 4 sv Jul 2010 TOL 5 sv, ep, al Jan 2011 TOL, LNN 4 sv, ep, ba Jul 2011 TOL 3 ri, ca Jan 2012 TOL, MFT 3 sv, ep Apr 2012 TOL 3 sv, ep Mar 2012 LNN 5 al Sep 2012 LNN, TOL 4 al, ip Nov-Dec 2012 TOL 9 sv, ep, al Ago-Sep 2013 TOL 5 sv, ep Oct 2013 LNN, TOL 4 ip Total effort 134 days Localities: sv – Serra do Viruá; ep – Estrada Perdida; al – Igarapé do Aliança; ip – Ilha do Palhal; an – Boca do Anauá; rb – Rio Branco; 2 3 ri – Rio Iruá; ca – Campinho do Rio Anauá; ba – Trilha do Baruana; va – Vila de Vista Alegre. Main expeditions. includes other sites along Rio Branco near the locality. RESULTS has not been documented. Because these species are not expected to occur in the park, or at least lack records in We recorded 520 bird species for VNP and adjacent areas, nearby localities, we have opted to wait for additional which are distributed over 70 bird families (Appendix A). records before including them on the list, so these species are noted as hypothetical. A total of 71 species (~13%) were found exclusively in areas outside the park boundaries (including 16 that were Most species (~78%) occur in more than one locality found exclusively on islands on the Rio Branco). The most (Appendix A), but nearly half of the species recorded representative families were Tyrannidae, Thamnophilidae, in the park (259) were detected exclusively in a single and Thraupidae, with 48, 44, and 41 species, respectively. habitat type (Table 3). The várzeas of the Rio Branco and the terra-firme forests represent the habitats where For the non-passerines, the most represented families were Accipitridae, Trochilidae, and Psittacidae, with 23, we detected the highest numbers of species, with 276 22, and 21 species, respectively. and 240 species, respectively (157 of these were detected We documented the presence of ~83% (431 species) exclusively in one of the two). As expected, sandy-soiled of the bird species included on the list. The presence of 339 campina and campinarana harbour fewer species (about 185), but 37 of them were found nowhere else in the species (~65%) was documented with photographs; 303 species (~58%) with audio recordings, and 245 species park. (~47%) with specimens (Appendix A). The remaining A total of 27 bird species are currently considered ~17% (89 species) were listed for VNP based on sight threatened at global (BirdLife International 2014) and/or auditory records. Most of the species recorded or national (ICMBio 2014) levels, including one Critically Endangered species (Cercomacra carbonaria; without physical evidence are widespread and common taxa, which are expected to occur in the region and do not Appendix A). One species (Neochen jubata) is listed as represent any identification challenges. Data Deficient, and five species are considered to have Six bird species (Gallinula galeata, Aratinga restricted geographic distributions (Aprositornis disjuncta, solstitialis, Pyrrhura picta, Tyranneutes stolzmanni, Myrmotherula klagesi, C. carbonaria, Hemitriccus inornatus, and Dolospingus fringilloides). Most of the species recorded Leptopogon amaurocephalus, and Tachyphonus rufus) have been mentioned to occur in the park, but their presence seem to be permanent residents in the park, but nearly Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. 10% (45 species) possibly visit the park on a seasonal Rio Branco, where it regularly occurs. Fortunately, this basis (Appendix A). From these, nearly half (24 species) species seems not to be seen as a good source of food by represent North American or neartic migrants; 14 species local human communities (TOL and LNN pers. obs.). represent southern South American or austral migrants; Given its reliance on sandy beaches, the construction of and seven species seem to arrive from other regions within a dam on the Rio Branco, with its potential impacts on northern South America or Amazonia. flooding and sedimentation regimes represents a serious threat to the survival of this species in the region. TABLE 3. Total avian species richness and number of exclusive species for each major habitat in Viruá National Park and adjacent areas. Crested Bobwhite (Colinus cristatus) The Crested Bobwhite (Figure 3) occurs in northern South Habitat Total Exclusive America in arid lowlands and locally into the subtropical Campina 88 19 zone, using thickets, woodland edges, savannas, roadsides, Campinarana 130 10 and embankments (Carroll & Boesman 2013). It is Sand soil forest total 185 37 generally considered more common in open savannas, Terra-firme 240 95 and its presence on sandy-soiled campinas is poorly Várzea 276 62 documented. We frequently recorded this species in the Igapó 144 7 campinas along the Estrada Perdida and Rio Anauá. VNP Flooded forest total 297 93 seems to represent its southernmost area of occurrence in Savanna 34 2 Roraima. Aquatic environment 75 29 Human altered area 89 3 Total single habitat species 259 Includes campina and campinarana. Includes várzea and igapó. Species accounts In this section we present data on some poorly known species, records that represent range extensions and records that we consider important in biogeographical or conservation terms. FIGURE 3. Crested Bobwhite (Colinus cristatus) at a human-altered area near the Estrada Perdida (T.O.L.) Orinoco Goose (Neochen jubata) The Orinoco Goose (Figure 2) is a widespread but poorly Least Nighthawk (Podager pusillus) known species regularly seen on sandy beaches along the The Least Nighthawk represents a geographically Rio Branco. Although this species is known to perform widespread species with an apparently disjunct population seasonal movements, at least in part of its distribution in in northern Amazonia (Cleere & Kirwan 2013). It southern Amazonia (Davenport et al. 2012), very little seems that two different forms occur within the state of is known about this species at VNP, or along the entire Roraima (septentrionalis and esmeladae), which segregate geographically and possibly by habitat (Naka et al. 2006). All specimens from the park seem to be esmeraldae. We found this species to be fairly common along the Estrada Perdida, in campinas adjacent to Iruá and Anauá rivers, as well as in the open savannas of Vista Alegre. Spot-tailed Nightjar (Hydropsalis maculicaudus) This species is patchily distributed in South America and its seasonal movements are poorly understood; some populations are sedentary, while others are likely migratory (Cleere & Bonan 2013). In March 2008, we recorded this nightjar daily in the campinas along the Estrada Perdida. These represent the only known records FIGURE 2. Orinoco Goose (Neochen jubata) at Ilha do Palhal in the for the park, suggesting possible seasonal movements in Rio Branco (T.O.L.) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. the region. The same pattern has been observed in central firme forest around Serra do Viruá, whereas the Orange- Amazonia (MCH pers. obs.), although populations known cheeked Parrot (a widespread western Amazonian species) to be resident are found along the lower Rio Amazonas occurred in the várzea forest along the Rio Branco and (Arizmendi et al. 2013). While it inhabits open habitats, the lower Rio Anauá. The presence of P. barrabandi east its presence in sandy-soil campina is poorly documented. of the Rio Branco represents an exception to the observed pattern of western elements being restricted to the west Barbets (Capito spp.) bank of the Rio Branco (Naka et al., 2006). Although Two species of Capito barbets occur in Roraima and they both species co-occur in the park, they seem to segregate are thought to replace parapatrically along the Rio Branco ecologically. (Naka et al. 2006, 2012). Similar to the pattern followed by Pyrilia parrots (see below), we only recorded C. niger (a Black-throated Antshrike (Frederickena viridis) Guaianan endemic) in terra-firme forest around Serra do The Black-throated Antshrike (Figure 5) is a relatively Viruá, while C. auratus was regularly present on islands uncommon understory Guianan endemic, that until covered with várzea forest along the Rio Branco, just recently was only known from a single record for the opposite the park boundaries. entire state of Roraima (Naka et al. 2006). In 2007, we recorded a male in a terra-firme forest at ~7 km from o o White-bellied Piculet (Picumnus spilogaster) the park’s boundaries (1 39’20’’N, 61 2’14’’W), but in The White-bellied Piculet (Figure 4) has a relatively December 2012 and August 2013, we voice-recorded narrow range in northern South America. It only occurs and photographed a female in the terra-firme forest in Brazil in Roraima and at the mouth of Rio Amazonas, along the Buritizal Trail, near the park headquarters, and near Belém (Winkler & Christie 2002), where the in February 2014 we found another individual at the population may represent another taxon (Lees et al. Estrada do Neri. These are the only records of this species 2014). This species was previously considered a gallery in VNP, and the third known locality for Roraima. forest specialist, restricted to riparian vegetation along rivers, and patches of deciduous forests in the savannas of northern Roraima (Naka et al. 2007). On 23 March 2008, we collected one individual of this species at Ilha do Palhal on the Rio Branco. Another specimen was collected at Ilha do Ajarani in September 2012. These specimens represent the southernmost records of the nominate form along the Rio Branco, and the first evidence that it also occurs in várzea forests. FIGURE 5. Black-thorated Antshrike (Frederickena viridis) around the Serra do Viruá (T.O.L.) Klages’s Antwren (Myrmotherula klagesi) This species (Figure 6) is a range-restricted, Near Threatened (BirdLife International 2014), seasonally flooded forest specialist (Zimmer & Isler 2003). Although it was only recently added to the state of Roraima list (Naka et al. 2006), it is a common inhabitant of the várzea forests along the entire lower Rio Branco (LNN and FIGURE 4. White-bellied Piculet (Picumnus spilogaster) at Ilha do TOL, unpublished data), where it occurs on river islands Ajarani in the Rio Branco (T.O.L.) and forested margins (Naka et al. 2007). We documented its presence in the park along the eastern bank of the river, Parrots (Pyrilia spp.) from Vista Alegre (possibly the northernmost locality of Two species of Pyrilia parrots occur in Roraima, and its entire distribution) to the mouth of the Rio Anauá although they are thought to replace parapatrically along (at the southern edge of the park). Despite its threatened the Rio Branco (Naka et al. 2006, 2012), we observed and status, there is no evidence of habitat loss or population tape-recorded both Caica P. caica and Orange-checked P. decline in the region, although modification of the habitat barrabandi Parrots in VNP. Nevertheless, the Caica Parrot by the proposed dam will reduce the várzea habitat upon (a Guianan endemic) was recorded exclusively in the terra- Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. which it relies, and will likely have negative consequences due to the construction of the proposed dam will have for the Rio Branco populations of this species. consequences on the global population of this species, which occurs along the Rio Branco and a few of its tributaries. Yapacana Antbird (Aprositornis disjuncta) This range-restricted, monotypic antbird (Figure 8) is known from a handful of localities in northern Amazonia (Zimmer & Isler 2003). We first recorded this campina specialist in VNP in May 2001, and it has been recorded regularly in different localities along the Estrada Perdida and near the Rio Anauá ever since. VNP remains the only known locality of this taxon in Roraima, and only the second Brazilian site. FIGURE 6. Klages’s Antwren (Myrmotherula klagesi) at an unnamed island in the Rio Branco (T.O.L.) Leaden Antwren (Myrmotherula assimilis) This is a várzea forest specialist is restricted to the understory and mid-story of both river islands and forested river edges along some of the largest rivers in the Amazon basin (Zimmer and Isler 2003). It was only recently found to occur along the Rio Branco (Naka et al. 2007). We voice-recorded and collected this species on several river islands along the Rio Branco. On 6 October 2006 and 1 April 2008 we found this species in VNP, near the confluence of this river and the Rio Anauá, FIGURE 8. Yapacana Antbird (Aprositornis disjuncta) in the campinaranas around the Estrada Perdida (T.O.L.) representing the northernmost records of this species. Rio Branco Antbird (Cercomacra carbonaria) Fuscous Flycatcher (Cnemotriccus fuscatus) The Rio Branco Antbird (Figure 7) is a range-restricted This widespread understory tyrant likely represents Rio Branco near-endemic, which is currently considered several biological species, which taxonomic status is Critically Endangered (Vale et al. 2007; BirdLife currently under investigation (MCH and collaborators, International 2014). We commonly recorded this antbird unpublished data). Two forms of this polytypic species on river islands and more rarely along the margins of the are present at VNP: the form fumosus is commonly Rio Branco, from Vista Alegre to the Rio Anauá. Previous found along the Rio Branco, particularly (although not records extended its known distribution more than 300 exclusively) in várzea forest, whereas the form duidae has km southward (Naka et al. 2007). Although it is relatively been found in the campinas along the Estrada Perdida. common in suitable habitat, habitat modifications Pale-bellied Mourner (Rhytipterna immunda) This poorly known, sandy-soil specialist was found to be uncommon in the campinaranas associated with the Anauá, Iruá, and Barauana rivers, as well as along the Estrada Perdida. The species was only recently reported to occur in Roraima (Naka et al. 2006) and are still only a handful of records. We found this species on only five occasions, despite many days of fieldwork in apparently suitable habitat, suggesting that it is indeed uncommon (or very local) as suggested for other regions, such as neighboring Venezuela (Hilty 2003). White Bellbird (Procnias albus) This remarkable species is known to occur in northern FIGURE 7. Rio Branco Antbird (Cercomacra carbonaria) at Ilha do Amazonia, but its distribution and seasonal patterns Palhal in the Rio Branco (T.O.L.) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. remain poorly understood (Snow 2004). We observed and but becomes rarer further south. On 22 March 2008, we heard this species in terra-firme forest around the Serra do voice-recorded and collected this bird in the campinaranas Viruá and at Igarapé do Aliança in October 2006 and along the Estrada do Preto. This is the only record for October 2012, respectively. The species had not been VNP. Although it occurs in a variety of open habitats, reported for the Rio Branco region before, and few records including urban areas around Boa Vista and other towns, for Roraima are available (Naka et al. 2006). It seems quite its presence in sandy soils remain poorly documented. possible that this species is only seasonally present in the park, but we cannot refute the hypothesis that birds are DISCUSSION residents but go silent during the rest of the year. Year- round surveys may contribute to the understanding of this species’ seasonal patterns in the region. Avian diversity With over 500 bird species recorded, Viruá National Park Large-billed Seed-Finch (Sporophila crassirostris) A relatively widespread species in northern South and its adjacent areas harbors an unexpectedly species- America, yet very uncommon in Brazil (Jaramillo rich avifauna, which includes more than 70% of all bird 2011). In the state of Roraima, it is only known from species recorded in the Brazilian state of Roraima (Naka a couple of localities (Naka et al. 2006). On March et al. 2006). This is particularly impressive, given the almost negligible altitudinal range within the park, which and April 2008, we recorded and collected this species in an open sandy soil campina along the Estrada ranges from 50 m to 360 m, and that most of the park Perdida. In Brazil, there are very few recent records is located on top of sandy soils. The high avian diversity and the species has been up-listed to Vulnerable on found in VNP is likely due to both biogeographic- and the national Red List (ICMBio 2014). The species is local-scale processes. At a biogeographical scale, VNP is located at the common in captivity in Boa Vista (TOL pers. obs.). confluence of different biogeographical regions (see Black-stripped Sparrow (Arremonops conirostris) Biogeographical affinities below). It includes a described Although this species (Figure 9) is widespread in northern contact zone for terra-firme forest birds (Naka 2011), South America and southern Central America, the state an ecotone region of flooded forests (várzea and gallery forest; Naka et al. 2007) and a transition zone between of Roraima represents the only known area of occurrence in Brazil. We recorded this species in VNP during our open areas (savanna and campina). The Rio Branco, surveys in early successional vegetation on islands along which dissects the state in an eastern and western half, the Rio Branco. The population in Roraima seems to represents one of the most important biogeographical represent the nominate form, which is isolated from barriers in the Amazonia for birds (Naka et al. 2012). In addition, because of its latitude, VNP receives migratory the main distribution of the species in northern South America (Hilty 2003). birds from both northern and southern South America, although these are responsible for only 7% (45 species) of the total. Locally, there are extremely high levels of environmental complexity within and between habitats. Terra-firme forests are known to have the greatest species richness anywhere in Amazonia (Cohn-Haft et al. 1997) and várzea and igapó are also very rich (Rosenberg 1990; Cohn-Haft et al. 2007b; Borges & Almeida 2011). Seasonally flooded forests (where, in fact, we found more species; see Table 3), in particular, have a variety of successional stages that result in the occurrence of many specialized birds, which inhabit different microhabitats (Remsen & Parker 1983; Rosenberg 1990; Borges & Carvalhes 2000). Also, species from adjacent terra- FIGURE 9. Black-stripped Sparrow (Arremonops conirostris) at Ilha do Aliança in the Rio Branco (T.O.L.) firme forest (e.g., Dendrocincla fuligionsa, Formicarius colma) may explore tall várzea and igapó during dry Yellow Oriole (Icterus nigrogularis) periods (Beja et al. 2010). Sandy soil habitats (campina The Yellow Oriole is known from northern South and campinarana) have a lower number of species, but America (Hilty 2003), reaching Brazil in a few localities add many unique ones to the park (Borges 2004). A north of the Rio Amazonas. In Roraima, this species is similar pattern is observed for the savannas and aquatic quite common on the Roraima-Rupunnuni savannas, environments. As the bird communities among habitats Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. are, in general, distinct, the total avian diversity is very terra-firme forests north of Manaus (e.g., Thamnomanes high. ardesiacus, Formicarius analis, Corapipo gutturalis, Our results also show that the avian richness of VNP Vireolanius leucotis, Tangara chilensis, Dacnis lineata) is higher than expected (almost 100 species more) given (Cohn-Haft et al. 1997), 500 km south of VNP, have not known large-scale patterns of species richness (see Rahbek yet been recorded in the park. One possible explanation & Graves 2001; Bass et al. 2010; Jetz et al. 2012). Although for their apparent absence is the small proportion of terra- avian species richness in Amazonia seems to increase firme forest and its naturally fragmented distribution westwards to the Andes (Cohn-Haft et al. 1997; Rahbek within VNP. Additionally, most of our surveys in terra- & Graves 2001), previous studies may have neglected firme forests were limited to a few sites within the park the contribution of sandy soil and flooded forests to (Serra do Viruá). It is possible that exploring new areas avian diversity in the Guianan Shield. In fact, areas with within the park’s forests, some of those absent species > 500 bird species are starting to appear throughout the may finally appear. The apparent rarity of some species in Brazilian Amazon (Pacheco et al. 2007; Somenzari et al. VNP (e.g., Piaya melanogaster, Saltator grossus), suggests 2011; Lees et al. 2013a,b), also contradicting the overall that many terra-firme forest birds may be indeed rare and species richness pattern. More attention to microhabitats very local, and therefore including new sampling areas and a better knowledge of avian vocalizations may be may significantly enhance the chances of finding more responsible for these increasing numbers. bird species. Despite our efforts, it is likely that the bird list of VNP will continue to grow. After 13 years since we first Biogeographical affinities visited the park, we continue to find new species in the area (see Figure 10), even in heavily surveyed sites (e.g., VNP is located entirely on the eastern bank of the Rio Serra do Viruá). We believe that at least 20 more bird Branco, and therefore has a typical Guianan avifauna in species are very likely to be found in the park with further the terra-firme forest, including 71 Guianan endemic taxa sampling, and another 50-60 species could potentially (26 species and 45 subspecies). In fact, 12 endemic species be found within the park boundaries (Appendix B). and 20 endemic subspecies are restricted to the eastern Therefore, we believe that VNP and its adjacent areas will side of the Rio Branco (Table 4). On the other hand, likely reach 550 bird species in the next few years. another three species not considered Guianan endemics On the other hand, some species that were expected seem to be absent west of the Rio Branco in Roraima to occur within the park seem to be absent. More than (Microrhopias quixensis, Cercomacra laeta, and Cercomacra 20 species that are common and easily detectable in the nigrescens). Whether these absences are real or a function FIGURE 10. Increase in total bird species detected during key inventory dates at Viruá National Park and adjacent areas. