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The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park, an important protected area in the Brazilian semiarid

The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park, an important protected area in the Brazilian semiarid Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 79–93. ARTICLE June 2019 The avifauna of the Catim bau National Park, an important protected area in the Brazilian semiarid 1,3,4 2 1 Flor Maria Guedes Las-Casas , Iolanda Maria da Silva Pereira , Lilia D'ark Nunes dos Santos 1,3 & Luciano Nicolás Naka Departamento de Zoologia, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Cidade Universitária, Recife, PE, Brazil. Programa de Pós-graduação em Ecologia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE) , Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE, Brazil. Laboratório de Biogeografia, E cologia e Evolução de Aves, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil. Corresponding author: flormarialc@hotmail.com Received on 13 August 2018. Accepted on 28 May 2019. ABSTRACT: The Catimbau National Park is a protected area, located within the Caatinga Dry Forest, in the central region of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. This protected area encompasses ~60,000 ha of an exceptional diversity of habitats, resulting in a high avian diversity, including several rare and endemic species. The park is considered an area of high biological importance and of conservation priority. Despite its relevance for conservation, human degradation due to chronic anthropogenic disturbances (hunting, birds trapping, selective logging, and livestock grazing) has modified t he park's natural environments. In 2014, we initiated avian inventories within the park, as part of a long-term ecological research (LTER). Although the avifauna of the park has been described before, our systematic surveys allowed us to have a better understating of the park's avifauna and resulted in several additions to the species list. Here, we update and reevaluate the park's avifauna, discuss the presence of resident and migratory species, and include comments on endemic and rare species that occur within the park's boundaries. We sampled the avifauna through systematic surveys (point counts) and opportunistic observations between 2014 and 2017, including both dry and rainy seasons. We recorded a total of 192 species, including 25 species new to the park's list. During our point counts, we detected 117 species in the dry season, whereas 34 were recorded exclusively during the rainy season. Nearly 10% of the park's avifauna (19 species) is represented by migratory species, such as Elaenia chilensis and Turdus amaurochalinus. Catimbau National Park is important for the conservation of the Caatinga avifauna, since it harbors endemic, range-restricted, migratory, and globally threatened species. Therefore, we emphasize that environmental e ducation and ecological restoration projects, allied to enforcing environmental laws are urgent for the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Catimbau National Park. KEY-WORDS: Caatinga, long-term ecological research, migratory birds, Neotropical Dry Forests, ornithological inventory. INTRODUCTION within the Caatinga, where over 63% of its area has already been modified by human activities (Pennington The Caatinga Domain (hereafter, Caatinga) represents et al. 2009, Araújo & Silva 2017, Silva & Barbosa 2017) the largest patch of Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest is also evident at the CNP. The park faces many chronic in the Neotropics (Pennington et al. 2000). Far from anthropogenic disturbance pressures as a result of the representing a single vegetational type, the Caatinga nearly 300 families that live within the park and depend is highly heterogeneous, presenting a wide diversity of on livestock grazing and logging to survive (Rito et al. ecosystems and habitats. Different combinations of soil, 2017, Arnan et al. 2018). Also, the absence of a well- relief, topography and rainfall regimes create a wide variety designed management plan, mandatory by Brazilian of habitats (Egler 1951, Sarmiento 1975, Andrade-Lima law (SNUC 2002), reflects negatively on the overall 1981, Leal et al. 2003). Much of this variation can be conservation of the National Park. At present, CNP found at one particular protected area in the Caatinga: presents many degraded areas with different histories of the Catimbau National Park (hereafter, CNP). This human land use (Cruz et al. 2017, MMA 2018a). exceptional diversity of habitats results in a high diversity Given the remarkable habitat heterogeneity found of bird species, including several rare and endemic, which at the park, the relatively large topographic variation is one of the reasons the park is considered an area of (500–1100 m), and the rainfall gradient within such a high biological importance and of conservation priority small area (650–1100 mm/yr), Catimbau National Park (Devenish et al. 2009, Menezes et al. 2012). was selected to establish a Long-term Ecological Research Unfortunately, much of the degradation observed (LTER) Program (http://www.peldcatimbau.org). The The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. distinct vegetation structure and floras, including i) main purpose of Catimbau's LTER site is to evaluate shrubby-arboreal Caatinga generally located on the how chronic anthropogenic disturbances and changes in leeward slopes and at altitudes between 600 and 800 m rainfall regime affect the biota. A total of 20 permanent plots were established, covering most of the topographical, a.s.l., ii) shrubby Caatinga with Cerrado elements can be environmental, and anthropogenic disturbance gradient, found in many sites of the Chapada São José, both in lower and surrounding areas of the hills and slopes, iii) offering a unique opportunity to understand patterns of shrubby Caatinga with elements of rocky fields (campos diversity in many different biological groups (Rito et al. rupestres) occur in the plateaus and mountain ranges (800 2017). Each biological group studied relied on a different sample scheme, depending on the spatial scale desired. To and 1100 m a.s.l.), iv) evergreen arboreal vegetation (brejos study the avifauna, we established 2 km transects around de altitude) at the foothills, and v) evergreen shrubby Caatinga located on windward slopes between 600 and each one of the 20 permanent plots, sampled by 10 point 800 m a.s.l. (Rodal et al. 1998, SNE 2002). Systematic counts, systematically established every 200 m. and opportunistic methodologies were conducted in these The avifauna of the CNP is relatively well known due to past surveys (Farias 2009, Sousa et al. 2012). The phytophysiognomies, as well as in aquatic environments first ornithologist to present a species list of the park's (lagoons, ponds and temporary pools) found at the CNP (Fig. 2). avifauna, based on non-systematic inventories and opportunistic observations, included 139 species (Farias Bird survey and analyses 2009). A few years later, Sousa et al. (2012) presented a more complete list of the park's avifauna, updating the park's list to 202 species, including important endemic We conducted avian surveys at the CNP between August 2014 and August 2017, including both the dry and the and threatened species, such as Penelope jacucaca and rainy seasons. We surveyed the avifauna using point counts Spinus yarrellii. with unlimited detection radius (Ralph et al. 1996, Bibby In this study, we present the results of three years (2014–2017) of systematic surveys conducted around 20 et al. 2000, Sutherland et al. 2004). CNP hosts 20 LTER sites distributed throughout the park, and opportunistic permanent sites (plots), spatially established to remain independent from one another and to account for the observations conducted elsewhere within the park. We climatic and land use variation found at the park (Table also present a new updated list of the avifauna of the CNP, 1, Fig. 1). Around each of these 20 sites, we established 2 with relevant information about the avian community, with important records of threatened, migratory, and km-long transects, which we sampled conducting point endemic species. We also provide ecological aspects of counts, which were systematically distributed every 200 m, totaling 10 point counts per site and 200 in the park. species richness and patterns of species composition, All localities and point-counts were geo-referenced using highlighting the potential threats found in this protected a Garmin GPS unit (GPSMAP64). We sampled each area and its importance for the conservation of Caatinga birds. point count during 10 min, when all birds detected by sight or sound were recorded. Each site was sampled three times, once during the dry season and twice during METHODS the rainy season, totaling 600 point counts. Besides our systematic surveys, we conducted opportunistic Study area observations between point counts and throughout the park's entire area. Birds were identified by sight and sound by an The Catimbau National Park (~60,000 ha), created by a experienced observer (FMGLC). We used binoculars federal decree on 13 December 2002, is a protected area and digital recorders to observe and document species located within three municipalities (Buíque, Tupanatinga and Ibimirim) in the central region of the Brazilian presence in the area. Taxonomy and nomenclature follow o o state of Pernambuco (between 8 24'00'' and 8 36'35''S; the Brazilian Committee of Ornithological Records o o (Piacentini et al. 2015). Species were classified a ccording 37 0'30'' and 37 1'40''W) (Fig. 1). Climate is classified as to their conservation and distribution status. Patterns of tropical semiarid, according to Koeppen's classification; endemism (Caatinga and northeast Brazil endemics) were showing a mean annual temperature of 23 C, with a great inter-annually irregularity in rainfall regimes, which vary based on Pacheco (2004) and Araújo & Silva (2017). from 650 to 1100 mm/year (SNE 2002). Threatened species were defined a ccording to Brazilian (MMA 2018b) and international red lists (IUCN 2019). This protected area is located within the Caatinga Migration status follows Somenzari et al. (2018), who Domain, a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest. Most of the revised migratory patterns for Brazilian birds. park (70%) is composed of old-growth vegetation in sandy soils, with five main phytophysiognomies with For habitat we used the five types as described by Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Table 1. Permanent plots from the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) PELD Catimbau, Brazil. Geographic coordinates Annual mean Altitude LTER Sites precipitation (mm) Long (W) Lat (S) (m a.s.l.) P02 -37.1968 -8.5313 647 703.0 P04 -37.3551 -8.5072 591 692.2 P07 -37.3973 -8.5554 516 559.8 P08 -37.2993 -8.4496 578 665.9 P10 -37.2301 -8.5354 647 705.4 P11 -37.2248 -8.5167 673 719.8 P14 -37.3046 -8.4278 540 623.3 P15 -37.3174 -8.4133 510 577.8 P16 -37.3259 -8.4658 555 650.6 P17 -37.2329 -8.5581 940 836.8 P20 -37.3222 -8.4854 653 733.3 P21 -37.2963 -8.5209 843 876.2 P22 -37.3428 -8.4831 552 660.8 P23 -37.3118 -8.5178 785 842.1 P25 -37.238 -8.4757 588 655.2 P26 -37.2346 -8.4942 645 698.5 P27 -37.277 -8.5113 903 965.5 P28 -37.3096 -8.5372 787 829.4 P29 -37.2475 -8.5708 762 772.6 P30 -37.2449 -8.5166 913 960.6 Figure 1. Location of Catimbau National Park, Pernambuco, Brazil. Distribution of the 20 plots used for bird sampling with point counts in PELD Catimbau. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Figure 2. General view of phytophysiognomies and landscapes found at Catimbau National Park, Pernambuco, Brazil. (A) shrubby- arboreal Caatinga; (B) shrubby Caatinga with Cerrado elements; (C) shrubby Caatinga with rocky fields elements (Campos Rupestres); (D) evergreen arboreal vegetation; (E) evergreen shrubby Caatinga; (F) aquatic environment available during the rainy season. Photo author: F.M.G. Las-Casas. Rodal et al. (1998) and SNE (2002): shrubby-arboreal (Gotelli & Colwell 2010). The total number of species Caatinga, Caatinga with Cerrado elements, Caatinga observed at the point counts was represented by a with rocky outcrops elements (campos rupestres), evergreen rarefaction curve. These analyses were performed using the arboreal vegetation and evergreen shrubby Caatinga. software EstimateS 9.1.0 (Colwell 2011). Opportunistic The evergreen arboreal vegetation (brejos de altitude) is data were excluded from these analyses. largely disturbed, especially by agriculture. It presents a typical vegetational composition and can be found in the foothills of the scarpment (~800 m a.s.l.). Habitat RESULTS categorization for birds was based on our own records, and is applied exclusively for birds detected during Our surveys detected 192 species of birds, 25 of which were recorded at the CNP for the first time ( Table 2). this study. Photographs and/or digital recordings were archived at www.wikiaves.com and can be assessed online Point counts resulted in the detection of 155 species using the provided voucher numbers (Table 2). (~70% of all species). Opportunistic observations added To evaluate sampling effectiveness, we used C hao another 37 species. Bird species detected represented 48 1 and Jackknife 1 richness estimators (Magurran 2004), avian families. More than half of the species (n = 106 or 55.2%) were passerines, and 86 species (44.8%) were which are based on quantitative data and are known to overcome other estimators in terms of bias and precision non-passerines (Table 2). Sampling around the 20 LTER Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Table 2. List of bird species recorded at the Catimbau National Park, Pernambuco, Brazil. Species recorded by Sousa et al. (2012), and not by us (#). New records for the park during the present study (*). Migratory species (MG) and partially migratory (PM). Undefined endemic (End): Caatinga endemic (EC), endemic northeast (EN). Threatened (Thr): “Near Threatened ” (NT; IUCN 2019), “Vulnerable” (VU; MMA 2018). Habitat: aquatic environment (AE), shrubby arboreal Caatinga (SA), shrubby Caatinga with Cerrado elements (SC), shrubby Caatinga and rocky fields (RC), evergreen arboreal Caatinga (EA), evergreen shrubby Caatinga (ES). Family and species English names End/Thr Habitats Documentation TINAMIDAE Crypturellus noctivagus zabele Yellow-legged Tinamou EN/VU,NT Crypturellus parvirostris Small-billed Tinamou SA/SC/EA/ES Crypturellus tataupa Tataupa Tinamou SA/SC/EA/ES Nothura boraquira White-bellied Nothura SA/ES Nothura maculosa Spotted Nothura SA Rhynchotus rufescens Red-winged Tinamou ANATIDAE Dendrocygna viduata White-faced Whistling-Duck AE WA2919491 Cairina moschata Muscovy Duck Amazonetta brasiliensis Brazilian Teal CRACIDAE Penelope superciliaris ochromitra* Rusty-margined Guan EN EA/ES Penelope jacucaca White-browed Guan EC/VU Ortalis araucuan East Brazilian ChachalacaAE PODICIPEDIDAE Tachybaptus dominicus* Least Grebe AE Podilymbus podiceps Pied-billed Grebe PHALACROCORACIDAE Nannopterum brasilianus Neotropic Cormorant ARDEIDAE Tigrisoma lineatum Rufescent Tiger-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax Black-crowned Night-Heron Butorides striata Striated Heron Bubulcus ibis Cattle Egret SA Ardea alba Great Egret AE Egretta thula Snowy Egret AE CATHARTIDAE Cathartes aura Turkey Vulture SA/SC/RC/EA/ES Cathartes burrovianus Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2104773 Coragyps atratus Black Vulture SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2104774 Sarcoramphus papa* King Vulture SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA1467218 ACCIPITRIDAE Gampsonyx swainsonii Pearl Kite SA/ES WA1874623 Elanus leucurus White-tailed Kite SA Ictinia plumbea Plumbeous Kite Geranospiza caerulescens Crane Hawk SA Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Family and species English names End/Thr Habitats Documentation Heterospizias meridionalis* Savanna Hawk SA Urubitinga urubitinga* Great Black Hawk SA Rupornis magnirostris Roadside Hawk SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2427047 Parabuteo unicinctus* Harris's Hawk SA WA2560060 Geranoaetus albicaudatus White-tailed Hawk SA Geranoaetus melanoleucus Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle SA/RC WA2101247 Buteo nitidus Gray-lined Hawk Buteo brachyurus Short-tailed Hawk SA/EA Buteo albonotatus Zone-tailed Hawk RALLIDAE Aramides mangle Little Wood-Rail Aramides cajaneus Gray-necked Wood-Rail Pardirallus nigricans Blackish Rail Gallinula galeata Common GallinuleAE Porphyriops melanops Spot-flanked Ga llinuleAE PM Porphyrio martinicus Purple Gallinule AE WA2951832 CHARADRIIDAE Vanellus chilensis Southern Lapwing SA RECURVIROSTRIDAE Himantopus mexicanus* Black-necked Stilt WA2490975 JACANIDAE Jacana jacana Wattled Jacana AE COLUMBIDAE Columbina minuta Plain-breasted Ground-Dove SA/EA/ES/SC Columbina talpacoti Ruddy Ground-Dove EA/ES Columbina squammata Scaled Dove SA/EA/ES/SC Columbina picui Picui Ground-Dove SA/EA/ES/SC WA1471673 Claravis pretiosa* Blue Ground-Dove SA Columba livia* Rock Pigeon Patagioenas picazuro Picazuro Pigeon SA/EA/ES Zenaida auriculata Eared Dove SA WA2723505 Leptotila verreauxi White-tipped Dove SA/EA/ES/SC Leptotila rufaxilla Gray-fronted Dove EA CUCULIDAE MG Micrococcyx cinereus* Ash-colored Cuckoo SA Piaya cayana Squirrel Cuckoo SA/EA/ES/SC WA2106950 MG Coccyzus melacoryphus Dark-billed Cuckoo SA/EA/ES/SC WA2850701 Crotophaga major Greater Ani Crotophaga ani Smooth-billed Ani SA Guira guira Guira Cuckoo SA WA2049012 Tapera naevia Striped Cuckoo SA TYTONIDAE Tyto furcata American Barn Owl SA Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Family and species English names End/Thr Habitats Documentation STRIGIDAE Megascops choliba Tropical Screech-Owl SA Glaucidium brasilianum Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl SA/EA/ES WA2677373 Athene cunicularia Burrowing Owl SA WA2290250 NYCTIBIIDAE Nyctibius griseus Common Potoo SA CAPRIMULGIDAE Antrostomus rufus Rufous Nightjar Nyctidromus albicollis Common Pauraque SA Nyctidromus hirundinaceus Pygmy Nightjar EC SA PM Hydropsalis parvula* Little Nightjar SA WA2723643 Hydropsalis longirostris* Band-winged Nightjar SA Hydropsalis torquata Scissor-tailed Nightjar SA Nannochordeiles pusillus novaesi Least Nighthawk EN SA Chordeiles acutipennis Lesser Nighthawk APODIDADE Tachornis squamata Fork-tailed Palm-Swift SA/EA TROCHILIDAE Anopetia gounellei Broad-tipped Hermit EC SA/ES Phaethornis pretrei Planalto Hermit SA/EA/ES Eupetomena macroura Swallow-tailed Hummingbird SA WA1989371 Anthracothorax nigricollis Black-throated Mango Chrysolampis mosquitus Ruby-topaz Hummingbird SA WA1874630 Chlorostilbon lucidus Glittering-bellied Emerald SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2918587 Polytmus guainumbi White-tailed Goldenthroat Amazilia fimbriata* Glittering-throated Emerald SA WA2490872 Amazilia lactea* Sapphire-spangled Emerald SA Heliomaster squamosus Stripe-breasted Starthroat SA/SC WA2918598 TROGONIDAE Trogon curucui Blue-crowned Trogon SA/EA/ES WA3273333 ALCEDINIDAE Chloroceryle americana Green Kingfisher BUCCONIDAE Nystalus maculatus Spot-backed Puff bird SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2346838 PICIDAE Picumnus fulvescens Tawny Piculet EN/NT SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2687064 Veniliornis passerinus Little Woodpecker SA/SC/RC/EA/ES Piculus chrysochloros Golden-green Woodpecker SA Colaptes melanochloros Green-barred Woodpecker SA/SC/RC/EA/ES CARIAMIDAE Cariama cristata Red-legged Seriema SA/SC FALCONIDAE Caracara plancus Southern Caracara SA/SC Milvago chimachima Yellow-headed Caracara SA/SC Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Family and species English names End/Thr Habitats Documentation Herpetotheres cachinnans Laughing Falcon SA/SC/EA/ES WA1635330 Micrastur ruficollis Barred Forest-Falcon SA/SC/EA/ES Falco sparverius American Kestrel SA/SC/EA/ES Falco rufigularis Bat Falcon RC Falco femoralis Aplomado Falcon SA/SC/EA/ES MG Falco peregrinus* Peregrine Falcon SA/ES PSITTACIDAE Primolius maracana Blue-winged Macaw Thectocercus acuticaudatus Blue-crowned Parakeet EN SA/ES haemorrhous Eupsittula cactorum Cactus Parakeet EC SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2106953 Forpus xanthopterygius Blue-winged Parrotlet SA/SC/EA/ES WA1989370 Amazona aestiva Turquoise-fronted Parrot SA/EA/ES THAMNOPHILIDAE Myrmorchilus strigilatus strigilatus Stripe-backed Antbird EN SA/SC/RC Formicivora melanogaster bahiae Black-bellied Antwren EN SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA1467784 Herpsilochmus sellowi* Caatinga Antwren EN SA/RC WA2113554 Herpsilochmus atricapillus Black-capped Antwren Sakesphorus cristatus Silvery-cheeked Antshrike EC SA/SC/RC WA2850912 Thamnophilus capistratus Caatinga Antshrike EC SA/SC/RC WA2851005 Thamnophilus torquatus Rufous-winged Antshrike SA Thamnophilus pelze lni Planalto Slaty-Antshrike SA/SC/EA/ES Taraba major Great Antshrike SA/SC/RC/ES GRALLARIIDAE Hylopezus ochroleucus White-browed Antpitta EC/NT SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2308551 DENDROCOLAPTIDAE Sittasomus griseicapillus Olivaceous Woodcreeper Campylorhamphus trochilirostris Red-billed Scythebill SA Dendroplex picus* Straight-billed Woodcreeper SA Lepidocolaptes angustirostris Narrow-billed Woodcreeper SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2490963 FURNARIIDAE