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Te avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw

Te avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 121-137 ARTICLE June 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw 1 2 2 3 Juan Mazar Barnett , Cayo Lima Gomes da Silva , Helder Farias Pereira de Araujo , Andrei Langeloh Roos , Caio 4 5 6,7 Graco Machado , Angélica Maria K. Uejima and Luciano N. Naka Deceased. Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus II/Areia, Paraíba, Brazil. Reserva Extrativista Marinha Pirajubaé, Instituto Chico Mendes da Biodiversidade (ICMBio). Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Vitória de Santo Antão, Pernambuco, Brazil. Laboratório de Ornitologia, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CEP 50670-901, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Corresponding author: lnaka1@lsu.edu Received on 05 February 2014. Accepted on 21 March 2014. ABSTRACT: The region of Curaçá was one of the first regions of the Brazilian northeast to be ornithologically explored, and is known as the type locality and last stronghold of the Spix’s Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii), now extinct in the wild. The region of Curaçá has been considered of high conservation importance, particularly for holding some of the last relicts of Caraíba (Tabebuia caraiba) gallery forest in the Caatinga, and for representing the most obvious place to start a reintroduction program for C. spixii. Despite international interest in the plight of the macaw and frequent visits by ornithologists in the last 30 years, no general avian survey has been undertaken in the region. In this paper, we present data from three independent field seasons in the area, conducted in 1997-98, 2000, and 2011. We include data on 204 bird species recorded in the region, including 28 taxa endemic to the Caatinga. We present an analysis of the species present in the region, in relation to their preferred habitats and include natural history and breeding data for many of them. In particular, we include our observations on the last wild individual of C. spixii, and describe the nest and breeding behavior of Compsothraupis loricata. We also present an appendix with the list of all avian species recorded in the area, including the field season when these records were obtained, their seasonal and conservation status, the main habitats and localities where each record was obtained, a quantitative assessment of abundance for part of the species, and documentation (specimen, photograph, or audio recording) available for each species. We conclude that the region of Curaçá is particularly species rich, and that a great part of this avian diversity results from its high habitat heterogeneity, which includes arboreal and shrubby Caatinga, gallery forests, riverine riparian habitats along the Rio São Francisco, and open areas and artificial ponds, which are particularly important for aquatic birds. KEYWORDS: Birds, Caatinga, Cyanopsitta spixii, gallery forest, survey. In 1819, Johan Baptist Ritter von Spix explored the dry observations remained largely unpublished, and no woodlands along the Rio São Francisco, near the village general surveys of the region’s avifauna have been of Juazeiro, in the deep interior of the Brazilian northeast published to date. (Juniper 2003). Among the specimens he collected, Curaçá is located in the heart of the Brazilian was a small blue macaw. That species, first observed by Caatinga, a habitat that represents one of the most Georg Marcgrave when he has working in Pernambuco isolated, differentiated, and botanically distinct semiarid during the XVII Century, is now known as Spix’s Macaw regions on the planet (Sarmiento 1983). For many years, (Cyanopsitta spixii), and was known to inhabit the gallery the Caatinga was considered a region with low endemism forests near Curaçá, a small town located some 90 km and lacking a biogeographical identity (Vanzolini 1976; east of Juazeiro, in the state of Bahia. Curaçá not only Mares et al. 1981; Andrade-Lima 1982, Prance 1987), represents the type locality of the blue macaw collected but recent studies have found a high level of avian by Spix, but also remained the last stronghold of this diversity and endemism (Pacheco 2004). Climatically, species until the end of the XX century, when the last the Caatinga is a region marked by its aridity, hot known individual in the wild disappeared (Silveira and weather, and a short rainy season, which may fail to arrive Straube 2008). The presence of this global rarity near on any given year (Ab’Saber 1977). The severe climate the little village of Curaçá attracted many ornithologists and geomorphological characteristics of the region may to the region, particularly during the 1990s, but their explain the existence of a highly endemic flora, with many The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. adaptations to the dry conditions of the habitat (Mares summer of 1997, JMB, LNN, and ALR spent several et al. 1985; Sampaio 1995). Although the Caatinga months in Curaçá during activities related to the has been identified as an important center of avian conservation of Spix’s Macaw. Their observations were endemism in South America (Cracraft 1985), ecological, mostly opportunistic (composed of daily bird lists), but biogeographical, and evolutionary studies in this biome general notes were taken, and many of their findings are still rare (Silva et al. 2003; Araujo et al. 2012). remain novel today (Mazar Barnett et al. 2014a, this Until recently, most distributional data on Caatinga volume). In 2011, CLGS, HFPA, and AMKU revisited birds were restricted to unpublished data or poorly the region and surveyed the avifauna using mist-nets and known and difficult to obtain references (Pacheco 2000). performed quantitative surveys. In this paper, we include The first modern compilations of the Caatinga avifauna natural history notes on several bird species, and provide were produced only 10 years ago, and include between a useful characterization of the region’s avifauna, calling 350 (Pacheco 2004) and 510 (Silva et al. 2003) species, the attention to this unique place that not too long ago depending on whether natural patches of Atlantic Forest represented the last stronghold of the world’s rarest parrot. (locally known as brejos) are also considered. In recent years, a clearer picture of the distribution patterns of the Caatinga avifauna have been unveiled, bringing attention METHODS to the remarkable diversity and habitat heterogeneity Study Area — This study took place in the Municipality of this little-studied region. Such compilations were important to raise new interest in the avifauna of the of Curaçá (08°59' S, 39°54'W), c. 90 km ENE of the Caatinga, and in 2012 the Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia city of Juazeiro, in the Brazilian state of Bahia (Figure dedicated a special issue to the region (e.g. Araujo et al. 1). The climate of the region is hot (mean annual 2012; Diniz et al. 2012; Dornelas et al. 2012; Santos et al. temperature of 24 C) and dry (mean annual rainfall of 66 years resulted in only 454 mm/yr; Departamento 2012; Schunck et al. 2012; Silveira & Santos 2012; Silva et al. 2012; Sousa et al. 2012). de Ciências Atmosféricas 2013). Precipitation is highly Lack of general distribution and diversity patterns seasonal, with most rain falling between January and have a direct effect on our capacity to make informed April (Departamento de Ciências Atmosféricas 2013). choices in terms of conservation priorities. Without a The region around Curaçá is relatively heterogeneous, including areas of dense dry forests (Caatinga arbórea), good understanding of current diversity distribution patterns, conservation priorities will hardly be effective short shrubby vegetation (Caatinga aberta), and very in protecting the most representative and unique characteristic gallery forests along seasonal watercourses, regions of the Caatinga, which is fast becoming a new most notably Riacho da Melancia, where the last Spix’s agricultural frontier. Despite the fragility of this region Macaws used to breed. These forests are particularly rare elsewhere and are dominated by tall Caraíba trees in terms of desertification, over-exploitation, and low recovery capacity, only 7% of the native vegetation cover (Tabebuia aurea). Unfortunately, goats, sheep, and cattle is included in protected areas (and only 1% in fully have severely affected the regeneration of this forest protected ones), and in fact, the Caatinga has the lowest (Juniper & Yamashita 1991). Other tree species that number of protected areas and net protected surface of characterize the area of Curaçá include Euphorbiaceae such as Faveleira (Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus) and Pinhão any other Brazilian major biome (Leal et al. 2005). The region of Curaçá, in particular, has been (Jatropha mollissima), Caesalpinoidea such as the indicated as being a high priority for regional conservation Catingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidis), and Cactacea such (Silva et al. 2004) and was recommended to receive as Xique-xique (Pilosocereus gounellei) and Mandacarú full legal protection (Pacheco 2004). Among Curaçá’s (Cereus jamaracu). Soil is generally composed of clay, and partially covered by gravel and pebbles, with some rocky environmental peculiarities, it still retains a healthy and unique gallery forest dominated by Caraíba trees outcrops distributed throughout the landscape. (Tabebuia aurea Bignoniaceae), which was used by Spix’s Fieldwork — Our ‘1997’ data was collected between Macaws as nest sites (Juniper & Yamashita 1991). The 29 December 1996 and 8 February 1997 by JMB, relative scarcity of this habitat, now mostly restricted to LNN, and ALR. Subsequently, ALR spent six additional months between February and July 1998. Observations the region of Curaçá and a few areas in the neighboring state of Piauí, may have been a driver of the decline of occurred mostly at Fazenda Concórdia (09°10'26"S, Spix’s Macaw since colonial times (Juniper & Yamashita 39°46'39"W), at the former headquarters of the Spixi’s 1991). Therefore, an assessment of the regions’ avifauna Macaw Project, but other fazendas such as Gangorra may shed light into the role of this special habitat for the (9°09'51"S, 39°45'20"W), Canabrava (9°12'28"S, 39°42'25"W), Prazeres (9°08'50"S, 39°53'37"W), and entire avian community. Here, we present data from two independent Macambira (9°01'0"S, 39°46'08"W) were also explored. surveys conducted nearly 15 years apart. During the Several habitats were available at those sites, including Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. arboreal and shrubby Caatinga, as well as gallery forests 2000 JMB returned to Curaçá and visited the locality along the (often dry) creeks. We also surveyed the Poço do Baú (9º07'47"S, 39º54'37"W) and the island margins of the Rio São Francisco, including the island of Curaçá. Several years later, between 19 and 24 April of Curaçá (08°59'29"S, 39°55'05"W), just opposite the 2011, CLGS, HFPA, and AMKU surveyed the avifauna village. Given that the goal at the time was to provide a of Curaçá at Fazenda Concórdia and at Serra da Gruta rapid assessment of the region’s avifauna, no quantitative de Patamuté (9°19'22"S, 39°36'34"W) using several abundance data were collected. Between 5 and 7 January, methods, including mist-nets, MacKinnon lists, and FIGURE 1. The area of Curaçá, including the main localities mentioned in the text. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. opportunistic observations (Sutherland et al. 2004). Lines total) were documented by either: specimens (92 skins, of five standard 12-m mist-nets were opened from dawn 42 species), recordings (109 species), or photographs (63 until 11 am. MacKinnon samples (10 species’ lists) were species). Most of the species lacking evidence are non- produced for four different habitats, including arboreal passerines, which are relatively easy to identify and are Caatinga (31 lists), shrubby Caatinga (34 lists), open known to occur in neighboring areas. areas (7 lists), and gallery forests (29 lists). Observations Most of the species recorded in Curaçá are assumed were conducted along trails, from sunrise to ~11 am, and to be resident; we documented breeding activities in 32 between 4 pm until sunset. Abundance data presented in of them (see Appendix), but visits at other seasons are the appendix were drawn from these samples. necessary to permit a better understanding of the seasonal Breeding activities were represented by observations patterns of most species. Interestingly, there is a group of individuals copulating, feeding young or fledgings, of aquatic species that seem to visit the region following carrying food, or building material for their nests, or direct the local rains, when ponds and rivers fill with water. The observations of pairs building or using nests. We allocated rainy season of 1996/1997 was particularly wet, resulting the different species to different habitats, including i) in the formation of many bodies of water. In 1997, we dense arboreal Caatinga, ii) low shrubby Caatinga, iii) found many aquatic bird species, including Dendrocygna gallery forest, iv) wetlands and artificial ponds, v) riverine viduata (White-faced Whistling-Duck), Cairina habitats, and vi) open areas. To explore avian similarity moschata (Muscovy Duck), Sarkidiornis sylvicola (Comb among habitats, we performed a cluster analysis using a Duck), Amazonetta brasiliensis (Brazilian Teal), Netta similarity matrix built with Jaccard’s index. This analysis erythrophthalma (Southern Pochard), Nomonyx dominica was performed using Program Spade (Chao & Shen (Masked Duck), Tachybaptus dominicus (Least Grebe), 2010). A limited number of individuals were collected to Podilymbus podiceps (Pied-billed Grebe), Nycticorax provide a reference collection of the study area. Specimens nycticorax (Black-crowned Night-Heron), Aramides were collected under license number 54731333 (SISBIO) ypecaha (Giant Wood-Rail), Gallinula galeata (Common granted to HPFA. Specimens are held at the Coleção Gallinule), Gallinula melanops (Spot-flanked Gallinule), de Aves Heretiano Zenaide at the Universidade Federal Vanellus cayanus (Pied Lapwing), Himantopus mexicanus da Paraíba (UFPB) and Coleção da Divisão de Aves do (Black-necked Stilt), and Actitis macularius (Spotted Museu de Zoologia at the Universidade Federal de Feira Sandpiper), all of which were not found in 2011. de Santana (DAMZFS). We present the documentation Among all habitats explored, we recorded the most obtained for each species in Curaçá, which included species in low shrubby Caatinga (96 species), followed specimens (see above), but also digital vouchers (or by gallery forests (72 species), dense arboreal Caatinga e-vouchers), which have proven to be particularly useful (70), open areas (60), riverine environments (46), and in avian inventories (Lees et al. 2014). These include wetlands and ponds (36) (Appendix). We observed a recordings or photographs, which were either available higher similarity (among habitats) between the avifaunas through online sources such as xeno-canto (xenocanto. of arboreal Caatinga and gallery forests, and of both org) or WikiAves (wikiaves.org.br), or through the with shrubby Caatinga. The avifauna found on riverine personal collection of JMB. These are currently being enviroments and wetlands and ponds were most dissimilar incorporated at the Macaulay Library Collection, and (Figure 2). will soon be available online at macaulaylibrary.org. Taxonomy, nomenclature, and order of families and species follow the latest taxonomic treatment (Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos 2014). RESULTS A total of 204 species of 50 avian families have been recorded so far in Curaçá and surrounding areas (Appendix). We recorded most of these species (201) during our fieldwork, but documentation (photographs) of three additional species was found at WikiAves (Appendix). Most species (191) were first recorded in 1997, another six were added in 2000, and four were recorded in 2011 for the first time. Our records include 28 taxa (15 species and 13 FIGURE 2. Cluster analysis (obtained from a similarity matrix using subspecies) endemic to the Caatinga (Appendix). Most Jaccard’s index) of the bird species composition in each major habitat of the species recorded in Curaçá (143, or 70 % of the described in the text. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Below, we include some natural history notes on 1997, the hybrid pair was observed at a particular Caraíba poorly known or rare species, including some unreported tree, known locally as the caraíba dos três ocos (caraíba with observations of Spix’s Macaw, as well as previously the three holes). We observed the hybrid pair perched on undescribed breeding behaviors of several species. this tree at 5:55 am, sharing the tree with another pair of Primolius maracana. In a couple of occasions, the male Species accounts Spix’s made short flights in order to chase away the pair of Primolius, as if defending the potential nesting site. At Netta erythrophthalma Southern Pochard 7:15, the hybrid pair started to explore the largest of the We observed two females and a male at an artificial pond three holes, which the male Spix’s eventually entered. A few at Fazenda Concórdia on 29 December 1996; two males minutes later both individuals departed, and, a few hours and a female were present at the site on 2 January 1997. later, were heard in another location. On 7 January, the Numbers of individuals continued to fluctuate on the hybrid pair was seen exploring the area around a nesting following weeks, ranging from 11 birds on 6 January box, to which they returned a couple of hours later. The to 30 birds on 17 January, which was the last time we last time we saw the male Spix’s during our 1997 field observed the species at the pond. Seasonal movements season was on 22 January at Fazenda Prazeres, when the of this species are poorly known, particularly in South male accompanied the female Primolius to her roosting America (Carboneras 1992), but lack of records in other site at dusk, before departing, probably to his own roost seasons suggests that this species is undertaking seasonal site. In 2000, JMB made detailed observations of the movements to locate ephemeral wetlands throughout the same pair which this time had laid eggs. On 6 January, Caatinga. the male Spix’s was observed to leave the nest in the early morning. Its flight when leaving the nesting tree was rather Penelope jacucaca White-browed Guan erratic, including slow, arrhythmic, and shallow flaps and This Vulnerable species (BirdLife International 2012a) many glides making use of the wind. During that day it was frequently observed in gallery forests along dry was seen again a couple of times, including flights with creeks during our 1997 fieldwork. Between March and the female maracana, which was flying below the male. June 1998, ALR observed small groups (ranging from 2 The male only returned to the nest during the afternoon, to 7 individuals) drinking water in small ponds along a when it perched near the nesting hole. During that time, particular temporary creek (Riacho da Melancia). These it emitted some nasal soft calls “au,” probably contacting observations occurred after the rainy season, suggesting the female maracana that was likely inside the nest. About that temporary ponds remain important for this species. A 1 hr before sunset, the male left the nesting area, and was detailed compilation of these records have been published heard vocalizing a few hundred meters from the nest, previously (Roos & Antas 2006). where it probably spent the night. On the following day, the hybrid couple left the nesting hole agitated as they Nyctidromus hirundinaceus Pygmy Nightjar heard human activities near the nest, and performed a We found four active ‘nests’ around the headquarters couple of flights in circles above the ‘intruders.’ A few of Fazenda Concórdia in January 1997, which possibly minutes later, the pair returned to the nest, but given belonged to three different pairs. As is the case for other the presence of people nearby were reluctant to enter species in the family, no actual nest is built by this species; the nest, and flew in a few circles until they perched on eggs were found on the ground, at the side of a dirt road the top of nearby trees. Eventually, the female maracana used only occasionally by vehicles and people, whereas entered the nest and the male Spix perched close to the another egg was found close to a rocky outcrop. All ‘nests’ nesting hole in the caraibeira tree, somewhat hidden in contained a single egg, laid directly on the sandy or stony the foliage, vocalizing its typical “prrr prrr” call. The male ground. Detailed observations of these nests, eggs, and Spix finally flew to the top of a nearby tree. Those were chicks, including details of their breeding behavior are our last observations of the last individual in the wild of available elsewhere in this volume (Mazar Barnett et al. Spix’s Macaw, which finally disappeared a few months 2014). later and was never to be seen again in the wild. Cyanopsitta spixii Spix’s Macaw Eupsitulla cactorum Cactus Parakeet The last known wild individual of this species was observed We found four active nests at Fazenda Concórdia in several times during our 1997 field season and in January January, February, and March 1997. All nests were located 2000. In 1997, the male was often seen flying along the within active arboreal termite (Nasutitermes) mounds. dry creeks together with a female Primolius maracana Clutch sizes varied from 4 to 6 eggs, and all eggs were laid (Blue-winged Macaw), with which it had attempted to within an internal chamber excavated by the pairs. breed in previous years and with which it had produced Detailed observations of these nests and eggs have infertile eggs (BirdLife International 2013). On 3 January been published previously (Naka 1997). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Synallaxis hellmayri Red-shouldered Spinetail fluffing the feathers of the throat, chest, head, and flanks, This Caatinga endemic was seen only by JMB at Serra do while lowering its head and performing short jumps. Icó, Fazenda Macambira on 8 February 1997, in an area Sometimes, none of the birds would visit the chicks of dense Caatinga. Despite being a vocally conspicuous immediately, and remain with the food in their bills for species, S. hellmayri was not found in other areas around some time, either hiding in the vegetation or doing their Curaçá (such as Fazenda Concórdia). Its absence around typical vocalizations. After some time, all individuals Curaçá is surprising, and together with other Caatinga would approach the nest. The immature male seemed endemics not found around Curaçá (e.g., Megaxenops to be the most cautious (possibly due to the presence of parnaguae Great Xenops or Sakesphorus cristatus Silvery- the observer) and on some occasions it would approach cheeked Antshrike), quite intriguing. the nest, only to leave again, and start the approaching process all over again. Once a Falco femoralis (Aplomado Compsothraupis loricata Scarlet-throated Tanager Falcon) passed by the nest, while chasing a Falco sparverius JMB made detailed observations of a nesting site (American Kestrel). When the four tanagers detected of this species on 31 January 1997 at the Fazenda the falcons, they left the tree immediately and went to Gangorra (9°09'51"S, 39°45'20"W). Until now, very the ground, from where they uttered some alarm calls. little information regarding the breeding biology of On two occasions the four tanagers were seen chasing a this Caatinga endemic is available, and no detailed Sporophila albogularis (White-throated Seedeater), while description of its nest is available (Hilty 2011). The allowing two adult male Coereba flaveola (Bananaquits) nest was found on top of a large leafless Caraíba tree to stay atop of the tree. A second group was later found (Tabebuia caraiba). It was relatively small made of sticks, near the Riacho da Melancia, which consisted of a female resembling somewhat that of an old Pseudoseisura cristata and two young birds, which begged for food, although (Caatinga Cacholote). It differed from a chachalote’s nest not too insistently. A male within that group was seen in having a wider entrance, and a much thinner ‘see- carrying a small stick, but nest building was not detected. though’ outer structure, suggesting that it was not an old abandoned nest and might have been built by the tanagers Charitospiza eucosma Coal-crested Finch themselves, although this remains unclear. The nest was This Near Threatened species (BirdLife International located on a tree where three other nest-like structures 2012b) was relatively rare in Curaça in 1997, and was were apparent; the largest structure possibly represented not recorded in 2011. JMB found a pair feeding a young an old abandoned cachalote nest; the second appeared to bird on the ground in an area of shrubby Caatinga on 18 be either an old tanager nest (from a previous season) or January 1997. The young bird was similar to the female in a false nest, to trick possible predators; the third structure plumage, although slightly smaller in size, with a shorter represented a shapeless accumulation of sticks, and could tail, and vestiges of a yellow gape were apparent. There are have been an even older nest, or even a second false nest. very few records of the species breeding in the Caatinga, The hypothesis of a false nest seems quite plausible, given and its nest was only recently described in the Cerrado of that the nesting individuals often passed by this structure central Brazil (Borges & Marini 2008). A more detailed before and after carrying food to the active nest, from study suggested that the species breeds on the rainy season which begging calls could be heard. Birds were observed in central Brazil (Diniz et al. 2013), as seems to be the on several occasions approaching what it seemed as the case in the Caatinga, given our observations. entrance of this inactive nest, and lowering their heads as if looking inside or as if feeding a chick. After spending Icterus jamacaii Campo Troupial some time at this structure, birds would move slowly to We found a pair using an old Pseudoseisura cristata the active nest. The nest was attended by four individuals, (Caatinga Cacholote) nest to breed around the houses including an adult male, two female-looking individuals, at the headquarters of the Fazenda Concórdia on 31 and an immature male. This group clearly represented an December 1996. On 10 January 1997, three young birds adult pair, and two young (a male and a female) that likely left the nest and were seen on the ground. That same used acted as helpers. There were no clear differences among nest was then occupied by a pair of Agelaiodes fringillarius the two females, but the young male was completely (Pale Baywing) in the following weeks (see below). black (as the females) except a few red feathers (sometimes difficult to see) on the throat. On two occasions, a female Agelaiodes fringillarius Pale Baywing was seen inside the nest, while the adult male vocalized Several breeding behaviors were observed during our from a nearby tree and the two immature birds were 1997 field season. On 3 January, JMB observed a pair elsewhere. Very often, all four individuals would arrive of this Brazilian endemic occupying a nest. The nest together carrying food, although it was the adult male consisted of a base of sticks and a large cup on top (similar that first visited the begging chick(s). This male seemed to a thrush nest) on which one individual sat for a while. to perform a sort of ritual before entering the nest, Once, a pair Pseudoseisura cristata (Caatinga Cacholote) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. arrived and chased the blackbirds away. On 24 January, Given a variety of methodologies and sampling used, JMB observed another pair using an old cachalote comprehensive comparisons between our observations nest, which had been used by Icterus jamacaii (Campo and other sites are unwarranted; yet a figure of ~200 bird Troupial) two weeks before. The pair was observed species recorded in Curaçá is expected for a relatively well- carrying nesting material (grasses) to the nest, likely to preserved locality in the Caatinga. Olmos (1993) recorded line the main incubation chamber. Up to four individuals 208 species at Serra da Capivara, Piauí; Nascimento et al., of the species were observed around the nest, suggesting (2000) recorded 193 at Chapada do Araripe, Ceará; and