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. of lack of sampling remains to be evaluated. Despite Conservation, implications for management, and being entirely within the Guianan Area of Endemism, future research we have mapped some contact zones in the study area, such as for a pair of parrots in the genus Pyrilia (caica Although VNP is part of a large mosaic of protected and barrabandi) and a pair of barbets in the genus Capito areas, current agricultural and forestry developments (auratus and niger). around the park are of concern. Currently, southern The várzeas along the Rio Branco are particularly Roraima is under severe threat from deforestation interesting. Typical várzea species (known from most of (Soares-Filho et al. 2006; Campos 2011). With more the Amazon basin) are present, such as Thamnophilus than 200,000 ha, VNP offers significant protection for nigrocinereus, Myrmotherula assimilis, Myrmoborus the biodiversity found in the state, including several lugubris, and Dendroplex kienerii (Table 4). The avian threatened bird species. Within the park, very few areas communities found along these várzeas seem to be quite have been modified and the park seems to be large similar to those found on the Anavilhanas archipelago on enough to hold stable populations of threatened and the lower Rio Negro (Cintra et al. 2007). On the other non-threatened species. However, the connectivity of the hand, a handful of white-water (muddy) river specialists park with other healthy natural vegetation communities that are apparently absent from the Rio Negro are present is necessary for maintaining large-scale ecological and in isolated populations along the Rio Branco (see Naka et evolutionary processes. The proposal to expand the al. 2007), as well as on the river islands just opposite the park boundaries (MMA 2010) moves toward this goal park boundaries (Table 4). For flooded-forest birds, the and also, importantly, reinforces the protection of 55 Rio Branco also represents an ecological ecotone, which bird species that we found exclusively in the requested influences bird species composition. The Rio Branco expansion areas (Appendix A). runs along a latitudinal gradient, which goes from the The construction of a hydroelectric dam on the savannas (around Boa Vista) into the forest realm (south Rio Branco, only 30 km north of the park’s boundaries of Caracaraí). Along its margins, gallery forests on the represents a serious threat to riverine bird species, some upper Rio Branco are replaced by várzeas further south, of which are range-restricted and threatened (e.g., C. and this replacement seems to occur near VNP (Naka et carbonaria and Myrmotherula klagesi; Appendix A; Vale et al. 2007). Therefore, although the vegetation of the Rio al. 2008; Bird et al. 2012). Studies to assess the population Branco is composed of várzea forests along VNP, some status and vulnerability of these riverine bird species are gallery forest specialists are still found near the park’s urgently needed. Besides the direct loss of habitat due to boundaries, such as Picumnus spilogaster, Hylophilus flooding above the dam (which would likely not affect pectoralis, and Turdus nudigenis (Table 4). VNP directly), hydroelectric dams affect the flood pulse The campinas and campinaranas host a typical of the river, which will affect the existence and formation sandy-soil avifauna, similar to that present in other of river-created habitats (Junk & Mello 1990), especially localities in northwestern Amazonia, such as Jaú NP river islands (Remsen and Parker 1983). River islands, in Brazil (Borges 2004), or Campamento Junglaven in which shelter a unique avifauna (Rosenberg 1990), Venezuela (Zimmer & Hilty 1997). Typical white-sand including 16 exclusive species in the study area, are outside forest birds include Myrmotherula cherriei, Aprositornis the boundaries of VNP, and lack any legal protection. disjuncta, Elaenia ruficeps, and Dolospingus fringilloides, Because of their ephemeral nature, there is an urgent among others (Table 4). Although savannas are virtually need to categorically protect river islands in Amazonia, absent in the park, present only near the village of Vista independent of their geographic location (Cohn-Haft et Alegre, we found a group of species that are generally al. 2007b). restricted to the savannas of northern Roraima inhabiting Maintaining habitats in VNP for threatened and the campinas in the park (Naka et al. 2006; Santos & Silva range-restricted birds is also important because these 2007). The presence of savanna species such as Colinus species attract bird watchers and ecotourists. VNP cristatus, Sporophila intermedia, Sporophila crassirostris, offers easy access to sandy-soil habitats (campinas and and Icterus nigrogularis may simply be due to a ‘leakage’ campinaranas) and to flooded forests, where most of these from the nearby savannas. In fact, VNP may represent the rare species can be readily found (Laranjeiras & Naka southern limit of the distribution of some of these species. 2014). Moreover, a network of trails within the Park Other avian elements in the campinas include species that offers access to all of the diverse habitats found within the are widely distributed in open areas in South America and region, allowing the observation of a great variety of birds predominantly absent in Amazonia, such as Chordeiles in a single day. If promoted properly, ecotourism could pusillus, Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer, Tangara cayana, become a major force helping conservation and economic and Geothlypis aequinoctialis. Most of these species are development in the region. polytypic and their populations in VNP deserve genetic Finally, our results show that VNP and adjacent and taxonomic studies. areas represent an important site to learn more about Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. ecological and biogeographical processes in Amazonia. park’s region plays a similar role for groups other than The presence of species from distinct biogeographical birds. The park also hosts multiple large-scale ecotones, regions demonstrates that VNP lies in a significant contact as well as a variety of habitats that influence local zone for avian species (Naka et al. 2012). Distributions of diversity. The absence of several terra-firme forest species other taxa should be explored, to determine whether the deserves further attention. Isolated populations of várzea TABLE 4. Species from distinct biogeographical regions found at Viruá National Park and adjacent areas, listed by their habitat association. Terra-firme (26 species): Guianan endemic species. *species that are restrict to the east side of rio Branco Crax alector Veniliornis cassini Xiphorhynchus pardalotus Penelope marail Epinecrophylla gutturalis* Campylorhamphus procurvoides* Psophia crepitans Myrmotherula surinamensis* Lepidocolaptes albolineatus* Pyrilia caica* Myrmotherula guttata Schiffornis olivacea* Notharchus macrorhynchos* Frederickena viridis Perissocephalus tricolor Monasa atra Myrmelastes leucostigma* Todirostrum pictum Capito niger* Percnostola subcristata* Zimmerius acer Selenidera piperivora* Hypocnemis cantator* Cyanocorax cayanus Pteroglossus viridis Gymnopithys rufigula Campina (7 species): Northwestern Amazonia typical species. *also found in scattered sites southeastward in Amazonia. Elaenia ruficeps* Myrmotherula cherriei Hemitriccus inornatus* Euphonia plumbea Heterocercus flavivertex Dolospingus fringilloides* Aprositornis disjuncta Campina (8 species): Species from northern South America, absent in most of Amazonia but present in northern Roraima open savannas Colinus cristatus Mimus gilvus Sporophila crassirostris Hydropsalis cayennensis Sporophila intermedia Icterus nigrogularis Fluvicola pica Sporophila minuta Campina (10 species): Species that are widely or disjunctly distibuted in South America (and absent in most of Amazonia) Diopsittaca nobilis Tangara cayana Sporophila plumbea Chordeiles pusillus Schistochlamys melanopis Sporophila nigricolis Todirostrum cinereum Emberizoides herbicola Geothlypis aequinoctialis Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer Várzea (7 species): Typical species of Amazonian seasonally flooded forest (várzea and igapó) and generally absent in northern Amazonia. * Species exclusively present in igapó. Myrmotherula klagesi Myrmoborus lugubris Inezia subflava* Myrmotherula assimilis Dendroplex kienerii Thamnophilus nigrocinereus Hemitriccus minor Várzea (5 species): White-water river várzea specialists (absent in lower Rio Negro) Mazaria propinqua Stigmatura napensis Conirostrum bicolor Synallaxis gujanensis Serpophaga hypoleuca Várzea (7 species): Species absent in most part of Amazonia but present in northern Roraima gallery forests Picumnus spilogaster Turdus leucomelas Arremonops conirostris Poecilotriccus sylvia Turdus nudigenis Conirostrum speciosum Hylophilus pectoralis Várzea (9 species): Species predominantly restricted to western Amazonia, and absent east of Rio Branco. *Also found in southeastern Amazonia Phaethornis hispidus Celeus grammicus* Cyanocorax violaceus Capito auratus Pyrilia barrabandi Dacnis flaviventer* Pteroglossus pluricinctus Pipra filicauda Psarocolius bifasciatus* Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. specialists along the Rio Branco also deserve further study, # TNC 006/03). This article is publication 30 in the as they may indicate the presence of either old relictual Amazonian Ornithology Technical Series of the INPA populations or recent long-distance dispersal (Naka et Scientific Collections Program. al. 2007). Future ornithological research that will help elucidate these questions include investigating patterns REFERENCES of bird occupancy and movement within habitats and between seasons, surveys in isolated and yet unexplored Adeney, J. M. 2009. Remote sensing of fire, flooding and white sand patches of terra firme forest, such as Serra do Preto, and ecosystems. Ph.D Dissertation, Durham: Duke University. systematic surveys along the várzeas of the Rio Branco. Aleixo, A.; Poletto, F.; Lima, M. F. C.; Castro, M.; Portes, E.; & Miranda, L. S. 2011. Notes on the Vertebrates of northern Pará, VNP has great scientific and conservation potential and Brazil: a forgotten part of the Guianan Region – II . 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Taxonomy and species nomenclature follow the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee (CBRO 2014), except for the Caprimulgidae, the genus Cercomacra, the species Mazaria (Synallaxis) propinqua, and the genus Tachyphonus and Eucometis, where we follow, respectively, Sigurdsson & Cracraft (2014), Tello et al. (2014), Claramunt (2014), and Burns et al. (2014). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Tinamidae Tinamus major Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba, va C NT T.O.L. WA 51601 Crypturellus cinereus Tf, Vz sv, ep, al, ip, ca, ba C T.O.L. Crypturellus soui Cm, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, an, ri, ca, va C T.O.L. Crypturellus undulatus Vz, Ig al, ip, an, ca, va C WA 417150 Crypturellus erythropus Tf sv U Anatidae Dendrocygna viduata Aq al R Dendrocygna autumnalis Aq al R Neochen jubata Aq ip, an, out U NT, (DD) XC 138968 WA 261937 Cairina moschata Aq, At ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C WA 618182 Anas discors Aq, At ep, out R NEA WA 570953 Cracidae Penelope marail Tf sv, al, ba U MPEG 56256 XC 138892 WA 827866 Aburria cumanensis Vz, Ig ip, an, ba U VU WA 8875 Ortalis motmot Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig, Sv all localities C MPEG 56257 ML (C.B.A.) Crax alector Tf sv C VU WA 281360 Pauxi tomentosa Cp, Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C NT ML (C.B.A.) WA 181578 Odontophoridae Colinus cristatus Cp, At ep, ca C INPA 1453 WA 181253 Odontophorus gujanensis Tf sv, ba R NT Podicipedidae Tachybaptus dominicus Aq va, out R Ciconiidae Ciconia maguari Cp, Aq, At ep, al, ip, ri, ca U INT? WA 252860 Jabiru mycteria Cp, Aq, At ep, ri, ca, ba C INT? WA 72044 Mycteria americana Cp, Aq, At ep, al, ip C INT? WA 825390 Phalacrocoracidae Phalacrocorax brasilianus Aq al U The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Anhingidae Anhinga anhinga Aq al, ip, an, ri, ca C WA 17675 Ardeidae Tigrisoma lineatum Aq, At sv, ep, an, ca, ba C T.O.L. WA 252499 Agamia agami Vz, Aq ip, ba, out R VU INPA A2254 WA 8845 Cochlearius cochlearius Vz, Aq al, an, ba U INPA A2223 Zebrilus undulatus Aq, Vz-is al, out R NT INPA 1536 Nycticorax nycticorax Aq ep, sv R JPC Butorides striata Vz, Ig, Aq, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C MPEG A8310 WA 197826 Bubulcus ibis Sv, At sv, al, va U Ardea cocoi Sv, Aq, At ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba, va C WA 252850 Ardea alba Sv, Aq, At ep, al, ip, an, ca, ba, va C Pilherodius pileatus Vz, Ig, Aq sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C WA 818983 Egretta thula Aq ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C Egretta caerulea Aq al, an, ca U WA 19190 Threskiornithidae Mesembrinibis cayennensis Cm, Vz, Ig, Aq, At ep, al, an, ri, ca, ba C WA 219890 Platalea ajaja Aq al, ca C WA 8876 Cathartidae Cathartes aura Cp, Cm, Sv, At all localities C WA 815007 Cathartes burrovianus Cp, At ep, ca, ba C WA 1306894 Cathartes melambrotus Tf sv, al, ba, va C WA 813219 Coragyps atratus Cp, Cm, Vz, Ig, Sv, At all localities C WA 181365 Sarcoramphus papa Tf sv, ba U WA 34400 Pandionidae Pandion haliaetus Vz, Ig, Aq sv, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C NEA WA 825371 Accipitridae Leptodon cayanensis Cm ep, out R WA 618194 Elanoides forficatus Tf, Vz sv, al, ba U INT? WA 781925 Gampsonyx swainsonii Cp, At ep, ba, out U WA 62869 WA 866635 Harpagus bidentatus Tf sv U T.O.L. WA 51625 Ictinia plumbea Cm, Vz, Ig, Sv ep, al, ip, an, ba, va C NEA WA 181591 Busarellus nigricollis Vz, Ig, Aq, At ep, al, an, ba C ML (C.B.A.) WA 252507 Rostrhamus sociabilis Vz al R Geranopsiza caerulescens Vz, Ig ep, al, ri, ca, ba C The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Buteogallus schistaceus Vz al, ip U INPA 1538 WA 6070 Heterospizias meridionalis Cp, Cm, Aq, At sv, ep, ca, ba C WA 21336 Urubitinga urubitinga Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C WA 178577 Rupornis magnirostris All habitats all localities C MPEG 56253 T.O.L. WA 284083 Geranoaetus albicaudatus Cp ep, out R MPEG 56252 Pseudastur albicollis Tf sv R PNV Leucopternis melanops Tf sv, ba U WA 48648 Buteo nitidus Vz al, ip, an, ba C WA 12421 Buteo platypterus Tf sv R NEA WA 820557 Buteo brachyurus Cp ca R WA 410906 Morphnus guianensis Tf sv, al R NT, (VU) WA 35751 Harpia harpyja Tf sv R NT, (VU) ML (C.B.A.) Spizaetus tyrannus Tf, Vz sv, ep, al, ip, ba U Spizaetus melanoleucus Vz ip R WA 261943 Spizaetus ornatus Tf sv R NT Eurypygidae Eurypyga helias Cm, Vz, Ig, Aq ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C T.O.L. WA 872563 Aramidae Aramus guarauna Aq, At ep, al, an C WA 19191 Psophidae Psophia crepitans Tf sv, ba C MPEG 56259 ML (C.B.A.) WA 202090 Rallidae Aramides cajaneus Tf, Sv, Aq, At sv, va U ML (C.B.A.) WA 219856 Laterallus viridis Aq, At sv, ep U ML (C.B.A.) Laterallus exilis Aq, At ep, out R Porzana albicollis Aq, At ep, al, ba U ML (L.N.N.) Porphyrio martinicus Aq, Vz-is al, out R Porphyrio flavirostris Aq ep, out R M.C.H. Heliornithidae Heliornis fulica Aq al, ba R MPEG 56267 Charadriidae Vanellus cayanus Cp, Aq, At ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C WA 816641 Vanellus chilensis Cp, Aq, At sv, ep, al, ca, va C WA 63056 Charadrius collaris Aq al, ip, an, ca C INPA A2176 ML (C.B.A.) WA 287883 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Scolopacidae Gallinago paraguaiae Cp, Aq ep, ri R ML (L.N.N.) WA 828969 Gallinago undulata Cp, Aq ep, out R JPC Bartramia longicauda Cp ba, out R NEA Actitis macularius Aq, At ep, al, ip, ri, ca, ba U NEA MPEG 56268 WA 15157 Tringa solitaria Aq, At ep, ri, ca, ba C NEA WA 812251 Tringa melanoleuca Aq, At ep, al, ip, ri U NEA ML (C.B.A.) Tringa flavipes Aq, At ip, ri R NEA WA 281359 Calidris minutilla Aq al, ip, ri R NEA INPA A2202 WA 15675 Calidris fuscicollis Aq al R NEA Calidris melanotos Aq al, ip R NEA INPA A8312 WA 866340 Jacanidae Jacana jacana Sv, Aq, At sv, ep, al, ba,va C WA 195585 Sternidae Sternula superciliaris Aq ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca C WA 272934 Phaetusa simplex Aq ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca C WA 252542 Rynchopidae Rynchops niger Aq al, ip, an, ri, ca C WA 862787 Columbidae Columbina passerina Cp, Cm, Vz, At sv, ep, ca, ba C INPA A1022 WA 281416 Columbina minuta Cp, Cm ep, ba, out R Columbina talpacoti At ba, out C Claravis pretiosa Vz ba, out R ML (C.B.A.) Patagioenas speciosa Cm, Vz, Ig, Sv all localities C ML (C.B.A.) WA 181582 Patagioenas cayennensis All habitats all localities C T.O.L. WA 219857 Patagioenas plumbea Tf, Vz sv, ca, ba, va C ML (C.B.A.) WA 410882 Patagioenas subvinacea Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, an, ri, ca, ba, va C VU MPEG A8295 WA 1255218 Leptotila verreauxi Vz al, ip, an, ba C MPEG 56266 Leptotila rufaxilla Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig, At sv, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1527 ML (C.B.A.) Geotrygon montana Tf, Vz sv, al, ip C INPA A2110 WA 45327 Opisthocomidae Opisthocomus hoazin Vz al, ca, ba C INPA A2080 WA 62971 WA 15158 Cuculidae Coccycua minuta Tf, Vz sv, al, an, ca, ba U MPEG 56285 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Piaya cayana Cp, Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig all localities C ML (C.B.A.) WA 195582 Piaya melanogaster Tf va, out R Coccyzus melacoryphus Ig ri R AUS WA 410881 Coccyzus americanus Cm ca R NEA Coccyzus euleri Tf sv R AUS? WA 639970 Crotophaga major Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, ri, ca, ba C WA 326669 Crotophaga ani Cp, Vz, Ig, Sv, At sv, ep, al, ip, ca, ba, va C T.O.L. Tapera naevia Cp, Vz ep, al, ba C ML (C.B.A.) WA 188425 Strigidae Megascops choliba Cm, Vz, Ig ep, al, ip, ri, ca C MPEG 56815 Megascops watsonii Tf sv, ba, va C ML (C.B.A.) WA 854716 Lophostrix cristata Tf sv C WA 351967 Pulsatrix perspicillata Tf sv, ba U MPEG 56282 Bubo virginianus Cm ep, out R MZUSP 77931 WA 62750 WA 1024047 Strix sp. (virgata) Tf, Vz sv, ep, ip U T.O.L. Glaucidium hardyi Tf sv, ba U WA 1295126 Glaucidium brasilianum Cm ir R Nyctibiidae Nyctibius grandis Tf sv, ba U T.O.L. WA 1256913 Nyctibius griseus Cm, Tf, Ig sv, ep, ri, ca, ba C XC 139202 WA 281361 Carpimulgidae Antrostomus rufus Cm, Tf, Vz sv, ep, ca U T.O.L. Lurocalis semitorquata Cm, Vz ep, al, ip, ba C Nyctiprogne leucopyga Vz, Ig al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1535 ML (C.B.A.) WA 815037 Nyctidromus nigrescens Tf sv, ba U XC 138999 WA 180933 Nyctidromus albicollis Tf, Aq, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1455 ML (C.B.A.) WA 181087 Hydropsalis maculicauda Cp ep, out R AUS? INPA A1800 ML (C.B.A.) Hydropsalis cayennensis Cp ep, out C INPA 1454 WA 47137 WA 640068 Hydropsalis climacocerca Vz al, ip, an, ca, ba C INPA 1456 ML (C.B.A.) WA 9745 Podager nacunda Aq ri R AUS? PNV Podager pusillus Cp, Sv, At sv, ep, ri, ca, va C INPA 1533 ML (C.B.A.) WA 18050 Chordeiles acutipennis Vz al R NEA? INPA 1531 Apodidae Streptoprocne zonaris Vz al R Chaetura spinicaudus Tf, Ig sv, ca, ba C WA 1295119 Chaetura cinereiventris Ig al, ri, ba U The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Chaetura brachyura Tf, Vz, Ig, Sv sv, ep, an, ri, ca, ba, va C ML (C.B.A.) Tachornis squamata Ig sv, ep, ri, ca, ba C T.O.L. WA 862587 Panyptila cayennensis Tf sv R WA 1066541 Trochilidae Glaucis hirsutus Vz al, an, ba U INPA 1461 Threnetes leucurus Tf sv R ML (C.B.A.) Phaethornis rupurumii Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ca, ba, va C INPA 1131 ML (C.B.A.) WA 806659 Phaethornis ruber Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ca, ba, va C ML (C.B.A.) WA 282800 Phaethornis hispidus Vz al, ip U Phaethornis