Furnarius figulus Wing-banded Hornero SA Furnarius leucopus Pale-legged Hornero SA/ES Pseudoseisura cristata Caatinga Cacholote EN SA Phacellodomus rufifrons rufifrons/ Rufous-fronted Thornbir d EN SA/SC/EA/ES specularis Certhiaxis cinnamomeus Yellow-chinned Spinetail SA/SC/RC Synallaxis hellmayri Red-shouldered Spinetail EC SA/SC/RC Synallaxis frontalis Sooty-fronted Spinetail SA/SC/RC Synallaxis albescens Pale-breasted Spinetail SA Synallaxis hypospodia Cinereous-breasted Spinetail Synallaxis scutata Ochre-cheeked Spinetail Cranioleuca semicinerea Gray-headed Spinetail SA/EA/ES Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Family and species English names End/Thr Habitats Documentation TITYRIDAE Pachyramphus viridis Green-backed Becard SA/SC PM Pachyramphus polychopterus White-winged Becard SA/SC/ES WA2918602 #PM Pachyramphus validus Crested Becard Xenopsaris albinucha White-naped Xenopsaris SA WA2491020 RHYNCHOCYCLIDAE Tolmomyias flaviventris Yellow-breasted Flycatcher SA/SC/EA/ES Todirostrum cinereum Common Tody-Flycatcher SA/SC/RC/ES Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer Pearly-vented Tody-tyrant SA/SC/RC WA2101248 TYRANNIDAE Hirundinea ferruginea Cliff F lycatcher SA/RC WA2288299 Stigmatura napensis bahiae Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant EN SA/SC WA2678822 Euscarthmus meloryphus Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant SA/SC/RC Camptostoma obsoletum Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2347009 Elaenia flavogaster Yellow-bellied Elaenia EA/ES PM Elaenia spectabilis Large Elaenia SA/SC/RC/ES MG Elaenia chilensis Chilean Elaenia SA/SC/RC/ES WA2677969 Suiriri suiriri bahiae* Suiriri Flycatcher EN SA WA1874629 PM Myiopagis viridicata Greenish Elaenia SA/SC/ES ND Phaeomyias murina Mouse-colored Tyrannulet SA/SC/RC/ES WA2850711 Phyllomyias fasciatus cearae Planalto Tyrannulet EN SA/SC/ES Serpophaga subcristata* White-crested Tyrannulet SA/ES WA2678868 PM Myiarchus swainsoni* Swainson's Flycatcher SA Myiarchus ferox Short-crested Flycatcher EA/ES Myiarchus tyrannulus Brown-crested Flycatcher SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA1989368 PM Casiornis fuscus Ash-throated Casiornis SA/ES WA2490796 Pitangus sulphuratus Great Kiskadee SA/SC/ES Machetornis rixosa Cattle Tyrant SA/ES PM Myiodynastes maculatus Streaked Flycatcher SA/ES WA2490928 Megarynchus pitangua Boat-billed Flycatcher SC/EA/ES Myiozetetes similis Social Flycatcher SA/SC/EA Tyrannus melancholicus Tropical Kingbird SA/SC/RC/EA/ES PM Tyrannus savana* Fork-tailed Flycatcher SA PM Empidonomus varius Variegated Flycatcher SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2851003 PM Myiophobus fasciatus colored Flycatcher SA/SC/RC/ES PM Sublegatus modestus Southern Scrub-Flycatcher SA/ES Fluvicola albiventer Black-backed Water-Tyrant AE WA2918597 Fluvicola nengeta Masked Water-Tyrant SA/ES Arundinicola leucocephala  White-headed Marsh Tyrant AE WA2288334 Cnemotriccus fuscatus Fuscous Flycatcher SA/SC/EA/ES WA1635342 Knipolegus nigerrimus hoflingi Velvety Black-Tyrant EN SA/RC WA2918592 Xolmis irupero niveus White Monjita EN SA Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Family and species English names End/Thr Habitats Documentation VIREONIDAE Cyclarhis gujanensis Rufous-browed Peppershrike SA/SC/RC/ES Hylophilus amaurocephalus Gray-eyed Greenlet SA/SC/RC/ES PM Vireo chivi Chivi Vireo SA/SC/RC/ES CORVIDAE Cyanocorax cyanopogon White-naped Jay SA/SC/RC/ES HIRUNDINIDAE Southern Rough-winged #PM Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Swallow PM Progne chalybea Gray-breasted Martin SA TROGLODYTIDAE Troglodytes musculus Southern House Wren SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2683268 Pheugopedius genibarbis Moustached Wren Cantorchilus longirostris bahiae Long-billed Wren EN SA/SC/RC POLIOPTILIDAE Polioptila plumbea Tropical Gnatcatcher SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2101250 TURDIDAE Turdus leucomelas Pale-breasted Thrush EA/ES Turdus rufiventris Rufous-bellied Thrush SA/SC/RC/EA/ES PM Turdus amaurochalinus Creamy-bellied Thrush SA/SC MIMIDAE Mimus saturninus arenaceus Chalk-browed Mockingbird EN SA/SC/RC/ES WA2723585 MOTACILLIDAE Anthus lutescens Yellowish Pipit ES PASSERELLIDAE Zonotrichia capensis Rufous-collared Sparrow SA/SC/RC WA1467779 Ammodramus humeralis Grassland Sparrow SA PARULIDAE Setophaga pitiayumi Tropical Parula SA/ES Myiothlypis flaveola Flavescent Warbler SA/EA/ES ICTERIDAE Icterus pyrrhopterus Variable Oriole SA/SC/RC WA2918615 Icterus jamacaii Campo Troupial EN SA/SC/RC WA2106592 Chrysomus ruficapillus Chestnut-capped Blackbird SA Agelaioides fringillarius Pale Baywing EN SA Molothrus bonariensis Shiny Cowbird SA Sturnella superciliaris White-browed Meadowlark SA THRAUPIDAE Schistochlamys ruficapillus* Cinnamon Tanager RC WA2113557 Paroaria dominicana Red-cowled Cardinal EC SA/SC WA2918606 Tangara sayaca Sayaca Tanager SA/SC/RC/EA/ES Tangara palmarum Palm Tanager EA/ES Tangara cayana Burnished-buff Tanager SA/SC/RC/EA/ES Nemosia pileata Hooded Tanager SA/SC/RC/EA/ES Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Family and species English names End/Thr Habitats Documentation Compsothraupis loricata Scarlet-throated Tanager EN SA/SC/RC WA1635323 Conirostrum speciosum Chestnut-vented Conebill SC/EA/ES Sicalis flaveola Saffron Finch SA Sicalis luteola Grassland Yellow-Finch SA Volatinia jacarina Blue-black Grassquit SA/RC WA2105977 Coryphospingus pileatus Pileated Finch SA/SC/RC WA2850094 Tachyphonus rufus White-lined Tanager SA/SC/RC/ES WA2105976 Dacnis cayana* Blue Dacnis ES Coereba flaveola Bananaquit SA/SC/RC/EA/ES #PM Sporophila lineola Lined Seedeater Sporophila nigricollis Yellow-bellied Seedeater SA Sporophila leucoptera White-bellied Seedeater #PM Sporophila bouvreuil Copper Seedeater Sporophila albogularis White-throated Seedeater EC SA/SC/RC WA2918631 Saltator similis Green-winged Saltator SA Thlypopsis sor dida Orange-headed Tanager SA/ES WA2687083 CARDINALIDAE Piranga flava* Hepatic Tanager EA/ES Cyanoloxia brissonii Ultramarine Grosbeak SA/SC/RC FRINGILLIDAE Spinus yarrellii Yellow-faced Siskin VU Euphonia chlorotica Purple-throated Euphonia SA/SC/RC/EA/ES ESTRILDIDAE Estrilda astrild* Common Waxbill SA PASSERIDAE Passer domesticus House Sparrow   SA   sites was fairly complete. Based on our point counts, were Eupsittula cactorum (n = 283 individuals detected), estimated species richness was 158 (Chao 1) and 167 Chlorostilbon lucidus (n = 276), H. margaritaceiventer (n = species (Jackknife 1). Thus, observed richness by point 239), P. plumbea (n = 212), and Formicivora melanogaster counts corresponds to 95.6% and 90.4%, respectively, of (n = 174). Whereas, during the wet season the five most the estimated richness (Fig. 3). abundant species were Z. capensis (n = 394), Z. auriculata During point counts, we made 18,272 avian contacts. (n = 337), E. cactorum (n = 283), S. cristatus (n = 243 ) The 10 most detected species during these censuses were and S. napensis (n = 223). Zonotrichia capensis (n = 926), Eupsittula cactorum (n = From our inventory (systematic and opportunistic) 850), Zenaida auriculata (n = 675), Sakesphorus cristatus most of the species detected are considered residents. (n = 626), Stigmatura napensis (n = 620), Hemitriccus Nineteen species recorded at the CNP are considered margaritaceiventer (n = 592), Columbina picui (n = 559), migratory or partially migratory (Table 2). For example, Polioptila plumbea (n = 547), Coryphospingus pileatus Elaenia chilensis is an austral migrant, Tyrannus savana (n = 545), and Thamnophilus capistratus (n = 539). On and Turdus amaurochalinus are considered partial the other hand, 26 species were only recorded once austral migrants. We observed a single individual of T. (singletons) or twice (doubletons). savana flying over a disturbed open area in the CNP on During the dry season we detected 117 species March 2017. Elaenia chilensis and T. amaurochalinus and 4,521 individuals. During the wet season (which were commonly recorded only during the rainy season. we sampled twice) we detected 146 species and had a Similarly, two species of migratory cuckoos (Coccyzus mean abundance of 6,875.2 individuals (n = 13,751). melacoryphus and Micrococcyx cinereus) were only recorded The five most abundant species during the dry season during the rainy season. Whereas C. melacoryphus was Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Figure 3. Observed richness (green line), rarefaction (pink line) and richness estimators Chao 1 (orange line) and Jackknife 1 (blue line) curves for the bird assemblage recorded in the Catimbau National Park, Pernambuco, Brazil. relatively common, M. cinereus was recorded once on June to the Brazilian MMA (2018b). Three exotic species 2017, during an opportunistic observation in a disturbed were recorded (Columba livia, Estrilda astrild and Passer area. Some partial migrant species (Myiophobus fasciatus, domesticus), mostly in urban and peri-urban areas, but Casiornis fuscus, Myiodinastes maculatus, Empidonomus there is no evidence that they represent any threat to varius, Hydropsalis parvula, Vireo chivi, Pachyramphus autoctonous species. polychopterus, Elaenia spectabilis, Myiarchus swainsoni and Progne chalybea) were regularly detected during the rainy season in the park. Finally, species like Bubulcus DISCUSSION ibis, Xenopsaris albinucha, Columbina minuta, Columbina In this study we presented newly quantitative data on the talpacoti, Patagioenas picazuro, Z. auriculata, Chrysomus ruficapillus, Age laioides fringillarius, Molothrus bonariensis, avian assemblage found at the Catimbau National Park. Sicalis luteola, Volatinia jacarina, and aquatic species such During our quantitave surveys, restricted to 20 sites, as Dendrocygna viduata, Himantopus mexicanus, as well we detected ~70% (155 species) of the 192 species. In as species from the families Podicipedidae, Ardeidae addition, opportunistic observations included another 37 species of birds, mostly waterbirds that do not occur at and Rallidae (Table 2) were recorded exclusively during the rainy season and are likely to carry out seasonal or near our sampled sites. In fact, according to species displacements within the Caatinga. richness estimators, our quantitative surveys detected the During our surveys most species were detected in vast majority of the species present in our sites, showing more than one habitat. Most of the species recorded the importance of conducting systematic surveys. The CNP avian assemblage (192 species) represented ~35% during our studies were detected in shrubby-arboreal Caatinga (162 species), followed by shrubby Caatinga of bird species registered for the Caatinga Domain (sensu with Cerrado elements (n = 85 spp.), shrubby