the presence of helpers. Occasionally, birds performed Lima et al. (2003) recorded 191 at the Raso da Catarina, agonistic behaviors, although those were not too violent. Bahia. On the other hand, surveys in areas with more Another abandoned cachalote nest was visited by another human activities often report fewer species, such as the pair of baywings, which slept below the construction. studies conducted by Olmos et al. (2005) in western The nesting behavior of A. fringilloides remained poorly Pernambuco and Ceará (where they recorded between 93 known until recently (Fraga 2011, and Fraga & D’Angelo, and 125 species in eight different localities), or Farias et this volume), although the use of abandoned nests of al. (2006) with only 94 species at Curimataú, Paraíba, furnariids was well established in the group (Friedmann or even Araújo & Rodrigues (2011) with 120 species at 1929, Jaramillo & Burke 1999). The observations of the interior of Alagoas. Although sampling effort is not four individuals at the nesting site probably represent comparable throughout the different studies, it seems one of the first evidences of cooperative breeding in this quite clear that more pristine areas harbor higher number species, which is described in further detailed by Fraga & of species (Araujo & Rodrigues 2011), and Curaçá is one D’Angelo Neto (this volume). of the most speciose sites in the biome, possibly due to its relatively high habitat heterogeneity. Among the species absent in 2011 we can sadly DISCUSSION include Spix’s Macaw, extinct in the wild since 2000 (Silveira & Straube 2008). Until 1985, Curaçá, and more The avifauna of Curaçá is rather typical for the Caatinga, particularly the Riacho da Melancia (one of the areas we both in terms of species richness and species composition. sampled), represented the last stronghold for this species, We believe that we have detected the most representative as the last five individuals were found in the area (Rowley species in the region, having recorded over 200 species. & Collar 1997). Unfortunately most of those birds were It is quite clear, however, that other species are likely to likely taken by the illegal trade and only a single bird be found with further sampling, particularly if different remained to be seen during our 1997 field season. Several seasons are sampled. Surprisingly, only four species not management strategies were planned, from exchanging detected in 1997 were detected in 2011. Three of these the infertile cross-species eggs with real captive-produced were small tyrant flycatchers (Elaenia chilensis Chilean Spix’s eggs, to releasing a captive female to mate with Elaenia, Casiornis fusca Ash-throated Casiornis, and the lone male. A female was eventually released, but Cnemotriccus fuscatus Fuscous Flycatcher) caught in never paired with the male, and ultimately both birds mist-nets. Casiornis fusca seems to have a rather secretive disappeared (Juniper 2003). Despite the absence of the behavior and is more often found in mist-nets than in macaw, Curaçá has been considered as a priority area acoustic surveys, possibly passing undetected during our for conservation (Tabarelli & Silva 2004), and remains first field season. Both Elaenia chilensis and Cnemotriccus the best candidate area for a reintroduction program, fuscatus have migratory populations, and individuals particularly given the abundance of remnant Caraíba recorded in April 2011 may represent early migrants. woodlands (Tabebuia aurea) that seem to represent a vital On the other hand, 91 species were recorded in 1997 resource for the reproductive success of Spix’s Macaw but not in 2011. Although a large part of this difference (Collar et al. 1997). can be attributed to a longer field season in 1997 (more From our surveys, it is quite evident that several than 40 days in the field), some aquatic species were Caatinga specialists are absent from Curaçá. Species such clearly absent in 2011. In fact, a group of 16 species as Megaxenops parnaguae (Great Xenops), Herpsilochmus tight to aquatic environments were present on temporary sellowi (Caatinga Antwren), Sakesphorus cristatus (Silvery- ponds around the Spix’s Macaw’s Project headwaters in cheeked Antshrike), Hylopezus ochroleucus (White- 1997, but were not recorded in 2011. The rainy season of browed Antpitta), or Synallaxis scutata (Ochre-cheeked 2011 was not as intense as that of 1997, and few bodies of Spinetail) seem to be completely absent in the region. water formed during that year, explaining the absence of And in fact, the only area where Synallaxis hellmayri water-related species, and suggesting the existence of local (Red-shouldered Spinetail) was present was in Fazenda movements where these species must be tracking available Macambira, some 20 km from Fazenda Concórdia, bodies of water or exploring other regions (Olmos et al. where most of our fieldwork took place. All these species 2005; Araujo et al. 2012). are quite widespread in the Caatinga, and have been Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. recorded nearby. Understanding the drivers of these local finally see the light. Most of the data presented in this distribution patterns is a biogeographic and conservation article was obtained from Juan’s careful notes made 17 priority. These species may require denser Dry Forests (or years ago. We are grateful to him and would like to Caatinga arbórea), a physiognomy that may not be that dedicate this study to his memory. We just hope Juan common around Curaçá. would be proud of this study, and deeply regret that he is In terms of compositional similarity, we found that no longer among us to put his brilliant memory to use to the avifauna of the dense arboreal Caatinga was most recover the information following every record. similar to that of the gallery forests. This similarity is possibly explained by the presence of forest-dependent species in both habitats. On the other hand, we also found REFERENCES an equally high level of similarity between low shrubby Ab’Saber, A. N. 1977. Os domínios morfoclimáticos da América do Caatinga and gallery forests, possibly due to the presence Sul. Primeira aproximação. Geomorfologia São Paulo, 52: 1-21. of streams and their accompanying matrix of lower Andarade-Lima, D. 1982. The caatingas dominium. Revista Brasileira vegetation. The high species richness found in Curaçá de Botânica, 4: 149-153. seems to be the result of greater habitat heterogeneity. Araujo, H. F. P. & Rodrigues, R. C. 2011. Birds from open environments in the caatinga from state of Alagoas, Northeastern Some habitats, like the riparian vegetation found at the Brazil. Zoologia, 28: 629-640. island of Curaçá, provided the only records of some Araujo, H. F. P.; Vieira-Filho, A. H.; Cavalcanti, T. A. & Barbosa, species (e.g., Laterallus melanophaius Rufous-sided Crake, M. R. V. 2012. As aves e os ambientes em que elas ocorrem em Phacellodomus ruber Greater Thornbird, Cranioleuca uma reserva particular no Cariri paraibano, nordeste do Brasil. vulpina Rusty-backed Spinetail, Saltator coerulescens Ornitologia, 20: 365-377. BirdLife International. 2012a. Penelope jacucaca. In: IUCN 2013. Grayish Saltator, and Thlypopsis sordida Orange-headed IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. www. Tanager), which were only recorded along the Rio São iucnredlist.org (access on 2 February 2014). Francisco. These observations suggest that this habitat BirdLife International. 2012b. Charitospiza eucosma. In: IUCN is unique in the region and stands out as an important 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. www.iucnredlist.org (access on 2 February 2014). habitat for many species. This heterogeneity enforces BirdLife International. 2013. Cyanopsitta spixii. In: IUCN 2013. the need of conservation efforts in areas with habitat IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. www. diversity (Araujo & Rodrigues 2011, Araujo et al. 2012), iucnredlist.org (access on 2 February 2014). such as Curaçá. Our results suggest that the region of Borges, F. J., & Marini, M. A. 2008. Primeira descrição do ninho Curaçá remains a hotspot for biodiversity in the Brazilian do mineirinho (Charitospiza eucosma) no cerrado Brasil Central. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 16: 38-39. Caatinga, and requires immediate legal protection, Kevin J. B., Shultz, A. J., Title, P. O., Mason, N. A., Barker, F. K., particularly given its potential for the reintroduction of Klicka, J., Lanyon, S. M. & Lovette, I. J. 2014. Phylogenetics Spix’s Macaw. and diversification of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 75: 41-77. Carboneras, C. 1992. Family Anatidae, p. 536-628. In: del Hoyo, J. ; ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. (eds.). Handbook of the birds of the world, v. 1. Barcelona: Lynx Edicion. We are grateful to the many people that made Curaçá Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; their home while the last wild Spix’s Macaw could still Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A. & Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. Cambridge: be heard in the Caatinga. LNN and ALR would like International Council for Bird Preservation. to thank Marcos da Ré and Yara de Melo Barros for Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos. 2014. Listas das their initial invitation to work in the region back in th aves do Brasil. 11 Edition, http://www.cbro.org.br (access on 15 1997. CLGS, HFPA, CGM, and AMKU are grateful January 2014). Chao, A. & Shen, T. J. 2010. Program SPADE (Species Prediction to Patricia Pilatti and Carla Ingrid Medeiros Cavalcante and Diversity Estimation). Program and user’s guide available for their help in the field during the 2011 expedition. online at: http://chao.stat.nthu.edu.tw. This study was supported financially by the “Projeto Cracraft, J. 1985. Historical Biogeography and Patterns of Ararinha-azul” with funds from Loro Parque Foundation Differentiation Within The South American Avifauna: Areas of and the Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (IBAMA) Endemism. Ornithological Monographs, 36: 49-84. Departamento de Ciências Atmosféricas. 2013. Universidade for the 1997/98 seasons, and by the Brazilian Research Federal de Campina Grande http://www.dca.ufcg.edu.br/clima Council (CNPq) through the Biodiversity Research (access on 10 December 2013). Program (PPBio Semiárido) for the 2011 field season. Diniz, P., Ramos, D. M. & Chemin, N. 2013. Breeding biology of We are very grateful to Sidney de Melo Dantas, Thomas Coal-crested Finches. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 125: 592- S. Schulenberg, and an anonymous reviewer for their Dornelas, A. A. F.; Paula, D. C.; Santos, M. M. E.; Sánchez- insightful comments and edits on a previous version of Azofeifa, G. A & Leite, L. O. 2012. Avifauna do Parque Estadual the manuscript. Publishing this paper was unfinished da Mata Seca, norte de Minas Gerais. Ornitologia, 20: 378-391. business for us, and we are happy that these data will Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Farias, G. 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Tanagers to New World Blackbirds. Barcelona: Lynx most Threatened Family of Birds in the Americas. Houston: Houston Edicions. Museum of Natural Science. Friedmann, H. 1929. The Cowbirds: a Study in the Biology of Social Rowley, I. & Collar, N. J. 1997. Psittaciformes, p. 246-477. In: del Parasitism. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas Publisher. Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of Hilty, S. 2011. Family Thraupidae (Tanagers), p. 160. In: del Hoyo, the World, Vol. 4. Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. J., Elliott, A. & Christie, D. A. (eds.) Handbook of the Birds of the Sampaio, E. V. S. B. 1995. Overview of the Brazilian caatinga, p. World, Vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds. Barcelona: Lynx 35-63. In: Bullock, S. H.; Mooney, H. & Medina, E. (eds.), Edicions. Seasonally dry tropical forests. Cambridge: Cambridge University Jaramillo, A. & Burke, P. 1999. New World Blackbirds. The Icterids. Press. 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Olmos, F.; Silva, W. G. A. & Albano, C. G. 2005. Aves em oito áreas Tabarelli, M. & Silva, A. V. 2004. Conhecimento sobre as plantas de caatinga no sul do Ceará e oeste de Pernambuco, Nordeste lenhosas da Caatinga: lacunas geograficas e ecologicas, p. 101- do Brasil: composição, riqueza e similaridade. Papéis Avulsos de 112. In: Silva, J. M. C.; Tabarelli, M. & Fonseca, M. T. (eds.). Zoologia, 45:179-199. Biodiversidade da Caatinga: areas e acões prioritárias para a Pacheco, J. F. 2004. As aves da Caatinga: uma análise histórica do conservacao. Brasilia: Ministerio do Meio Ambiente. conhecimento, p. 189-250. In: Silva, J. M. C., Tabarelli M., Vanzolini, P.E. 1976. On the lizards of Cerrado-Caatinga contact: Fonseca M. T. & Lins, L. V. (eds.). Biodiversidade da Caatinga: Evolutionary and Zoogeographical implications (Sauria). Papéis áreas e ações prioritárias para a conservação. Brasília: Ministério Avulsos de Zoologia, 29: 111-119. do Meio Ambiente / Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Pacheco, J. F. 2000. Ornitologia descobre o sertão: um balanço do conhecimento da avifauna da caatinga dos primórdios aos anos Associate Editor: Alex C. Lees Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. APPENDIX: List of bird species recorded in Curaçá, Bahia, including field season of records, breeding, migratory, or endangered status, habitats used in the area, abundance (observation frequency), and documentation. Taxonomy, nomenclature, and species order follows the Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos (2014), except for the Nightjars where we follow Sigurdsson and Cracraft (2014) and for some Thraupidae where we follow Burns et al. (2014). Field season 1 3 4 5 6 7 Families and species Status Localities Habitats Ab. Documentation 1997-98 2011 RHEIDAE Rhea americana xNT Co O TINAMIDAE Crypturellus parvirostris x x Cn, Co, Ma, PB B F O 1,98 R (JMB:T5) Crypturellus tataupa x x Ca, Gp, Ma A B F 15,84 ssp Rhynchotus rufescens x Co B R (JMB:T8) Nothura boraquira x Cn, Co, PB B O R (JMB:T4) Nothura maculosa x Co B O R (JMB:T8) ANATIDAE Dendrocygna viduata x Sea/W Co, IC W R (XC15376) Cairina moschata x Sea/W Co, Ga, Pr W Sarkidiornis sylvicola x Sea/W Co W R (XC33195) Amazonetta brasiliensis