bourcieri Tf sv, va U Phaethornis superciliosus Tf, Vz sv, ba, va U INPA 1133 XC 138943 WA 849680 Campylopterus largipennis Tf, Ig ep, al, ri R Florisuga mellivora Cp, Ig, At ep, ri, ca U WA 205169 Anthracothorax nigricollis Vz, At al, ba R WA 18139 Chrysolampis mosquitus Cp, Vz, Ig ep, al, ri, ca C INT? INPA A2077 WA 814605 Chlorostilbon notatus Cm, Vz, Ig ep, al, ip, ri, ca C INPA A2083 M.F.T. Chlorostilbon mellisugus Cp, At ep, ba, out U WA 813210 Thalurania furcata Tf sv, ba U WA 287337 Hylocharis sapphirina Cm, Tf sv, ri U ML (L.N.N.) WA 862680 Hylocharis cyanus Cm, Tf, Vz sv, ep, ip, ba C INPA 1457 XC 138917 WA 15676 Polytmus theresiae Cp, Ig ep, ri, ca C INPA 1460 T.V.V.C. WA 181096 Amazilia versicolor Vz al, ca U INPA A2134 WA 18140 Amazilia fimbriata Cp, Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1462 T.O.L. WA 326725 Heliothryx auritus Tf sv, ba U WA 351968 Heliomaster longirostris Tf sv, ep, al R WA 856773 Calliphlox amethystina Ig, At ep, ba, out R WA 281362 Trogonidae Trogon melanurus Tf, Vz sv, va U INPA 1137 T.O.L. WA 827852 Trogon viridis Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig all localities C INPA 1140 T.O.L. WA 813899 Trogon violaceus Cm, Tf sv, an, ba C WA 50045 WA 51626 Trogon rufus Tf sv, al R Alcedinidae Megaceryle torquata Vz, Ig, Aq, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C MPEG A8307 T.O.L. WA 872562 Chloroceryle amazona Vz, Ig, Aq, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C ML (L.N.N.) WA 177934 Chloroceryle aenea Vz, Ig, Aq ep, al, ip, ri, ca C INPA A1002 XC 138856 WA 262713 Chloroceryle americana Vz, Ig, Aq, At ep, al, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1466 WA 221242 Chloroceryle inda Vz, Ig, Aq ep, al, ip, ri, ba U INPA 1467 WA 219853 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Momotidae Momotus momota Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba, va C T.O.L. WA 866361 Galbulidae Brachygalba lugubris Vz al, ca, ba U INPA A2244 ML (C.B.A.) WA 8879 Galbula albirostris Tf sv U INPA 1145 T.O.L. WA 818444 Galbula galbula Cp, Cm, Vz, Ig, Sv all localities C INPA 1471 ML (C.B.A.) WA 6440 Galbula leucogastra Cm, Tf, Ig sv, ri, ca C INPA 1473 XC 138860 WA 410878 Galbula dea Tf, Ig sv, ri, ba, va C WA 505401 Jacamerops aureus Tf sv, ba C INPA 1142 XC 139195 WA 180495 Bucconidae Notharchus macrorhynchos Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip C T.O.L. WA 326670 Notharchus tectus Tf, Vz sv, al, ba U T.O.L. WA 181581 Bucco tamatia Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig all localities C MPEG 56300 WA 63519 WA 44266 Bucco capensis Tf, Vz sv, al U WA 866551 Monasa atra Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ca, ba, va C INPA A2108 XC 138895 WA 813265 Monasa nigrifrons Vz al U Chelidoptera tenebrosa Cp, Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C MPEG 56303 WA 180999 Capitonidae Capito niger Tf sv U INPA 1477 T.O.L. WA 862590 Capito auratus Vz-is an, out U INPA 1479 T.V.V.C. Ramphastidae Ramphastos toco At ep, out R Ramphastos tucanus Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ca, ba, va C MPEG 56306 WA 360170 WA 181366 Ramphastos vitellinus Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba, va C XC 138846 WA 262722 Selenidera piperivora Tf sv C WA 649302 WA 195584 Pteroglossus viridis Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ca, ba C WA 8966 Pteroglossus aracari Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ca, ba, va C MPEG 56814 WA 50866 Pteroglossus pluricinctus Vz-is ip, out R Picidae Picumnus exilis Cp, Cm, Ig sv, ep, al, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1482 ML (C.B.A.) WA 854677 Picumnus spilogaster Vz-is al, out R VU INPA 1481 WA 1295127 Melanerpes cruentatus Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba, va C MPEG 56312 T.O.L. WA 866626 Veniliornis cassini Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, an, ba C INPA 1151 XC 139809 WA 505417 Veniliornis passerinus Vz al R Piculus flavigula Tf, Vz sv, al, an, ba C MPEG 56310 T.O.L. WA 273449 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Piculus capistratus Tf sv, va U ML (L.N.N.) Colaptes punctigula Tf, Vz sv, al, ba U MPEG 56827 ML (L.N.N.) Celeus grammicus Tf, Vz sv, al U MPEG 56309 Celeus elegans Cm, Tf, Vz sv, ep, al, ip, ca, ba C INPA 1362 WA 62763 WA 180493 Celeus flavus Cp, Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ip, ca, ba, va C XC 138839 WA 807515 Celeus torquatus Tf, Vz sv, al, ba, va U INPA 1147 T.O.L. WA 814078 Dryocopus lineatus Cp, Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, an, ca, ba, va C MPEG 56315 ML (C.B.A.) WA 866638 Campephilus rubricollis Tf, Vz sv, ip, ba U MPEG 56313 T.O.L. WA 827193 Campephilus melanoleucos Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C ML (C.B.A.) WA 8874 Falconidae Daptrius ater Vz al, ca, ba C T.O.L. WA 866606 Ibycter americanus Cm, Vz ep, al, ba C WA 858617 Caracara cheriway At ep, out R Milvago chimachima Cp, Cm, Vz, Ig, Sv, At sv, ep, ri, ca, va C MPEG 56832 ML (C.B.A.) WA 181925 Herpetotheres cachinnans Cm, Vz, Sv sv, ep, al, an, va C ML (C.B.A.) WA 252858 Micrastur ruficollis Tf sv R Micrastur gilvicollis Tf sv, ba U Micrastur mirandollei Tf, Vz sv, ca, ba U Micrastur semitorquatus Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ca, ba C Falco sparverius Sv, At ep, va, out R Falco rufigularis Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ri, ca C MPEG 56254 Psittacidae Ara ararauna Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig, Sv all localities C T.O.L. WA 181593 Ara macao Cm, Tf, Vz sv, ep, an, ba U WA 177386 Ara chloropterus Tf, Vz sv, an, ba C ML (L.N.N.) WA 252839 Ara severus Vz al, an C ML (C.B.A.) WA 8846 Orthopsittaca manilatus Cm, Tf sv, ep C XC 139203 WA 816636 Diopsittaca nobilis Cm, Ig ep, ri, ca C ML (C.B.A.) WA 1334808 Psittacara leucophthalmus Cm, Vz, At ep, ca U ML (L.N.N.) Eupsittula pertinax Cp, Cm, Vz, Ig, Sv, At sv, ep, al, an, ri, ca, ba, va C MPEG 56277 ML (C.B.A.) WA 181278 Brotogeris chrysoptera Cm, Tf, Vz sv, an, ca, ba, va C INPA 1135 WA 48647 WA 287075 Touit huetii Cm, Vz sv, ba C VU ML (C.B.A.) WA 78853 Touit purpuratus Cm, Tf sv, ep U MPEG 56276 Pionites melanocephalus Tf, Vz sv, ba, va C MPEG 56274 XC 139204 WA 8965 Pyrilia barrabandi Vz an, out R NT Pyrilia caica Tf sv, al U NT XC 139205 Pionus menstruus Cm, Tf, Vz sv, ep, al, an, ba, va C MPEG 56280 T.V.V.C. WA 866581 Pionus fuscus Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, va C WA 862753 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Amazona festiva Vz al, ip, an, ca, ba C VU XC 138940 WA 181590 Amazona farinosa Tf sv, ba C XC 139187 WA 181094 Amazona amazonica Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig, Sv all localities C ML (C.B.A.) WA 181598 Amazona ochrocephala Cm, Tf, Vz sv, ep, al, ip, an, ca, ba, va C MPEG A8296 XC 138900 WA 283369 Deroptyus accipitrinus Cm, Tf, Vz sv, ca, ba, va C MPEG 56279 WA 50046 WA 325113 Thamnophilidae Pygiptila stellaris Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, an, ba C INPA 1376 XC 139264 WA 202576 Microrhopias quixensis Tf, Vz sv, al, ba C INPA A2104 XC 139197 WA 807882 Epinecrophylla gutturalis Tf ba, out R Aprositornis disjuncta Cp, Cm ep, ca C INPA 780 WA 47135 WA 130462 Myrmophylax atrothorax Tf sv, ip, ba C INPA 1193 XC 139199 WA 180497 Myrmotherula brachyura Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ca, ba C INPA 1405 XC 139806 WA 649879 Myrmotherula surinamensis Vz, Ig al, ca, ba U VU INPA A2181 ML (C.B.A.) WA 181283 Myrmotherula cherriei Cp, Cm sv, ep, ri, ba C INPA 1489 XC 138852 WA 351964 Myrmotherula klagesi Vz al, ip, an C NT, (VU) INPA A2189 T.V.V.C. WA 802504 Myrmotherula axillaris Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, ri, ca, ba, va C INPA 1191 WA 50042 WA 854693 Myrmotherula longipennis Tf sv R Myrmotherula assimilis Vz-is ip, an, ba, out U ML (C.B.A.) Formicivora grisea Cp, Ig ep, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1491 WA 62864 WA 814481 Isleria guttata Tf ba, out R INPA A2240 Thamnomanes caesius Tf, Vz sv, al, ba C WA 48660 WA 51649 Herpsilochmus dorsimaculatus Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba, va C INPA 1199 XC 138988 WA 51602 Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA A2149 ML (C.B.A.) WA 7305 Sakesphorus canadensis Cm, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1484 XC 139207 WA 181002 Thamnophilus doliatus Cm, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1485 T.O.L. WA 272920 Thamnophilus murinus Tf, Vz sv, ip, ba, va C INPA 1180 ML (C.B.A.) WA 827245 Thamnophilus nigrocinereus Vz-is al, ip, an, out U NT INPA 1487 ML (C.B.A.) Thamnophilus punctatus Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ca, ba, va C INPA 1185 ML (C.B.A.) WA 51664 Thamnophilus amazonicus Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1184 ML (C.B.A.) WA 807541 Cymbilaimus lineatus Tf, Vz sv, an, ba U Taraba major Tf, Vz sv, al, ba, va C ML (C.B.A.) WA 18048 Frederickena viridis Tf sv R WA 829047 WA 829032 Myrmoderus ferrugineus Tf sv, ba C INPA A1054 WA 50041 WA 51648 Hypocnemoides melanopogon Cm, Vz, Ig ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1495 WA 417140 WA 262712 Hylophylax naevius Tf sv R Hylophylax punctulatus Vz al, ip, an, ba U INPA 1497 WA 62901 WA 8862 Sclateria naevia Vz, Ig ip, ca, ba U INPA A2235 XC 138941 WA 261944 Myrmelastes leucostigma Tf sv U ML (C.B.A.) WA 45344 Myrmoborus leucophrys Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, an, ca, ba C INPA A2174 WA 48644 WA 50869 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Myrmoborus lugubris Vz-is ip, an, out U VU INPA 1494 ML (C.B.A.) WA 1248476 PercnosT.O.L.a subcristata Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, ri, ca, ba, va C INPA 1416 WA 48654 WA 813117 Cercomacra cinerascens Tf sv, al, ba C INPA A1731 XC 138894 Cercomacra carbonaria Vz-is al, ip, an, out C CR INPA 1505 XC 139258 WA 8861 Cercomacroides tyrannina Tf sv C INPA 1176 XC 139189 WA 854720 Cercomacroides laeta Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ca, ba C INPA A1048 WA 48646 WA 51663 Cercomacroides nigrescens Vz al, ba C INPA A2076 WA 62805 WA 411490 Hypocnemis cantator Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba C NT INPA 1197 XC 139803 WA 807533 Pithys albifrons Tf sv, al U Willisornis poecilinotus Tf sv, ba U INPA 1189 WA 48656 WA 854805 Gymnopithys rufigula Tf sv, al, ip, ba C INPA 1434 XC 138904 WA 854012 Grallariidae Myrmothera campanisona Tf sv, al, ba, va C INPA 1194 WA 50428 WA 1258745 Formicariidae Formicarius colma Tf, Vz sv, al, ba U MPEG 56414 XC 139261 Dendrocolaptidae Dendrocincla fuliginosa Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba U INPA 1425 ML (C.B.A.) WA 854695 Dendrocincla merula Tf sv U Deconychura longicauda Tf sv R NT Sittasomus griseicapillus Tf, Vz sv, al R INPA 1170 Glyphorynchus spirurus Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ba C INPA 1421 XC 139009 WA 813260 Xiphorhynchus pardalotus Tf sv, ba, va C INPA 1165 T.O.L. WA 51604 Xiphorhynchus obsoletus Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig all localities C INPA 1545 XC 138982 WA 1261649 Xiphorhynchus guttatus Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ca, ba, va C INPA 1367 XC 139213 WA 813258 Campylorhamphus trochilirostris Vz an, out R Campylorhamphus procurvoides Ig ca R Dendroplex picus Cm, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ba C INPA 1543 ML (C.B.A.) WA 814936 Dendroplex kienerii Vz, Ig al, ip, an, ri, ca C NT INPA 1544 T.V.V.C. WA 7302 Lepidocolaptes albolineatus Tf sv, ip R INPA 1167 ML (L.N.N.) Nasica longirostris Vz, Ig al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA A2140 XC 139201 WA 281363 Dendrexetastes rufigula Tf sv, ba R INPA 1166 XC 139214 WA 282812 Dendrocolaptes certhia Tf, Vz sv, an, ba, va C INPA 1427 ML (C.B.A.) WA 51624 Dendrocolaptes picumnus Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, an, ba C INPA A1751 ML (C.B.A.) WA 351965 Xenopidae Xenops minutus Tf sv, ba U MPEG 56347 T.O.L. WA 188427 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Furnariidae Furnarius leucopus Vz al, ip, an, ba C INPA 1508 ML (C.B.A.) Automolus rufipileatus Vz al U MPEG 56345 WA 417154 WA 411492 Automolus cervicalis Tf sv, al R MPEG ? Automolus ochrolaemus Tf sv, al C INPA 1370 XC 138891 WA 45338 Philydor pyrrhodes Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, an U UFPE 5081 T.O.L. WA 781991 Certhiaxis cinnamomeus Cp, At ep, out U WA 205165 Mazaria propinqua Vz-is al, ip, out C INPA 1521 XC 138961 WA 866320 Synallaxis albescens Cp ep, ca C INPA 1522 WA 47145 WA 273450 Synallaxis rutilans Tf, Vz sv, ip, ba U INPA 1436 WA 48963 WA 50874 Synallaxis gujanensis Vz-is al, an, ba, out C INPA 1517 XC 139211 WA 181279 Cranioleuca vulpina Vz, Ig al, ip, an, ca, ba C INPA 1524 ML (C.B.A.) WA 802131 Cranioleuca gutturata Vz al, ip, ca, ba U INPA A989 ML (C.B.A.) Pipridae Pipra filicauda Vz al, ip, ca, ba C INPA 1565 XC 138911 WA 990976 Ceratopipra erythrocephala Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ca C MPEG 56459 ML (C.B.A.) WA 205164 Manacus manacus Tf sv U MPEG 56451 T.O.L. Heterocercus flavivertex Cm, Ig ep, al, ri, ca, ba U INPA A1005 WA 417144 WA 410877 Dixiphia pipra Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ca, ba, va C INPA 1206 WA 48658 WA 50873 Xenopipo atronitens Cm sv, ep, ri, ca C INPA 1566 WA 63408 WA 261946 Chiroxiphia pareola Vz ip, va, out R Onychorhynchidae Onychorhynchus coronatus Tf, Vz al, ip, ba U INPA 1560 T.O.L. Terenotriccus erythrurus Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba U INPA A2097 XC 138898 WA 631432 Myiobius barbatus Cm, Vz, Ig al, ca, ba U MPEG 56445 Tityridae Schiffornis major Vz, Ig sv, al, ca, ba C MPEG 56467 XC 138914 WA 781926 Schiffornis olivacea Tf sv U T.O.L. Laniocera hypopyrra Tf sv U WA 649330 WA 862785 Tityra inquisitor Tf, Vz, Ig sv, an, ba U WA 1295152 Tityra cayana Tf, Vz sv, al, ba C T.O.L. WA 826954 Pachyramphus rufus Cp, Cm, Vz, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ba, va C INPA 1569 T.O.L. WA 181000 Pachyramphus polychopterus Vz, At sv, al, an, ba C T.O.L. Pachyramphus marginatus Tf, Vz sv, ip U INPA 1203 T.O.L. Pachyramphus surinamus Tf, Vz sv, ip, an, ba, va U T.O.L. Pachyramphus minor Tf sv, va U XC 138896 WA 827661 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Cotingidae Lipaugus vociferans Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, ri, ba, va C MPEG 56468 T.O.L. WA 195583 Gymnoderus foetidus Vz al, ip, ca U WA 351966 Xipholena punicea Cm, Tf sv, ri U Procnias albus Tf sv, al, ba U ML (L.N.N.) Cotinga cayana Tf, Ig sv, ri, ba R WA 857482 Querula purpurata Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ri, va C MPEG 56469 XC 139222 WA 352003 Perissocephalus tricolor Tf, Vz sv, ip U Cephalopterus ornatus Vz al, ip, an, ba U Pipritidae Piprites chloris Tf ba, out R INPA 1204 Platyrinchidae Platyrinchus saturatus Tf sv R Platyrinchus coronatus Cm ri R Platyrinchus platyrhynchos Tf sv, ba U XC 139263 WA 202577 Rhynchocyclidae Mionectes oleagineus Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, ba, va C INPA 1547 XC 139221 WA 862784 Mionectes macconnelli Vz ca R INPA 1833 Rhynchocyclus olivaceus Ig al, ba R MPEG 56803 WA 45329 Tolmomyias sulphurescens Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba U Tolmomyias assimilis Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba, va C INPA 1213 XC 139212 WA 5086 Tolmomyias poliocephalus Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig all localities C MPEG 56436 ML (C.B.A.) WA 854718 Tolmomyias flaviventris Cm, Vz, Ig ep, al, an, ri, ca, ba, va U INPA 1614 ML (C.B.A.) WA 262705 Todirostrum maculatum Vz, Ig ep, al, ip, an, ca, ba C INPA A2132 ML (C.B.A.) WA 181579 Todirostrum cinereum Cp, Cm ep, out C ML (C.B.A.) WA 1334742 Todirostrum pictum Tf sv U XC 138906 WA 820397 Poecilotriccus sylvia Cm, Vz, Ig ca, ba U INPA A2248 ML (C.B.A.) Myiornis ecaudatus Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba C WA 48659 WA 862728 Hemitriccus minor Vz al, ip, an U XC 138978 Hemitriccus zosterops Tf sv U XC 138955 WA 67902 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer Cp ep, ca C INPA 1548 WA 62877 WA 16471 Hemitriccus inornatus Cp, Cm ep, ri, ba U INPA A999 XC 139191 Lophotriccus galeatus Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ca C INPA 1210 XC 139231 WA 181261 Tyrannidae Zimmerius acer Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ca, ba, va C INPA 1215 WA 417148 WA 814250 Stigmatura napensis Vz-is al, ip, out C (VU) INPA 1559 T.O.L. WA 781796 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Inezia subflava Cp, Ig ep, ri U INPA A1876 XC 138893 WA 857469 Ornithion inerme Tf sv, al, ba C MPEG 56429 WA 360177 WA 325112 Camptostoma obsoletum Vz, Ig ep, al, ip, an, ca, ba C T.O.L. WA 273469 Elaenia flavogaster Cp ep C INPA 1550 WA 62845 Elaenia parvirostris Cp ri R AUS Elaenia cristata Cp ep, ca C INPA 1554 WA 272938 Elaenia chiriquensis Cp ri, ca U INPA A993 Elaenia ruficeps Cp ep, ri, ca C INPA 1557 WA 649317 WA 181255 Myiopagis gaimardii Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ca, ba, va C T.O.L. WA 411491 Myiopagis caniceps Tf sv, al U ML (C.B.A.) Myiopagis flavivertex Vz, Ig al, ip, an, ca, ba C INPA 1549 XC 139807 WA 8964 Tyrannulus elatus Cp, Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig all localities C XC 139808 WA 253388 Capsiempis flaveola Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ip, an, ba C INPA 1558 XC 138942 WA 281415 Phaeomyias murina Sv va, out R Serpophaga hypoleuca Vz-is ip, out R INPA A8302 WA 781721 Attila cinnamomeus Vz, Ig al, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA A1004 XC 139224 WA 197829 Attila spadiceus Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, an, ba C MPEG 56450 XC 138837 WA 261945 Legatus leucophaius Cm, Vz, Ig sv, ep, an, ri, ca, ba C T.O.L. WA 1271477 Ramphotrigon ruficauda Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, ba C MPEG 56435 WA 50050 WA 51628 Myiarchus tuberculifer Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, ip, ri, ca, ba, va C INPA 1564 T.O.L. WA 119848 Myiarchus swainsoni Cp ep, out R AUS INPA A1854 WA 19189 Myiarchus ferox Vz, Ig al, ip, an, ba C INPA 1563 T.O.L. Myiarchus tyrannulus Cp ri R Sirystes sibilator Tf sv, al R Rhytipterna simplex Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C WA 50049 WA 51627 Rhytipterna immunda Cm, Ig ri, ba U INPA A997 XC 138919 WA 44261 Pitangus sulphuratus All habitats all localities C INPA 1561 ML (C.B.A.) T.O.L. Philohydor lictor Vz, Ig, Aq, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ba C XC 139247 WA 800187 Myiodynastes maculatus Vz sv, al, ip, ba C AUS? ML (C.B.A.) Tyrannopsis sulphurea Cm, Tf sv, ep, ri C INPA 1562 ML (C.B.A.) WA 282803 Megarynchus pitangua Cm, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca C ML (C.B.A.) Myiozetetes cayanensis Cm, Vz, Ig, Aq, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ba C T.V.V.C. WA 814680 Tyrannus albogularis Cp ep, out R AUS Tyrannus melancholicus Cp, Cm, Vz, Ig, Sv, At sv, ep, al, ip, ri, ca, ba, va C AUS T.O.L. WA 814648 Tyrannus savana Cp, Vz, Ig, Aq, At ep, al, ri C AUS Empidonomus varius Cm, Sv sv, ba, va U AUS Conopias trivirgatus Vz ip, ba, out U Conopias parvus Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, ri, ca, ba, va C INPA A1000 ML (C.B.A.) WA 854717 Pyrocephalus rubinus Cp, At ep, out R INT? The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Fluvicola pica Cp ep, out R Arundinicola leucocephala Cp, Vz, Ig, Aq, At ep, al, ca C WA 272919 Ochthornis littoralis Vz, Ig al, ca C INPA A8301 WA 417151 WA 816664 Cnemotriccus fuscatus Vz al, ip, an C INPA A2173 ML (C.B.A.) WA 802551 Lathrotriccus euleri Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ca, ba U MPEG 56442 ML (C.B.A.) Contopus virens Vz al R NEA Knipolegus poecilocercus Ig ri, ba R WA 272929 Vireonidae Cyclarhis gujanensis Cp, Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1570 ML (C.B.A.) WA 197791 Vireo olivaceus Tf sv U AUS MPEG 56831 Hylophilus thoracicus Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba C INPA 1220 ML (C.B.A.) WA 857498 Hylophilus semicinereus Vz, Ig al, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA A994 XC 139194 WA 219840 Hylophilus pectoralis Vz al R Hylophilus muscicapinus Cm, Tf sv, al, ba, va C INPA 1221 ML (C.B.A.) WA 835793 Hylophilus ochraceiceps Tf ba, out R Corvidae Cyanocorax violaceus Vz al, ip U ML (C.B.A.) Cyanocorax cayanus Cm sv, ri, ba, va C WA 376414 WA 34375 Hirundinidae Pygochelidon melanoleuca Aq va, out R Atticora fasciata Aq al, ip, ca, ba C WA 9742 Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Aq sv, al, ri, ca C MPEG A8305 Progne tapera Aq ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca C AUS ML (L.N.N.) WA 411488 Progne subis Aq ip, out R NEA Progne chalybea Aq sv, ep, al, ca, ba C WA 221243 Tachycineta albiventer Aq ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C MPEG 56476 WA 821689 Riparia riparia Aq va, out R NEA Hirundo rustica Cp, Aq ep, al, ri, ca, ba U NEA INPA A2093 Troglodytidae Troglodytes musculus Vz, Ig, At sv, ep, al, ri, ca, ba C MPEG 56813 Pheugopedius coraya Tf sv, al, ca, ba, va C INPA 1223 ML (C.B.A.) WA 50875 Cantorchilus leucotis Vz, Ig ep, al, ip, an, ca, ba