Caatinga Araújo & Silva 2017; n = 548) and 35.8% of the 535 with elements of rocky fields (n = 59 spp.), evergreen bird species recorded for the state of Pernambuco (Farias arboreal vegetation (n = 56 spp.), evergreen shrubby & Pereira 2009). Despite our systematic surveys, we failed to find 34 Caatinga (n = 89), and 12 species related to aquatic environments. bird species previously reported for the CNP by Sousa et A total of 28 taxa detected in our surveys are al. (2012). Among the species we failed to record, 11 are considered range-restricted. Nine species are endemic to linked to aquatic environments, including three species the Caatinga, whereas 19 taxa are restricted to the Brazilian of herons (Tigrisoma lineatum, Nycticorax nycticorax, and Butorides striata), two of ducks (Cairina moschata and northeast (Table 2). Picumnus fulvescens a northeastern endemic and Hylopezus ochroleucus a Caatinga endemic Amazonetta brasiliensis), two common inhabitants of are considered “Near Threatened ”, with decreasing ponds and pools (Podilymbus podiceps and Nannopterum trends in their populations (IUCN 2019). None of the brasilianus), two species of raptors likely occurring in low species is considered threatened by extinction according densities (Buteo nitidus and Buteo albonotatus), two species Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. of hummingbirds (Anthracothorax nigricollis and Polytmus nocturnal observations (Vizentin-Bugoni et al. 2015), as guainumbi), two species of nightbirds (Antrostomus rufus well as the conservation status of the areas (Sayer et al. and Chordeiles acutipennis), four species of birds often 2017, Bovo et al. 2018). linked to more humid forests (Herpsilochmus atricapillus, These results also suggest that the Caatinga bir d Sittasomus griseicapillus, Synallaxis hypospodia, and assemblage composition presents some clear interannual Pheugopedius genibarbis), and three species of seedeaters variation, particularly for aquatic and low density species known to have erratic populations elsewhere in the (Araújo & Silva 2017). During the rainy season at the Caatinga (Sporophila lineola, Sporophila leucoptera, and CNP, there was an increment in bird species richness, Sporophila bouvreuil). with the presence of migratory birds, including both long- More important, however, were the apparent absences distance and intratropical migrants (e.g., Ruiz-Esparza et of three species of conservation concern, including three al. 2011, Las-Casas et al. 2012, Lyra-Neves et al. 2012, endemic and threatened species (Crypturellus noctivagus Araújo et al. 2017). zabele, P. jacucaca, and S. yarrellii) previously reported Most of the bird species found at the CNP occured by Sousa et al. (2012). These species are known to be in shrubby arboreal Caatinga, which is the main widely hunted by poachers and for the illegal trade, and phytophisiognomy found within the park boundaries. their absences may indicate local extinctions. The CNP On the other hand, many species of birds can be found suffers strong pressure from hunting and i llegal trade, in more than one habitat (Table 2), a pattern that is particulalry for birds. During the study period hunters common among birds in the Caatinga. Most of the and local residents were observed trapping birds within species included in the park's list are not forest dependent, the CNP boundaries, an illegal activity outside and being able to explore different habitats (Araújo & Silva even inside the protected area. We found many endemic 2017). However, some species may be considered forest avian taxa in captivity, including E. cactorum, Paroaria specialists. In the CNP species such as Leptotila rufaxilla dominicana, Sporophila albogularis and Icterus jamacaii, and Ortalis araucuan were restricted to more humid but also more widespread species, such as Amazona habitats such as evegreen forests, a type of vegetation aestiva and Cyanoloxia brissonii, widely appreciated by the nowadays very uncommon within the park. This type of illegal trade. We are afraid that if the scenario of hunting vegetation was transformed in areas of plantations and activities, illegal logging, overgrazing by goats and cattle, pastures (e.g., Pedra do Cachorro) and the remaining hunting of wild animals (mainly mammals and birds), tracts of evergreen forests is very fragmented and present and bird trapping continue to occur within the park, different levels of disturbances. other species may also become locally extinct. Species We also noticed that some bird species at the CNP whose populations are locally and regionally small are prefer well-conserved and/or forested habitats and rarely more susceptible to local extinction (e.g., Pereira & Brito occur in disturbed environments (Pereira & Azevedo- 2005, Pereira & Azevedo-Jr. 2011, Fernandes-Ferreira et Jr. 2011, Las-Casas et al. 2012, Lyra-Neves et al. 2012). al. 2012, Las-Casas et al. 2012, Albuquerque et al. 2017). This was the case of P. superciliaris, Trogon curucui, Piculus On the other hand, we recorded 25 species that chrysochloros, Micrastur ruficollis, H. sellowi, H. ochroleucus, were not previously recorded at the CNP (Table 2), C. trochilirostris, Dendroplex picus and S. ruficapillus. In including two aquatic species (Tachybaptus dominicus contrast, other species were only observed in disturbed and Himantopus mexicanus), three species of raptors and open areas, such as Athene cunicularia, Suiriri (Heterospizias meridionalis, Urubitinga urubitinga, suiriri bahiae and Xolmis irupero niveus. Species such as Parabuteo unicinctus); some austral and intratropical Sarcoramphus papa, Geranoaetus melanoleucus, Hydropsalis migrants (M. cinereus, Serpophaga subcristata, T. savana, longirostris, Hirundinea ferruginea and Knipolgeus and Piranga flava), whose movements are poorly known; nigerrimus were associated to the CNP's rocky walls. a boreal unreported fron the park; migrant (Falco Some of those rare species were those more dependent peregrinus); two species of exotic birds (Columba livia on forested habitats and more sensitive to disturbance, and Estrilda astrild), previously unreported from the preferring isolated sites with very low human interference park; and one endemism that likely went undersampled such as P. superciliaris, Claravis pretiosa, M. ruficollis, C. in the past (Herpsilochmus sellowi). These results suggest trochilirostris and S. ruficapillus. that the core avian assemblage of the CNP is likely very The Caatinga is the largest block of tropical Dry well established by now, and that future records will likely forests found within South America (Silva & Souza 2018) result from more nomadic aquatic species, austral and and is one of the most threatened in the Neotropics, with northern migrants, and possibly some widespread species less than 10% of its original extent (Banda et al. 2016). that have not yet been recorded in the park. Species In Brazil, habitat conservation is uneven among biomes richness and avian composition may also vary according (Jenkins & Joppa 2009, Oliveira & Bernard 2017) and to differences in the methods applied, sampling effort, the Caatinga represents the least protected one, with only Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. J.M.C., Tabarelli M. & Leal I.R. (eds.). Caatinga: the largest 1.3% of the total area officially included in protected Tropical Dry Forest region in South America. New York: Springer. areas that receive full protection (MMA 2017). Araújo H.F.P., Vieira-Filho A., Barbosa M.R.V., Diniz-Filho J.A. & Besides the anthropogenic pressures found within Silva J.M.C. 2017. Passerine phenology in the largest Tropical this protected area, such as bird hunting, trapping and Dry Forest of South America: effects of climate and resour ce availability. Emu 117: 78–91. cattle grazing, our results demonstrate that the CNP Arnan X., Leal I.R., Tabarelli M., Andrade J.F., Barros M.F., Câmara still harbors a valuable Caatinga avian diversity with the T., Jamelli D., Knoechelmann C.M., Menezes T.G.C., Menezes presence of range-restricted, endemic, threatened, and A.G.S., Oliveira F.M.P., de Paula A.S., Pereira S.C., Rito K.F., migratory species, highlighting its importance for bird Sfair J.C., Siqueira F.F.S., Souza D.G., Specht M.J., Vieira L.A., Arcoverde G.B. & Andersen A.N. 2018. A framework for deriving conservation. But we emphasize the need of effective measures of chronic anthropogenic disturbance: surrogate, direct, management inside and outside the park's boundaries, single and multi-metric indices in Brazilian Caatinga. Ecological since pressures inside the reserve may usually reflect those Indicators 94: 274–282. occurring around (Laurance et al. 2012). Despite being Banda K., Delgado-Salinas A., Dexter K.G., Linares-Palomino R., Olivera-Filho A., Prado D., Pullan M., Quintana C., Riina R., fragmented, patches of Caatinga remain well-connected, Rodríguez G.M., Weintritt J., Acevedo-Rodríguez P., Adarve J., which may facilitate recolonizations and community Álvarez E., Aranguren A., Arteaga J.C., Aymard G., Castaño A., regeneration (Antongiovanni et al. 2018). Thus, the Ceballos-Mago N., Cogollo A., Cuadros H., Delgado F., Devia maintenance, management and expansion of protected W., Dueñas H., Fajardo L., Fernández A., Fernández M.A., area networks continue to be one of the most important Franklin J., Freid E.H., Galetti L.A., Gonto R., González R., Graveson R., Helmer E.H., Idárraga A., López R., Marcano-Vega tools for biodiversity conservation (Las-Casas et al. 2012, H., Martínez O.G., Maturo H.M., McDonald M., McLaren K., Oliveira & Bernard 2017, Antongiovanni et al. 2018). Melo O., Mijares F., Mogni V., Molina D., Moreno N.P., Nassar The ex ceptional natural features of the park, J.M., Neves D.M., Oakley L.J., Oatham M., Olvera-Luna A.R., allied to a rich avifauna could provide an economic Pezzini F.F., Dominguez O.J.R., Ríos M.E., Rivera O., Rodríguez N., Rojas A., Särkinen T., Sánchez R., Smith M., Vargas C., opportunity through the development of birdwatching, Villanueva B. & Pennington R.T. 2016. Plant diversity patterns offering new job opportunities. We emphasize that in Neotropical Dry Forests and their conservation implications. actions such as environmental education and ecological Science 353: 1383–1387. restoration projects, allied to inspection are urgent for the Bibby C.J., Burgess N.D., Hill D.A. & Mustoe S.H. 2000. Bird census techniques. London: Academic Press. maintenance of the biodiversity and ecosystem services at Bovo A.A.A., Ferraz K.M.P.M.B., Magioli M., Alexandrino the CNP. E.R., Hasui E., Ribeiro M.C. & Tobias J.A. 2018. 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The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park, an important protected area in the Brazilian semiarid