x Sea/W Co, IC W Netta erythrophthalma x Sea/W Co W R (XC33194) Nomonyx dominica x Sea/W; br Co W R (JMB:T4) CRACIDAE sp Penelope jacucaca x Vul Co, Rm, Bp F P (WA665458) PODICIPEDIDAE Tachybaptus dominicus x Sea/W Co W R (XC15443) Podilymbus podiceps x Sea/W Co W R (XC15464) CICONIIDAE Ciconia maguari x Sea/W Pr W Mycteria americana x Sea/W Co W O 1,98 PHALACROCORACIDAE Phalacrocorax brasilianus JMB 00 IC W ARDEIDAE Tigrisoma lineatum x Sea/W Co, Rm W Nycticorax nycticorax x Sea/W Bp W P (WA717303) Butorides striata x Sea/W Cn, Co, Bp W Bubulcus ibis x x Co W O 1,98 P (WA839919) Ardea alba x x Bp, Co W B 6,93 O F Egretta thula x Sea/W Bp, Co W CATHARTIDAE Cathartes aura x x Bp, Cn, Co, PB B F 2,97 Cathartes burrovianus x x Cn, Co O 0,99 Coragyps atratus x x Bp, Cn, Co, Gp, A B O 3,96 Rm Sarcorhamphus papa xCn B ACCIPITRIDAE Gampsonyx swainsonii Wikiaves br P (WA691106) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Field season 1 3 4 5 6 7 Families and species Status Localities Habitats Ab. Documentation 1997-98 2011 Accipiter bicolor x Co F P (WA856148 ) Rostrhamus sociabilis xCo W Geranospiza caerulescens x Cn, Co, PB, Rm B F R (XC15402) Heterospizias meridionalisxCn Rupornis magnirostris x x Bp, Cn, Co, A B F R 12,87 P (W A811814); IC,Gp, Rm R (JMB:T8) Geranoaetus melanoleucus x Cn, Co A R (XC15326) ARAMIDAE Aramus guarauna JMB 00 IC W RALLIDAE Aramides ypecaha x Pr, Rm W Aramides cajaneus x x Co, PB, Pr, Rm F 0,99 Laterallus melanophaius x IC R (JMB:T9) Gallinula galeata x Sea/W Co W Gallinula melanops x Sea/W Co W CHARADRIIDAE Vanellus cayanus x Sea/W Co, IC Vanellus chilensis x x Bp, Co O W 4,95 P (WA282375); R (JMB:T8) Charadrius collaris x Sea/W IC P (WA612146); R (JMB:T9) RECURVIROSTRIDAE Himantopus mexicanus x Sea/W Co W P (WA612145); R (JMB:T6) SCOLOPACIDAE Actitis macularius x Sea/W; VN Co W Tringa solitaria x x Sea/W; VN Co W 0,99 R (XC15346, JMB:T4) JACANIDAE Jacana jacana x Sea/W Co W COLUMBIDAE Columbina minuta x x Cn, Co, IC, Pr B O F 19,8 S (CAHZ00194); R (JMB:T8) Columbina talpacoti xIC O R Columbina squammata x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B O 29,7 S (CAHZ00203) Rm F R R (JMB:T4) Columbina picui x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B O 29,7 S (CAHZ Pr, Rm F R 00205); P (WA283113); R (JMB:T6) Patagioenas picazuro x x Co, Gp, PB, Rm A B O F 6,93 R (XC15463; JMB:T6) Zenaida auriculata x Cn, Co, PB B O S (CAHZ 207) Leptotila verreauxi x x Co, Gp, IC, Rm A B O 28,71 R (JMB:T8) F R Leptotila rufaxilla x Cn, Co, IC F R (JMB:T4) CUCULIDAE Piaya cayana x x Co, Gp A F 6,93 Coccyzus melacoryphus x Cn, Co B P (WA816425) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Field season 1 3 4 5 6 7 Families and species Status Localities Habitats Ab. Documentation 1997-98 2011 Coccyzus americanus JMB 00 VN PB A Crotophaga major x Bp, Co, PB W Crotophaga ani x x Co B O F 1,98 Guira guira x Cn, Co, IC B R R (JMB:T4) Tapera naevia x Cn, Co, IC B R TYTONIDAE Tyto furcata JMB 00 Cur V STRIGIDAE Megascops choliba x x br Co, Gp, Ma, Pr A F 2,97 S ( CAHZ 215) Bubo virginianus xRm F Glaucidium brasilianum x x Co, Gp A F 2,97 P (WA705505) Athene cunicularia xCo O NYCTIBIIDAE Nyctibius griseus x Co, Pr F CAPRIMULGIDAE Antrostomus rufus Wikiaves P (WA856139) Hydropsalis parvulus x x Co, PB, Pr B V 0,99 ssp Nyctidromus hirundinaceus x x br Cn, Co, PB B O P (W A628847); R (JMB:T8) Hydropsalis torquata x Co R (JMB:T8) ssp Chordeiles pusillus x x br Co, Cur B O R (JMB:T4) Chordeiles acutipennis x Cur, Pr B O V Podager nacunda x Cur V APODIDAE Tachornis squamata x Cur V TROCHILIDAE Eupetomena macroura x x Bp, Cn, Co, Gp, A B F 2,97 S (CAHZ198); Rm P (WA710911) Chrysolampis mosquitus x x br Co, PB, Rm B F 0,99 R (WA143290; JMB:T8) Chlorostilbon lucidus x x br Bp, Cn, Co, Gp, A B F 10,89 S ( CAHZ 236) PB, Pr Amazilia fimbriata xIC Heliomaster squamosus x x Co, Gp A B 1,98 S( CAHZ 246) ALCEDINIDAE Megaceryle torquata x IC W R R (JMB:T9) Chloroceryle americana x Bp, Co W GALBULIDAE Galbula ruficauda x IC R (JMB:T9) BUCCONIDAE Nystalus maculatus x x br Cn, Co, Gp, PB A B 5,94 P (WA747548) PICIDAE sp Picumnus pygmaeus x x br Co, IC O F R 1,98 P (WA954833); R (JMB:T6) Melanerpes candidus xCn B Veniliornis passerinus x x Bp, Co, Gp, IC A B O F 10,89 P (WA705491) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Field season 1 3 4 5 6 7 Families and species Status Localities Habitats Ab. Documentation 1997-98 2011 Colaptes melanochloros x x Cn, Co F 2,97 S (CAHZ 221); P (WA945563); R (JMB:T8) Colaptes campestris x Cn, Co B O R (JMB:T5) Campephilus melanoleucos x x Co, Ga, Gp, Rm A B F 5,94 P (W A665479); R (JMB:T8) CARIAMIDAE Cariama cristata x x br Bp, Cn, Co, Gp, A B O 10,89 R (JMB:T4) PB W FALCONIDAE Caracara plancus x x Bp, Cn, Co B F 0,99 P (W A710916); R (JMB:T4) Milvago chimachima x x Co F O 0,99 Herpetotheres cachinnans x x br Cn, Co, Ga, Gp, A F 2,97 P (W A992909); PB R (JMB:T4) Falco sparverius x x Cn, Co, Gp A B 0,99 S (CAHZ 230) Falco femoralis x Bp, Co, IC B R P (WA1055939) Falco peregrinus x VN Co, Cur, IC V PSITTACIDAE sp Cyanopsitta spixii x CE / Ext W Bp, Co, PB, Pr A B F P (WA41251); R (JMB:T9) Primolius maracana x x Br / NT Bp, Cn, Co, Gp, B O F 6,93 P (W A791457); PB, Pr, Rm R (JMB:T4) ssp Thectocercus acuticaudatus x br Bp, Cn, Co, Pr B F P (W A958781); R (JMB:T4) sp Eupsittula cactorum x x br Bp, Cn, Co, , PB, A B O F 42,57 S (CAHZ 231); Pr, Rm P (WA960813) Forpus xanthopterygius x x Cn, Co, IC, PB B O F R 8,91 P (WA961430); R (JMB:T7) Amazona aestiva x x Co, Pr, Rm, Bp A B O F 14,85 THAMNOPHILIDAE sp Myrmorchilus strigilatus x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B O 13,86 S ( CAHZ 199); Ma R (JMB:T5) ssp Formicivora melanogaster x x Co, Gp, IC, Ma A B R 5,94 R (JMB:T9) sp Thamnophilus capistratus x x br Cn, Co, Gp, Pr A B 2,97 R (JMB:T5) Taraba major x x Gp,IC A R 2,97 S ( CAHZ 245); R (JMB:T9) DENDROCOLAPTIDAE Sittasomus griseicapillus x x Co, Gp, Rm A O F 16,83 S ( CAHZ 228); P (WA964806); R (JMB:T8) ssp Lepidocolaptes angustirostris x x Cn, Co, Gp, Rm A B O F 42,57 S ( CAHZ 224); P (W A960808); R (JMB:T4) FURNARIIDAE Furnarius figulus x x Cn, Co, Cur, IC A F R 1,98 R (JMB:T9) Furnarius leucopus x x Bp, IC, PB, Rm A F 16,83 S (CAHZ 217); R (WA143316; JMB:T4) sp Pseudoseisura cristata x x br Bp, Cn, Co B F 1,98 P (WA959729); R (JMB:T8) ssp Phacellodomus rufifrons x IC B O R Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Field season 1 3 4 5 6 7 Families and species Status Localities Habitats Ab. Documentation 1997-98 2011 Phacellodomus ruber x IC R (JMB:T9) Certhiaxis cinnamomeus x Cur, IC R (JMB:T9) sp Synallaxis hellmayri x NT Ma, PB A R (JMB:T9) Synallaxis frontalis x x br Co, Gp, IC, PB, F R 4,95 S (CAHZ 222); Rm R (WA143325) Synallaxis albescens x Co, Cn B O R (JMB:T4) ssp Cranioleuca vulpina x IC W P (WA791433); R (WA727033; JMB:T9) TITYRIDAE Pachyramphus viridis x br Co, IC F Pachyramphus polychopterus x x Cn, Co, Gp, PB, A B F 11,88 S (CAHZ 227); Rm R (JMB:T8) Pachyramphus validus x br Co, PB F R (JMB:T9) Xenopsaris albinucha x br Cn, Co B P (W A856146); R (JMB:T8) RHYNCHOCYCLIDAE Tolmomyias flaviventris x x br Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B O 29,7 S (CAHZ 218); PB, Rm F R P (WA964815), R (JMB:T4) Todirostrum cinereum x x br Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B F R 15,84 S (CAHZ 211); PB, Rm P (WA959689) Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer JMB 00 x Co, Gp, PB A B 12,87 S (CAHZ 234); P (WA961437) TYRANNIDAE Hirundinea ferruginea x x Cn, Gp A 0,99 P (WA764856) ssp Stigmatura napensis x x Cn, Co, IC, PB B O R 6,93 S (CAHZ 192); P (W A705472); R (JMB:T6) ssp Stigmatura budytoides x Co B P (WA782431) Euscarthmus meloryphus x x Cn, Co, IC B 3,96 R (JMB:T5) Camptostoma obsoletum x x Cn, Co, Gp B O F 3,96 S(CAHZ 187); R (JMB:T5) Elaenia spectabilis x x IC A 0,99 S (CAHZ 241); P (WA856150) Elaenia chilensis x VS Gp A 0,99 S(CAHZ 237) ssp Suiriri suiriri x x br Co B O 2,97 S (CAHZ 210); P (WA964822) Myiopagis viridicata x x Cn, Co, Gp, PB, A F 10,89 S (CAHZ 247); Rm R (JMB:T4) Phaeomyias murina x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B R 6,93 R (JMB:T6) PB, Rm Myiarchus swainsoni JMB 00 PB P (WA816423) Myiarchus tyrannulus x x Cn, Co, Rm, PB A B O F 49,5 S (CAHZ 238); P (WA1121635); R (JMB:T8) sp Casiornis fuscus x Gp A 1,98 P (WA857041) Pitangus sulphuratus x x Cn, Co, PB, Pr, B F 1,98 R (JMB:T4) Rm Machetornis rixosa x Bp, Co, Pr O R (JMB:T6) Myiodynastes maculatus x x br Cn, Co,Gp, Rm A B O F 15,84 S (CAHZ 212) Myiozetetes similis x x Cn, Co, IC A O F 9,9 P (WA302938); R (JMB:T4) Megarynchus pitangua x Cn, Co, Gp, PB, A F R S (CAHZ 243); Rm R (JMB:T8) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Field season 1 3 4 5 6 7 Families and species Status Localities Habitats Ab. Documentation 1997-98 2011 Tyrannus melancholicus x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B O 50,49 R (WA876462) PB, Rm F R Tyrannus savana xIC R V Empidonomus varius x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B F R 9,9 S (CAHZ 196); Rm P (WA282376); R (JMB:T8) Myiophobus fasciatus x Sublegatus modestus x Cn, Co B R (JMB:T5) Fluvicola albiventer x br Co W P (WA606629; JMB:T4) Fluvicola nengeta x Bp, Co, IC P (WA839912) Arundinicola leucocephala x br Cur, IC R W P (WA769720) Cnemotriccus fuscatus xGp B Satrapa icterophrys xCo F ssp Xolmis irupero x x Co B 1,98 P (WA960812) VIREONIDAE Cyclarhis gujanensis x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B O F 21,78 R (JMB:T6) Rm, PB Vireo olivaceus x x VN Co, IC, PB, Rm A F R 8,91 S (CAHZ 233); R (WA138581; JMB:T4) CORVIDAE sp Cyanocorax cyanopogon x x Bp, Cn, Co, Rm A B O F 36,63 S (CAHZ 220); P (W A835028); R (JMB:T8) HIRUNDINIDAE Progne tapera x Co, IC B W R (JMB:T4) Progne chalybea x Cur W Tachycineta albiventer x Co W R (XC15335) Riparia riparia x VN Cur, IC Hirundo rustica x VN Cur, IC V R (JMB:T9) TROGLODYTIDAE Troglodytes musculus x x Bp, Cn, Co, Gp, A B O F 45,54 S (CAHZ 226); IC, PB, Rm R (WA1143402; JMB:T8) ssp Cantorchilus longirostris x x Cn, Co,Gp, IC, A B 19,8 R (JMB:T8) Ma POLIOPTILIDAE Polioptila plumbea x x Bp, Cn, Co, Gp, A B O 27,72 S (CAHZ 208); IC, PB, Rm F R P (WA1121632); R (JMB:T8) TURDIDAE Turdus rufiventris x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B F R 3,96 P (WA705501); Rm R (JMB:T7) Turdus amaurochalinus x x Cn, Co B F 3,96 S (CAHZ 216); R (JMB:T8) MIMIDAE ssp Mimus saturninus x x Bp, Cn, Co B O 7,92 PASSERELLIDAE Zonotrichia capensis x x Cn, Co, IC B O Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Field season 1 3 4 5 6 7 Families and species Status Localities Habitats Ab. Documentation 1997-98 2011 Ammodramus humeralis x x Cn, Co, PB B O 3,96 S (CAHZ 204); P (WA960804); R (JMB:T6) ICTERIDAE Procacicus solitarius x IC P (WA879413); R (JMB:T9) Icterus pyrrhopterus x x Bp, Co, Gp, IC, A F R 1,98 P (W A710908); Pr R (JMB:T8) sp Icterus jamacaii x x br Bp, Cn, Co, A B O F 3,96 P (WA973957; Gp,IC, Rm R (JMB:T4) Chrysomus ruficapillus x Co, Pr O R (XC15396) sp Agelaioides fringillarius x br Bp, Cn, IC B R P (WA710906); R (JMB:T9) Molothrus rufoaxillaris xCn A Molothrus bonariensis x Cn, Pr B O Sturnella superciliaris Wikiaves R (WA141160; JMB:T8) THRAUPIDAE Coereba flaveola x x Bp, Co, PB, Rm A B F 6,93 S (CAHZ 213); R (JMB:T4) Saltator coerulescens x IC R (JMB:T9) Saltator similis x Cn, IC A B R (JMB:T8) sp Compsothraupis loricata x x br Bp, Cn, Co, Ga, A B 3,96 P (WA961425); Gp, PB R (JMB:T4) Nemosia pileata x Bp, Co, Gp,Rm A R (XC15437) Thlypopsis sordida x IC R (JMB:T9) Coryphospingus pileatus x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B O R 42,57 S (CAHZ 235); PB, Rm R (WA143333; JMB:T8) Tangara sayaca x x Cn, Co,Gp, IC A B F R 5,94 Paroaria dominicana x x br Bp, Cn, Co,Gp, A B O F R 24,75 S (CAHZ 188); IC, PB P (WA765294); R (JMB:T5) Conirostrum speciosum x x Bp, Co, PB A B F 2,97 Sicalis columbiana x Cur V P (WA606652); R (JMB:T9) Sicalis flaveola x br Co B P (WA961434); R (JMB:T6) Sicalis luteola x Co B R (JMB:T6) Volatinia jacarina x x Bp, Co, IC, Rm A B O 8,91 S (CAHZ 206); R (JMB:T9) Sporophila lineola x x Co, Cur, IC, Rm A O R 0,99 R (XC33350) Sporophila nigricollis x Co W R (WA141097; JMB:T8) Sporophila caerulescens xCo W sp Sporophila albogularis x x Bp, Co B O F 12,87 S (CAHZ 229) Sporophila bouvreuil x Co, IC W R (JMB:T6) Charitospiza eucosma x Br / NT Cn, Co B P (WA791455); R (JMB:T7) CARDINALIDAE Cyanoloxia brissonii x x Co, IC, Gp A B 1,98 R (JMB:T9) FRINGILLIDAE Euphonia chlorotica x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B F R 6,93 R (JMB:T9) Rm Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Field season 1 3 4 5 6 7 Families and species Status Localities Habitats Ab. Documentation 1997-98 2011 PASSERIDAE Passer domesticus x Introduced Co, Cur V Families and Species. Caatinga endemic taxa are denoted by a superscript note referring to whether a given taxon represents an SP SSP endemic species , or subspecies . Field Season. Refers to the date when our observations were obtained. Because two independent groups provided records, this information may be important for follow-up inquiries or to assess temporal changes in the avifauna. Rather than including a third column for JMB’s observations during a short period in 2000, we included his novel observations under the 1997-98 column followed by “JMB 00”. When records were not obtained by any of the authors, we included a note indicating the source of the data. Status. We include here data on breeding, migratory, or conservation status. Breeding species (br) represent those species for which we personally made observations suggestive of breeding activity. Observations included i) pairs copulating, ii) birds attending or building a nest or carrying nesting material, iii) presence of chicks, nestlings or fledgings, or iv) birds carrying food. Migratory species represent taxa that are unlikely to spend the entire year in Curaçá, and include Northern Visitors (NV), represented by birds that breed in the Northern Hemisphere and spend the austral summer (November – April) in the area; Southern Visitors (SV), which breed in Southern South America spend apparently spend the austral winter (May - September) in the area; and Seasonal Visitors (Sea), which are likely to performed seasonal movements that are not well understood. We also noted those seasonal visitors that appear following the availability of water resources (Sea/W), such as natural ponds or artificial lakes. We believe that all other species are likely residents and breed in the area, but we do not have data to support this assessment. We also included whether a species is endangered according to the IUCN (BirdLife International 2013), denoting which species is Extinct (Ext), Critically Endangered (CE), Vulnerable (Vul), or Near-threatened (NT). Localities. Refers to the general locations where each species was recorded. Fazendas Concórdia (Co), Gangorra (Ga), Canabrava (Cn), Prazeres (Pr), and Macambira (Ma), Gruta Patamuté (Gp), Island of Curaçá (IC), Poço do Baú (PB), Town of Curaçá (Cur), Riacho da Melancia (Rm), and Barragem do Plácido (Bp). For coordinates and a brief description of these localities see Study Area. Habitat. Represents the major habitats where we recorded each species in Curaçá. A: Arboreal of dense Caatinga; B: Shrubby or low Caatinga; F: Gallery Forest; O: Open areas; R: Riparian Forest; V: villages and towns; W: wetlands and ponds. Abundance. Refer to frequency of observations derived from quantitative data obtained through MacKinnon lists. Abundance data was only included for the 2011 field season. Documentation. Refers to the hard evidence supporting the presence of each species in the study area. S: specimens (held at the Bird Collections of the Federal Universites of Paraíba (UFPB) and Feira de Santana (UEFS); R: recordings, are available at Xeno-canto (xenocanto.org), wikiaves (wikiaves.org.br), or the personal collection of JMB, which is currently being included in the Macaulay Library database (macaulaylibrary.org). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ornithology Research Springer Journals