C INPA 1571 ML (C.B.A.) Donacobiidae Donacobius atricapilla Aq, At ep, out R The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Polioptilidae Microbates collaris Tf sv R Ramphocaenus melanurus Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba C XC 139804 WA 282813 Polioptila plumbea Cp, Cm, Ig ep, ri, ca, ba C WA 62996 WA 1270334 Turdidae Catharus fuscescens Tf sv, ba R NEA INPA A2229 ML (C.B.A.) WA 639696 Turdus leucomelas Cm, Ig, Sv ep, ri, va C INPA A1839 WA 63051 T.O.L. Turdus fumigatus Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ca, ba C INPA 1575 WA 649315 T.O.L. Turdus nudigenis Vz al R INPA 1574 ML (C.B.A.) Turdus ignobilis Cp ep, va, out R Turdus albicollis Tf sv C ML (C.B.A.) Mimidae Mimus gilvus Cp, Cm ep, ca C INPA 1576 WA 62940 WA 15678 Passerilidae Zonotrichia capensis Sv va, out R Ammodramus humeralis Cp, Sv, At ep, va, out R ML (C.B.A.) Ammodramus aurifrons Vz, Ig al, ip, ca C INPA A1017 Arremonops conirostris Vz-is al, ip, an, ba, out U INPA 1603 WA 174982 WA 174924 Arremon taciturnus Tf sv, al, ba C INPA 1605 XC 139006 WA 1334775 Parulidae Parkesia noveboracensis Vz, Ig al R NEA INPA A2111 ML (L.N.N.) T.O.L. Setophaga ruticilla Cm, Tf sv, ba R NEA Setophaga petechia Vz-is al, out U NEA INPA A2155 ML (L.N.N.) Setophaga striata Tf, Vz sv, al, va U NEA INPA 1611 WA 294633 Setophaga fusca Tf sv R NEA ML (C.B.A.) Geothlypis aequinoctialis Cm, At ep, out R WA 866293 Icteridae Psarocolius viridis Tf sv R Psarocolius decumanus Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, an, ba C T.O.L. WA 9746 Psarocolius bifasciatus Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, ri, ca, ba C WA 417149 WA 325115 Procacicus solitarius Vz al, ba R Cacicus haemorrhous Tf sv C MPEG 56508 XC 138897 T.O.L. Cacicus cela Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig, At all localities C MPEG 56509 WA 417139 WA 410879 Icterus cayanensis Cm sv, ep, ba U WA 1063116 Icterus chrysocephalus Cm, Tf, At sv, ep, ri, ba C ML (C.B.A.) WA 181254 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Icterus nigrogularis Cp, Cm ep, out R INPA 1612 WA 47138 Molothrus oryzivorus Cp, Vz, Ig, At ep, al, ri, ca, ba U WA 866273 Molothrus bonariensis Vz, At ep, al, ip, an, ca, va C INPA 1613 ML (C.B.A.) T.O.L. Sturnella militaris Cp, At ep, out R WA 281858 Mitrospingidae Lamprospiza melanoleuca Vz va, out R ML (L.N.N.) Thraupidae Coereba flaveola Cp, Cm, Vz, Ig, Sv, At sv, ep, al, an, ri, ca, ba, va C INPA 1577 ML (C.B.A.) T.O.L. Saltator maximus Vz al, ip, ba, va C ML (C.B.A.) Saltator azarae Cm, Vz sv, ep, al, ip, an, ba C INPA 1608 WA 63003 WA 15677 Saltator grossus Tf sv R INPA 1231 WA 648555 WA 639973 Nemosia pileata Vz al, ip, an C MPEG 56846 ML (L.N.N.) Tachyphonus phoenicius Cm ep, ri, ca C INPA 1585 ML (C.B.A.) T.O.L. Ramphocelus carbo Cp, Cm, Vz, Ig, Sv, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ca, ba, va C INPA 1587 ML (C.B.A.) WA 817268 Tachyphonus luctuosus Tf, Vz sv, al, an, ba C WA 222262 Tachyphonus cristatus Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba C ML (L.N.N.) WA 866596 Tachyphonus surinamus Tf sv, ba U INPA 1228 ML (C.B.A.) Lanio penicillatus Vz, Ig al, ip, an, ba C INPA 1582 XC 138956 WA 261936 Tangara mexicana Tf, Vz sv, ip U MPEG 56485 WA 50713 WA 181262 Tangara velia Tf sv U Tangara varia Tf al, ba R Tangara punctata Tf sv R Tangara episcopus Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C Tangara palmarum Cp, Tf, Vz, Ig, Sv, At sv, ep, al, ip, ca, ba, va C INPA 1589 ML (C.B.A.) WA 51652 Tangara cayana Cp, Cm, At ep, ca C INPA 1591 T.O.L. WA 273468 Schistochlamys melanopis Cp, Cm ep, ri, ca C INPA 1579 XC 139208 WA 326649 Paroaria gularis Vz, Ig al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba, va C INPA 1607 XC 139256 WA 273448 Dacnis flaviventer Ig ba, out R WA 417146 Dacnis cayana Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig, At sv, ep, al, ip, ri, ba C MPEG 56483 XC 139805 WA 181927 Cyanerpes nitidus Tf sv R Cyanerpes caeruleus Cm, Tf sv, al, ba U ML (C.B.A.) WA 15673 Cyanerpes cyaneus Tf ba, out R Chlorophanes spiza Tf sv, ba U INPA 1374 WA 50040 Hemithraupis guira Vz al R Conirostrum speciosum Vz al R MPEG 56812 Conirostrum bicolor Vz al, ip, an C NT INPA 1593 WA 901527 Emberizoides herbicola Cp, At ep, ca C INPA 1606 WA 62849 WA 272935 Volatinia jacarina Cp, Vz, Sv, At sv, ep, al, ba C INPA 1594 T.O.L. The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Sporophila intermedia Cp, Vz, At ep, al, ip, an, ca, va C INPA 1512 ML (L.N.N.) WA 181252 Sporophila plumbea Cp, At ep, ca C INPA 1514 XC 139210 WA 846967 Sporophila bouvronides Vz, At ba, out R INT? Sporophila lineola Vz al R AUS ML (L.N.N.) Sporophila nigricollis Cp, At ep, ba, out R WA 861786 Sporophila minuta Cp, At ep, an, ba, out U INPA 1596 WA 205166 Sporophila castaneiventris Vz-is al, out R INPA A2216 Sporophila angolensis Cp, Vz, Ig, Sv, Aq, At ep, al, ca, ba C INPA A1860 XC 139209 WA 281859 Sporophila crassirostris Cp ep, ba, out U INPA 1599 WA 376425 T.O.L. Dolospingus fringilloides Cp ep, ca U INPA 1601 WA 649318 WA 21329 Cardinalidae Granatellus pelzelni Tf, Vz sv, al, ba U INPA A2154 ML (C.B.A.) Cyanoloxia rothschildii Tf sv, ba C INPA A2237 XC 139223 WA 51646 Fringillidae Euphonia plumbea Cm ep, ri, ca U WA 649322 WA 806599 Euphonia chlorotica Cm, Vz ep, al R Euphonia violacea Tf, Vz sv, al, ca C XC 139215 WA 18041 Euphonia chrysopasta Tf sv, al U T.O.L. WA 50868 Euphonia minuta Tf al R ML (C.B.A.) Euphonia sp. (cayennensis) Tf sv R Habitats: Cp – campina; Cm – campinarana; Tf – terra-firme forest; Vz – várzea (Vz-is – exclusively on Rio Branco islands); Ig – igapó; Sv – savanna; Aq – aquatic environment; At – human- altered areas. Localities: sv – Serra do Viruá; ep – Estrada Perdida; al – Igarapé do Aliança; ip – Ilha do Palhal; an – Boca do Anauá; ri – Rio Iruá; ca – Campinho do Rio Anauá; ba – Trilha do Baruana; va – Vila de Vista Alegre; out – exclusively in areas that are outside the current park boundaries. Abundance: C – common; U – uncommon; R – rare. Status: NT – Near Threatened at global level; VU – Vulnerable at global level; CR – Critically Endangered at global level; (VU) – Vulnerable at national level; (DD) – Data Deficient at national level; NEA – neartic migrants; AUS – austral migrants; INT – migrants from other regions; “?” uncertainty on the migratory behavior. Specimen: Catalogue number from Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG), Unversidade Federal do Pernambuco (UFPE), or Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZUSP). Voice: Catalogue number from xeno-canto (XC) or wikiaves (WA); ML with authors initials refers to records obtained by the specified author in cataloguing process at Macaulay Library. Only authors initials refers to those of recordists of species with undeposited vouchers; JPC – undeposited vouchers obtained by Juan Pablo Culasso. Photo: Catalogue number from wikiaves (WA). Only authors initials refers to those of recordists of species with undeposited vouchers; PNV – photographs obtained by other visitors and available at Viruá National Park archive. The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. APPENDIX B: Bird species predicted to occur in Viruá National Park, including habitat, presence in the state of Roraima and status elsewhere. It includes species known from nearby areas, based on Naka et al. 2006, Borges et al. 2011 and unpublished data. 1 2 1 2 Species Habitat Roraima Status Species Habitat Roraima Status Crypturellus variegatus Tf X C / W Hylexetastes perroti Tf X U / Lr Amazonetta brasiliensis Aq X C / W Microxenops milleri Tf U / Lr Botaurus pinnatus Sv, Aq X C / W Clibanornis obscurus Tf X U / W Ixobrychus exilis Aq X U / W Anabacerthia ruficaudata Vz X C / W Ixobrychus involucris Aq X U / W Neopelma chrysocephalum Cp X C / Lr Cercibis oxycerca Sv, Aq X R / Lr Tyranneutes virescens Tf X C / Lr Theristicus caudatus Sv, Aq X C / W Corapipo gutturalis Tf X C / Lr Chondrohierax uncinatus Tf X U / W Iodopleura fusca Tf X R / Lr / Pk Helicolestes hamatus Ig C / W Cotinga cotinga Tf X R / W Amaurolimnas concolor Aq U / Lr Haematoderus militaris Tf R / W Pluvialis dominica Aq X C / M Neopipo cinammomea Tf, Cm R / W / Pk Zenaida auriculata Sv, At X C / W Leptopogon amaurocephalus Vz X C / Lr Tyto furcata At X C / W Lophotriccus vitiosus Tf C / Lr Dromococcyx pavoninus Tf X U / W R / Lr / Lo Hemitriccus josephinae Tf / Pk Nyctibius aethereus Tf X R / W Corythopis torquatus Tf X C / W Nyctibius leucopterus Tf U / W / Pk Attila citriniventris Tf, Cm U / W / Lo R / W / Lo Nyctibius bracteatus Vz, Ig / Pk Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus Tf X C / W Chordeiles minor Vz, Sv X U / M Vireolanius leucotis Tf X C / W Chordeiles rupestris Aq X U / W Hylophilus brunneiceps Cp, Ig X C / Lr Topaza pella Tf X U / W Atticora tibialis Tf X R / W Polytmus guainumbi Sv X C / Lr Henicorhina leucosticta Tf X C / Lr Amazilia brevirostris any X C / Lr Microcerculus bambla Tf X U / W Nonnula rubecula Tf X U / W / E Cyphorhinus arada Tf X R / W Celeus undatus Tf X C / Lr Myiothlypis mesoleuca Tf X C / Lr Falco derioleucus Tf X U / W / Lo Polioptila guianensis Tf X C / Lr / E Falco femoralis Sv X C / W Tangara gyrola Tf X C / W Falco peregrinus Vz, Tf X C / M Tangara chilensis Tf X C / W Pyrrhura picta Tf X C / Lr Cyanicterus cyanicterus Tf, Cm R / Lr Terenura spodioptila Tf X U / W Dacnis lineata Tf X C / W Myrmornis torquata Tf X U / W Hemithraupis flavicolis Tf X C / W Myrmeciza longipes Tf X C / Lr Sporophila schistacea Vz, Sv X U / Lr Myrmotherula menetriesii Tf X C / W Sporophila americana Vz, Sv X U / Lr Thamnomanes ardesiacus Tf X C / W Caryothraustes canadensis Tf X C / W Conopophaga aurita Tf X C / W Peripophyrus erythromelas Tf R / Lr / Pk Grallaria varia Tf C / W Lampropsar tanagrinus Vz X C / W Hylopezus macularius Tf X C / W Formicarius analis Tf X C / W Habitats: cp – campina; cm – campinarana; tf – terra-firme Sclerurus mexicanus Tf X U / W forest; vz – várzea; ig – igapó; sv – savanna; aq – aquatic Sclerurus rufigularis Tf X C / W environment; at – human altered areas Sclerurus caudacutus Tf X C / W Status elsewhere: C – common; U – uncommon; R – rare; W Xiphocolaptes – widespread; Lr – limited range in Amazonia; M – migratory; promeropirhynchus Tf, Vz X U / W Lo – local occurrence; Pk – poorly known; E – easly overlooked Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ornithology Research Springer Journals

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Abstract

Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 138-171 ARTICLE June 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia 1,2,7 1,3 1 1 Thiago Orsi Laranjeiras , Luciano Nicolás Naka , Catherine L. Bechtoldt , Thiago Vernaschi Vieira da Costa , 1 1,4 1 1 Christian Borges Andretti , Marconi Campos Cerqueira , Marcela de Fátima Torres , Gisiane Lima Rodrigues , 5 1 1 1 Marcos Pérsio Dantas Santos , Claudeir Ferreira Vargas , Angela Midori Furuya Pacheco , Carla Haisler Sardelli , 6 1 Juan Mazar-Barnett and Mario Cohn-Haft . Programa de Coleções e Acervos Científicos, Coleção de Aves, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Av. André Araújo, 2936, Petrópolis, CEP 69083-000, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade, Rua Alfredo Cruz, 283, Centro, CEP 69301-140, Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. Laboratório de Ornitologia, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CEP 50670-001, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Biology Departament, University of Puerto Rico - Rio Piedras, San Juan, Puerto Rico Laboratório de Ecologia e Zoologia de Vertebrados, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Rua Augusto Corrêa, 01, Guamá, Caixa postal 479, CEP 66075-110, Belém, Pará, Brazil. Deceased Corresponding author: thiago.laranjeiras@icmbio.gov.br Received on 05 February 2014. Accepted on 20 May 2014. ABSTRACT: While many published maps of avian species richness indicate northern Amazonia to be somewhat species-poor, recent surveys reveal that this area actually possesses one of the most species-rich avifaunas in the Neotropical lowlands. Our surveys indicate that at least 520 bird species occur in Viruá National Park (VNP) and adjacent areas, which is located in the Brazilian state of Roraima (northern Amazonia). Here, we present the results of our ornithological efforts since 2001, based on audio-visual and mist- netting surveys, vouchered by tape and digital recordings, photographs, and collected specimens. VNP is dominated by Amazonian white-sand forest (locally known as campina and campinarana) on an extensive floodplain influenced by muddy-, clear-, and black- water rivers, forming a complex mosaic of habitats that includes várzea, igapó, and hilltop “islands” with terra-firme forest. The high avian diversity found at VNP is likely due to both biogeographic- and local-scale processes. Each habitat contains a particular avian assemblage. Patches of terra-firme forest have a typical Guianan avifauna. Campina and campinarana contain unique species, including some poorly known and range-restricted (e.g., Aprositornis disjuncta), as well as species typical of the northern Roraiman savannas (e.g., Icterus nigrogularis). The várzea of the Rio Branco (with its associated river islands) is particularly species-rich, including the endemic Cercomacra carbonaria and isolated populations of white-river-island specialists (e.g., Mazaria propinqua). VNP protects important ecological ecotones and biogeographical contact zones, as well as 27 threatened and 45 migratory bird species. On the other hand, 71 species reported for our study area have been found outside the current boundaries of the park. Ongoing proposals of expanding the limits of the park would absorb most of these species. With its outstanding bird species richness and wide variety of habitats, VNP emerges as an important site for Amazonian avian research, tourism, and conservation. Despite the park’s protected status, the Brazilian government plans to build a hydroelectric dam in the region, representing the main threat to its avifauna and overall biodiversity. KEYWORDS: ornithological inventory; species richness; threatened species; white sand forest; Rio Branco INTRODUCTION forming a complex mosaic of riparian habitats (including várzeas and igapós). Despite being located in what is supposed to be one of the poorest regions of the Amazon Viruá National Park (VNP), located in the center of the Brazilian state of Roraima, represents an environmentally (Rahbek & Graves 2001; Bass et al. 2010; Jetz et al. 2012), complex, relatively intact, and until recently, poorly the environmental heterogeneity found at the park fosters known region of the Amazon basin. White-sand forests high avian species richness. The sandy, waterlogged soils of the park sustain low- (campinas and campinaranas) dominate the landscape. stature forests, of low logging worth, and are generally Perched just above these waterlogged habitats, scattered hills support lowland terra firme forest. The entire region considered too poor for agriculture. This has resulted in is drained by muddy-, clear-, and black-water rivers, a very low human impact in the park, which is virtually The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. uninhabited and almost entirely pristine (Schaeffer et village of Vista Alegre, the islands of the Rio Branco, the al. 2009). On the other hand, a large hydroelectric dam right margin of Rio Anauá near the confluence with the imminently planned for the Rio Branco 30 km north of Rio Branco, and the left margin of the Rio Barauana. the park (MME 2011), represents a serious threat to the The two latter have been officially included in a request park’s natural hydrological cycle and, consequently, to the to expand the boundaries of the park, which is currently biodiversity of the entire region (Campos 2011). under consideration by the Brazilian government (see Biodiversity inventories are vital to understanding proposed VNP limits in Figure 1; MMA 2010). Four ecological and biogeographical processes, and are additional protected areas have been created in the especially urgent when an entire ecosystem is under region, including two Ecological Stations (Niquiá and threat. Avifaunal surveys, in particular, are useful to Caracaraí), a National Forest (Anauá), and a National establish conservation priorities. Many species are habitat Park (Serra da Mocidade), forming a 1,200,000-ha specialists and can be good indicators of habitat integrity network of protected land. (Stotz et al. 1996). Birds are also better known than most The climate at VNP is warm and wet, with a other animal groups and a list of the birds recorded in a mean annual temperature of 26ºC, with mean annual given area provides baseline data that can be monitored precipitation ranging from 2,000-2,300 mm in the south and followed in the future (Lees et al. 2014). Recent and 1,700-2,000 mm in the north (Barbosa 1997; Schaefer avian inventories conducted throughout Amazonia have et al. 2009). Rainfall concentrates from May to July and resulted in a better understanding of the association the dry period occurs from December to March-April. between birds and vegetation types, regional variation in species abundance, and significant range extensions Habitats for many species (e.g., Cohn-Haft et al. 1997, 2007a; VNP is located in an ecotone area, which is mostly Naka 2004; Robbins et al. 2007; Whittaker 2009; Aleixo covered by Amazonian white-sand forests (campinas et al. 2011; Borges & Almeida 2011; Lees et al. 2012). and campinaranas; Figure 1). Other habitats present in Furthermore, extensive bird inventories have helped the park are seasonally flooded riverine forests, such as recognize and delimitate areas of endemism (Naka várzeas and igapós; terra-firme forests on more elevated 2011; Borges & Silva 2012). Finally, avian inventories areas, forming forested hilltop “islands”; aquatic offer distribution data to support better delimitations of environments; and a small extent of open savanna on the protected areas and Important Bird Areas (De Luca et park’s northern limit. Small human-altered areas are also al. 2009), both of which are important to protect more present. Elevation ranges from 50-60 m at the margin habitat and encourage ecotourism (Laranjeiras & Naka of the Rio Branco to 360 m at the Serra do Viruá. Bird 2014), which supports economic development. habitat characterization and terminology follow Naka et Here, we present the results of several years of al. (2006). More details on the vegetation and soil types ornithological surveys at VNP and adjacent areas. present at VNP are available elsewhere (Schaefer et al. Our results include a comprehensive list of the park’s 2009; Adeney 2009; Gribel et al. 2009; Mendonça 2011; avifauna, its distribution across habitats, and notes Rossetti et al. 2012; Damasco et al. 2013). and commentaries on some highlighted species of Campina and campinarana. These habitats biogeographic and conservation concern. This study will represent the dominant vegetation type in the park, improve our understanding of avian distribution patterns covering ~45% of the area (Schaeffer 2009). We have in Roraima and northern Amazonia, and will be useful included here more open (campina) and more forested for the management of one of the most diverse avian (campinarana) areas, which share similar poorly drained communities in the world. sandy soils. Plant species richness is very variable between these vegetation types. Typical elements in the campina are the endemic small palm Barcella odora, species of METHODS Cyperaceae (Lagenocarpus spp.), and several species in the family Poaceae. In the campinarana, the canopy is Study Area taller and generally more uniform, reaching up to 15 m. It is formed predominantly by trees of the Vochysiaceae Viruá National Park, 230,000 ha, is located in the center family, especially Ruizterania retusa and Vochysia ferruginea of the state of Roraima in northern Brazil (1°20'N; (Gribel et al. 2009) 61°10'W), nearly 150 km south of Boa Vista (Figure 1). Terra-firme. Although this represents the dominant The park is bounded by the Rio Branco to the west, the forest type in Amazonia, it covers only ~6% of the park BR-174 highway to the northeast, the Estrada Perdida (Schaeffer 2009). Terra-firme forests are more species (lost road) to the east, and the Rio Anauá to the south. rich than campina or campinarana, but are restricted in We have also included in our surveys some areas that are the park to the slopes of two hilly areas (Serra do Viruá outside the current boundaries of the park, including the and Serra do Preto) and to areas that do not flood along Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. the Rio Branco and Rio Baruana. The plant species Survey localities composition is considerably variable between localities, and plant richness is higher along the Rio Baruana. The We concentrated our ornithological surveys at nine major canopy is tall, with emergent trees that can reach 40-45 localities (Table 1). m in height. The understory is generally open and rich in 1. Serra do Viruá. A small hill (maximum elevation palms, such as inajá (Maximiliana maripa) and bacaba 360 m above sea level) with slopes covered mainly by (Oenocarpus bacaba; Gribel et al. 2009). terra-firme forest. Administrative buildings and a 60-km Várzea. This represents the main habitat found trail system across a 25-km area (5 x 5 km) are located along the Rio Branco and river islands, but is only present in this section of the park. The trail system also crosses within the boundaries of the park along a thin stretch igapós, campinas, and campinaranas. We concentrated our on the western side of VNP, covering only ~5% of the surveys on this trail system, and also along a 5-km road park’s area (Schaeffer 2009). The várzea is composed that gives access to the administrative buildings (Estrada of a series of successional vegetation types that are do Portão), covered by secondary forests, and another seasonally flooded by white-water rivers in Amazonia. 