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Abstract

Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 79–93. ARTICLE June 2019 The avifauna of the Catim bau National Park, an important protected area in the Brazilian semiarid 1,3,4 2 1 Flor Maria Guedes Las-Casas , Iolanda Maria da Silva Pereira , Lilia D'ark Nunes dos Santos 1,3 & Luciano Nicolás Naka Departamento de Zoologia, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Cidade Universitária, Recife, PE, Brazil. Programa de Pós-graduação em Ecologia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE) , Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE, Brazil. Laboratório de Biogeografia, E cologia e Evolução de Aves, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil. Corresponding author: flormarialc@hotmail.com Received on 13 August 2018. Accepted on 28 May 2019. ABSTRACT: The Catimbau National Park is a protected area, located within the Caatinga Dry Forest, in the central region of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. This protected area encompasses ~60,000 ha of an exceptional diversity of habitats, resulting in a high avian diversity, including several rare and endemic species. The park is considered an area of high biological importance and of conservation priority. Despite its relevance for conservation, human degradation due to chronic anthropogenic disturbances (hunting, birds trapping, selective logging, and livestock grazing) has modified t he park's natural environments. In 2014, we initiated avian inventories within the park, as part of a long-term ecological research (LTER). Although the avifauna of the park has been described before, our systematic surveys allowed us to have a better understating of the park's avifauna and resulted in several additions to the species list. Here, we update and reevaluate the park's avifauna, discuss the presence of resident and migratory species, and include comments on endemic and rare species that occur within the park's boundaries. We sampled the avifauna through systematic surveys (point counts) and opportunistic observations between 2014 and 2017, including both dry and rainy seasons. We recorded a total of 192 species, including 25 species new to the park's list. During our point counts, we detected 117 species in the dry season, whereas 34 were recorded exclusively during the rainy season. Nearly 10% of the park's avifauna (19 species) is represented by migratory species, such as Elaenia chilensis and Turdus amaurochalinus. Catimbau National Park is important for the conservation of the Caatinga avifauna, since it harbors endemic, range-restricted, migratory, and globally threatened species. Therefore, we emphasize that environmental e ducation and ecological restoration projects, allied to enforcing environmental laws are urgent for the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Catimbau National Park. KEY-WORDS: Caatinga, long-term ecological research, migratory birds, Neotropical Dry Forests, ornithological inventory. INTRODUCTION within the Caatinga, where over 63% of its area has already been modified by human activities (Pennington The Caatinga Domain (hereafter, Caatinga) represents et al. 2009, Araújo & Silva 2017, Silva & Barbosa 2017) the largest patch of Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest is also evident at the CNP. The park faces many chronic in the Neotropics (Pennington et al. 2000). Far from anthropogenic disturbance pressures as a result of the representing a single vegetational type, the Caatinga nearly 300 families that live within the park and depend is highly heterogeneous, presenting a wide diversity of on livestock grazing and logging to survive (Rito et al. ecosystems and habitats. Different combinations of soil, 2017, Arnan et al. 2018). Also, the absence of a well- relief, topography and rainfall regimes create a wide variety designed management plan, mandatory by Brazilian of habitats (Egler 1951, Sarmiento 1975, Andrade-Lima law (SNUC 2002), reflects negatively on the overall 1981, Leal et al. 2003). Much of this variation can be conservation of the National Park. At present, CNP found at one particular protected area in the Caatinga: presents many degraded areas with different histories of the Catimbau National Park (hereafter, CNP). This human land use (Cruz et al. 2017, MMA 2018a). exceptional diversity of habitats results in a high diversity Given the remarkable habitat heterogeneity found of bird species, including several rare and endemic, which at the park, the relatively large topographic variation is one of the reasons the park is considered an area of (500–1100 m), and the rainfall gradient within such a high biological importance and of conservation priority small area (650–1100 mm/yr), Catimbau National Park (Devenish et al. 2009, Menezes et al. 2012). was selected to establish a Long-term Ecological Research Unfortunately, much of the degradation observed (LTER) Program (http://www.peldcatimbau.org). The The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. distinct vegetation structure and floras, including i) main purpose of Catimbau's LTER site is to evaluate shrubby-arboreal Caatinga generally located on the how chronic anthropogenic disturbances and changes in leeward slopes and at altitudes between 600 and 800 m rainfall regime affect the biota. A total of 20 permanent plots were established, covering most of the topographical, a.s.l., ii) shrubby Caatinga with Cerrado elements can be environmental, and anthropogenic disturbance gradient, found in many sites of the Chapada São José, both in lower and surrounding areas of the hills and slopes, iii) offering a unique opportunity to understand patterns of shrubby Caatinga with elements of rocky fields (campos diversity in many different biological groups (Rito et al. rupestres) occur in the plateaus and mountain ranges (800 2017). Each biological group studied relied on a different sample scheme, depending on the spatial scale desired. To and 1100 m a.s.l.), iv) evergreen arboreal vegetation (brejos study the avifauna, we established 2 km transects around de altitude) at the foothills, and v) evergreen shrubby Caatinga located on windward slopes between 600 and each one of the 20 permanent plots, sampled by 10 point 800 m a.s.l. (Rodal et al. 1998, SNE 2002). Systematic counts, systematically established every 200 m. and opportunistic methodologies were conducted in these The avifauna of the CNP is relatively well known due to past surveys (Farias 2009, Sousa et al. 2012). The phytophysiognomies, as well as in aquatic environments first ornithologist to present a species list of the park's (lagoons, ponds and temporary pools) found at the CNP (Fig. 2). avifauna, based on non-systematic inventories and opportunistic observations, included 139 species (Farias Bird survey and analyses 2009). A few years later, Sousa et al. (2012) presented a more complete list of the park's avifauna, updating the park's list to 202 species, including important endemic We conducted avian surveys at the CNP between August 2014 and August 2017, including both the dry and the and threatened species, such as Penelope jacucaca and rainy seasons. We surveyed the avifauna using point counts Spinus yarrellii. with unlimited detection radius (Ralph et al. 1996, Bibby In this study, we present the results of three years (2014–2017) of systematic surveys conducted around 20 et al. 2000, Sutherland et al. 2004). CNP hosts 20 LTER sites distributed throughout the park, and opportunistic permanent sites (plots), spatially established to remain independent from one another and to account for the observations conducted elsewhere within the park. We climatic and land use variation found at the park (Table also present a new updated list of the avifauna of the CNP, 1, Fig. 1). Around each of these 20 sites, we established 2 with relevant information about the avian community, with important records of threatened, migratory, and km-long transects, which we sampled conducting point endemic species. We also provide ecological aspects of counts, which were systematically distributed every 200 m, totaling 10 point counts per site and 200 in the park. species richness and patterns of species composition, All localities and point-counts were geo-referenced using highlighting the potential threats found in this protected a Garmin GPS unit (GPSMAP64). We sampled each area and its importance for the conservation of Caatinga birds. point count during 10 min, when all birds detected by sight or sound were recorded. Each site was sampled three times, once during the dry season and twice during METHODS the rainy season, totaling 600 point counts. Besides our systematic surveys, we conducted opportunistic Study area observations between point counts and throughout the park's entire area. Birds were identified by sight and sound by an The Catimbau National Park (~60,000 ha), created by a experienced observer (FMGLC). We used binoculars federal decree on 13 December 2002, is a protected area and digital recorders to observe and document species located within three municipalities (Buíque, Tupanatinga and Ibimirim) in the central region of the Brazilian presence in the area. Taxonomy and nomenclature follow o o state of Pernambuco (between 8 24'00'' and 8 36'35''S; the Brazilian Committee of Ornithological Records o o (Piacentini et al. 2015). Species were classified a ccording 37 0'30'' and 37 1'40''W) (Fig. 1). Climate is classified as to their conservation and distribution status. Patterns of tropical semiarid, according to Koeppen's classification; endemism (Caatinga and northeast Brazil endemics) were showing a mean annual temperature of 23 C, with a great inter-annually irregularity in rainfall regimes, which vary based on Pacheco (2004) and Araújo & Silva (2017). from 650 to 1100 mm/year (SNE 2002). Threatened species were defined a ccording to Brazilian (MMA 2018b) and international red lists (IUCN 2019). This protected area is located within the Caatinga Migration status follows Somenzari et al. (2018), who Domain, a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest. Most of the revised migratory patterns for Brazilian birds. park (70%) is composed of old-growth vegetation in sandy soils, with five main phytophysiognomies with For habitat we used the five types as described by Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Table 1. Permanent plots from the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) PELD Catimbau, Brazil. Geographic coordinates Annual mean Altitude LTER Sites precipitation (mm) Long (W) Lat (S) (m a.s.l.) P02 -37.1968 -8.5313 647 703.0 P04 -37.3551 -8.5072 591 692.2 P07 -37.3973 -8.5554 516 559.8 P08 -37.2993 -8.4496 578 665.9 P10 -37.2301 -8.5354 647 705.4 P11 -37.2248 -8.5167 673 719.8 P14 -37.3046 -8.4278 540 623.3 P15 -37.3174 -8.4133 510 577.8 P16 -37.3259 -8.4658 555 650.6 P17 -37.2329 -8.5581 940 836.8 P20 -37.3222 -8.4854 653 733.3 P21 -37.2963 -8.5209 843 876.2 P22 -37.3428 -8.4831 552 660.8 P23 -37.3118 -8.5178 785 842.1 P25 -37.238 -8.4757 588 655.2 P26 -37.2346 -8.4942 645 698.5 P27 -37.277 -8.5113 903 965.5 P28 -37.3096 -8.5372 787 829.4 P29 -37.2475 -8.5708 762 772.6 P30 -37.2449 -8.5166 913 960.6 Figure 1. Location of Catimbau National Park, Pernambuco, Brazil. Distribution of the 20 plots used for bird sampling with point counts in PELD Catimbau. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Figure 2. General view of phytophysiognomies and landscapes found at Catimbau National Park, Pernambuco, Brazil. (A) shrubby- arboreal Caatinga; (B) shrubby Caatinga with Cerrado elements; (C) shrubby Caatinga with rocky fields elements (Campos Rupestres); (D) evergreen arboreal vegetation; (E) evergreen shrubby Caatinga; (F) aquatic environment available during the rainy season. Photo author: F.M.G. Las-Casas. Rodal et al. (1998) and SNE (2002): shrubby-arboreal (Gotelli & Colwell 2010). The total number of species Caatinga, Caatinga with Cerrado elements, Caatinga observed at the point counts was represented by a with rocky outcrops elements (campos rupestres), evergreen rarefaction curve. These analyses were performed using the arboreal vegetation and evergreen shrubby Caatinga. software EstimateS 9.1.0 (Colwell 2011). Opportunistic The evergreen arboreal vegetation (brejos de altitude) is data were excluded from these analyses. largely disturbed, especially by agriculture. It presents a typical vegetational composition and can be found in the foothills of the scarpment (~800 m a.s.l.). Habitat RESULTS categorization for birds was based on our own records, and is applied exclusively for birds detected during Our surveys detected 192 species of birds, 25 of which were recorded at the CNP for the first time ( Table 2). this study. Photographs and/or digital recordings were archived at www.wikiaves.com and can be assessed online Point counts resulted in the detection of 155 species using the provided voucher numbers (Table 2). (~70% of all species). Opportunistic observations added To evaluate sampling effectiveness, we used C hao another 37 species. Bird species detected represented 48 1 and Jackknife 1 richness estimators (Magurran 2004), avian families. More than half of the species (n = 106 or 55.2%) were passerines, and 86 species (44.8%) were which are based on quantitative data and are known to overcome other estimators in terms of bias and precision non-passerines (Table 2). Sampling around the 20 LTER Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Table 2. List of bird species recorded at the Catimbau National Park, Pernambuco, Brazil. Species recorded by Sousa et al. (2012), and not by us (#). New records for the park during the present study (*). Migratory species (MG) and partially migratory (PM). Undefined endemic (End): Caatinga endemic (EC), endemic northeast (EN). Threatened (Thr): “Near Threatened ” (NT; IUCN 2019), “Vulnerable” (VU; MMA 2018). Habitat: aquatic environment (AE), shrubby arboreal Caatinga (SA), shrubby Caatinga with Cerrado elements (SC), shrubby Caatinga and rocky fields (RC), evergreen arboreal Caatinga (EA), evergreen shrubby Caatinga (ES). Family and species English names End/Thr Habitats Documentation TINAMIDAE Crypturellus noctivagus zabele Yellow-legged Tinamou EN/VU,NT Crypturellus parvirostris Small-billed Tinamou SA/SC/EA/ES Crypturellus tataupa Tataupa Tinamou SA/SC/EA/ES Nothura boraquira White-bellied Nothura SA/ES Nothura maculosa Spotted Nothura SA Rhynchotus rufescens Red-winged Tinamou ANATIDAE Dendrocygna viduata White-faced Whistling-Duck AE WA2919491 Cairina moschata Muscovy Duck Amazonetta brasiliensis Brazilian Teal CRACIDAE Penelope superciliaris ochromitra* Rusty-margined Guan EN EA/ES Penelope jacucaca White-browed Guan EC/VU Ortalis araucuan East Brazilian ChachalacaAE PODICIPEDIDAE Tachybaptus dominicus* Least Grebe AE Podilymbus podiceps Pied-billed Grebe PHALACROCORACIDAE Nannopterum brasilianus Neotropic Cormorant ARDEIDAE Tigrisoma lineatum Rufescent Tiger-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax Black-crowned Night-Heron Butorides striata Striated Heron Bubulcus ibis Cattle Egret SA Ardea alba Great Egret AE Egretta thula Snowy Egret AE CATHARTIDAE Cathartes aura Turkey Vulture SA/SC/RC/EA/ES Cathartes burrovianus Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2104773 Coragyps atratus Black Vulture SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2104774 Sarcoramphus papa* King Vulture SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA1467218 ACCIPITRIDAE Gampsonyx swainsonii Pearl Kite SA/ES WA1874623 Elanus leucurus White-tailed Kite SA Ictinia plumbea Plumbeous Kite Geranospiza caerulescens Crane Hawk SA Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Family and species English names End/Thr Habitats Documentation Heterospizias meridionalis* Savanna Hawk SA Urubitinga urubitinga* Great Black Hawk SA Rupornis magnirostris Roadside Hawk SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2427047 Parabuteo unicinctus* Harris's Hawk SA WA2560060 Geranoaetus albicaudatus White-tailed Hawk SA Geranoaetus melanoleucus Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle SA/RC WA2101247 Buteo nitidus Gray-lined Hawk Buteo brachyurus Short-tailed Hawk SA/EA Buteo albonotatus Zone-tailed Hawk RALLIDAE Aramides mangle Little Wood-Rail Aramides cajaneus Gray-necked Wood-Rail Pardirallus nigricans Blackish Rail Gallinula galeata Common GallinuleAE Porphyriops melanops Spot-flanked Ga llinuleAE PM Porphyrio martinicus Purple Gallinule AE WA2951832 CHARADRIIDAE Vanellus chilensis Southern Lapwing SA RECURVIROSTRIDAE Himantopus mexicanus* Black-necked Stilt WA2490975 JACANIDAE Jacana jacana Wattled Jacana AE COLUMBIDAE Columbina minuta Plain-breasted Ground-Dove SA/EA/ES/SC Columbina talpacoti Ruddy Ground-Dove EA/ES Columbina squammata Scaled Dove SA/EA/ES/SC Columbina picui Picui Ground-Dove SA/EA/ES/SC WA1471673 Claravis pretiosa* Blue Ground-Dove SA Columba livia* Rock Pigeon Patagioenas picazuro Picazuro Pigeon SA/EA/ES Zenaida auriculata Eared Dove SA WA2723505 Leptotila verreauxi White-tipped Dove SA/EA/ES/SC Leptotila rufaxilla Gray-fronted Dove EA CUCULIDAE MG Micrococcyx cinereus* Ash-colored Cuckoo SA Piaya cayana Squirrel Cuckoo SA/EA/ES/SC WA2106950 MG Coccyzus melacoryphus Dark-billed Cuckoo SA/EA/ES/SC WA2850701 Crotophaga major Greater Ani Crotophaga ani Smooth-billed Ani SA Guira guira Guira Cuckoo SA WA2049012 Tapera naevia Striped Cuckoo SA TYTONIDAE Tyto furcata American Barn Owl SA Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Family and species English names End/Thr Habitats Documentation STRIGIDAE Megascops choliba Tropical Screech-Owl SA Glaucidium brasilianum Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl SA/EA/ES WA2677373 Athene cunicularia Burrowing Owl SA WA2290250 NYCTIBIIDAE Nyctibius griseus Common Potoo SA CAPRIMULGIDAE Antrostomus rufus Rufous Nightjar Nyctidromus albicollis Common Pauraque SA Nyctidromus hirundinaceus Pygmy Nightjar EC SA PM Hydropsalis parvula* Little Nightjar SA WA2723643 Hydropsalis longirostris* Band-winged Nightjar SA Hydropsalis torquata Scissor-tailed Nightjar SA Nannochordeiles pusillus novaesi Least Nighthawk EN SA Chordeiles acutipennis Lesser Nighthawk APODIDADE Tachornis squamata Fork-tailed Palm-Swift SA/EA TROCHILIDAE Anopetia gounellei Broad-tipped Hermit EC SA/ES Phaethornis pretrei Planalto Hermit SA/EA/ES Eupetomena macroura Swallow-tailed Hummingbird SA WA1989371 Anthracothorax nigricollis Black-throated Mango Chrysolampis mosquitus Ruby-topaz Hummingbird SA WA1874630 Chlorostilbon lucidus Glittering-bellied Emerald SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2918587 Polytmus guainumbi White-tailed Goldenthroat Amazilia fimbriata* Glittering-throated Emerald SA WA2490872 Amazilia lactea* Sapphire-spangled Emerald SA Heliomaster squamosus Stripe-breasted Starthroat SA/SC WA2918598 TROGONIDAE Trogon curucui Blue-crowned Trogon SA/EA/ES WA3273333 ALCEDINIDAE Chloroceryle americana Green Kingfisher BUCCONIDAE Nystalus maculatus Spot-backed Puff bird SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2346838 PICIDAE Picumnus fulvescens Tawny Piculet EN/NT SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2687064 Veniliornis passerinus Little Woodpecker SA/SC/RC/EA/ES Piculus chrysochloros Golden-green Woodpecker SA Colaptes melanochloros Green-barred Woodpecker SA/SC/RC/EA/ES CARIAMIDAE Cariama cristata Red-legged Seriema SA/SC FALCONIDAE Caracara plancus Southern Caracara SA/SC Milvago chimachima Yellow-headed Caracara SA/SC Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Family and species English names End/Thr Habitats Documentation Herpetotheres cachinnans Laughing Falcon SA/SC/EA/ES WA1635330 Micrastur ruficollis Barred Forest-Falcon SA/SC/EA/ES Falco sparverius American Kestrel SA/SC/EA/ES Falco rufigularis Bat Falcon RC Falco femoralis Aplomado Falcon SA/SC/EA/ES MG Falco peregrinus* Peregrine Falcon SA/ES PSITTACIDAE Primolius maracana Blue-winged Macaw Thectocercus acuticaudatus Blue-crowned Parakeet EN SA/ES haemorrhous Eupsittula cactorum Cactus Parakeet EC SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2106953 Forpus xanthopterygius Blue-winged Parrotlet SA/SC/EA/ES WA1989370 Amazona aestiva Turquoise-fronted Parrot SA/EA/ES THAMNOPHILIDAE Myrmorchilus strigilatus strigilatus Stripe-backed Antbird EN SA/SC/RC Formicivora melanogaster bahiae Black-bellied Antwren EN SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA1467784 Herpsilochmus sellowi* Caatinga Antwren EN SA/RC WA2113554 Herpsilochmus atricapillus Black-capped Antwren Sakesphorus cristatus Silvery-cheeked Antshrike EC SA/SC/RC WA2850912 Thamnophilus capistratus Caatinga Antshrike EC SA/SC/RC WA2851005 Thamnophilus torquatus Rufous-winged Antshrike SA Thamnophilus pelze lni Planalto Slaty-Antshrike SA/SC/EA/ES Taraba major Great Antshrike SA/SC/RC/ES GRALLARIIDAE Hylopezus ochroleucus White-browed Antpitta EC/NT SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2308551 DENDROCOLAPTIDAE Sittasomus griseicapillus Olivaceous Woodcreeper Campylorhamphus trochilirostris Red-billed Scythebill SA Dendroplex picus* Straight-billed Woodcreeper SA Lepidocolaptes angustirostris Narrow-billed Woodcreeper SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2490963 FURNARIIDAE Furnarius figulus Wing-banded Hornero SA Furnarius leucopus Pale-legged Hornero SA/ES Pseudoseisura cristata Caatinga Cacholote EN SA Phacellodomus rufifrons rufifrons/ Rufous-fronted Thornbir