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Abstract

Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 121-137 ARTICLE June 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw 1 2 2 3 Juan Mazar Barnett , Cayo Lima Gomes da Silva , Helder Farias Pereira de Araujo , Andrei Langeloh Roos , Caio 4 5 6,7 Graco Machado , Angélica Maria K. Uejima and Luciano N. Naka Deceased. Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus II/Areia, Paraíba, Brazil. Reserva Extrativista Marinha Pirajubaé, Instituto Chico Mendes da Biodiversidade (ICMBio). Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Vitória de Santo Antão, Pernambuco, Brazil. Laboratório de Ornitologia, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CEP 50670-901, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Corresponding author: lnaka1@lsu.edu Received on 05 February 2014. Accepted on 21 March 2014. ABSTRACT: The region of Curaçá was one of the first regions of the Brazilian northeast to be ornithologically explored, and is known as the type locality and last stronghold of the Spix’s Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii), now extinct in the wild. The region of Curaçá has been considered of high conservation importance, particularly for holding some of the last relicts of Caraíba (Tabebuia caraiba) gallery forest in the Caatinga, and for representing the most obvious place to start a reintroduction program for C. spixii. Despite international interest in the plight of the macaw and frequent visits by ornithologists in the last 30 years, no general avian survey has been undertaken in the region. In this paper, we present data from three independent field seasons in the area, conducted in 1997-98, 2000, and 2011. We include data on 204 bird species recorded in the region, including 28 taxa endemic to the Caatinga. We present an analysis of the species present in the region, in relation to their preferred habitats and include natural history and breeding data for many of them. In particular, we include our observations on the last wild individual of C. spixii, and describe the nest and breeding behavior of Compsothraupis loricata. We also present an appendix with the list of all avian species recorded in the area, including the field season when these records were obtained, their seasonal and conservation status, the main habitats and localities where each record was obtained, a quantitative assessment of abundance for part of the species, and documentation (specimen, photograph, or audio recording) available for each species. We conclude that the region of Curaçá is particularly species rich, and that a great part of this avian diversity results from its high habitat heterogeneity, which includes arboreal and shrubby Caatinga, gallery forests, riverine riparian habitats along the Rio São Francisco, and open areas and artificial ponds, which are particularly important for aquatic birds. KEYWORDS: Birds, Caatinga, Cyanopsitta spixii, gallery forest, survey. In 1819, Johan Baptist Ritter von Spix explored the dry observations remained largely unpublished, and no woodlands along the Rio São Francisco, near the village general surveys of the region’s avifauna have been of Juazeiro, in the deep interior of the Brazilian northeast published to date. (Juniper 2003). Among the specimens he collected, Curaçá is located in the heart of the Brazilian was a small blue macaw. That species, first observed by Caatinga, a habitat that represents one of the most Georg Marcgrave when he has working in Pernambuco isolated, differentiated, and botanically distinct semiarid during the XVII Century, is now known as Spix’s Macaw regions on the planet (Sarmiento 1983). For many years, (Cyanopsitta spixii), and was known to inhabit the gallery the Caatinga was considered a region with low endemism forests near Curaçá, a small town located some 90 km and lacking a biogeographical identity (Vanzolini 1976; east of Juazeiro, in the state of Bahia. Curaçá not only Mares et al. 1981; Andrade-Lima 1982, Prance 1987), represents the type locality of the blue macaw collected but recent studies have found a high level of avian by Spix, but also remained the last stronghold of this diversity and endemism (Pacheco 2004). Climatically, species until the end of the XX century, when the last the Caatinga is a region marked by its aridity, hot known individual in the wild disappeared (Silveira and weather, and a short rainy season, which may fail to arrive Straube 2008). The presence of this global rarity near on any given year (Ab’Saber 1977). The severe climate the little village of Curaçá attracted many ornithologists and geomorphological characteristics of the region may to the region, particularly during the 1990s, but their explain the existence of a highly endemic flora, with many The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. adaptations to the dry conditions of the habitat (Mares summer of 1997, JMB, LNN, and ALR spent several et al. 1985; Sampaio 1995). Although the Caatinga months in Curaçá during activities related to the has been identified as an important center of avian conservation of Spix’s Macaw. Their observations were endemism in South America (Cracraft 1985), ecological, mostly opportunistic (composed of daily bird lists), but biogeographical, and evolutionary studies in this biome general notes were taken, and many of their findings are still rare (Silva et al. 2003; Araujo et al. 2012). remain novel today (Mazar Barnett et al. 2014a, this Until recently, most distributional data on Caatinga volume). In 2011, CLGS, HFPA, and AMKU revisited birds were restricted to unpublished data or poorly the region and surveyed the avifauna using mist-nets and known and difficult to obtain references (Pacheco 2000). performed quantitative surveys. In this paper, we include The first modern compilations of the Caatinga avifauna natural history notes on several bird species, and provide were produced only 10 years ago, and include between a useful characterization of the region’s avifauna, calling 350 (Pacheco 2004) and 510 (Silva et al. 2003) species, the attention to this unique place that not too long ago depending on whether natural patches of Atlantic Forest represented the last stronghold of the world’s rarest parrot. (locally known as brejos) are also considered. In recent years, a clearer picture of the distribution patterns of the Caatinga avifauna have been unveiled, bringing attention METHODS to the remarkable diversity and habitat heterogeneity Study Area — This study took place in the Municipality of this little-studied region. Such compilations were important to raise new interest in the avifauna of the of Curaçá (08°59' S, 39°54'W), c. 90 km ENE of the Caatinga, and in 2012 the Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia city of Juazeiro, in the Brazilian state of Bahia (Figure dedicated a special issue to the region (e.g. Araujo et al. 1). The climate of the region is hot (mean annual 2012; Diniz et al. 2012; Dornelas et al. 2012; Santos et al. temperature of 24 C) and dry (mean annual rainfall of 66 years resulted in only 454 mm/yr; Departamento 2012; Schunck et al. 2012; Silveira & Santos 2012; Silva et al. 2012; Sousa et al. 2012). de Ciências Atmosféricas 2013). Precipitation is highly Lack of general distribution and diversity patterns seasonal, with most rain falling between January and have a direct effect on our capacity to make informed April (Departamento de Ciências Atmosféricas 2013). choices in terms of conservation priorities. Without a The region around Curaçá is relatively heterogeneous, including areas of dense dry forests (Caatinga arbórea), good understanding of current diversity distribution patterns, conservation priorities will hardly be effective short shrubby vegetation (Caatinga aberta), and very in protecting the most representative and unique characteristic gallery forests along seasonal watercourses, regions of the Caatinga, which is fast becoming a new most notably Riacho da Melancia, where the last Spix’s agricultural frontier. Despite the fragility of this region Macaws used to breed. These forests are particularly rare elsewhere and are dominated by tall Caraíba trees in terms of desertification, over-exploitation, and low recovery capacity, only 7% of the native vegetation cover (Tabebuia aurea). Unfortunately, goats, sheep, and cattle is included in protected areas (and only 1% in fully have severely affected the regeneration of this forest protected ones), and in fact, the Caatinga has the lowest (Juniper & Yamashita 1991). Other tree species that number of protected areas and net protected surface of characterize the area of Curaçá include Euphorbiaceae such as Faveleira (Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus) and Pinhão any other Brazilian major biome (Leal et al. 2005). The region of Curaçá, in particular, has been (Jatropha mollissima), Caesalpinoidea such as the indicated as being a high priority for regional conservation Catingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidis), and Cactacea such (Silva et al. 2004) and was recommended to receive as Xique-xique (Pilosocereus gounellei) and Mandacarú full legal protection (Pacheco 2004). Among Curaçá’s (Cereus jamaracu). Soil is generally composed of clay, and partially covered by gravel and pebbles, with some rocky environmental peculiarities, it still retains a healthy and unique gallery forest dominated by Caraíba trees outcrops distributed throughout the landscape. (Tabebuia aurea Bignoniaceae), which was used by Spix’s Fieldwork — Our ‘1997’ data was collected between Macaws as nest sites (Juniper & Yamashita 1991). The 29 December 1996 and 8 February 1997 by JMB, relative scarcity of this habitat, now mostly restricted to LNN, and ALR. Subsequently, ALR spent six additional months between February and July 1998. Observations the region of Curaçá and a few areas in the neighboring state of Piauí, may have been a driver of the decline of occurred mostly at Fazenda Concórdia (09°10'26"S, Spix’s Macaw since colonial times (Juniper & Yamashita 39°46'39"W), at the former headquarters of the Spixi’s 1991). Therefore, an assessment of the regions’ avifauna Macaw Project, but other fazendas such as Gangorra may shed light into the role of this special habitat for the (9°09'51"S, 39°45'20"W), Canabrava (9°12'28"S, 39°42'25"W), Prazeres (9°08'50"S, 39°53'37"W), and entire avian community. Here, we present data from two independent Macambira (9°01'0"S, 39°46'08"W) were also explored. surveys conducted nearly 15 years apart. During the Several habitats were available at those sites, including Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. arboreal and shrubby Caatinga, as well as gallery forests 2000 JMB returned to Curaçá and visited the locality along the (often dry) creeks. We also surveyed the Poço do Baú (9º07'47"S, 39º54'37"W) and the island margins of the Rio São Francisco, including the island of Curaçá. Several years later, between 19 and 24 April of Curaçá (08°59'29"S, 39°55'05"W), just opposite the 2011, CLGS, HFPA, and AMKU surveyed the avifauna village. Given that the goal at the time was to provide a of Curaçá at Fazenda Concórdia and at Serra da Gruta rapid assessment of the region’s avifauna, no quantitative de Patamuté (9°19'22"S, 39°36'34"W) using several abundance data were collected. Between 5 and 7 January, methods, including mist-nets, MacKinnon lists, and FIGURE 1. The area of Curaçá, including the main localities mentioned in the text. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. opportunistic observations (Sutherland et al. 2004). Lines total) were documented by either: specimens (92 skins, of five standard 12-m mist-nets were opened from dawn 42 species), recordings (109 species), or photographs (63 until 11 am. MacKinnon samples (10 species’ lists) were species). Most of the species lacking evidence are non- produced for four different habitats, including arboreal passerines, which are relatively easy to identify and are Caatinga (31 lists), shrubby Caatinga (34 lists), open known to occur in neighboring areas. areas (7 lists), and gallery forests (29 lists). Observations Most of the species recorded in Curaçá are assumed were conducted along trails, from sunrise to ~11 am, and to be resident; we documented breeding activities in 32 between 4 pm until sunset. Abundance data presented in of them (see Appendix), but visits at other seasons are the appendix were drawn from these samples. necessary to permit a better understanding of the seasonal Breeding activities were represented by observations patterns of most species. Interestingly, there is a group of individuals copulating, feeding young or fledgings, of aquatic species that seem to visit the region following carrying food, or building material for their nests, or direct the local rains, when ponds and rivers fill with water. The observations of pairs building or using nests. We allocated rainy season of 1996/1997 was particularly wet, resulting the different species to different habitats, including i) in the formation of many bodies of water. In 1997, we dense arboreal Caatinga, ii) low shrubby Caatinga, iii) found many aquatic bird species, including Dendrocygna gallery forest, iv) wetlands and artificial ponds, v) riverine viduata (White-faced Whistling-Duck), Cairina habitats, and vi) open areas. To explore avian similarity moschata (Muscovy Duck), Sarkidiornis sylvicola (Comb among habitats, we performed a cluster analysis using a Duck), Amazonetta brasiliensis (Brazilian Teal), Netta similarity matrix built with Jaccard’s index. This analysis erythrophthalma (Southern Pochard), Nomonyx dominica was performed using Program Spade (Chao & Shen (Masked Duck), Tachybaptus dominicus (Least Grebe), 2010). A limited number of individuals were collected to Podilymbus podiceps (Pied-billed Grebe), Nycticorax provide a reference collection of the study area. Specimens nycticorax (Black-crowned Night-Heron), Aramides were collected under license number 54731333 (SISBIO) ypecaha (Giant Wood-Rail), Gallinula galeata (Common granted to HPFA. Specimens are held at the Coleção Gallinule), Gallinula melanops (Spot-flanked Gallinule), de Aves Heretiano Zenaide at the Universidade Federal Vanellus cayanus (Pied Lapwing), Himantopus mexicanus da Paraíba (UFPB) and Coleção da Divisão de Aves do (Black-necked Stilt), and Actitis macularius (Spotted Museu de Zoologia at the Universidade Federal de Feira Sandpiper), all of which were not found in 2011. de Santana (DAMZFS). We present the documentation Among all habitats explored, we recorded the most obtained for each species in Curaçá, which included species in low shrubby Caatinga (96 species), followed specimens (see above), but also digital vouchers (or by gallery forests (72 species), dense arboreal Caatinga e-vouchers), which have proven to be particularly useful (70), open areas (60), riverine environments (46), and in avian inventories (Lees et al. 2014). These include wetlands and ponds (36) (Appendix). We observed a recordings or photographs, which were either available higher similarity (among habitats) between the avifaunas through online sources such as xeno-canto (xenocanto. of arboreal Caatinga and gallery forests, and of both org) or WikiAves (wikiaves.org.br), or through the with shrubby Caatinga. The avifauna found on riverine personal collection of JMB. These are currently being enviroments and wetlands and ponds were most dissimilar incorporated at the Macaulay Library Collection, and (Figure 2). will soon be available online at macaulaylibrary.org. Taxonomy, nomenclature, and order of families and species follow the latest taxonomic treatment (Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos 2014). RESULTS A total of 204 species of 50 avian families have been recorded so far in Curaçá and surrounding areas (Appendix). We recorded most of these species (201) during our fieldwork, but documentation (photographs) of three additional species was found at WikiAves (Appendix). Most species (191) were first recorded in 1997, another six were added in 2000, and four were recorded in 2011 for the first time. Our records include 28 taxa (15 species and 13 FIGURE 2. Cluster analysis (obtained from a similarity matrix using subspecies) endemic to the Caatinga (Appendix). Most Jaccard’s index) of the bird species composition in each major habitat of the species recorded in Curaçá (143, or 70 % of the described in the text. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Below, we include some natural history notes on 1997, the hybrid pair was observed at a particular Caraíba poorly known or rare species, including some unreported tree, known locally as the caraíba dos três ocos (caraíba with observations of Spix’s Macaw, as well as previously the three holes). We observed the hybrid pair perched on undescribed breeding behaviors of several species. this tree at 5:55 am, sharing the tree with another pair of Primolius maracana. In a couple of occasions, the male Species accounts Spix’s made short flights in order to chase away the pair of Primolius, as if defending the potential nesting site. At Netta erythrophthalma Southern Pochard 7:15, the hybrid pair started to explore the largest of the We observed two females and a male at an artificial pond three holes, which the male Spix’s eventually entered. A few at Fazenda Concórdia on 29 December 1996; two males minutes later both individuals departed, and, a few hours and a female were present at the site on 2 January 1997. later, were heard in another location. On 7 January, the Numbers of individuals continued to fluctuate on the hybrid pair was seen exploring the area around a nesting following weeks, ranging from 11 birds on 6 January box, to which they returned a couple of hours later. The to 30 birds on 17 January, which was the last time we last time we saw the male Spix’s during our 1997 field observed the species at the pond. Seasonal movements season was on 22 January at Fazenda Prazeres, when the of this species are poorly known, particularly in South male accompanied the female Primolius to her roosting America (Carboneras 1992), but lack of records in other site at dusk, before departing, probably to his own roost seasons suggests that this species is undertaking seasonal site. In 2000, JMB made detailed observations of the movements to locate ephemeral wetlands throughout the same pair which this time had laid eggs. On 6 January, Caatinga. the male Spix’s was observed to leave the nest in the early morning. Its flight when leaving the nesting tree was rather Penelope jacucaca White-browed Guan erratic, including slow, arrhythmic, and shallow flaps and This Vulnerable species (BirdLife International 2012a) many glides making use of the wind. During that day it was frequently observed in gallery forests along dry was seen again a couple of times, including flights with creeks during our 1997 fieldwork. Between March and the female maracana, which was flying below the male. June 1998, ALR observed small groups (ranging from 2 The male only returned to the nest during the afternoon, to 7 individuals) drinking water in small ponds along a when it perched near the nesting hole. During that time, particular temporary creek (Riacho da Melancia). These it emitted some nasal soft calls “au,” probably contacting observations occurred after the rainy season, suggesting the female maracana that was likely inside the nest. About that temporary ponds remain important for this species. A 1 hr before sunset, the male left the nesting area, and was detailed compilation of these records have been published heard vocalizing a few hundred meters from the nest, previously (Roos & Antas 2006). where it probably spent the night. On the following day, the hybrid couple left the nesting hole agitated as they Nyctidromus hirundinaceus Pygmy Nightjar heard human activities near the nest, and performed a We found four active ‘nests’ around the headquarters couple of flights in circles above the ‘intruders.’ A few of Fazenda Concórdia in January 1997, which possibly minutes later, the pair returned to the nest, but given belonged to three different pairs. As is the case for other the presence of people nearby were reluctant to enter species in the family, no actual nest is built by this species; the nest, and flew in a few circles until they perched on eggs were found on the ground, at the side of a dirt road the top of nearby trees. Eventually, the female maracana used only occasionally by vehicles and people, whereas entered the nest and the male Spix perched close to the another egg was found close to a rocky outcrop. All ‘nests’ nesting hole in the caraibeira tree, somewhat hidden in contained a single egg, laid directly on the sandy or stony the foliage, vocalizing its typical “prrr prrr” call. The male ground. Detailed observations of these nests, eggs, and Spix finally flew to the top of a nearby tree. Those were chicks, including details of their breeding behavior are our last observations of the last individual in the wild of available elsewhere in this volume (Mazar Barnett et al. Spix’s Macaw, which finally disappeared a few months 2014). later and was never to be seen again in the wild. Cyanopsitta spixii Spix’s Macaw Eupsitulla cactorum Cactus Parakeet The last known wild individual of this species was observed We found four active nests at Fazenda Concórdia in several times during our 1997 field season and in January January, February, and March 1997. All nests were located 2000. In 1997, the male was often seen flying along the within active arboreal termite (Nasutitermes) mounds. dry creeks together with a female Primolius maracana Clutch sizes varied from 4 to 6 eggs, and all eggs were laid (Blue-winged Macaw), with which it had attempted to within an internal chamber excavated by the pairs. breed in previous years and with which it had produced Detailed observations of these nests and eggs have infertile eggs (BirdLife International 2013). On 3 January been published previously (Naka 1997). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Synallaxis hellmayri Red-shouldered Spinetail fluffing the feathers of the throat, chest, head, and flanks, This Caatinga endemic was seen only by JMB at Serra do while lowering its head and performing short jumps. Icó, Fazenda Macambira on 8 February 1997, in an area Sometimes, none of the birds would visit the chicks of dense Caatinga. Despite being a vocally conspicuous immediately, and remain with the food in their bills for species, S. hellmayri was not found in other areas around some time, either hiding in the vegetation or doing their Curaçá (such as Fazenda Concórdia). Its absence around typical vocalizations. After some time, all individuals Curaçá is surprising, and together with other Caatinga would approach the nest. The immature male seemed endemics not found around Curaçá (e.g., Megaxenops to be the most cautious (possibly due to the presence of parnaguae Great Xenops or Sakesphorus cristatus Silvery- the observer) and on some occasions it would approach cheeked Antshrike), quite intriguing. the nest, only to leave again, and start the approaching process all over again. Once a Falco femoralis (Aplomado Compsothraupis loricata Scarlet-throated Tanager Falcon) passed by the nest, while chasing a Falco sparverius JMB made detailed observations of a nesting site (American Kestrel). When the four tanagers detected of this species on 31 January 1997 at the Fazenda the falcons, they left the tree immediately and went to Gangorra (9°09'51"S, 39°45'20"W). Until now, very the ground, from where they uttered some alarm calls. little information regarding the breeding biology of On two occasions the four tanagers were seen chasing a this Caatinga endemic is available, and no detailed Sporophila albogularis (White-throated Seedeater), while description of its nest is available (Hilty 2011). The allowing two adult male Coereba flaveola (Bananaquits) nest was found on top of a large leafless Caraíba tree to stay atop of the tree. A second group was later found (Tabebuia caraiba). It was relatively small made of sticks, near the Riacho da Melancia, which consisted of a female resembling somewhat that of an old Pseudoseisura cristata and two young birds, which begged for food, although (Caatinga Cacholote). It differed from a chachalote’s nest not too insistently. A male within that group was seen in having a wider entrance, and a much thinner ‘see- carrying a small stick, but nest building was not detected. though’ outer structure, suggesting that it was not an old abandoned nest and might have been built by the tanagers Charitospiza eucosma Coal-crested Finch themselves, although this remains unclear. The nest was This Near Threatened species (BirdLife International located on a tree where three other nest-like structures 2012b) was relatively rare in Curaça in 1997, and was were apparent; the largest structure possibly represented not recorded in 2011. JMB found a pair feeding a young an old abandoned cachalote nest; the second appeared to bird on the ground in an area of shrubby Caatinga on 18 be either an old tanager nest (from a previous season) or January 1997. The young bird was similar to the female in a false nest, to trick possible predators; the third structure plumage, although slightly smaller in size, with a shorter represented a shapeless accumulation of sticks, and could tail, and vestiges of a yellow gape were apparent. There are have been an even older nest, or even a second false nest. very few records of the species breeding in the Caatinga, The hypothesis of a false nest seems quite plausible, given and its nest was only recently described in the Cerrado of that the nesting individuals often passed by this structure central Brazil (Borges & Marini 2008). A more detailed before and after carrying food to the active nest, from study suggested that the species breeds on the rainy season which begging calls could be heard. Birds were observed in central Brazil (Diniz et al. 2013), as seems to be the on several occasions approaching what it seemed as the case in the Caatinga, given our observations. entrance of this inactive nest, and lowering their heads as if looking inside or as if feeding a chick. After spending Icterus jamacaii Campo Troupial some time at this structure, birds would move slowly to We found a pair using an old Pseudoseisura cristata the active nest. The nest was attended by four individuals, (Caatinga Cacholote) nest to breed around the houses including an adult male, two female-looking individuals, at the headquarters of the Fazenda Concórdia on 31 and an immature male. This group clearly represented an December 1996. On 10 January 1997, three young birds adult pair, and two young (a male and a female) that likely left the nest and were seen on the ground. That same used acted as helpers. There were no clear differences among nest was then occupied by a pair of Agelaiodes fringillarius the two females, but the young male was completely (Pale Baywing) in the following weeks (see below). black (as the females) except a few red feathers (sometimes difficult to see) on the