2-km road that borders the hill (Estrada do Neri). It includes grassy sandbars, sandbar scrubs, river-edge 2. Estrada Perdida. An abandoned stretch of the forest (dominated by Cecropia spp.), and tall forests with BR-174 highway that crosses ~40 km of campinas and well-developed canopy (transitional forest). There are no campinaranas, but also a few human-altered areas, igapós, studies on the floristic composition of these habitats at and Moriche palm swamps (buritizais). There are some VNP, but jauari palms (Astrocaryum jauari) and jacareúva trails, including the Estrada do Preto (that gives access trees (Calophyllum brasiliense) are common in these areas. to the Serra do Preto), that cross a mosaic of all these Igapó. This forested habitat occurs in areas that vegetation types. are seasonally flooded by black-water and nutrient-poor 3. Igarapé do Aliança. This site includes mainly rivers, and covers ~40% of the park’s area (Schaeffer 2009). seasonally flooded forests, including igapós along the The stature, plant species richness, and composition are Aliança stream and várzeas in the confluence with the very variable at different sites and rivers. Along the Rio Rio Branco, but also patches of adjacent terra-firme forest Iruá, igapós are floristically diverse but lower in stature, and aquatic habitats. Two 5-km trails run next to the resembling campinarana, with palms virtually absent; the stream. We also surveyed early-successional vegetation igapós of the Anauá and Baruana rivers seem to be more and várzea forest in the Aliança, Pascoal, Inajatuba, structured, with a common presence of trees in the family Muriru, and Ajarani islands on the Rio Branco. Fabacae (Gribel et al. 2009). 4. Ilha do Palhal. An island on the Rio Branco covered Savanna. This open vegetation type in VNP is with early-successional vegetation and tall várzea forest. restricted to the surroundings of Vista Alegre at the Our surveys also included other aquatic environments northern edge of the park, covering only 170 ha (less than nearby and along the margins of the Rio Branco. 0.1% of the study area). This region is currently outside 5. Boca do Anauá. A group of riverine islands with the boundaries of the park, but has been included in a early-successional vegetation and tall várzea forests in proposed expansion of the park’s area (MMA 2010). The the confluence of the Branco and Anauá rivers. We also savannas are characterized by the sparse presence of small surveyed other aquatic environments near these islands, trees, with predominance of caimbé (Curatella americana) and the lower course of the Rio Anauá. and murici (Byrsonima spp.), over continuous grassland. 6. Rio Iruá. The main watercourse inside VNP, Aquatic environments. Water-related habitats, which drains most of its territory. This river crosses including rivers, lakes with floating vegetation, and several different vegetation types, mainly campinaranas, sandbanks, cover ~4% of the park (Schaeffer 2009). At forming low igapós. We concentrated our surveys along VNP, natural lakes appear a few kilometers inland from the lower course of the river, near the confluence with the margin of the Branco, Anauá, and Baruana rivers and the Rio Anauá. in low-lying areas in some campinas. Along the Estrada 7. Campinho do Rio Anauá. An open area Perdida and the main highway (BR-174), the removal of with campinas along the margins of the Rio Anauá, soil for road construction has formed extensive artificial surrounded by campinaranas, igapós, and other aquatic ponds. environments. A 5-km trail from the river crosses and Human-altered areas. These areas include borders these vegetation types. pastures and other human land uses that have caused 8. Trilha do Baruana. This is a highly heterogeneous deforestation or degradation of natural habitats. In our 5-km trail, which encounters igapós, terra-firme forests, study area, human-altered areas are limited to the park’s and campinaranas, ending at an open campina. In this administrative buildings on the Serra do Viruá, the village site, we also surveyed the aquatic environments and igapó of Vista Alegre, the Rio Baruana access, the margins of surrounding the entrance of the trail in the river, as well the BR-174 highway, and along the Estrada Perdida. as human altered areas around the campsite. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 FIGURE 1. Location of Viruá National Park in northern South America (upper right) and in Roraima (lower right) and the distribution of major habitats and survey localities along rivers and main roads (left). va – Vila de Vista Alegre; sv – Serra do Viruá; ep – Estrada Perdida; ba – Trilha do Baruana; al – Igarapé do Aliança; ip – Ilha do Palhal; an – Boca do Anauá; ri – Rio Iruá; ca – Campinho do Rio Anauá. The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. 9. Vila de Vista Alegre. A small village located predominantly during our fieldwork (see above), but along the Rio Branco, where the BR-174 bridge crosses also data gathered from unpublished sources (visitor the river. We surveyed mainly the savanna, but also the reports). We tentatively assign species to their main várzeas along the Rio Branco, small patches of terra-firme habitats, and provide their local status (qualitative forest, artificial ponds, and open areas near the bridge. abundance categories), based on our own observations in the park. Qualitative abundance was determined Fieldwork subjectively, combining number of detections during our main expeditions in 2006 and 2008 and our Fieldwork involved a series of complementary bird impressions in the field. Species believed to be widespread surveying techniques in order to detect a maximum in the appropriate habitat were assigned as common; number of species in different habitat types. We conducted species believed to occur in most, but not all seemingly auditory and sight observations, playback trials, and mist- appropriate habitat, were assigned as uncommon; and net surveys. Birds were documented with vocalization species observed in less than four occasions (including recordings, photographs, and specimens. Surveys took records obtained through visitor reports) were assigned place usually in the early morning (05:00 – 12:00 h) and as rare. Our abundance assignments are clearly late afternoon (15:00 – 18:00 h) and sporadically at night dependent on survey effort and methods in each habitat, (18:00 – 21:00 h). and our ratings should be interpreted as hypotheses of MCH, LNN, and MFT first visited VNP in May abundance that can be tested by quantitative census 2001. Subsequently, we conducted major expeditions techniques (Cerqueira et al. 2013). Information on in 2002, 2006, and 2008, sampling most habitats regional occurrence, seasonality, and conservation and localities, and using all bird sampling techniques status is based on published sources (Stattersfield et described above. Some of us also visited the park for al. 1998; Naka et al. 2006; ICMBio 2014; CBRO short periods (< 2 days) during these years, for a total 2014; BirdLife International 2014). We also present of ~30 days of opportunistic observations, mainly the physical evidence used for the inclusion of each around the park’s headquarters and the Estrada Perdida. species in the list (specimen, audio recordings, and In August 2009, TOL started identifying areas for photographs), including the catalog number of at least birdwatching purposes, and since then he has visited one voucher, when available. Species lacking evidence the park periodically. Also, since 2012, LNN and TOL refer to lack of visual or auditory records during our began conducting systematic surveys along the Rio surveys. Taxonomy and species nomenclature follow Branco. Survey effort totals > 134 days (see Table 2 for the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee all surveying periods and efforts). (CBRO 2014), except for the Caprimulgidae, the genus Cercomacra, the species Mazaria (Synallaxis) Species list propinqua, and the genus Tachyphonus and Eucometis, where we follow, respectively, Sigurdsson & Cracraft We present a list of all bird species recorded at VNP (2014), Tello et al. (2014), Claramunt (2014), and and adjacent areas, which includes data obtained Burns et al. (2014). TABLE 1. Ornithological survey effort and sampled habitats in each main study locality at Viruá National Park and adjacent areas. Locality General geographic coordinates Effort Habitats Serra do Viruá 1°29'30.46"N; 61°00'21.33"W 47 tf, ig, cp, cm, at Estrada Perdida 1°24'34.72"N; 60°59'15.97"W 29 cp, cm, at, ig Igarapé do Aliança 1°27'46.20"N; 61°14'51.04"W 26 vz, ig, tf, wa Ilha do Palhal 1°14'19.91"N; 61°19'16.10"W 10 vz, aq Boca do Anauá 0°57'59.06"N; 61°21'56.40"W 5 vz, aq Rio Iruá 0°59'37.39"N; 61°15'23.93"W 5 ig, cm, aq Campinho do Rio Anauá 0°57'32.19"N; 61°09'33.25"W 5 ig, cp, cm, aq Rio Baruana 1°25'02.40"N; 60°50'46.30"W 5 ig), tf, cp, cm, at, aq Vila de Vista Alegre 1°42'42.37"N; 61°08'46.27"W 2 sa, vz, tf, at Habitats: cp – campina; cm – campinarana; tf – terra-firme forest; vz – várzea; ig – igapó; sv – savanna; aq – aquatic environment; at – human-altered areas Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. TABLE 2. Dates of ornithological surveys at Viruá National Park and adjacent areas, including effort (in days) and localities. Period Team Effort Localities May 2001 MCH, LNN, MFT 2 sv, ep Oct 2001 LNN, JMB 7 an Aug 2002 MPDS 15 sv, ep, al, ip May 2006 TOL 8 sv, ep Oct 2006 LNN, MCH, CB 20 All except ba, va Mar-Apr 2008 AMFP, CBA, CFV, CHS, GLR, MCC, MCH, MFT, TOL, TVVC 23 All Aug 2009 TOL 6 sv Jan 2010 TOL, MFT 4 ep Apr 2010 TOL, MFT, LNN 4 sv Jul 2010 TOL 5 sv, ep, al Jan 2011 TOL, LNN 4 sv, ep, ba Jul 2011 TOL 3 ri, ca Jan 2012 TOL, MFT 3 sv, ep Apr 2012 TOL 3 sv, ep Mar 2012 LNN 5 al Sep 2012 LNN, TOL 4 al, ip Nov-Dec 2012 TOL 9 sv, ep, al Ago-Sep 2013 TOL 5 sv, ep Oct 2013 LNN, TOL 4 ip Total effort 134 days Localities: sv – Serra do Viruá; ep – Estrada Perdida; al – Igarapé do Aliança; ip – Ilha do Palhal; an – Boca do Anauá; rb – Rio Branco; 2 3 ri – Rio Iruá; ca – Campinho do Rio Anauá; ba – Trilha do Baruana; va – Vila de Vista Alegre. Main expeditions. includes other sites along Rio Branco near the locality. RESULTS has not been documented. Because these species are not expected to occur in the park, or at least lack records in We recorded 520 bird species for VNP and adjacent areas, nearby localities, we have opted to wait for additional which are distributed over 70 bird families (Appendix A). records before including them on the list, so these species are noted as hypothetical. A total of 71 species (~13%) were found exclusively in areas outside the park boundaries (including 16 that were Most species (~78%) occur in more than one locality found exclusively on islands on the Rio Branco). The most (Appendix A), but nearly half of the species recorded representative families were Tyrannidae, Thamnophilidae, in the park (259) were detected exclusively in a single and Thraupidae, with 48, 44, and 41 species, respectively. habitat type (Table 3). The várzeas of the Rio Branco and the terra-firme forests represent the habitats where For the non-passerines, the most represented families were Accipitridae, Trochilidae, and Psittacidae, with 23, we detected the highest numbers of species, with 276 22, and 21 species, respectively. and 240 species, respectively (157 of these were detected We documented the presence of ~83% (431 species) exclusively in one of the two). As expected, sandy-soiled of the bird species included on the list. The presence of 339 campina and campinarana harbour fewer species (about 185), but 37 of them were found nowhere else in the species (~65%) was documented with photographs; 303 species (~58%) with audio recordings, and 245 species park. (~47%) with specimens (Appendix A). The remaining A total of 27 bird species are currently considered ~17% (89 species) were listed for VNP based on sight threatened at global (BirdLife International 2014) and/or auditory records. Most of the species recorded or national (ICMBio 2014) levels, including one Critically Endangered species (Cercomacra carbonaria; without physical evidence are widespread and common taxa, which are expected to occur in the region and do not Appendix A). One species (Neochen jubata) is listed as represent any identification challenges. Data Deficient, and five species are considered to have Six bird species (Gallinula galeata, Aratinga restricted geographic distributions (Aprositornis disjuncta, solstitialis, Pyrrhura picta, Tyranneutes stolzmanni, Myrmotherula klagesi, C. carbonaria, Hemitriccus inornatus, and Dolospingus fringilloides). Most of the species recorded Leptopogon amaurocephalus, and Tachyphonus rufus) have been mentioned to occur in the park, but their presence seem to be permanent residents in the park, but nearly Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. 10% (45 species) possibly visit the park on a seasonal Rio Branco, where it regularly occurs. Fortunately, this basis (Appendix A). From these, nearly half (24 species) species seems not to be seen as a good source of food by represent North American or neartic migrants; 14 species local human communities (TOL and LNN pers. obs.). represent southern South American or austral migrants; Given its reliance on sandy beaches, the construction of and seven species seem to arrive from other regions within a dam on the Rio Branco, with its potential impacts on northern South America or Amazonia. flooding and sedimentation regimes represents a serious threat to the survival of this species in the region. TABLE 3. Total avian species richness and number of exclusive species for each major habitat in Viruá National Park and adjacent areas. Crested Bobwhite (Colinus cristatus) The Crested Bobwhite (Figure 3) occurs in northern South Habitat Total Exclusive America in arid lowlands and locally into the subtropical Campina 88 19 zone, using thickets, woodland edges, savannas, roadsides, Campinarana 130 10 and embankments (Carroll & Boesman 2013). It is Sand soil forest total 185 37 generally considered more common in open savannas, Terra-firme 240 95 and its presence on sandy-soiled campinas is poorly Várzea 276 62 documented. We frequently recorded this species in the Igapó 144 7 campinas along the Estrada Perdida and Rio Anauá. VNP Flooded forest total 297 93 seems to represent its southernmost area of occurrence in Savanna 34 2 Roraima. Aquatic environment 75 29 Human altered area 89 3 Total single habitat species 259 Includes campina and campinarana. Includes várzea and igapó. Species accounts In this section we present data on some poorly known species, records that represent range extensions and records that we consider important in biogeographical or conservation terms. FIGURE 3. Crested Bobwhite (Colinus cristatus) at a human-altered area near the Estrada Perdida (T.O.L.) Orinoco Goose (Neochen jubata) The Orinoco Goose (Figure 2) is a widespread but poorly Least Nighthawk (Podager pusillus) known species regularly seen on sandy beaches along the The Least Nighthawk represents a geographically Rio Branco. Although this species is known to perform widespread species with an apparently disjunct population seasonal movements, at least in part of its distribution in in northern Amazonia (Cleere & Kirwan 2013). It southern Amazonia (Davenport et al. 2012), very little seems that two different forms occur within the state of is known about this species at VNP, or along the entire Roraima (septentrionalis and esmeladae), which segregate geographically and possibly by habitat (Naka et al. 2006). All specimens from the park seem to be esmeraldae. We found this species to be fairly common along the Estrada Perdida, in campinas adjacent to Iruá and Anauá rivers, as well as in the open savannas of Vista Alegre. Spot-tailed Nightjar (Hydropsalis maculicaudus) This species is patchily distributed in South America and its seasonal movements are poorly understood; some populations are sedentary, while others are likely migratory (Cleere & Bonan 2013). In March 2008, we recorded this nightjar daily in the campinas along the Estrada Perdida. These represent the only known records FIGURE 2. Orinoco Goose (Neochen jubata) at Ilha do Palhal in the for the park, suggesting possible seasonal movements in Rio Branco (T.O.L.) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. the region. The same pattern has been observed in central firme forest around Serra do Viruá, whereas the Orange- Amazonia (MCH pers. obs.), although populations known cheeked Parrot (a widespread western Amazonian species) to be resident are found along the lower Rio Amazonas occurred in the várzea forest along the Rio Branco and (Arizmendi et al. 2013). While it inhabits open habitats, the lower Rio Anauá. The presence of P. barrabandi east its presence in sandy-soil campina is poorly documented. of the Rio Branco represents an exception to the observed pattern of western elements being restricted to the west Barbets (Capito spp.) bank of the Rio Branco (Naka et al., 2006). Although Two species of Capito barbets occur in Roraima and they both species co-occur in the park, they seem to segregate are thought to replace parapatrically along the Rio Branco ecologically. (Naka et al. 2006, 2012). Similar to the pattern followed by Pyrilia parrots (see below), we only recorded C. niger (a Black-throated Antshrike (Frederickena viridis) Guaianan endemic) in terra-firme forest around Serra do The Black-throated Antshrike (Figure 5) is a relatively Viruá, while C. auratus was regularly present on islands uncommon understory Guianan endemic, that until covered with várzea forest along the Rio Branco, just recently was only known from a single record for the opposite the park boundaries. entire state of Roraima (Naka et al. 2006). In 2007, we recorded a male in a terra-firme forest at ~7 km from o o White-bellied Piculet (Picumnus spilogaster) the park’s boundaries (1 39’20’’N, 61 2’14’’W), but in The White-bellied Piculet (Figure 4) has a relatively December 2012 and August 2013, we voice-recorded narrow range in northern South America. It only occurs and photographed a female in the terra-firme forest in Brazil in Roraima and at the mouth of Rio Amazonas, along the Buritizal Trail, near the park headquarters, and near Belém (Winkler & Christie 2002), where the in February 2014 we found another individual at the population may represent another taxon (Lees et al. Estrada do Neri. These are the only records of this species 2014). This species was previously considered a gallery in VNP, and the third known locality for Roraima. forest specialist, restricted to riparian vegetation along rivers, and patches of deciduous forests in the savannas of northern Roraima (Naka et al. 2007). On 23 March 2008, we collected one individual of this species at Ilha do Palhal on the Rio Branco. Another specimen was collected at Ilha do Ajarani in September 2012. These specimens represent the southernmost records of the nominate form along the Rio Branco, and the first evidence that it also occurs in várzea forests. FIGURE 5. Black-thorated Antshrike (Frederickena viridis) around the Serra do Viruá (T.O.L.) Klages’s Antwren (Myrmotherula klagesi) This species (Figure 6) is a range-restricted, Near Threatened (BirdLife International 2014), seasonally flooded forest specialist (Zimmer & Isler 2003). Although it was only recently added to the state of Roraima list (Naka et al. 2006), it is a common inhabitant of the várzea forests along the entire lower Rio Branco (LNN and FIGURE 4. White-bellied Piculet (Picumnus spilogaster) at Ilha do TOL, unpublished data), where it occurs on river islands Ajarani in the Rio Branco (T.O.L.) and forested margins (Naka et al. 2007). We documented its presence in the park along the eastern bank of the river, Parrots (Pyrilia spp.) from Vista Alegre (possibly the northernmost locality of Two species of Pyrilia parrots occur in Roraima, and its entire distribution) to the mouth of the Rio Anauá although they are thought to replace parapatrically along (at the southern edge of the park). Despite its threatened the Rio Branco (Naka et al. 2006, 2012), we observed and status, there is no evidence