d EN SA/SC/EA/ES specularis Certhiaxis cinnamomeus Yellow-chinned Spinetail SA/SC/RC Synallaxis hellmayri Red-shouldered Spinetail EC SA/SC/RC Synallaxis frontalis Sooty-fronted Spinetail SA/SC/RC Synallaxis albescens Pale-breasted Spinetail SA Synallaxis hypospodia Cinereous-breasted Spinetail Synallaxis scutata Ochre-cheeked Spinetail Cranioleuca semicinerea Gray-headed Spinetail SA/EA/ES Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Family and species English names End/Thr Habitats Documentation TITYRIDAE Pachyramphus viridis Green-backed Becard SA/SC PM Pachyramphus polychopterus White-winged Becard SA/SC/ES WA2918602 #PM Pachyramphus validus Crested Becard Xenopsaris albinucha White-naped Xenopsaris SA WA2491020 RHYNCHOCYCLIDAE Tolmomyias flaviventris Yellow-breasted Flycatcher SA/SC/EA/ES Todirostrum cinereum Common Tody-Flycatcher SA/SC/RC/ES Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer Pearly-vented Tody-tyrant SA/SC/RC WA2101248 TYRANNIDAE Hirundinea ferruginea Cliff F lycatcher SA/RC WA2288299 Stigmatura napensis bahiae Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant EN SA/SC WA2678822 Euscarthmus meloryphus Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant SA/SC/RC Camptostoma obsoletum Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2347009 Elaenia flavogaster Yellow-bellied Elaenia EA/ES PM Elaenia spectabilis Large Elaenia SA/SC/RC/ES MG Elaenia chilensis Chilean Elaenia SA/SC/RC/ES WA2677969 Suiriri suiriri bahiae* Suiriri Flycatcher EN SA WA1874629 PM Myiopagis viridicata Greenish Elaenia SA/SC/ES ND Phaeomyias murina Mouse-colored Tyrannulet SA/SC/RC/ES WA2850711 Phyllomyias fasciatus cearae Planalto Tyrannulet EN SA/SC/ES Serpophaga subcristata* White-crested Tyrannulet SA/ES WA2678868 PM Myiarchus swainsoni* Swainson's Flycatcher SA Myiarchus ferox Short-crested Flycatcher EA/ES Myiarchus tyrannulus Brown-crested Flycatcher SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA1989368 PM Casiornis fuscus Ash-throated Casiornis SA/ES WA2490796 Pitangus sulphuratus Great Kiskadee SA/SC/ES Machetornis rixosa Cattle Tyrant SA/ES PM Myiodynastes maculatus Streaked Flycatcher SA/ES WA2490928 Megarynchus pitangua Boat-billed Flycatcher SC/EA/ES Myiozetetes similis Social Flycatcher SA/SC/EA Tyrannus melancholicus Tropical Kingbird SA/SC/RC/EA/ES PM Tyrannus savana* Fork-tailed Flycatcher SA PM Empidonomus varius Variegated Flycatcher SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2851003 PM Myiophobus fasciatus colored Flycatcher SA/SC/RC/ES PM Sublegatus modestus Southern Scrub-Flycatcher SA/ES Fluvicola albiventer Black-backed Water-Tyrant AE WA2918597 Fluvicola nengeta Masked Water-Tyrant SA/ES Arundinicola leucocephala  White-headed Marsh Tyrant AE WA2288334 Cnemotriccus fuscatus Fuscous Flycatcher SA/SC/EA/ES WA1635342 Knipolegus nigerrimus hoflingi Velvety Black-Tyrant EN SA/RC WA2918592 Xolmis irupero niveus White Monjita EN SA Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Family and species English names End/Thr Habitats Documentation VIREONIDAE Cyclarhis gujanensis Rufous-browed Peppershrike SA/SC/RC/ES Hylophilus amaurocephalus Gray-eyed Greenlet SA/SC/RC/ES PM Vireo chivi Chivi Vireo SA/SC/RC/ES CORVIDAE Cyanocorax cyanopogon White-naped Jay SA/SC/RC/ES HIRUNDINIDAE Southern Rough-winged #PM Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Swallow PM Progne chalybea Gray-breasted Martin SA TROGLODYTIDAE Troglodytes musculus Southern House Wren SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2683268 Pheugopedius genibarbis Moustached Wren Cantorchilus longirostris bahiae Long-billed Wren EN SA/SC/RC POLIOPTILIDAE Polioptila plumbea Tropical Gnatcatcher SA/SC/RC/EA/ES WA2101250 TURDIDAE Turdus leucomelas Pale-breasted Thrush EA/ES Turdus rufiventris Rufous-bellied Thrush SA/SC/RC/EA/ES PM Turdus amaurochalinus Creamy-bellied Thrush SA/SC MIMIDAE Mimus saturninus arenaceus Chalk-browed Mockingbird EN SA/SC/RC/ES WA2723585 MOTACILLIDAE Anthus lutescens Yellowish Pipit ES PASSERELLIDAE Zonotrichia capensis Rufous-collared Sparrow SA/SC/RC WA1467779 Ammodramus humeralis Grassland Sparrow SA PARULIDAE Setophaga pitiayumi Tropical Parula SA/ES Myiothlypis flaveola Flavescent Warbler SA/EA/ES ICTERIDAE Icterus pyrrhopterus Variable Oriole SA/SC/RC WA2918615 Icterus jamacaii Campo Troupial EN SA/SC/RC WA2106592 Chrysomus ruficapillus Chestnut-capped Blackbird SA Agelaioides fringillarius Pale Baywing EN SA Molothrus bonariensis Shiny Cowbird SA Sturnella superciliaris White-browed Meadowlark SA THRAUPIDAE Schistochlamys ruficapillus* Cinnamon Tanager RC WA2113557 Paroaria dominicana Red-cowled Cardinal EC SA/SC WA2918606 Tangara sayaca Sayaca Tanager SA/SC/RC/EA/ES Tangara palmarum Palm Tanager EA/ES Tangara cayana Burnished-buff Tanager SA/SC/RC/EA/ES Nemosia pileata Hooded Tanager SA/SC/RC/EA/ES Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Family and species English names End/Thr Habitats Documentation Compsothraupis loricata Scarlet-throated Tanager EN SA/SC/RC WA1635323 Conirostrum speciosum Chestnut-vented Conebill SC/EA/ES Sicalis flaveola Saffron Finch SA Sicalis luteola Grassland Yellow-Finch SA Volatinia jacarina Blue-black Grassquit SA/RC WA2105977 Coryphospingus pileatus Pileated Finch SA/SC/RC WA2850094 Tachyphonus rufus White-lined Tanager SA/SC/RC/ES WA2105976 Dacnis cayana* Blue Dacnis ES Coereba flaveola Bananaquit SA/SC/RC/EA/ES #PM Sporophila lineola Lined Seedeater Sporophila nigricollis Yellow-bellied Seedeater SA Sporophila leucoptera White-bellied Seedeater #PM Sporophila bouvreuil Copper Seedeater Sporophila albogularis White-throated Seedeater EC SA/SC/RC WA2918631 Saltator similis Green-winged Saltator SA Thlypopsis sor dida Orange-headed Tanager SA/ES WA2687083 CARDINALIDAE Piranga flava* Hepatic Tanager EA/ES Cyanoloxia brissonii Ultramarine Grosbeak SA/SC/RC FRINGILLIDAE Spinus yarrellii Yellow-faced Siskin VU Euphonia chlorotica Purple-throated Euphonia SA/SC/RC/EA/ES ESTRILDIDAE Estrilda astrild* Common Waxbill SA PASSERIDAE Passer domesticus House Sparrow   SA   sites was fairly complete. Based on our point counts, were Eupsittula cactorum (n = 283 individuals detected), estimated species richness was 158 (Chao 1) and 167 Chlorostilbon lucidus (n = 276), H. margaritaceiventer (n = species (Jackknife 1). Thus, observed richness by point 239), P. plumbea (n = 212), and Formicivora melanogaster counts corresponds to 95.6% and 90.4%, respectively, of (n = 174). Whereas, during the wet season the five most the estimated richness (Fig. 3). abundant species were Z. capensis (n = 394), Z. auriculata During point counts, we made 18,272 avian contacts. (n = 337), E. cactorum (n = 283), S. cristatus (n = 243 ) The 10 most detected species during these censuses were and S. napensis (n = 223). Zonotrichia capensis (n = 926), Eupsittula cactorum (n = From our inventory (systematic and opportunistic) 850), Zenaida auriculata (n = 675), Sakesphorus cristatus most of the species detected are considered residents. (n = 626), Stigmatura napensis (n = 620), Hemitriccus Nineteen species recorded at the CNP are considered margaritaceiventer (n = 592), Columbina picui (n = 559), migratory or partially migratory (Table 2). For example, Polioptila plumbea (n = 547), Coryphospingus pileatus Elaenia chilensis is an austral migrant, Tyrannus savana (n = 545), and Thamnophilus capistratus (n = 539). On and Turdus amaurochalinus are considered partial the other hand, 26 species were only recorded once austral migrants. We observed a single individual of T. (singletons) or twice (doubletons). savana flying over a disturbed open area in the CNP on During the dry season we detected 117 species March 2017. Elaenia chilensis and T. amaurochalinus and 4,521 individuals. During the wet season (which were commonly recorded only during the rainy season. we sampled twice) we detected 146 species and had a Similarly, two species of migratory cuckoos (Coccyzus mean abundance of 6,875.2 individuals (n = 13,751). melacoryphus and Micrococcyx cinereus) were only recorded The five most abundant species during the dry season during the rainy season. Whereas C. melacoryphus was Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. Figure 3. Observed richness (green line), rarefaction (pink line) and richness estimators Chao 1 (orange line) and Jackknife 1 (blue line) curves for the bird assemblage recorded in the Catimbau National Park, Pernambuco, Brazil. relatively common, M. cinereus was recorded once on June to the Brazilian MMA (2018b). Three exotic species 2017, during an opportunistic observation in a disturbed were recorded (Columba livia, Estrilda astrild and Passer area. Some partial migrant species (Myiophobus fasciatus, domesticus), mostly in urban and peri-urban areas, but Casiornis fuscus, Myiodinastes maculatus, Empidonomus there is no evidence that they represent any threat to varius, Hydropsalis parvula, Vireo chivi, Pachyramphus autoctonous species. polychopterus, Elaenia spectabilis, Myiarchus swainsoni and Progne chalybea) were regularly detected during the rainy season in the park. Finally, species like Bubulcus DISCUSSION ibis, Xenopsaris albinucha, Columbina minuta, Columbina In this study we presented newly quantitative data on the talpacoti, Patagioenas picazuro, Z. auriculata, Chrysomus ruficapillus, Age laioides fringillarius, Molothrus bonariensis, avian assemblage found at the Catimbau National Park. Sicalis luteola, Volatinia jacarina, and aquatic species such During our quantitave surveys, restricted to 20 sites, as Dendrocygna viduata, Himantopus mexicanus, as well we detected ~70% (155 species) of the 192 species. In as species from the families Podicipedidae, Ardeidae addition, opportunistic observations included another 37 species of birds, mostly waterbirds that do not occur at and Rallidae (Table 2) were recorded exclusively during the rainy season and are likely to carry out seasonal or near our sampled sites. In fact, according to species displacements within the Caatinga. richness estimators, our quantitative surveys detected the During our surveys most species were detected in vast majority of the species present in our sites, showing more than one habitat. Most of the species recorded the importance of conducting systematic surveys. The CNP avian assemblage (192 species) represented ~35% during our studies were detected in shrubby-arboreal Caatinga (162 species), followed by shrubby Caatinga of bird species registered for the Caatinga Domain (sensu with Cerrado elements (n = 85 spp.), shrubby Caatinga Araújo & Silva 2017; n = 548) and 35.8% of the 535 with elements of rocky fields (n = 59 spp.), evergreen bird species recorded for the state of Pernambuco (Farias arboreal vegetation (n = 56 spp.), evergreen shrubby & Pereira 2009). Despite our systematic surveys, we failed to find 34 Caatinga (n = 89), and 12 species related to aquatic environments. bird species previously reported for the CNP by Sousa et A total of 28 taxa detected in our surveys are al. (2012). Among the species we failed to record, 11 are considered range-restricted. Nine species are endemic to linked to aquatic environments, including three species the Caatinga, whereas 19 taxa are restricted to the Brazilian of herons (Tigrisoma lineatum, Nycticorax nycticorax, and Butorides striata), two of ducks (Cairina moschata and northeast (Table 2). Picumnus fulvescens a northeastern endemic and Hylopezus ochroleucus a Caatinga endemic Amazonetta brasiliensis), two common inhabitants of are considered “Near Threatened ”, with decreasing ponds and pools (Podilymbus podiceps and Nannopterum trends in their populations (IUCN 2019). None of the brasilianus), two species of raptors likely occurring in low species is considered threatened by extinction according densities (Buteo nitidus and Buteo albonotatus), two species Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. of hummingbirds (Anthracothorax nigricollis and Polytmus nocturnal observations (Vizentin-Bugoni et al. 2015), as guainumbi), two species of nightbirds (Antrostomus rufus well as the conservation status of the areas (Sayer et al. and Chordeiles acutipennis), four species of birds often 2017, Bovo et al. 2018). linked to more humid forests (Herpsilochmus atricapillus, These results also suggest that the Caatinga bir d Sittasomus griseicapillus, Synallaxis hypospodia, and assemblage composition presents some clear interannual Pheugopedius genibarbis), and three species of seedeaters variation, particularly for aquatic and low density species known to have erratic populations elsewhere in the (Araújo & Silva 2017). During the rainy season at the Caatinga (Sporophila lineola, Sporophila leucoptera, and CNP, there was an increment in bird species richness, Sporophila bouvreuil). with the presence of migratory birds, including both long- More important, however, were the apparent absences distance and intratropical migrants (e.g., Ruiz-Esparza et of three species of conservation concern, including three al. 2011, Las-Casas et al. 2012, Lyra-Neves et al. 2012, endemic and threatened species (Crypturellus noctivagus Araújo et al. 2017). zabele, P. jacucaca, and S. yarrellii) previously reported Most of the bird species found at the CNP occured by Sousa et al. (2012). These species are known to be in shrubby arboreal Caatinga, which is the main widely hunted by poachers and for the illegal trade, and phytophisiognomy found within the park boundaries. their absences may indicate local extinctions. The CNP On the other hand, many species of birds can be found suffers strong pressure from hunting and i llegal trade, in more than one habitat (Table 2), a pattern that is particulalry for birds. During the study period hunters common among birds in the Caatinga. Most of the and local residents were observed trapping birds within species included in the park's list are not forest dependent, the CNP boundaries, an illegal activity outside and being able to explore different habitats (Araújo & Silva even inside the protected area. We found many endemic 2017). However, some species may be considered forest avian taxa in captivity, including E. cactorum, Paroaria specialists. In the CNP species such as Leptotila rufaxilla dominicana, Sporophila albogularis and Icterus jamacaii, and Ortalis araucuan were restricted to more humid but also more widespread species, such as Amazona habitats such as evegreen forests, a type of vegetation aestiva and Cyanoloxia brissonii, widely appreciated by the nowadays very uncommon within the park. This type of illegal trade. We are afraid that if the scenario of hunting vegetation was transformed in areas of plantations and activities, illegal logging, overgrazing by goats and cattle, pastures (e.g., Pedra do Cachorro) and the remaining hunting of wild animals (mainly mammals and birds), tracts of evergreen forests is very fragmented and present and bird trapping continue to occur within the park, different levels of disturbances. other species may also become locally extinct. Species We also noticed that some bird species at the CNP whose populations are locally and regionally small are prefer well-conserved and/or forested habitats and rarely more susceptible to local extinction (e.g., Pereira & Brito occur in disturbed environments (Pereira & Azevedo- 2005, Pereira & Azevedo-Jr. 2011, Fernandes-Ferreira et Jr. 2011, Las-Casas et al. 2012, Lyra-Neves et al. 2012). al. 2012, Las-Casas et al. 2012, Albuquerque et al. 2017). This was the case of P. superciliaris, Trogon curucui, Piculus On the other hand, we recorded 25 species that chrysochloros, Micrastur ruficollis, H. sellowi, H. ochroleucus, were not previously recorded at the CNP (Table 2), C. trochilirostris, Dendroplex picus and S. ruficapillus. In including two aquatic species (Tachybaptus dominicus contrast, other species were only observed in disturbed and Himantopus mexicanus), three species of raptors and open areas, such as Athene cunicularia, Suiriri (Heterospizias meridionalis, Urubitinga urubitinga, suiriri bahiae and Xolmis irupero niveus. Species such as Parabuteo unicinctus); some austral and intratropical Sarcoramphus papa, Geranoaetus melanoleucus, Hydropsalis migrants (M. cinereus, Serpophaga subcristata, T. savana, longirostris, Hirundinea ferruginea and Knipolgeus and Piranga flava), whose movements are poorly known; nigerrimus were associated to the CNP's rocky walls. a boreal unreported fron the park; migrant (Falco Some of those rare species were those more dependent peregrinus); two species of exotic birds (Columba livia on forested habitats and more sensitive to disturbance, and Estrilda astrild), previously unreported from the preferring isolated sites with very low human interference park; and one endemism that likely went undersampled such as P. superciliaris, Claravis pretiosa, M. ruficollis, C. in the past (Herpsilochmus sellowi). These results suggest trochilirostris and S. ruficapillus. that the core avian assemblage of the CNP is likely very The Caatinga is the largest block of tropical Dry well established by now, and that future records will likely forests found within South America (Silva & Souza 2018) result from more nomadic aquatic species, austral and and is one of the most threatened in the Neotropics, with northern migrants, and possibly some widespread species less than 10% of its original extent (Banda et al. 2016). that have not yet been recorded in the park. Species In Brazil, habitat conservation is uneven among biomes richness and avian composition may also vary according (Jenkins & Joppa 2009, Oliveira & Bernard 2017) and to differences in the methods applied, sampling effort, the Caatinga represents the least protected one, with only Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(2): 2019 The avifauna of the Catimbau National Park Las-Casas et al. J.M.C., Tabarelli M. & Leal I.R. (eds.). Caatinga: the largest 1.3% of the total area officially included in protected Tropical Dry Forest region in South America. New York: Springer. areas that receive full protection (MMA 2017). Araújo H.F.P., Vieira-Filho A., Barbosa M.R.V., Diniz-Filho J.A. & Besides the anthropogenic pressures found within Silva J.M.C. 2017. Passerine phenology in the largest Tropical this protected area, such as bird hunting, trapping and Dry Forest of South America: effects of climate and resour ce availability. Emu 117: 78–91. cattle grazing, our results demonstrate that the CNP Arnan X., Leal I.R., Tabarelli M., Andrade J.F., Barros M.F., Câmara still harbors a valuable Caatinga avian diversity with the T., Jamelli D., Knoechelmann C.M., Menezes T.G.C., Menezes presence of range-restricted, endemic, threatened, and A.G.S., Oliveira F.M.P., de Paula A.S., Pereira S.C., Rito K.F., migratory species, highlighting its importance for bird Sfair J.C., Siqueira F.F.S., Souza D.G., Specht M.J., Vieira L.A., Arcoverde G.B. & Andersen A.N. 2018. A framework for deriving conservation. But we emphasize the need of effective measures of chronic anthropogenic disturbance: surrogate, direct, management inside and outside the park's boundaries, single and multi-metric indices in Brazilian Caatinga. Ecological since pressures inside the reserve may usually reflect those Indicators 94: 274–282. occurring around (Laurance et al. 2012). Despite being Banda K., Delgado-Salinas A., Dexter K.G., Linares-Palomino R., Olivera-Filho A., Prado D., Pullan M., Quintana C., Riina R., fragmented, patches of Caatinga remain well-connected, Rodríguez G.M., Weintritt J., Acevedo-Rodríguez P., Adarve J., which may facilitate recolonizations and community Álvarez E., Aranguren A., Arteaga J.C., Aymard G., Castaño A., regeneration (Antongiovanni et al. 2018). Thus, the Ceballos-Mago N., Cogollo A., Cuadros H., Delgado F., Devia maintenance, management and expansion of protected W., Dueñas H., Fajardo L., Fernández A., Fernández M.A., area networks continue to be one of the most important Franklin J., Freid E.H., Galetti L.A., Gonto R., González R., Graveson R., Helmer E.H., Idárraga A., López R., Marcano-Vega tools for biodiversity conservation (Las-Casas et al. 2012, H., Martínez O.G., Maturo H.M., McDonald M., McLaren K., Oliveira & Bernard 2017, Antongiovanni et al. 2018). Melo O., Mijares F., Mogni V., Molina D., Moreno N.P., Nassar The ex ceptional natural features of the park, J.M., Neves D.M., Oakley L.J., Oatham M., Olvera-Luna A.R., allied to a rich avifauna could provide an economic Pezzini F.F., Dominguez O.J.R., Ríos M.E., Rivera O., Rodríguez N., Rojas A., Särkinen T., Sánchez R., Smith M., Vargas C., opportunity through the development of birdwatching, Villanueva B. & Pennington R.T. 2016. Plant diversity patterns offering new job opportunities. We emphasize that in Neotropical Dry Forests and their conservation implications. actions such as environmental education and ecological Science 353: 1383–1387. restoration projects, allied to inspection are urgent for the Bibby C.J., Burgess N.D., Hill D.A. & Mustoe S.H. 2000. Bird census techniques. London: Academic Press. maintenance of the biodiversity and ecosystem services at Bovo A.A.A., Ferraz K.M.P.M.B., Magioli M., Alexandrino the CNP. E.R., Hasui E., Ribeiro M.C. & Tobias J.A. 2018. 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Journal

Ornithology ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Jun 1, 2019

Keywords: Caatinga; long-term ecological research; migratory birds; Neotropical Dry Forests; ornithological inventory

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