of habitat loss or population tape-recorded both Caica P. caica and Orange-checked P. decline in the region, although modification of the habitat barrabandi Parrots in VNP. Nevertheless, the Caica Parrot by the proposed dam will reduce the várzea habitat upon (a Guianan endemic) was recorded exclusively in the terra- Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. which it relies, and will likely have negative consequences due to the construction of the proposed dam will have for the Rio Branco populations of this species. consequences on the global population of this species, which occurs along the Rio Branco and a few of its tributaries. Yapacana Antbird (Aprositornis disjuncta) This range-restricted, monotypic antbird (Figure 8) is known from a handful of localities in northern Amazonia (Zimmer & Isler 2003). We first recorded this campina specialist in VNP in May 2001, and it has been recorded regularly in different localities along the Estrada Perdida and near the Rio Anauá ever since. VNP remains the only known locality of this taxon in Roraima, and only the second Brazilian site. FIGURE 6. Klages’s Antwren (Myrmotherula klagesi) at an unnamed island in the Rio Branco (T.O.L.) Leaden Antwren (Myrmotherula assimilis) This is a várzea forest specialist is restricted to the understory and mid-story of both river islands and forested river edges along some of the largest rivers in the Amazon basin (Zimmer and Isler 2003). It was only recently found to occur along the Rio Branco (Naka et al. 2007). We voice-recorded and collected this species on several river islands along the Rio Branco. On 6 October 2006 and 1 April 2008 we found this species in VNP, near the confluence of this river and the Rio Anauá, FIGURE 8. Yapacana Antbird (Aprositornis disjuncta) in the campinaranas around the Estrada Perdida (T.O.L.) representing the northernmost records of this species. Rio Branco Antbird (Cercomacra carbonaria) Fuscous Flycatcher (Cnemotriccus fuscatus) The Rio Branco Antbird (Figure 7) is a range-restricted This widespread understory tyrant likely represents Rio Branco near-endemic, which is currently considered several biological species, which taxonomic status is Critically Endangered (Vale et al. 2007; BirdLife currently under investigation (MCH and collaborators, International 2014). We commonly recorded this antbird unpublished data). Two forms of this polytypic species on river islands and more rarely along the margins of the are present at VNP: the form fumosus is commonly Rio Branco, from Vista Alegre to the Rio Anauá. Previous found along the Rio Branco, particularly (although not records extended its known distribution more than 300 exclusively) in várzea forest, whereas the form duidae has km southward (Naka et al. 2007). Although it is relatively been found in the campinas along the Estrada Perdida. common in suitable habitat, habitat modifications Pale-bellied Mourner (Rhytipterna immunda) This poorly known, sandy-soil specialist was found to be uncommon in the campinaranas associated with the Anauá, Iruá, and Barauana rivers, as well as along the Estrada Perdida. The species was only recently reported to occur in Roraima (Naka et al. 2006) and are still only a handful of records. We found this species on only five occasions, despite many days of fieldwork in apparently suitable habitat, suggesting that it is indeed uncommon (or very local) as suggested for other regions, such as neighboring Venezuela (Hilty 2003). White Bellbird (Procnias albus) This remarkable species is known to occur in northern FIGURE 7. Rio Branco Antbird (Cercomacra carbonaria) at Ilha do Amazonia, but its distribution and seasonal patterns Palhal in the Rio Branco (T.O.L.) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. remain poorly understood (Snow 2004). We observed and but becomes rarer further south. On 22 March 2008, we heard this species in terra-firme forest around the Serra do voice-recorded and collected this bird in the campinaranas Viruá and at Igarapé do Aliança in October 2006 and along the Estrada do Preto. This is the only record for October 2012, respectively. The species had not been VNP. Although it occurs in a variety of open habitats, reported for the Rio Branco region before, and few records including urban areas around Boa Vista and other towns, for Roraima are available (Naka et al. 2006). It seems quite its presence in sandy soils remain poorly documented. possible that this species is only seasonally present in the park, but we cannot refute the hypothesis that birds are DISCUSSION residents but go silent during the rest of the year. Year- round surveys may contribute to the understanding of this species’ seasonal patterns in the region. Avian diversity With over 500 bird species recorded, Viruá National Park Large-billed Seed-Finch (Sporophila crassirostris) A relatively widespread species in northern South and its adjacent areas harbors an unexpectedly species- America, yet very uncommon in Brazil (Jaramillo rich avifauna, which includes more than 70% of all bird 2011). In the state of Roraima, it is only known from species recorded in the Brazilian state of Roraima (Naka a couple of localities (Naka et al. 2006). On March et al. 2006). This is particularly impressive, given the almost negligible altitudinal range within the park, which and April 2008, we recorded and collected this species in an open sandy soil campina along the Estrada ranges from 50 m to 360 m, and that most of the park Perdida. In Brazil, there are very few recent records is located on top of sandy soils. The high avian diversity and the species has been up-listed to Vulnerable on found in VNP is likely due to both biogeographic- and the national Red List (ICMBio 2014). The species is local-scale processes. At a biogeographical scale, VNP is located at the common in captivity in Boa Vista (TOL pers. obs.). confluence of different biogeographical regions (see Black-stripped Sparrow (Arremonops conirostris) Biogeographical affinities below). It includes a described Although this species (Figure 9) is widespread in northern contact zone for terra-firme forest birds (Naka 2011), South America and southern Central America, the state an ecotone region of flooded forests (várzea and gallery forest; Naka et al. 2007) and a transition zone between of Roraima represents the only known area of occurrence in Brazil. We recorded this species in VNP during our open areas (savanna and campina). The Rio Branco, surveys in early successional vegetation on islands along which dissects the state in an eastern and western half, the Rio Branco. The population in Roraima seems to represents one of the most important biogeographical represent the nominate form, which is isolated from barriers in the Amazonia for birds (Naka et al. 2012). In addition, because of its latitude, VNP receives migratory the main distribution of the species in northern South America (Hilty 2003). birds from both northern and southern South America, although these are responsible for only 7% (45 species) of the total. Locally, there are extremely high levels of environmental complexity within and between habitats. Terra-firme forests are known to have the greatest species richness anywhere in Amazonia (Cohn-Haft et al. 1997) and várzea and igapó are also very rich (Rosenberg 1990; Cohn-Haft et al. 2007b; Borges & Almeida 2011). Seasonally flooded forests (where, in fact, we found more species; see Table 3), in particular, have a variety of successional stages that result in the occurrence of many specialized birds, which inhabit different microhabitats (Remsen & Parker 1983; Rosenberg 1990; Borges & Carvalhes 2000). Also, species from adjacent terra- FIGURE 9. Black-stripped Sparrow (Arremonops conirostris) at Ilha do Aliança in the Rio Branco (T.O.L.) firme forest (e.g., Dendrocincla fuligionsa, Formicarius colma) may explore tall várzea and igapó during dry Yellow Oriole (Icterus nigrogularis) periods (Beja et al. 2010). Sandy soil habitats (campina The Yellow Oriole is known from northern South and campinarana) have a lower number of species, but America (Hilty 2003), reaching Brazil in a few localities add many unique ones to the park (Borges 2004). A north of the Rio Amazonas. In Roraima, this species is similar pattern is observed for the savannas and aquatic quite common on the Roraima-Rupunnuni savannas, environments. As the bird communities among habitats Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. are, in general, distinct, the total avian diversity is very terra-firme forests north of Manaus (e.g., Thamnomanes high. ardesiacus, Formicarius analis, Corapipo gutturalis, Our results also show that the avian richness of VNP Vireolanius leucotis, Tangara chilensis, Dacnis lineata) is higher than expected (almost 100 species more) given (Cohn-Haft et al. 1997), 500 km south of VNP, have not known large-scale patterns of species richness (see Rahbek yet been recorded in the park. One possible explanation & Graves 2001; Bass et al. 2010; Jetz et al. 2012). Although for their apparent absence is the small proportion of terra- avian species richness in Amazonia seems to increase firme forest and its naturally fragmented distribution westwards to the Andes (Cohn-Haft et al. 1997; Rahbek within VNP. Additionally, most of our surveys in terra- & Graves 2001), previous studies may have neglected firme forests were limited to a few sites within the park the contribution of sandy soil and flooded forests to (Serra do Viruá). It is possible that exploring new areas avian diversity in the Guianan Shield. In fact, areas with within the park’s forests, some of those absent species > 500 bird species are starting to appear throughout the may finally appear. The apparent rarity of some species in Brazilian Amazon (Pacheco et al. 2007; Somenzari et al. VNP (e.g., Piaya melanogaster, Saltator grossus), suggests 2011; Lees et al. 2013a,b), also contradicting the overall that many terra-firme forest birds may be indeed rare and species richness pattern. More attention to microhabitats very local, and therefore including new sampling areas and a better knowledge of avian vocalizations may be may significantly enhance the chances of finding more responsible for these increasing numbers. bird species. Despite our efforts, it is likely that the bird list of VNP will continue to grow. After 13 years since we first Biogeographical affinities visited the park, we continue to find new species in the area (see Figure 10), even in heavily surveyed sites (e.g., VNP is located entirely on the eastern bank of the Rio Serra do Viruá). We believe that at least 20 more bird Branco, and therefore has a typical Guianan avifauna in species are very likely to be found in the park with further the terra-firme forest, including 71 Guianan endemic taxa sampling, and another 50-60 species could potentially (26 species and 45 subspecies). In fact, 12 endemic species be found within the park boundaries (Appendix B). and 20 endemic subspecies are restricted to the eastern Therefore, we believe that VNP and its adjacent areas will side of the Rio Branco (Table 4). On the other hand, likely reach 550 bird species in the next few years. another three species not considered Guianan endemics On the other hand, some species that were expected seem to be absent west of the Rio Branco in Roraima to occur within the park seem to be absent. More than (Microrhopias quixensis, Cercomacra laeta, and Cercomacra 20 species that are common and easily detectable in the nigrescens). Whether these absences are real or a function FIGURE 10. Increase in total bird species detected during key inventory dates at Viruá National Park and adjacent areas. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. of lack of sampling remains to be evaluated. Despite Conservation, implications for management, and being entirely within the Guianan Area of Endemism, future research we have mapped some contact zones in the study area, such as for a pair of parrots in the genus Pyrilia (caica Although VNP is part of a large mosaic of protected and barrabandi) and a pair of barbets in the genus Capito areas, current agricultural and forestry developments (auratus and niger). around the park are of concern. Currently, southern The várzeas along the Rio Branco are particularly Roraima is under severe threat from deforestation interesting. Typical várzea species (known from most of (Soares-Filho et al. 2006; Campos 2011). With more the Amazon basin) are present, such as Thamnophilus than 200,000 ha, VNP offers significant protection for nigrocinereus, Myrmotherula assimilis, Myrmoborus the biodiversity found in the state, including several lugubris, and Dendroplex kienerii (Table 4). The avian threatened bird species. Within the park, very few areas communities found along these várzeas seem to be quite have been modified and the park seems to be large similar to those found on the Anavilhanas archipelago on enough to hold stable populations of threatened and the lower Rio Negro (Cintra et al. 2007). On the other non-threatened species. However, the connectivity of the hand, a handful of white-water (muddy) river specialists park with other healthy natural vegetation communities that are apparently absent from the Rio Negro are present is necessary for maintaining large-scale ecological and in isolated populations along the Rio Branco (see Naka et evolutionary processes. The proposal to expand the al. 2007), as well as on the river islands just opposite the park boundaries (MMA 2010) moves toward this goal park boundaries (Table 4). For flooded-forest birds, the and also, importantly, reinforces the protection of 55 Rio Branco also represents an ecological ecotone, which bird species that we found exclusively in the requested influences bird species composition. The Rio Branco expansion areas (Appendix A). runs along a latitudinal gradient, which goes from the The construction of a hydroelectric dam on the savannas (around Boa Vista) into the forest realm (south Rio Branco, only 30 km north of the park’s boundaries of Caracaraí). Along its margins, gallery forests on the represents a serious threat to riverine bird species, some upper Rio Branco are replaced by várzeas further south, of which are range-restricted and threatened (e.g., C. and this replacement seems to occur near VNP (Naka et carbonaria and Myrmotherula klagesi; Appendix A; Vale et al. 2007). Therefore, although the vegetation of the Rio al. 2008; Bird et al. 2012). Studies to assess the population Branco is composed of várzea forests along VNP, some status and vulnerability of these riverine bird species are gallery forest specialists are still found near the park’s urgently needed. Besides the direct loss of habitat due to boundaries, such as Picumnus spilogaster, Hylophilus flooding above the dam (which would likely not affect pectoralis, and Turdus nudigenis (Table 4). VNP directly), hydroelectric dams affect the flood pulse The campinas and campinaranas host a typical of the river, which will affect the existence and formation sandy-soil avifauna, similar to that present in other of river-created habitats (Junk & Mello 1990), especially localities in northwestern Amazonia, such as Jaú NP river islands (Remsen and Parker 1983). River islands, in Brazil (Borges 2004), or Campamento Junglaven in which shelter a unique avifauna (Rosenberg 1990), Venezuela (Zimmer & Hilty 1997). Typical white-sand including 16 exclusive species in the study area, are outside forest birds include Myrmotherula cherriei, Aprositornis the boundaries of VNP, and lack any legal protection. disjuncta, Elaenia ruficeps, and Dolospingus fringilloides, Because of their ephemeral nature, there is an urgent among others (Table 4). Although savannas are virtually need to categorically protect river islands in Amazonia, absent in the park, present only near the village of Vista independent of their geographic location (Cohn-Haft et Alegre, we found a group of species that are generally al. 2007b). restricted to the savannas of northern Roraima inhabiting Maintaining habitats in VNP for threatened and the campinas in the park (Naka et al. 2006; Santos & Silva range-restricted birds is also important because these 2007). The presence of savanna species such as Colinus species attract bird watchers and ecotourists. VNP cristatus, Sporophila intermedia, Sporophila crassirostris, offers easy access to sandy-soil habitats (campinas and and Icterus nigrogularis may simply be due to a ‘leakage’ campinaranas) and to flooded forests, where most of these from the nearby savannas. In fact, VNP may represent the rare species can be readily found (Laranjeiras & Naka southern limit of the distribution of some of these species. 2014). Moreover, a network of trails within the Park Other avian elements in the campinas include species that offers access to all of the diverse habitats found within the are widely distributed in open areas in South America and region, allowing the observation of a great variety of birds predominantly absent in Amazonia, such as Chordeiles in a single day. If promoted properly, ecotourism could pusillus, Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer, Tangara cayana, become a major force helping conservation and economic and Geothlypis aequinoctialis. Most of these species are development in the region. polytypic and their populations in VNP deserve genetic Finally, our results show that VNP and adjacent and taxonomic studies. areas represent an important site to learn more about Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. ecological and biogeographical processes in Amazonia. park’s region plays a similar role for groups other than The presence of species from distinct biogeographical birds. The park also hosts multiple large-scale ecotones, regions demonstrates that VNP lies in a significant contact as well as a variety of habitats that influence local zone for avian species (Naka et al. 2012). Distributions of diversity. The absence of several terra-firme forest species other taxa should be explored, to determine whether the deserves further attention. Isolated populations of várzea TABLE 4. Species from distinct biogeographical regions found at Viruá National Park and adjacent areas, listed by their habitat association. Terra-firme (26 species): Guianan endemic species. *species that are restrict to the east side of rio Branco Crax alector Veniliornis cassini Xiphorhynchus pardalotus Penelope marail Epinecrophylla gutturalis* Campylorhamphus procurvoides* Psophia crepitans Myrmotherula surinamensis* Lepidocolaptes albolineatus* Pyrilia caica* Myrmotherula guttata Schiffornis olivacea* Notharchus macrorhynchos* Frederickena viridis Perissocephalus tricolor Monasa atra Myrmelastes leucostigma* Todirostrum pictum Capito niger* Percnostola subcristata* Zimmerius acer Selenidera piperivora* Hypocnemis cantator* Cyanocorax cayanus Pteroglossus viridis Gymnopithys rufigula Campina (7 species): Northwestern Amazonia typical species. *also found in scattered sites southeastward in Amazonia. Elaenia ruficeps* Myrmotherula cherriei Hemitriccus inornatus* Euphonia plumbea Heterocercus flavivertex Dolospingus fringilloides* Aprositornis disjuncta Campina (8 species): Species from northern South America, absent in most of Amazonia but present in northern Roraima open savannas Colinus cristatus Mimus gilvus Sporophila crassirostris Hydropsalis cayennensis Sporophila intermedia Icterus nigrogularis Fluvicola pica Sporophila minuta Campina (10 species): Species that are widely or disjunctly distibuted in South America (and absent in most of Amazonia) Diopsittaca nobilis Tangara cayana Sporophila plumbea Chordeiles pusillus Schistochlamys melanopis Sporophila nigricolis Todirostrum cinereum Emberizoides herbicola Geothlypis aequinoctialis Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer Várzea (7 species): Typical species of Amazonian seasonally flooded forest (várzea and igapó) and generally absent in northern Amazonia. * Species exclusively present in igapó. Myrmotherula klagesi Myrmoborus lugubris Inezia subflava* Myrmotherula assimilis Dendroplex kienerii Thamnophilus nigrocinereus Hemitriccus minor Várzea (5 species): White-water river várzea specialists (absent in lower Rio Negro) Mazaria propinqua Stigmatura napensis Conirostrum bicolor Synallaxis gujanensis Serpophaga hypoleuca Várzea (7 species): Species absent in most part of Amazonia but present in northern Roraima gallery forests Picumnus spilogaster Turdus leucomelas Arremonops conirostris Poecilotriccus sylvia Turdus nudigenis Conirostrum speciosum Hylophilus pectoralis Várzea (9 species): Species predominantly restricted to western Amazonia, and absent east of Rio Branco. *Also found in southeastern Amazonia Phaethornis hispidus Celeus grammicus* Cyanocorax violaceus Capito auratus Pyrilia barrabandi Dacnis flaviventer* Pteroglossus pluricinctus Pipra filicauda Psarocolius bifasciatus* Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. specialists along the Rio Branco also deserve further study, # TNC 006/03). This article is publication 30 in the as they may indicate the presence of either old relictual Amazonian Ornithology Technical Series of the INPA populations or recent long-distance dispersal (Naka et Scientific Collections Program. al. 2007). Future ornithological research that will help elucidate these questions include investigating patterns REFERENCES of bird occupancy and movement within habitats and between seasons, surveys in isolated and yet unexplored Adeney, J. M. 2009. Remote sensing of fire, flooding and white sand patches of terra firme forest, such as Serra do Preto, and ecosystems. Ph.D Dissertation, Durham: Duke University. systematic surveys along the várzeas of the Rio Branco. Aleixo, A.; Poletto, F.; Lima, M. F. C.; Castro, M.; Portes, E.; & Miranda, L. S. 2011. Notes on the Vertebrates of northern Pará, VNP has great scientific and conservation potential and Brazil: a forgotten part of the Guianan Region – II . 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Taxonomy and species nomenclature follow the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee (CBRO 2014), except for the Caprimulgidae, the genus Cercomacra, the species Mazaria (Synallaxis) propinqua, and the genus Tachyphonus and Eucometis, where we follow, respectively, Sigurdsson & Cracraft (2014), Tello et al. (2014), Claramunt (2014), and Burns et al. (2014). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Tinamidae Tinamus major Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba, va C NT T.O.L. WA 51601 Crypturellus cinereus Tf, Vz sv, ep, al, ip, ca, ba C T.O.L. Crypturellus soui Cm, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, an, ri, ca, va C T.O.L. Crypturellus undulatus Vz, Ig al, ip, an, ca, va C WA 417150 Crypturellus erythropus Tf sv U Anatidae Dendrocygna viduata Aq al R Dendrocygna autumnalis Aq al R Neochen jubata Aq ip, an, out U NT, (DD) XC 138968 WA 261937 Cairina moschata Aq, At ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C WA 618182 Anas discors Aq, At ep, out R NEA WA 570953 Cracidae Penelope marail Tf sv, al, ba U MPEG 56256 XC 138892 WA 827866 Aburria cumanensis Vz, Ig ip, an, ba U VU WA 8875 Ortalis motmot Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig, Sv all localities C MPEG 56257 ML (C.B.A.) Crax alector Tf sv C VU WA 281360 Pauxi tomentosa Cp, Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C NT ML (C.B.A.) WA 181578 Odontophoridae Colinus cristatus Cp, At ep, ca C INPA 1453 WA 181253 Odontophorus gujanensis Tf sv, ba R NT Podicipedidae Tachybaptus dominicus Aq va, out R Ciconiidae Ciconia maguari Cp, Aq, At ep, al, ip, ri, ca U INT? WA 252860 Jabiru mycteria Cp, Aq, At ep, ri, ca, ba C INT? WA 72044 Mycteria americana Cp, Aq, At ep, al, ip C INT? WA 825390 Phalacrocoracidae Phalacrocorax brasilianus Aq al U The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Anhingidae Anhinga anhinga Aq al, ip, an, ri, ca C WA 17675 Ardeidae Tigrisoma lineatum Aq, At sv, ep, an, ca, ba C T.O.L. WA 252499 Agamia agami Vz, Aq ip, ba, out R VU INPA A2254 WA 8845 Cochlearius cochlearius Vz, Aq al, an, ba U INPA A2223 Zebrilus undulatus Aq, Vz-is al, out R NT INPA 1536 Nycticorax nycticorax Aq ep, sv R JPC Butorides striata Vz, Ig, Aq, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C MPEG A8310 WA 197826 Bubulcus ibis Sv, At sv, al, va U Ardea cocoi Sv, Aq, At ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba, va C WA 252850 Ardea alba Sv, Aq, At ep, al, ip, an, ca, ba, va C Pilherodius pileatus Vz, Ig, Aq sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C WA 818983 Egretta thula Aq ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C Egretta caerulea Aq al, an, ca U WA 19190 Threskiornithidae Mesembrinibis cayennensis Cm, Vz, Ig, Aq, At ep, al, an, ri, ca, ba C WA 219890 Platalea ajaja Aq al, ca C WA 8876 Cathartidae Cathartes aura Cp, Cm, Sv, At all localities C WA 815007 Cathartes burrovianus Cp, At ep, ca, ba C WA 1306894 Cathartes melambrotus Tf sv, al, ba, va C WA 813219 Coragyps atratus Cp, Cm, Vz, Ig, Sv, At all localities C WA 181365 Sarcoramphus papa Tf sv, ba U WA 34400 Pandionidae Pandion haliaetus Vz, Ig, Aq sv, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C NEA WA 825371 Accipitridae Leptodon cayanensis Cm ep, out R WA 618194 Elanoides forficatus Tf, Vz sv, al, ba U INT? WA 781925 Gampsonyx swainsonii Cp, At ep, ba, out U WA 62869 WA 866635 Harpagus bidentatus Tf sv U T.O.L. WA 51625 Ictinia plumbea Cm, Vz, Ig, Sv ep, al, ip, an, ba, va C NEA WA 181591 Busarellus nigricollis Vz, Ig, Aq, At ep, al, an, ba C ML (C.B.A.) WA 252507 Rostrhamus sociabilis Vz al R Geranopsiza caerulescens Vz, Ig ep, al, ri, ca, ba C The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Buteogallus schistaceus Vz al, ip U INPA 1538 WA 6070 Heterospizias meridionalis Cp, Cm, Aq, At sv, ep, ca, ba C WA 21336 Urubitinga urubitinga Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C WA 178577 Rupornis magnirostris All habitats all localities C MPEG 56253 T.O.L. WA 284083 Geranoaetus albicaudatus Cp ep, out R MPEG 56252 Pseudastur albicollis Tf sv R PNV Leucopternis melanops Tf sv, ba U WA 48648 Buteo nitidus Vz al, ip, an, ba C WA 12421 Buteo platypterus Tf sv R NEA WA 820557 Buteo brachyurus Cp ca R WA 410906 Morphnus guianensis Tf sv, al R NT, (VU) WA 35751 Harpia harpyja Tf sv R NT, (VU) ML (C.B.A.) Spizaetus tyrannus Tf, Vz sv, ep, al, ip, ba U Spizaetus melanoleucus Vz ip R WA 261943 Spizaetus ornatus Tf sv R NT Eurypygidae Eurypyga helias Cm, Vz, Ig, Aq ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C T.O.L. WA 872563 Aramidae Aramus guarauna Aq, At ep, al, an C WA 19191 Psophidae Psophia crepitans Tf sv, ba C MPEG 56259 ML (C.B.A.) WA 202090 Rallidae Aramides cajaneus Tf, Sv, Aq, At sv, va U ML (C.B.A.) WA 219856 Laterallus viridis Aq, At sv, ep U ML (C.B.A.) Laterallus exilis Aq, At ep, out R Porzana albicollis Aq, At ep, al, ba U ML (L.N.N.) Porphyrio martinicus Aq, Vz-is al, out R Porphyrio flavirostris Aq ep, out R M.C.H. Heliornithidae Heliornis fulica Aq al, ba R MPEG 56267 Charadriidae Vanellus cayanus Cp, Aq, At ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C WA 816641 Vanellus chilensis Cp, Aq, At sv, ep, al, ca, va C WA 63056 Charadrius collaris Aq al, ip, an, ca C INPA A2176 ML (C.B.A.) WA 287883 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Scolopacidae Gallinago paraguaiae Cp, Aq ep, ri R ML (L.N.N.) WA 828969 Gallinago undulata Cp, Aq ep, out R JPC Bartramia longicauda Cp ba, out R NEA Actitis macularius Aq, At ep, al, ip, ri, ca, ba U NEA MPEG 56268 WA 15157 Tringa solitaria Aq, At ep, ri, ca, ba C NEA WA 812251 Tringa melanoleuca Aq, At ep, al, ip, ri U NEA ML (C.B.A.) Tringa flavipes Aq, At ip, ri R NEA WA 281359 Calidris minutilla Aq al, ip, ri R NEA INPA A2202 WA 15675 Calidris fuscicollis Aq al R NEA Calidris melanotos Aq al, ip R NEA INPA A8312 WA 866340 Jacanidae Jacana jacana Sv, Aq, At sv, ep, al, ba,va C WA 195585 Sternidae Sternula superciliaris Aq ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca C WA 272934 Phaetusa simplex Aq ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca C WA 252542 Rynchopidae Rynchops niger Aq al, ip, an, ri, ca C WA 862787 Columbidae Columbina passerina Cp, Cm, Vz, At sv, ep, ca, ba C INPA A1022 WA 281416 Columbina minuta Cp, Cm ep, ba, out R Columbina talpacoti At ba, out C Claravis pretiosa Vz ba, out R ML (C.B.A.) Patagioenas speciosa Cm, Vz, Ig, Sv all localities C ML (C.B.A.) WA 181582 Patagioenas cayennensis All habitats all localities C T.O.L. WA 219857 Patagioenas plumbea Tf, Vz sv, ca, ba, va C ML (C.B.A.) WA 410882 Patagioenas subvinacea Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, an, ri, ca, ba, va C VU MPEG A8295 WA 1255218 Leptotila verreauxi Vz al, ip, an, ba C MPEG 56266 Leptotila rufaxilla Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig, At sv, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1527 ML (C.B.A.) Geotrygon montana Tf, Vz sv, al, ip C INPA A2110 WA 45327 Opisthocomidae Opisthocomus hoazin Vz al, ca, ba C INPA A2080 WA 62971 WA 15158 Cuculidae Coccycua minuta Tf, Vz sv, al, an, ca, ba U MPEG 56285 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Piaya cayana Cp, Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig all localities C ML (C.B.A.) WA 195582 Piaya melanogaster Tf va, out R Coccyzus melacoryphus Ig ri R AUS WA 410881 Coccyzus americanus Cm ca R NEA Coccyzus euleri Tf sv R AUS? WA 639970 Crotophaga major Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, ri, ca, ba C WA 326669 Crotophaga ani Cp, Vz, Ig, Sv, At sv, ep, al, ip, ca, ba, va C T.O.L. Tapera naevia Cp, Vz ep, al, ba C ML (C.B.A.) WA 188425 Strigidae Megascops choliba Cm, Vz, Ig ep, al, ip, ri, ca C MPEG 56815 Megascops watsonii Tf sv, ba, va C ML (C.B.A.) WA 854716 Lophostrix cristata Tf sv C WA 351967 Pulsatrix perspicillata Tf sv, ba U MPEG 56282 Bubo virginianus Cm ep, out R MZUSP 77931 WA 62750 WA 1024047 Strix sp. (virgata) Tf, Vz sv, ep, ip U T.O.L. Glaucidium hardyi Tf sv, ba U WA 1295126 Glaucidium brasilianum Cm ir R Nyctibiidae Nyctibius grandis Tf sv, ba U T.O.L. WA 1256913 Nyctibius griseus Cm, Tf, Ig sv, ep, ri, ca, ba C XC 139202 WA 281361 Carpimulgidae Antrostomus rufus Cm, Tf, Vz sv, ep, ca U T.O.L. Lurocalis semitorquata Cm, Vz ep, al, ip, ba C Nyctiprogne leucopyga Vz, Ig al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1535 ML (C.B.A.) WA 815037 Nyctidromus nigrescens Tf sv, ba U XC 138999 WA 180933 Nyctidromus albicollis Tf, Aq, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1455 ML (C.B.A.) WA 181087 Hydropsalis maculicauda Cp ep, out R AUS? INPA A1800 ML (C.B.A.) Hydropsalis cayennensis Cp ep, out C INPA 1454 WA 47137 WA 640068 Hydropsalis climacocerca Vz al, ip, an, ca, ba C INPA 1456 ML (C.B.A.) WA 9745 Podager nacunda Aq ri R AUS? PNV Podager pusillus Cp, Sv, At sv, ep, ri, ca, va C INPA 1533 ML (C.B.A.) WA 18050 Chordeiles acutipennis Vz al R NEA? INPA 1531 Apodidae Streptoprocne zonaris Vz al R Chaetura spinicaudus Tf, Ig sv, ca, ba C WA 1295119 Chaetura cinereiventris Ig al, ri, ba U The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Chaetura brachyura Tf, Vz, Ig, Sv sv, ep, an, ri, ca, ba, va C ML (C.B.A.) Tachornis squamata Ig sv, ep, ri, ca, ba C T.O.L. WA 862587 Panyptila cayennensis Tf sv R WA 1066541 Trochilidae Glaucis hirsutus Vz al, an, ba U INPA 1461 Threnetes leucurus Tf sv R ML (C.B.A.) Phaethornis rupurumii Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ca, ba, va C INPA 1131 ML (C.B.A.) WA 806659 Phaethornis ruber Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ca, ba, va C ML (C.B.A.) WA 282800 Phaethornis hispidus Vz al, ip U Phaethornis bourcieri Tf sv, va U Phaethornis superciliosus Tf, Vz sv, ba, va U INPA 1133 XC 138943 WA 849680 Campylopterus largipennis Tf, Ig ep, al, ri R Florisuga mellivora Cp, Ig, At ep, ri, ca U WA 205169 Anthracothorax nigricollis Vz, At al, ba R WA 18139 Chrysolampis mosquitus Cp, Vz, Ig ep, al, ri, ca C INT? INPA A2077 WA 814605 Chlorostilbon notatus Cm, Vz, Ig ep, al, ip, ri, ca C INPA A2083 M.F.T. Chlorostilbon mellisugus Cp, At ep, ba, out U WA 813210 Thalurania furcata Tf sv, ba U WA 287337 Hylocharis sapphirina Cm, Tf sv, ri U ML (L.N.N.) WA 862680 Hylocharis cyanus Cm, Tf, Vz sv, ep, ip, ba C INPA 1457 XC 138917 WA 15676 Polytmus theresiae Cp, Ig ep, ri, ca C INPA 1460 T.V.V.C. WA 181096 Amazilia versicolor Vz al, ca U INPA A2134 WA 18140 Amazilia fimbriata Cp, Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1462 T.O.L. WA 326725 Heliothryx auritus Tf sv, ba U WA 351968 Heliomaster longirostris Tf sv, ep, al R WA 856773 Calliphlox amethystina Ig, At ep, ba, out R WA 281362 Trogonidae Trogon melanurus Tf, Vz sv, va U INPA 1137 T.O.L. WA 827852 Trogon viridis Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig all localities C INPA 1140 T.O.L. WA 813899 Trogon violaceus Cm, Tf sv, an, ba C WA 50045 WA 51626 Trogon rufus Tf sv, al R Alcedinidae Megaceryle torquata Vz, Ig, Aq, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C MPEG A8307 T.O.L. WA 872562 Chloroceryle amazona Vz, Ig, Aq, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C ML (L.N.N.) WA 177934 Chloroceryle aenea Vz, Ig, Aq ep, al, ip, ri, ca C INPA A1002 XC 138856 WA 262713 Chloroceryle americana Vz, Ig, Aq, At ep, al, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1466 WA 221242 Chloroceryle inda Vz, Ig, Aq ep, al, ip, ri, ba U INPA 1467 WA 219853 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Momotidae Momotus momota Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba, va C T.O.L. WA 866361 Galbulidae Brachygalba lugubris Vz al, ca, ba U INPA A2244 ML (C.B.A.) WA 8879 Galbula albirostris Tf sv U INPA 1145 T.O.L. WA 818444 Galbula galbula Cp, Cm, Vz, Ig, Sv all localities C INPA 1471 ML (C.B.A.) WA 6440 Galbula leucogastra Cm, Tf, Ig sv, ri, ca C INPA 1473 XC 138860 WA 410878 Galbula dea Tf, Ig sv, ri, ba, va C WA 505401 Jacamerops aureus Tf sv, ba C INPA 1142 XC 139195 WA 180495 Bucconidae Notharchus macrorhynchos Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip C T.O.L. WA 326670 Notharchus tectus Tf, Vz sv, al, ba U T.O.L. WA 181581 Bucco tamatia Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig all localities C MPEG 56300 WA 63519 WA 44266 Bucco capensis Tf, Vz sv, al U WA 866551 Monasa atra Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ca, ba, va C INPA A2108 XC 138895 WA 813265 Monasa nigrifrons Vz al U Chelidoptera tenebrosa Cp, Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C MPEG 56303 WA 180999 Capitonidae Capito niger Tf sv U INPA 1477 T.O.L. WA 862590 Capito auratus Vz-is an, out U INPA 1479 T.V.V.C. Ramphastidae Ramphastos toco At ep, out R Ramphastos tucanus Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ca, ba, va C MPEG 56306 WA 360170 WA 181366 Ramphastos vitellinus Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba, va C XC 138846 WA 262722 Selenidera piperivora Tf sv C WA 649302 WA 195584 Pteroglossus viridis Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ca, ba C WA 8966 Pteroglossus aracari Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ca, ba, va C MPEG 56814 WA 50866 Pteroglossus pluricinctus Vz-is ip, out R Picidae Picumnus exilis Cp, Cm, Ig sv, ep, al, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1482 ML (C.B.A.) WA 854677 Picumnus spilogaster Vz-is al, out R VU INPA 1481 WA 1295127 Melanerpes cruentatus Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba, va C MPEG 56312 T.O.L. WA 866626 Veniliornis cassini Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, an, ba C INPA 1151 XC 139809 WA 505417 Veniliornis passerinus Vz al R Piculus flavigula Tf, Vz sv, al, an, ba C MPEG 56310 T.O.L. WA 273449 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Piculus capistratus Tf sv, va U ML (L.N.N.) Colaptes punctigula Tf, Vz sv, al, ba U MPEG 56827 ML (L.N.N.) Celeus grammicus Tf, Vz sv, al U MPEG 56309 Celeus elegans Cm, Tf, Vz sv, ep, al, ip, ca, ba C INPA 1362 WA 62763 WA 180493 Celeus flavus Cp, Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ip, ca, ba, va C XC 138839 WA 807515 Celeus torquatus Tf, Vz sv, al, ba, va U INPA 1147 T.O.L. WA 814078 Dryocopus lineatus Cp, Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, an, ca, ba, va C MPEG 56315 ML (C.B.A.) WA 866638 Campephilus rubricollis Tf, Vz sv, ip, ba U MPEG 56313 T.O.L. WA 827193 Campephilus melanoleucos Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C ML (C.B.A.) WA 8874 Falconidae Daptrius ater Vz al, ca, ba C T.O.L. WA 866606 Ibycter americanus Cm, Vz ep, al, ba C WA 858617 Caracara cheriway At ep, out R Milvago chimachima Cp, Cm, Vz, Ig, Sv, At sv, ep, ri, ca, va C MPEG 56832 ML (C.B.A.) WA 181925 Herpetotheres cachinnans Cm, Vz, Sv sv, ep, al, an, va C ML (C.B.A.) WA 252858 Micrastur ruficollis Tf sv R Micrastur gilvicollis Tf sv, ba U Micrastur mirandollei Tf, Vz sv, ca, ba U Micrastur semitorquatus Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ca, ba C Falco sparverius Sv, At ep, va, out R Falco rufigularis Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ri, ca C MPEG 56254 Psittacidae Ara ararauna Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig, Sv all localities C T.O.L. WA 181593 Ara macao Cm, Tf, Vz sv, ep, an, ba U WA 177386 Ara chloropterus Tf, Vz sv, an, ba C ML (L.N.N.) WA 252839 Ara severus Vz al, an C ML (C.B.A.) WA 8846 Orthopsittaca manilatus Cm, Tf sv, ep C XC 139203 WA 816636 Diopsittaca nobilis Cm, Ig ep, ri, ca C ML (C.B.A.) WA 1334808 Psittacara leucophthalmus Cm, Vz, At ep, ca U ML (L.N.N.) Eupsittula pertinax Cp, Cm, Vz, Ig, Sv, At sv, ep, al, an, ri, ca, ba, va C MPEG 56277 ML (C.B.A.) WA 181278 Brotogeris chrysoptera Cm, Tf, Vz sv, an, ca, ba, va C INPA 1135 WA 48647 WA 287075 Touit huetii Cm, Vz sv, ba C VU ML (C.B.A.) WA 78853 Touit purpuratus Cm, Tf sv, ep U MPEG 56276 Pionites melanocephalus Tf, Vz sv, ba, va C MPEG 56274 XC 139204 WA 8965 Pyrilia barrabandi Vz an, out R NT Pyrilia caica Tf sv, al U NT XC 139205 Pionus menstruus Cm, Tf, Vz sv, ep, al, an, ba, va C MPEG 56280 T.V.V.C. WA 866581 Pionus fuscus Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, va C WA 862753 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Amazona festiva Vz al, ip, an, ca, ba C VU XC 138940 WA 181590 Amazona farinosa Tf sv, ba C XC 139187 WA 181094 Amazona amazonica Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig, Sv all localities C ML (C.B.A.) WA 181598 Amazona ochrocephala Cm, Tf, Vz sv, ep, al, ip, an, ca, ba, va C MPEG A8296 XC 138900 WA 283369 Deroptyus accipitrinus Cm, Tf, Vz sv, ca, ba, va C MPEG 56279 WA 50046 WA 325113 Thamnophilidae Pygiptila stellaris Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, an, ba C INPA 1376 XC 139264 WA 202576 Microrhopias quixensis Tf, Vz sv, al, ba C INPA A2104 XC 139197 WA 807882 Epinecrophylla gutturalis Tf ba, out R Aprositornis disjuncta Cp, Cm ep, ca C INPA 780 WA 47135 WA 130462 Myrmophylax atrothorax Tf sv, ip, ba C INPA 1193 XC 139199 WA 180497 Myrmotherula brachyura Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ca, ba C INPA 1405 XC 139806 WA 649879 Myrmotherula surinamensis Vz, Ig al, ca, ba U VU INPA A2181 ML (C.B.A.) WA 181283 Myrmotherula cherriei Cp, Cm sv, ep, ri, ba C INPA 1489 XC 138852 WA 351964 Myrmotherula klagesi Vz al, ip, an C NT, (VU) INPA A2189 T.V.V.C. WA 802504 Myrmotherula axillaris Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, ri, ca, ba, va C INPA 1191 WA 50042 WA 854693 Myrmotherula longipennis Tf sv R Myrmotherula assimilis Vz-is ip, an, ba, out U ML (C.B.A.) Formicivora grisea Cp, Ig ep, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1491 WA 62864 WA 814481 Isleria guttata Tf ba, out R INPA A2240 Thamnomanes caesius Tf, Vz sv, al, ba C WA 48660 WA 51649 Herpsilochmus dorsimaculatus Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba, va C INPA 1199 XC 138988 WA 51602 Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA A2149 ML (C.B.A.) WA 7305 Sakesphorus canadensis Cm, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1484 XC 139207 WA 181002 Thamnophilus doliatus Cm, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1485 T.O.L. WA 272920 Thamnophilus murinus Tf, Vz sv, ip, ba, va C INPA 1180 ML (C.B.A.) WA 827245 Thamnophilus nigrocinereus Vz-is al, ip, an, out U NT INPA 1487 ML (C.B.A.) Thamnophilus punctatus Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ca, ba, va C INPA 1185 ML (C.B.A.) WA 51664 Thamnophilus amazonicus Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1184 ML (C.B.A.) WA 807541 Cymbilaimus lineatus Tf, Vz sv, an, ba U Taraba major Tf, Vz sv, al, ba, va C ML (C.B.A.) WA 18048 Frederickena viridis Tf sv R WA 829047 WA 829032 Myrmoderus ferrugineus Tf sv, ba C INPA A1054 WA 50041 WA 51648 Hypocnemoides melanopogon Cm, Vz, Ig ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1495 WA 417140 WA 262712 Hylophylax naevius Tf sv R Hylophylax punctulatus Vz al, ip, an, ba U INPA 1497 WA 62901 WA 8862 Sclateria naevia Vz, Ig ip, ca, ba U INPA A2235 XC 138941 WA 261944 Myrmelastes leucostigma Tf sv U ML (C.B.A.) WA 45344 Myrmoborus leucophrys Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, an, ca, ba C INPA A2174 WA 48644 WA 50869 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Myrmoborus lugubris Vz-is ip, an, out U VU INPA 1494 ML (C.B.A.) WA 1248476 PercnosT.O.L.a subcristata Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, ri, ca, ba, va C INPA 1416 WA 48654 WA 813117 Cercomacra cinerascens Tf sv, al, ba C INPA A1731 XC 138894 Cercomacra carbonaria Vz-is al, ip, an, out C CR INPA 1505 XC 139258 WA 8861 Cercomacroides tyrannina Tf sv C INPA 1176 XC 139189 WA 854720 Cercomacroides laeta Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ca, ba C INPA A1048 WA 48646 WA 51663 Cercomacroides nigrescens Vz al, ba C INPA A2076 WA 62805 WA 411490 Hypocnemis cantator Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba C NT INPA 1197 XC 139803 WA 807533 Pithys albifrons Tf sv, al U Willisornis poecilinotus Tf sv, ba U INPA 1189 WA 48656 WA 854805 Gymnopithys rufigula Tf sv, al, ip, ba C INPA 1434 XC 138904 WA 854012 Grallariidae Myrmothera campanisona Tf sv, al, ba, va C INPA 1194 WA 50428 WA 1258745 Formicariidae Formicarius colma Tf, Vz sv, al, ba U MPEG 56414 XC 139261 Dendrocolaptidae Dendrocincla fuliginosa Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba U INPA 1425 ML (C.B.A.) WA 854695 Dendrocincla merula Tf sv U Deconychura longicauda Tf sv R NT Sittasomus griseicapillus Tf, Vz sv, al R INPA 1170 Glyphorynchus spirurus Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ba C INPA 1421 XC 139009 WA 813260 Xiphorhynchus pardalotus Tf sv, ba, va C INPA 1165 T.O.L. WA 51604 Xiphorhynchus obsoletus Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig all localities C INPA 1545 XC 138982 WA 1261649 Xiphorhynchus guttatus Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ca, ba, va C INPA 1367 XC 139213 WA 813258 Campylorhamphus trochilirostris Vz an, out R Campylorhamphus procurvoides Ig ca R Dendroplex picus Cm, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ba C INPA 1543 ML (C.B.A.) WA 814936 Dendroplex kienerii Vz, Ig al, ip, an, ri, ca C NT INPA 1544 T.V.V.C. WA 7302 Lepidocolaptes albolineatus Tf sv, ip R INPA 1167 ML (L.N.N.) Nasica longirostris Vz, Ig al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA A2140 XC 139201 WA 281363 Dendrexetastes rufigula Tf sv, ba R INPA 1166 XC 139214 WA 282812 Dendrocolaptes certhia Tf, Vz sv, an, ba, va C INPA 1427 ML (C.B.A.) WA 51624 Dendrocolaptes picumnus Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, an, ba C INPA A1751 ML (C.B.A.) WA 351965 Xenopidae Xenops minutus Tf sv, ba U MPEG 56347 T.O.L. WA 188427 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Furnariidae Furnarius leucopus Vz al, ip, an, ba C INPA 1508 ML (C.B.A.) Automolus rufipileatus Vz al U MPEG 56345 WA 417154 WA 411492 Automolus cervicalis Tf sv, al R MPEG ? Automolus ochrolaemus Tf sv, al C INPA 1370 XC 138891 WA 45338 Philydor pyrrhodes Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, an U UFPE 5081 T.O.L. WA 781991 Certhiaxis cinnamomeus Cp, At ep, out U WA 205165 Mazaria propinqua Vz-is al, ip, out C INPA 1521 XC 138961 WA 866320 Synallaxis albescens Cp ep, ca C INPA 1522 WA 47145 WA 273450 Synallaxis rutilans Tf, Vz sv, ip, ba U INPA 1436 WA 48963 WA 50874 Synallaxis gujanensis Vz-is al, an, ba, out C INPA 1517 XC 139211 WA 181279 Cranioleuca vulpina Vz, Ig al, ip, an, ca, ba C INPA 1524 ML (C.B.A.) WA 802131 Cranioleuca gutturata Vz al, ip, ca, ba U INPA A989 ML (C.B.A.) Pipridae Pipra filicauda Vz al, ip, ca, ba C INPA 1565 XC 138911 WA 990976 Ceratopipra erythrocephala Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ca C MPEG 56459 ML (C.B.A.) WA 205164 Manacus manacus Tf sv U MPEG 56451 T.O.L. Heterocercus flavivertex Cm, Ig ep, al, ri, ca, ba U INPA A1005 WA 417144 WA 410877 Dixiphia pipra Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ca, ba, va C INPA 1206 WA 48658 WA 50873 Xenopipo atronitens Cm sv, ep, ri, ca C INPA 1566 WA 63408 WA 261946 Chiroxiphia pareola Vz ip, va, out R Onychorhynchidae Onychorhynchus coronatus Tf, Vz al, ip, ba U INPA 1560 T.O.L. Terenotriccus erythrurus Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba U INPA A2097 XC 138898 WA 631432 Myiobius barbatus Cm, Vz, Ig al, ca, ba U MPEG 56445 Tityridae Schiffornis major Vz, Ig sv, al, ca, ba C MPEG 56467 XC 138914 WA 781926 Schiffornis olivacea Tf sv U T.O.L. Laniocera hypopyrra Tf sv U WA 649330 WA 862785 Tityra inquisitor Tf, Vz, Ig sv, an, ba U WA 1295152 Tityra cayana Tf, Vz sv, al, ba C T.O.L. WA 826954 Pachyramphus rufus Cp, Cm, Vz, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ba, va C INPA 1569 T.O.L. WA 181000 Pachyramphus polychopterus Vz, At sv, al, an, ba C T.O.L. Pachyramphus marginatus Tf, Vz sv, ip U INPA 1203 T.O.L. Pachyramphus surinamus Tf, Vz sv, ip, an, ba, va U T.O.L. Pachyramphus minor Tf sv, va U XC 138896 WA 827661 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Cotingidae Lipaugus vociferans Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, ri, ba, va C MPEG 56468 T.O.L. WA 195583 Gymnoderus foetidus Vz al, ip, ca U WA 351966 Xipholena punicea Cm, Tf sv, ri U Procnias albus Tf sv, al, ba U ML (L.N.N.) Cotinga cayana Tf, Ig sv, ri, ba R WA 857482 Querula purpurata Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ri, va C MPEG 56469 XC 139222 WA 352003 Perissocephalus tricolor Tf, Vz sv, ip U Cephalopterus ornatus Vz al, ip, an, ba U Pipritidae Piprites chloris Tf ba, out R INPA 1204 Platyrinchidae Platyrinchus saturatus Tf sv R Platyrinchus coronatus Cm ri R Platyrinchus platyrhynchos Tf sv, ba U XC 139263 WA 202577 Rhynchocyclidae Mionectes oleagineus Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, ba, va C INPA 1547 XC 139221 WA 862784 Mionectes macconnelli Vz ca R INPA 1833 Rhynchocyclus olivaceus Ig al, ba R MPEG 56803 WA 45329 Tolmomyias sulphurescens Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba U Tolmomyias assimilis Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba, va C INPA 1213 XC 139212 WA 5086 Tolmomyias poliocephalus Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig all localities C MPEG 56436 ML (C.B.A.) WA 854718 Tolmomyias flaviventris Cm, Vz, Ig ep, al, an, ri, ca, ba, va U INPA 1614 ML (C.B.A.) WA 262705 Todirostrum maculatum Vz, Ig ep, al, ip, an, ca, ba C INPA A2132 ML (C.B.A.) WA 181579 Todirostrum cinereum Cp, Cm ep, out C ML (C.B.A.) WA 1334742 Todirostrum pictum Tf sv U XC 138906 WA 820397 Poecilotriccus sylvia Cm, Vz, Ig ca, ba U INPA A2248 ML (C.B.A.) Myiornis ecaudatus Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba C WA 48659 WA 862728 Hemitriccus minor Vz al, ip, an U XC 138978 Hemitriccus zosterops Tf sv U XC 138955 WA 67902 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer Cp ep, ca C INPA 1548 WA 62877 WA 16471 Hemitriccus inornatus Cp, Cm ep, ri, ba U INPA A999 XC 139191 Lophotriccus galeatus Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ca C INPA 1210 XC 139231 WA 181261 Tyrannidae Zimmerius acer Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ca, ba, va C INPA 1215 WA 417148 WA 814250 Stigmatura napensis Vz-is al, ip, out C (VU) INPA 1559 T.O.L. WA 781796 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Inezia subflava Cp, Ig ep, ri U INPA A1876 XC 138893 WA 857469 Ornithion inerme Tf sv, al, ba C MPEG 56429 WA 360177 WA 325112 Camptostoma obsoletum Vz, Ig ep, al, ip, an, ca, ba C T.O.L. WA 273469 Elaenia flavogaster Cp ep C INPA 1550 WA 62845 Elaenia parvirostris Cp ri R AUS Elaenia cristata Cp ep, ca C INPA 1554 WA 272938 Elaenia chiriquensis Cp ri, ca U INPA A993 Elaenia ruficeps Cp ep, ri, ca C INPA 1557 WA 649317 WA 181255 Myiopagis gaimardii Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ca, ba, va C T.O.L. WA 411491 Myiopagis caniceps Tf sv, al U ML (C.B.A.) Myiopagis flavivertex Vz, Ig al, ip, an, ca, ba C INPA 1549 XC 139807 WA 8964 Tyrannulus elatus Cp, Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig all localities C XC 139808 WA 253388 Capsiempis flaveola Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ip, an, ba C INPA 1558 XC 138942 WA 281415 Phaeomyias murina Sv va, out R Serpophaga hypoleuca Vz-is ip, out R INPA A8302 WA 781721 Attila cinnamomeus Vz, Ig al, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA A1004 XC 139224 WA 197829 Attila spadiceus Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, an, ba C MPEG 56450 XC 138837 WA 261945 Legatus leucophaius Cm, Vz, Ig sv, ep, an, ri, ca, ba C T.O.L. WA 1271477 Ramphotrigon ruficauda Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, ba C MPEG 56435 WA 50050 WA 51628 Myiarchus tuberculifer Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, ip, ri, ca, ba, va C INPA 1564 T.O.L. WA 119848 Myiarchus swainsoni Cp ep, out R AUS INPA A1854 WA 19189 Myiarchus ferox Vz, Ig al, ip, an, ba C INPA 1563 T.O.L. Myiarchus tyrannulus Cp ri R Sirystes sibilator Tf sv, al R Rhytipterna simplex Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C WA 50049 WA 51627 Rhytipterna immunda Cm, Ig ri, ba U INPA A997 XC 138919 WA 44261 Pitangus sulphuratus All habitats all localities C INPA 1561 ML (C.B.A.) T.O.L. Philohydor lictor Vz, Ig, Aq, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ba C XC 139247 WA 800187 Myiodynastes maculatus Vz sv, al, ip, ba C AUS? ML (C.B.A.) Tyrannopsis sulphurea Cm, Tf sv, ep, ri C INPA 1562 ML (C.B.A.) WA 282803 Megarynchus pitangua Cm, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca C ML (C.B.A.) Myiozetetes cayanensis Cm, Vz, Ig, Aq, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ba C T.V.V.C. WA 814680 Tyrannus albogularis Cp ep, out R AUS Tyrannus melancholicus Cp, Cm, Vz, Ig, Sv, At sv, ep, al, ip, ri, ca, ba, va C AUS T.O.L. WA 814648 Tyrannus savana Cp, Vz, Ig, Aq, At ep, al, ri C AUS Empidonomus varius Cm, Sv sv, ba, va U AUS Conopias trivirgatus Vz ip, ba, out U Conopias parvus Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, ri, ca, ba, va C INPA A1000 ML (C.B.A.) WA 854717 Pyrocephalus rubinus Cp, At ep, out R INT? The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Fluvicola pica Cp ep, out R Arundinicola leucocephala Cp, Vz, Ig, Aq, At ep, al, ca C WA 272919 Ochthornis littoralis Vz, Ig al, ca C INPA A8301 WA 417151 WA 816664 Cnemotriccus fuscatus Vz al, ip, an C INPA A2173 ML (C.B.A.) WA 802551 Lathrotriccus euleri Cm, Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ca, ba U MPEG 56442 ML (C.B.A.) Contopus virens Vz al R NEA Knipolegus poecilocercus Ig ri, ba R WA 272929 Vireonidae Cyclarhis gujanensis Cp, Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA 1570 ML (C.B.A.) WA 197791 Vireo olivaceus Tf sv U AUS MPEG 56831 Hylophilus thoracicus Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba C INPA 1220 ML (C.B.A.) WA 857498 Hylophilus semicinereus Vz, Ig al, an, ri, ca, ba C INPA A994 XC 139194 WA 219840 Hylophilus pectoralis Vz al R Hylophilus muscicapinus Cm, Tf sv, al, ba, va C INPA 1221 ML (C.B.A.) WA 835793 Hylophilus ochraceiceps Tf ba, out R Corvidae Cyanocorax violaceus Vz al, ip U ML (C.B.A.) Cyanocorax cayanus Cm sv, ri, ba, va C WA 376414 WA 34375 Hirundinidae Pygochelidon melanoleuca Aq va, out R Atticora fasciata Aq al, ip, ca, ba C WA 9742 Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Aq sv, al, ri, ca C MPEG A8305 Progne tapera Aq ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca C AUS ML (L.N.N.) WA 411488 Progne subis Aq ip, out R NEA Progne chalybea Aq sv, ep, al, ca, ba C WA 221243 Tachycineta albiventer Aq ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C MPEG 56476 WA 821689 Riparia riparia Aq va, out R NEA Hirundo rustica Cp, Aq ep, al, ri, ca, ba U NEA INPA A2093 Troglodytidae Troglodytes musculus Vz, Ig, At sv, ep, al, ri, ca, ba C MPEG 56813 Pheugopedius coraya Tf sv, al, ca, ba, va C INPA 1223 ML (C.B.A.) WA 50875 Cantorchilus leucotis Vz, Ig ep, al, ip, an, ca, ba C INPA 1571 ML (C.B.A.) Donacobiidae Donacobius atricapilla Aq, At ep, out R The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Polioptilidae Microbates collaris Tf sv R Ramphocaenus melanurus Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba C XC 139804 WA 282813 Polioptila plumbea Cp, Cm, Ig ep, ri, ca, ba C WA 62996 WA 1270334 Turdidae Catharus fuscescens Tf sv, ba R NEA INPA A2229 ML (C.B.A.) WA 639696 Turdus leucomelas Cm, Ig, Sv ep, ri, va C INPA A1839 WA 63051 T.O.L. Turdus fumigatus Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ca, ba C INPA 1575 WA 649315 T.O.L. Turdus nudigenis Vz al R INPA 1574 ML (C.B.A.) Turdus ignobilis Cp ep, va, out R Turdus albicollis Tf sv C ML (C.B.A.) Mimidae Mimus gilvus Cp, Cm ep, ca C INPA 1576 WA 62940 WA 15678 Passerilidae Zonotrichia capensis Sv va, out R Ammodramus humeralis Cp, Sv, At ep, va, out R ML (C.B.A.) Ammodramus aurifrons Vz, Ig al, ip, ca C INPA A1017 Arremonops conirostris Vz-is al, ip, an, ba, out U INPA 1603 WA 174982 WA 174924 Arremon taciturnus Tf sv, al, ba C INPA 1605 XC 139006 WA 1334775 Parulidae Parkesia noveboracensis Vz, Ig al R NEA INPA A2111 ML (L.N.N.) T.O.L. Setophaga ruticilla Cm, Tf sv, ba R NEA Setophaga petechia Vz-is al, out U NEA INPA A2155 ML (L.N.N.) Setophaga striata Tf, Vz sv, al, va U NEA INPA 1611 WA 294633 Setophaga fusca Tf sv R NEA ML (C.B.A.) Geothlypis aequinoctialis Cm, At ep, out R WA 866293 Icteridae Psarocolius viridis Tf sv R Psarocolius decumanus Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, an, ba C T.O.L. WA 9746 Psarocolius bifasciatus Tf, Vz, Ig sv, al, ip, ri, ca, ba C WA 417149 WA 325115 Procacicus solitarius Vz al, ba R Cacicus haemorrhous Tf sv C MPEG 56508 XC 138897 T.O.L. Cacicus cela Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig, At all localities C MPEG 56509 WA 417139 WA 410879 Icterus cayanensis Cm sv, ep, ba U WA 1063116 Icterus chrysocephalus Cm, Tf, At sv, ep, ri, ba C ML (C.B.A.) WA 181254 The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Icterus nigrogularis Cp, Cm ep, out R INPA 1612 WA 47138 Molothrus oryzivorus Cp, Vz, Ig, At ep, al, ri, ca, ba U WA 866273 Molothrus bonariensis Vz, At ep, al, ip, an, ca, va C INPA 1613 ML (C.B.A.) T.O.L. Sturnella militaris Cp, At ep, out R WA 281858 Mitrospingidae Lamprospiza melanoleuca Vz va, out R ML (L.N.N.) Thraupidae Coereba flaveola Cp, Cm, Vz, Ig, Sv, At sv, ep, al, an, ri, ca, ba, va C INPA 1577 ML (C.B.A.) T.O.L. Saltator maximus Vz al, ip, ba, va C ML (C.B.A.) Saltator azarae Cm, Vz sv, ep, al, ip, an, ba C INPA 1608 WA 63003 WA 15677 Saltator grossus Tf sv R INPA 1231 WA 648555 WA 639973 Nemosia pileata Vz al, ip, an C MPEG 56846 ML (L.N.N.) Tachyphonus phoenicius Cm ep, ri, ca C INPA 1585 ML (C.B.A.) T.O.L. Ramphocelus carbo Cp, Cm, Vz, Ig, Sv, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ca, ba, va C INPA 1587 ML (C.B.A.) WA 817268 Tachyphonus luctuosus Tf, Vz sv, al, an, ba C WA 222262 Tachyphonus cristatus Tf, Vz sv, al, ip, ba C ML (L.N.N.) WA 866596 Tachyphonus surinamus Tf sv, ba U INPA 1228 ML (C.B.A.) Lanio penicillatus Vz, Ig al, ip, an, ba C INPA 1582 XC 138956 WA 261936 Tangara mexicana Tf, Vz sv, ip U MPEG 56485 WA 50713 WA 181262 Tangara velia Tf sv U Tangara varia Tf al, ba R Tangara punctata Tf sv R Tangara episcopus Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig, At sv, ep, al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba C Tangara palmarum Cp, Tf, Vz, Ig, Sv, At sv, ep, al, ip, ca, ba, va C INPA 1589 ML (C.B.A.) WA 51652 Tangara cayana Cp, Cm, At ep, ca C INPA 1591 T.O.L. WA 273468 Schistochlamys melanopis Cp, Cm ep, ri, ca C INPA 1579 XC 139208 WA 326649 Paroaria gularis Vz, Ig al, ip, an, ri, ca, ba, va C INPA 1607 XC 139256 WA 273448 Dacnis flaviventer Ig ba, out R WA 417146 Dacnis cayana Cm, Tf, Vz, Ig, At sv, ep, al, ip, ri, ba C MPEG 56483 XC 139805 WA 181927 Cyanerpes nitidus Tf sv R Cyanerpes caeruleus Cm, Tf sv, al, ba U ML (C.B.A.) WA 15673 Cyanerpes cyaneus Tf ba, out R Chlorophanes spiza Tf sv, ba U INPA 1374 WA 50040 Hemithraupis guira Vz al R Conirostrum speciosum Vz al R MPEG 56812 Conirostrum bicolor Vz al, ip, an C NT INPA 1593 WA 901527 Emberizoides herbicola Cp, At ep, ca C INPA 1606 WA 62849 WA 272935 Volatinia jacarina Cp, Vz, Sv, At sv, ep, al, ba C INPA 1594 T.O.L. The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family / Species Habitat Locality Abu. Status Specimen Voice Photo Sporophila intermedia Cp, Vz, At ep, al, ip, an, ca, va C INPA 1512 ML (L.N.N.) WA 181252 Sporophila plumbea Cp, At ep, ca C INPA 1514 XC 139210 WA 846967 Sporophila bouvronides Vz, At ba, out R INT? Sporophila lineola Vz al R AUS ML (L.N.N.) Sporophila nigricollis Cp, At ep, ba, out R WA 861786 Sporophila minuta Cp, At ep, an, ba, out U INPA 1596 WA 205166 Sporophila castaneiventris Vz-is al, out R INPA A2216 Sporophila angolensis Cp, Vz, Ig, Sv, Aq, At ep, al, ca, ba C INPA A1860 XC 139209 WA 281859 Sporophila crassirostris Cp ep, ba, out U INPA 1599 WA 376425 T.O.L. Dolospingus fringilloides Cp ep, ca U INPA 1601 WA 649318 WA 21329 Cardinalidae Granatellus pelzelni Tf, Vz sv, al, ba U INPA A2154 ML (C.B.A.) Cyanoloxia rothschildii Tf sv, ba C INPA A2237 XC 139223 WA 51646 Fringillidae Euphonia plumbea Cm ep, ri, ca U WA 649322 WA 806599 Euphonia chlorotica Cm, Vz ep, al R Euphonia violacea Tf, Vz sv, al, ca C XC 139215 WA 18041 Euphonia chrysopasta Tf sv, al U T.O.L. WA 50868 Euphonia minuta Tf al R ML (C.B.A.) Euphonia sp. (cayennensis) Tf sv R Habitats: Cp – campina; Cm – campinarana; Tf – terra-firme forest; Vz – várzea (Vz-is – exclusively on Rio Branco islands); Ig – igapó; Sv – savanna; Aq – aquatic environment; At – human- altered areas. Localities: sv – Serra do Viruá; ep – Estrada Perdida; al – Igarapé do Aliança; ip – Ilha do Palhal; an – Boca do Anauá; ri – Rio Iruá; ca – Campinho do Rio Anauá; ba – Trilha do Baruana; va – Vila de Vista Alegre; out – exclusively in areas that are outside the current park boundaries. Abundance: C – common; U – uncommon; R – rare. Status: NT – Near Threatened at global level; VU – Vulnerable at global level; CR – Critically Endangered at global level; (VU) – Vulnerable at national level; (DD) – Data Deficient at national level; NEA – neartic migrants; AUS – austral migrants; INT – migrants from other regions; “?” uncertainty on the migratory behavior. Specimen: Catalogue number from Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG), Unversidade Federal do Pernambuco (UFPE), or Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZUSP). Voice: Catalogue number from xeno-canto (XC) or wikiaves (WA); ML with authors initials refers to records obtained by the specified author in cataloguing process at Macaulay Library. Only authors initials refers to those of recordists of species with undeposited vouchers; JPC – undeposited vouchers obtained by Juan Pablo Culasso. Photo: Catalogue number from wikiaves (WA). Only authors initials refers to those of recordists of species with undeposited vouchers; PNV – photographs obtained by other visitors and available at Viruá National Park archive. The avifauna of Viruá National Park, Roraima, reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia Laranjeiras et al. APPENDIX B: Bird species predicted to occur in Viruá National Park, including habitat, presence in the state of Roraima and status elsewhere. It includes species known from nearby areas, based on Naka et al. 2006, Borges et al. 2011 and unpublished data. 1 2 1 2 Species Habitat Roraima Status Species Habitat Roraima Status Crypturellus variegatus Tf X C / W Hylexetastes perroti Tf X U / Lr Amazonetta brasiliensis Aq X C / W Microxenops milleri Tf U / Lr Botaurus pinnatus Sv, Aq X C / W Clibanornis obscurus Tf X U / W Ixobrychus exilis Aq X U / W Anabacerthia ruficaudata Vz X C / W Ixobrychus involucris Aq X U / W Neopelma chrysocephalum Cp X C / Lr Cercibis oxycerca Sv, Aq X R / Lr Tyranneutes virescens Tf X C / Lr Theristicus caudatus Sv, Aq X C / W Corapipo gutturalis Tf X C / Lr Chondrohierax uncinatus Tf X U / W Iodopleura fusca Tf X R / Lr / Pk Helicolestes hamatus Ig C / W Cotinga cotinga Tf X R / W Amaurolimnas concolor Aq U / Lr Haematoderus militaris Tf R / W Pluvialis dominica Aq X C / M Neopipo cinammomea Tf, Cm R / W / Pk Zenaida auriculata Sv, At X C / W Leptopogon amaurocephalus Vz X C / Lr Tyto furcata At X C / W Lophotriccus vitiosus Tf C / Lr Dromococcyx pavoninus Tf X U / W R / Lr / Lo Hemitriccus josephinae Tf / Pk Nyctibius aethereus Tf X R / W Corythopis torquatus Tf X C / W Nyctibius leucopterus Tf U / W / Pk Attila citriniventris Tf, Cm U / W / Lo R / W / Lo Nyctibius bracteatus Vz, Ig / Pk Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus Tf X C / W Chordeiles minor Vz, Sv X U / M Vireolanius leucotis Tf X C / W Chordeiles rupestris Aq X U / W Hylophilus brunneiceps Cp, Ig X C / Lr Topaza pella Tf X U / W Atticora tibialis Tf X R / W Polytmus guainumbi Sv X C / Lr Henicorhina leucosticta Tf X C / Lr Amazilia brevirostris any X C / Lr Microcerculus bambla Tf X U / W Nonnula rubecula Tf X U / W / E Cyphorhinus arada Tf X R / W Celeus undatus Tf X C / Lr Myiothlypis mesoleuca Tf X C / Lr Falco derioleucus Tf X U / W / Lo Polioptila guianensis Tf X C / Lr / E Falco femoralis Sv X C / W Tangara gyrola Tf X C / W Falco peregrinus Vz, Tf X C / M Tangara chilensis Tf X C / W Pyrrhura picta Tf X C / Lr Cyanicterus cyanicterus Tf, Cm R / Lr Terenura spodioptila Tf X U / W Dacnis lineata Tf X C / W Myrmornis torquata Tf X U / W Hemithraupis flavicolis Tf X C / W Myrmeciza longipes Tf X C / Lr Sporophila schistacea Vz, Sv X U / Lr Myrmotherula menetriesii Tf X C / W Sporophila americana Vz, Sv X U / Lr Thamnomanes ardesiacus Tf X C / W Caryothraustes canadensis Tf X C / W Conopophaga aurita Tf X C / W Peripophyrus erythromelas Tf R / Lr / Pk Grallaria varia Tf C / W Lampropsar tanagrinus Vz X C / W Hylopezus macularius Tf X C / W Formicarius analis Tf X C / W Habitats: cp – campina; cm – campinarana; tf – terra-firme Sclerurus mexicanus Tf X U / W forest; vz – várzea; ig – igapó; sv – savanna; aq – aquatic Sclerurus rufigularis Tf X C / W environment; at – human altered areas Sclerurus caudacutus Tf X C / W Status elsewhere: C – common; U – uncommon; R – rare; W Xiphocolaptes – widespread; Lr – limited range in Amazonia; M – migratory; promeropirhynchus Tf, Vz X U / W Lo – local occurrence; Pk – poorly known; E – easly overlooked Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014

Journal

Ornithology ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Jun 1, 2014

Keywords: ornithological inventory; species richness; threatened species; white sand forest; Rio Branco

References