throat. On two occasions, a female Agelaiodes fringillarius Pale Baywing was seen inside the nest, while the adult male vocalized Several breeding behaviors were observed during our from a nearby tree and the two immature birds were 1997 field season. On 3 January, JMB observed a pair elsewhere. Very often, all four individuals would arrive of this Brazilian endemic occupying a nest. The nest together carrying food, although it was the adult male consisted of a base of sticks and a large cup on top (similar that first visited the begging chick(s). This male seemed to a thrush nest) on which one individual sat for a while. to perform a sort of ritual before entering the nest, Once, a pair Pseudoseisura cristata (Caatinga Cacholote) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. arrived and chased the blackbirds away. On 24 January, Given a variety of methodologies and sampling used, JMB observed another pair using an old cachalote comprehensive comparisons between our observations nest, which had been used by Icterus jamacaii (Campo and other sites are unwarranted; yet a figure of ~200 bird Troupial) two weeks before. The pair was observed species recorded in Curaçá is expected for a relatively well- carrying nesting material (grasses) to the nest, likely to preserved locality in the Caatinga. Olmos (1993) recorded line the main incubation chamber. Up to four individuals 208 species at Serra da Capivara, Piauí; Nascimento et al., of the species were observed around the nest, suggesting (2000) recorded 193 at Chapada do Araripe, Ceará; and the presence of helpers. Occasionally, birds performed Lima et al. (2003) recorded 191 at the Raso da Catarina, agonistic behaviors, although those were not too violent. Bahia. On the other hand, surveys in areas with more Another abandoned cachalote nest was visited by another human activities often report fewer species, such as the pair of baywings, which slept below the construction. studies conducted by Olmos et al. (2005) in western The nesting behavior of A. fringilloides remained poorly Pernambuco and Ceará (where they recorded between 93 known until recently (Fraga 2011, and Fraga & D’Angelo, and 125 species in eight different localities), or Farias et this volume), although the use of abandoned nests of al. (2006) with only 94 species at Curimataú, Paraíba, furnariids was well established in the group (Friedmann or even Araújo & Rodrigues (2011) with 120 species at 1929, Jaramillo & Burke 1999). The observations of the interior of Alagoas. Although sampling effort is not four individuals at the nesting site probably represent comparable throughout the different studies, it seems one of the first evidences of cooperative breeding in this quite clear that more pristine areas harbor higher number species, which is described in further detailed by Fraga & of species (Araujo & Rodrigues 2011), and Curaçá is one D’Angelo Neto (this volume). of the most speciose sites in the biome, possibly due to its relatively high habitat heterogeneity. Among the species absent in 2011 we can sadly DISCUSSION include Spix’s Macaw, extinct in the wild since 2000 (Silveira & Straube 2008). Until 1985, Curaçá, and more The avifauna of Curaçá is rather typical for the Caatinga, particularly the Riacho da Melancia (one of the areas we both in terms of species richness and species composition. sampled), represented the last stronghold for this species, We believe that we have detected the most representative as the last five individuals were found in the area (Rowley species in the region, having recorded over 200 species. & Collar 1997). Unfortunately most of those birds were It is quite clear, however, that other species are likely to likely taken by the illegal trade and only a single bird be found with further sampling, particularly if different remained to be seen during our 1997 field season. Several seasons are sampled. Surprisingly, only four species not management strategies were planned, from exchanging detected in 1997 were detected in 2011. Three of these the infertile cross-species eggs with real captive-produced were small tyrant flycatchers (Elaenia chilensis Chilean Spix’s eggs, to releasing a captive female to mate with Elaenia, Casiornis fusca Ash-throated Casiornis, and the lone male. A female was eventually released, but Cnemotriccus fuscatus Fuscous Flycatcher) caught in never paired with the male, and ultimately both birds mist-nets. Casiornis fusca seems to have a rather secretive disappeared (Juniper 2003). Despite the absence of the behavior and is more often found in mist-nets than in macaw, Curaçá has been considered as a priority area acoustic surveys, possibly passing undetected during our for conservation (Tabarelli & Silva 2004), and remains first field season. Both Elaenia chilensis and Cnemotriccus the best candidate area for a reintroduction program, fuscatus have migratory populations, and individuals particularly given the abundance of remnant Caraíba recorded in April 2011 may represent early migrants. woodlands (Tabebuia aurea) that seem to represent a vital On the other hand, 91 species were recorded in 1997 resource for the reproductive success of Spix’s Macaw but not in 2011. Although a large part of this difference (Collar et al. 1997). can be attributed to a longer field season in 1997 (more From our surveys, it is quite evident that several than 40 days in the field), some aquatic species were Caatinga specialists are absent from Curaçá. Species such clearly absent in 2011. In fact, a group of 16 species as Megaxenops parnaguae (Great Xenops), Herpsilochmus tight to aquatic environments were present on temporary sellowi (Caatinga Antwren), Sakesphorus cristatus (Silvery- ponds around the Spix’s Macaw’s Project headwaters in cheeked Antshrike), Hylopezus ochroleucus (White- 1997, but were not recorded in 2011. The rainy season of browed Antpitta), or Synallaxis scutata (Ochre-cheeked 2011 was not as intense as that of 1997, and few bodies of Spinetail) seem to be completely absent in the region. water formed during that year, explaining the absence of And in fact, the only area where Synallaxis hellmayri water-related species, and suggesting the existence of local (Red-shouldered Spinetail) was present was in Fazenda movements where these species must be tracking available Macambira, some 20 km from Fazenda Concórdia, bodies of water or exploring other regions (Olmos et al. where most of our fieldwork took place. All these species 2005; Araujo et al. 2012). are quite widespread in the Caatinga, and have been Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. recorded nearby. Understanding the drivers of these local finally see the light. Most of the data presented in this distribution patterns is a biogeographic and conservation article was obtained from Juan’s careful notes made 17 priority. These species may require denser Dry Forests (or years ago. We are grateful to him and would like to Caatinga arbórea), a physiognomy that may not be that dedicate this study to his memory. We just hope Juan common around Curaçá. would be proud of this study, and deeply regret that he is In terms of compositional similarity, we found that no longer among us to put his brilliant memory to use to the avifauna of the dense arboreal Caatinga was most recover the information following every record. similar to that of the gallery forests. This similarity is possibly explained by the presence of forest-dependent species in both habitats. On the other hand, we also found REFERENCES an equally high level of similarity between low shrubby Ab’Saber, A. N. 1977. Os domínios morfoclimáticos da América do Caatinga and gallery forests, possibly due to the presence Sul. Primeira aproximação. Geomorfologia São Paulo, 52: 1-21. of streams and their accompanying matrix of lower Andarade-Lima, D. 1982. The caatingas dominium. Revista Brasileira vegetation. The high species richness found in Curaçá de Botânica, 4: 149-153. seems to be the result of greater habitat heterogeneity. Araujo, H. 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K., particularly given its potential for the reintroduction of Klicka, J., Lanyon, S. M. & Lovette, I. J. 2014. Phylogenetics Spix’s Macaw. and diversification of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 75: 41-77. Carboneras, C. 1992. Family Anatidae, p. 536-628. In: del Hoyo, J. ; ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. (eds.). Handbook of the birds of the world, v. 1. Barcelona: Lynx Edicion. We are grateful to the many people that made Curaçá Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; their home while the last wild Spix’s Macaw could still Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A. & Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. Cambridge: be heard in the Caatinga. LNN and ALR would like International Council for Bird Preservation. to thank Marcos da Ré and Yara de Melo Barros for Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos. 2014. Listas das their initial invitation to work in the region back in th aves do Brasil. 11 Edition, http://www.cbro.org.br (access on 15 1997. CLGS, HFPA, CGM, and AMKU are grateful January 2014). Chao, A. & Shen, T. J. 2010. Program SPADE (Species Prediction to Patricia Pilatti and Carla Ingrid Medeiros Cavalcante and Diversity Estimation). Program and user’s guide available for their help in the field during the 2011 expedition. online at: http://chao.stat.nthu.edu.tw. This study was supported financially by the “Projeto Cracraft, J. 1985. Historical Biogeography and Patterns of Ararinha-azul” with funds from Loro Parque Foundation Differentiation Within The South American Avifauna: Areas of and the Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (IBAMA) Endemism. Ornithological Monographs, 36: 49-84. Departamento de Ciências Atmosféricas. 2013. Universidade for the 1997/98 seasons, and by the Brazilian Research Federal de Campina Grande http://www.dca.ufcg.edu.br/clima Council (CNPq) through the Biodiversity Research (access on 10 December 2013). Program (PPBio Semiárido) for the 2011 field season. Diniz, P., Ramos, D. M. & Chemin, N. 2013. Breeding biology of We are very grateful to Sidney de Melo Dantas, Thomas Coal-crested Finches. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 125: 592- S. Schulenberg, and an anonymous reviewer for their Dornelas, A. A. F.; Paula, D. C.; Santos, M. M. E.; Sánchez- insightful comments and edits on a previous version of Azofeifa, G. A & Leite, L. O. 2012. Avifauna do Parque Estadual the manuscript. Publishing this paper was unfinished da Mata Seca, norte de Minas Gerais. Ornitologia, 20: 378-391. business for us, and we are happy that these data will Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Farias, G. B.; Girão e Silva, W. A. & C. G. Albano. 2006. Diversidade 1950, p. 11-70. In: Straube, F. C., Argel-de- Oliveira, M. M. & de aves em áreas prioritárias para conservação de aves da Caatinga, Cândido-Júnior, J. F. (eds.) Ornitologia Brasileira no século XX. p. 204-226. In: Araujo, F.S., Rodal, M.J.N. & Barbosa, M.R.V Curitiba: UNISUL/SOB. (eds.). Análise das variações da biodiversidade do bioma caatinga. Prance, G.T. 1987. Vegetation, p. 28-44. In: T.C. Whitmore & Suporte a estratégias regionais de conservação. Ministério do Meio Prance, G.T. (eds.). Biogeography and Quartenary History in Ambiente, Secretaria de Biodiversidade e Florestas. Tropical America. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Fraga, R. 2011. Family Icteridae (Blackbirds), p. 800. In: del Hoyo, Roos, A.L. & Antas, P. T. Z. 2006. White-browed Guan (Penelope J., Elliott, A. & Christie, D. A. (eds.) Handbook of the Birds of the jacucaca), p. 81. In: Brooks, D. M. (ed.). Conserving Cracids: the World, Vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds. Barcelona: Lynx most Threatened Family of Birds in the Americas. Houston: Houston Edicions. Museum of Natural Science. Friedmann, H. 1929. The Cowbirds: a Study in the Biology of Social Rowley, I. & Collar, N. J. 1997. Psittaciformes, p. 246-477. In: del Parasitism. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas Publisher. Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of Hilty, S. 2011. Family Thraupidae (Tanagers), p. 160. In: del Hoyo, the World, Vol. 4. Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. J., Elliott, A. & Christie, D. A. (eds.) Handbook of the Birds of the Sampaio, E. V. S. B. 1995. Overview of the Brazilian caatinga, p. World, Vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds. Barcelona: Lynx 35-63. In: Bullock, S. H.; Mooney, H. & Medina, E. (eds.), Edicions. Seasonally dry tropical forests. Cambridge: Cambridge University Jaramillo, A. & Burke, P. 1999. New World Blackbirds. The Icterids. Press. London: Christopher Helm & A & C Black Publishers. Sarmiento, G. 1983. The savannas of tropical America, p. 245-288. Juniper, A. T. 2003. Spix’s Macaw: The Race to Save the World’s In: Bourliére, F. (ed.). Ecosystems of the World, 13. Tropical Rarest Bird. London: Fourth Estate/Atria. Savannas. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Juniper, A. T. & Yamashita, C. 1991. The habitat and status of Spix’s Sigurdsson, S. & J. Cracraft. 2014. Deciphering the diversity and Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii. Bird Conservation International, 1: 1-9. history of New World nightjars (Aves: Caprimulgidae) using Leal, I. R.; Silva, J. M. C.; Tabarelli, M. & Lacher Jr., T. E. 2005. molecular phylogenetics. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, Changing the Course of Biodiversity Conservation in the Caatinga 170: 506–545. of Northeastern Brazil. Conservation Biology, 19: 701–706. Silva, J. M. C.; Souza, M. A.; Bieber, A. G. D. & Carlos, C. J. Lees, A. C.; Naka, L. N.; Aleixo, A.; Cohn-Haft, M.; Piacentini, V. 2003. Aves da caatinga: status, uso do habitat e sensitividade, p. Q.: Santos, M. P. D. & Silveira, L. F. 2014. Conducting rigorous 237-273. In: Leal, I. R., Tabarelli, M. & Silva, J. M. C. (eds). avian inventories: Amazonian case studies and a roadmap for Ecologia e Conservação da caatinga. Recife: Editora Universitária improvement. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia. In press. da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Lima, C. P.; Santos, S. S. & Lima, R. C. 2003. Levantamento e Silva, J. M. C.; Tabarelli, M.; Fonseca, M. T. & Lins, L. 2004. Anilhamento da Ornitofauna na Pátria da Arara-Azul-de-Lear Biodiversidade da Caatinga: áreas e ações prioritárias para a (Anodorhynchus leari, Bonaparte, 1856): um complemento ao conservação. Brasília: Ministério do Meio Ambiente. Levantamento realizado por H. Sick, L. P. Gonzaga e D. M. Silva, M.; França, B. R. A.; Irusta, J. B.; Souto, G. H. B. O.; Teixeira, 1987. Atualidades Ornitológicas, 112: 11-22. Oliveira-Júnior, T. S.; Rodrigues, M. C & Pichorim, M. 2012. Mares, M. A.; Willig, M. R.; Streilen, K. E. & Lacher Jr., T. E. 1981. Aves de treze áreas de caatinga no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. The mammals of northeastern Brazil: a preliminary assessment. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 20: 312-328. Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 50: 81-137. Silveira, L. F. & Santos, M. P. D. 2012. Bird richness in Serra das Mares, M. A.; Willig, M. R. & Lacher Jr., T. E. 1985. The Brazilian Confusões National Park, Brazil: how many species may be found caatinga in South American zoogeography: tropical mammals in a in an undisturbed caatinga. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 20: dry region. Journal of Biogeography, 12: 57-69. 188–198. Miyaki, C.Y.; Faria, P. J.; Griffiths, R.; Araujo, J. C. C. & Barros, Y. Silveira, L. F. & Straube, F. C. 2008. Aves ameaçadas de extinção no M. 2001. The last Spix’s Macaw and an Illiger’s Macaw produced Brasil, p. 379-666. In: Machado, A. B. M.; Drummond, G. M. & a hybrid. Conservation Genetics, 2: 53–55. Paglia, A. P. (eds.). Livro vermelho da fauna brasileira ameaçada Naka, L. N. 1997. Nest and egg description of an endemism of the de extinção. Brasília: Ministério do Meio Ambiente/Fundação Brazilian north-east: the Cactus Parakeet, Aratinga cactorum. Biodiversitas. Ararajuba, 5: 182-185. Sousa, A. E. B. A.; Lima, D. M & Lyra-Neves, R. M. 2012. Nascimento, J. L. X.; Nascimento I. L. S. & Azevedo-Júnior, S. M. Avifauna of the Catimbau National Park in the Brazilian state 2000. Aves da Chapada do Araripe (Brasil): biologia e conservação. of Pernambuco, Brazil: species richness and spatio-temporal Ararajuba, 8: 115-125. variation. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 20: 230-245. Olmos, F. 1993. Birds of Serra da Capivara National Park, in Sutherland, W. J.; Newton, I. & Green, R. E. 2004. Bird Ecology “caatinga” of north-eastern Brazil. Bird Conservation International, and Conservation: A Handbook of Techniques. Oxford: Oxford 3: 21-36. University Press. Olmos, F.; Silva, W. G. A. & Albano, C. G. 2005. Aves em oito áreas Tabarelli, M. & Silva, A. V. 2004. Conhecimento sobre as plantas de caatinga no sul do Ceará e oeste de Pernambuco, Nordeste lenhosas da Caatinga: lacunas geograficas e ecologicas, p. 101- do Brasil: composição, riqueza e similaridade. Papéis Avulsos de 112. In: Silva, J. M. C.; Tabarelli, M. & Fonseca, M. T. (eds.). Zoologia, 45:179-199. Biodiversidade da Caatinga: areas e acões prioritárias para a Pacheco, J. F. 2004. As aves da Caatinga: uma análise histórica do conservacao. Brasilia: Ministerio do Meio Ambiente. conhecimento, p. 189-250. In: Silva, J. M. C., Tabarelli M., Vanzolini, P.E. 1976. On the lizards of Cerrado-Caatinga contact: Fonseca M. T. & Lins, L. V. (eds.). Biodiversidade da Caatinga: Evolutionary and Zoogeographical implications (Sauria). Papéis áreas e ações prioritárias para a conservação. Brasília: Ministério Avulsos de Zoologia, 29: 111-119. do Meio Ambiente / Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Pacheco, J. F. 2000. Ornitologia descobre o sertão: um balanço do conhecimento da avifauna da caatinga dos primórdios aos anos Associate Editor: Alex C. Lees Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. APPENDIX: List of bird species recorded in Curaçá, Bahia, including field season of records, breeding, migratory, or endangered status, habitats used in the area, abundance (observation frequency), and documentation. Taxonomy, nomenclature, and species order follows the Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos (2014), except for the Nightjars where we follow Sigurdsson and Cracraft (2014) and for some Thraupidae where we follow Burns et al. (2014). Field season 1 3 4 5 6 7 Families and species Status Localities Habitats Ab. Documentation 1997-98 2011 RHEIDAE Rhea americana xNT Co O TINAMIDAE Crypturellus parvirostris x x Cn, Co, Ma, PB B F O 1,98 R (JMB:T5) Crypturellus tataupa x x Ca, Gp, Ma A B F 15,84 ssp Rhynchotus rufescens x Co B R (JMB:T8) Nothura boraquira x Cn, Co, PB B O R (JMB:T4) Nothura maculosa x Co B O R (JMB:T8) ANATIDAE Dendrocygna viduata x Sea/W Co, IC W R (XC15376) Cairina moschata x Sea/W Co, Ga, Pr W Sarkidiornis sylvicola x Sea/W Co W R (XC33195) Amazonetta brasiliensis x Sea/W Co, IC W Netta erythrophthalma x Sea/W Co W R (XC33194) Nomonyx dominica x Sea/W; br Co W R (JMB:T4) CRACIDAE sp Penelope jacucaca x Vul Co, Rm, Bp F P (WA665458) PODICIPEDIDAE Tachybaptus dominicus x Sea/W Co W R (XC15443) Podilymbus podiceps x Sea/W Co W R (XC15464) CICONIIDAE Ciconia maguari x Sea/W Pr W Mycteria americana x Sea/W Co W O 1,98 PHALACROCORACIDAE Phalacrocorax brasilianus JMB 00 IC W ARDEIDAE Tigrisoma lineatum x Sea/W Co, Rm W Nycticorax nycticorax x Sea/W Bp W P (WA717303) Butorides striata x Sea/W Cn, Co, Bp W Bubulcus ibis x x Co W O 1,98 P (WA839919) Ardea alba x x Bp, Co W B 6,93 O F Egretta thula x Sea/W Bp, Co W CATHARTIDAE Cathartes aura x x Bp, Cn, Co, PB B F 2,97 Cathartes burrovianus x x Cn, Co O 0,99 Coragyps atratus x x Bp, Cn, Co, Gp, A B O 3,96 Rm Sarcorhamphus papa xCn B ACCIPITRIDAE Gampsonyx swainsonii Wikiaves br P (WA691106) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Field season 1 3 4 5 6 7 Families and species Status Localities Habitats Ab. Documentation 1997-98 2011 Accipiter bicolor x Co F P (WA856148 ) Rostrhamus sociabilis xCo W Geranospiza caerulescens x Cn, Co, PB, Rm B F R (XC15402) Heterospizias meridionalisxCn Rupornis magnirostris x x Bp, Cn, Co, A B F R 12,87 P (W A811814); IC,Gp, Rm R (JMB:T8) Geranoaetus melanoleucus x Cn, Co A R (XC15326) ARAMIDAE Aramus guarauna JMB 00 IC W RALLIDAE Aramides ypecaha x Pr, Rm W Aramides cajaneus x x Co, PB, Pr, Rm F 0,99 Laterallus melanophaius x IC R (JMB:T9) Gallinula galeata x Sea/W Co W Gallinula melanops x Sea/W Co W CHARADRIIDAE Vanellus cayanus x Sea/W Co, IC Vanellus chilensis x x Bp, Co O W 4,95 P (WA282375); R (JMB:T8) Charadrius collaris x Sea/W IC P (WA612146); R (JMB:T9) RECURVIROSTRIDAE Himantopus mexicanus x Sea/W Co W P (WA612145); R (JMB:T6) SCOLOPACIDAE Actitis macularius x Sea/W; VN Co W Tringa solitaria x x Sea/W; VN Co W 0,99 R (XC15346, JMB:T4) JACANIDAE Jacana jacana x Sea/W Co W COLUMBIDAE Columbina minuta x x Cn, Co, IC, Pr B O F 19,8 S (CAHZ00194); R (JMB:T8) Columbina talpacoti xIC O R Columbina squammata x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B O 29,7 S (CAHZ00203) Rm F R R (JMB:T4) Columbina picui x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B O 29,7 S (CAHZ Pr, Rm F R 00205); P (WA283113); R (JMB:T6) Patagioenas picazuro x x Co, Gp, PB, Rm A B O F 6,93 R (XC15463; JMB:T6) Zenaida auriculata x Cn, Co, PB B O S (CAHZ 207) Leptotila verreauxi x x Co, Gp, IC, Rm A B O 28,71 R (JMB:T8) F R Leptotila rufaxilla x Cn, Co, IC F R (JMB:T4) CUCULIDAE Piaya cayana x x Co, Gp A F 6,93 Coccyzus melacoryphus x Cn, Co B P (WA816425) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Field season 1 3 4 5 6 7 Families and species Status Localities Habitats Ab. Documentation 1997-98 2011 Coccyzus americanus JMB 00 VN PB A Crotophaga major x Bp, Co, PB W Crotophaga ani x x Co B O F 1,98 Guira guira x Cn, Co, IC B R R (JMB:T4) Tapera naevia x Cn, Co, IC B R TYTONIDAE Tyto furcata JMB 00 Cur V STRIGIDAE Megascops choliba x x br Co, Gp, Ma, Pr A F 2,97 S ( CAHZ 215) Bubo virginianus xRm F Glaucidium brasilianum x x Co, Gp A F 2,97 P (WA705505) Athene cunicularia xCo O NYCTIBIIDAE Nyctibius griseus x Co, Pr F CAPRIMULGIDAE Antrostomus rufus Wikiaves P (WA856139) Hydropsalis parvulus x x Co, PB, Pr B V 0,99 ssp Nyctidromus hirundinaceus x x br Cn, Co, PB B O P (W A628847); R (JMB:T8) Hydropsalis torquata x Co R (JMB:T8) ssp Chordeiles pusillus x x br Co, Cur B O R (JMB:T4) Chordeiles acutipennis x Cur, Pr B O V Podager nacunda x Cur V APODIDAE Tachornis squamata x Cur V TROCHILIDAE Eupetomena macroura x x Bp, Cn, Co, Gp, A B F 2,97 S (CAHZ198); Rm P (WA710911) Chrysolampis mosquitus x x br Co, PB, Rm B F 0,99 R (WA143290; JMB:T8) Chlorostilbon lucidus x x br Bp, Cn, Co, Gp, A B F 10,89 S ( CAHZ 236) PB, Pr Amazilia fimbriata xIC Heliomaster squamosus x x Co, Gp A B 1,98 S( CAHZ 246) ALCEDINIDAE Megaceryle torquata x IC W R R (JMB:T9) Chloroceryle americana x Bp, Co W GALBULIDAE Galbula ruficauda x IC R (JMB:T9) BUCCONIDAE Nystalus maculatus x x br Cn, Co, Gp, PB A B 5,94 P (WA747548) PICIDAE sp Picumnus pygmaeus x x br Co, IC O F R 1,98 P (WA954833); R (JMB:T6) Melanerpes candidus xCn B Veniliornis passerinus x x Bp, Co, Gp, IC A B O F 10,89 P (WA705491) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Field season 1 3 4 5 6 7 Families and species Status Localities Habitats Ab. Documentation 1997-98 2011 Colaptes melanochloros x x Cn, Co F 2,97 S (CAHZ 221); P (WA945563); R (JMB:T8) Colaptes campestris x Cn, Co B O R (JMB:T5) Campephilus melanoleucos x x Co, Ga, Gp, Rm A B F 5,94 P (W A665479); R (JMB:T8) CARIAMIDAE Cariama cristata x x br Bp, Cn, Co, Gp, A B O 10,89 R (JMB:T4) PB W FALCONIDAE Caracara plancus x x Bp, Cn, Co B F 0,99 P (W A710916); R (JMB:T4) Milvago chimachima x x Co F O 0,99 Herpetotheres cachinnans x x br Cn, Co, Ga, Gp, A F 2,97 P (W A992909); PB R (JMB:T4) Falco sparverius x x Cn, Co, Gp A B 0,99 S (CAHZ 230) Falco femoralis x Bp, Co, IC B R P (WA1055939) Falco peregrinus x VN Co, Cur, IC V PSITTACIDAE sp Cyanopsitta spixii x CE / Ext W Bp, Co, PB, Pr A B F P (WA41251); R (JMB:T9) Primolius maracana x x Br / NT Bp, Cn, Co, Gp, B O F 6,93 P (W A791457); PB, Pr, Rm R (JMB:T4) ssp Thectocercus acuticaudatus x br Bp, Cn, Co, Pr B F P (W A958781); R (JMB:T4) sp Eupsittula cactorum x x br Bp, Cn, Co, , PB, A B O F 42,57 S (CAHZ 231); Pr, Rm P (WA960813) Forpus xanthopterygius x x Cn, Co, IC, PB B O F R 8,91 P (WA961430); R (JMB:T7) Amazona aestiva x x Co, Pr, Rm, Bp A B O F 14,85 THAMNOPHILIDAE sp Myrmorchilus strigilatus x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B O 13,86 S ( CAHZ 199); Ma R (JMB:T5) ssp Formicivora melanogaster x x Co, Gp, IC, Ma A B R 5,94 R (JMB:T9) sp Thamnophilus capistratus x x br Cn, Co, Gp, Pr A B 2,97 R (JMB:T5) Taraba major x x Gp,IC A R 2,97 S ( CAHZ 245); R (JMB:T9) DENDROCOLAPTIDAE Sittasomus griseicapillus x x Co, Gp, Rm A O F 16,83 S ( CAHZ 228); P (WA964806); R (JMB:T8) ssp Lepidocolaptes angustirostris x x Cn, Co, Gp, Rm A B O F 42,57 S ( CAHZ 224); P (W A960808); R (JMB:T4) FURNARIIDAE Furnarius figulus x x Cn, Co, Cur, IC A F R 1,98 R (JMB:T9) Furnarius leucopus x x Bp, IC, PB, Rm A F 16,83 S (CAHZ 217); R (WA143316; JMB:T4) sp Pseudoseisura cristata x x br Bp, Cn, Co B F 1,98 P (WA959729); R (JMB:T8) ssp Phacellodomus rufifrons x IC B O R Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Field season 1 3 4 5 6 7 Families and species Status Localities Habitats Ab. Documentation 1997-98 2011 Phacellodomus ruber x IC R (JMB:T9) Certhiaxis cinnamomeus x Cur, IC R (JMB:T9) sp Synallaxis hellmayri x NT Ma, PB A R (JMB:T9) Synallaxis frontalis x x br Co, Gp, IC, PB, F R 4,95 S (CAHZ 222); Rm R (WA143325) Synallaxis albescens x Co, Cn B O R (JMB:T4) ssp Cranioleuca vulpina x IC W P (WA791433); R (WA727033; JMB:T9) TITYRIDAE Pachyramphus viridis x br Co, IC F Pachyramphus polychopterus x x Cn, Co, Gp, PB, A B F 11,88 S (CAHZ 227); Rm R (JMB:T8) Pachyramphus validus x br Co, PB F R (JMB:T9) Xenopsaris albinucha x br Cn, Co B P (W A856146); R (JMB:T8) RHYNCHOCYCLIDAE Tolmomyias flaviventris x x br Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B O 29,7 S (CAHZ 218); PB, Rm F R P (WA964815), R (JMB:T4) Todirostrum cinereum x x br Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B F R 15,84 S (CAHZ 211); PB, Rm P (WA959689) Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer JMB 00 x Co, Gp, PB A B 12,87 S (CAHZ 234); P (WA961437) TYRANNIDAE Hirundinea ferruginea x x Cn, Gp A 0,99 P (WA764856) ssp Stigmatura napensis x x Cn, Co, IC, PB B O R 6,93 S (CAHZ 192); P (W A705472); R (JMB:T6) ssp Stigmatura budytoides x Co B P (WA782431) Euscarthmus meloryphus x x Cn, Co, IC B 3,96 R (JMB:T5) Camptostoma obsoletum x x Cn, Co, Gp B O F 3,96 S(CAHZ 187); R (JMB:T5) Elaenia spectabilis x x IC A 0,99 S (CAHZ 241); P (WA856150) Elaenia chilensis x VS Gp A 0,99 S(CAHZ 237) ssp Suiriri suiriri x x br Co B O 2,97 S (CAHZ 210); P (WA964822) Myiopagis viridicata x x Cn, Co, Gp, PB, A F 10,89 S (CAHZ 247); Rm R (JMB:T4) Phaeomyias murina x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B R 6,93 R (JMB:T6) PB, Rm Myiarchus swainsoni JMB 00 PB P (WA816423) Myiarchus tyrannulus x x Cn, Co, Rm, PB A B O F 49,5 S (CAHZ 238); P (WA1121635); R (JMB:T8) sp Casiornis fuscus x Gp A 1,98 P (WA857041) Pitangus sulphuratus x x Cn, Co, PB, Pr, B F 1,98 R (JMB:T4) Rm Machetornis rixosa x Bp, Co, Pr O R (JMB:T6) Myiodynastes maculatus x x br Cn, Co,Gp, Rm A B O F 15,84 S (CAHZ 212) Myiozetetes similis x x Cn, Co, IC A O F 9,9 P (WA302938); R (JMB:T4) Megarynchus pitangua x Cn, Co, Gp, PB, A F R S (CAHZ 243); Rm R (JMB:T8) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Field season 1 3 4 5 6 7 Families and species Status Localities Habitats Ab. Documentation 1997-98 2011 Tyrannus melancholicus x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B O 50,49 R (WA876462) PB, Rm F R Tyrannus savana xIC R V Empidonomus varius x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B F R 9,9 S (CAHZ 196); Rm P (WA282376); R (JMB:T8) Myiophobus fasciatus x Sublegatus modestus x Cn, Co B R (JMB:T5) Fluvicola albiventer x br Co W P (WA606629; JMB:T4) Fluvicola nengeta x Bp, Co, IC P (WA839912) Arundinicola leucocephala x br Cur, IC R W P (WA769720) Cnemotriccus fuscatus xGp B Satrapa icterophrys xCo F ssp Xolmis irupero x x Co B 1,98 P (WA960812) VIREONIDAE Cyclarhis gujanensis x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B O F 21,78 R (JMB:T6) Rm, PB Vireo olivaceus x x VN Co, IC, PB, Rm A F R 8,91 S (CAHZ 233); R (WA138581; JMB:T4) CORVIDAE sp Cyanocorax cyanopogon x x Bp, Cn, Co, Rm A B O F 36,63 S (CAHZ 220); P (W A835028); R (JMB:T8) HIRUNDINIDAE Progne tapera x Co, IC B W R (JMB:T4) Progne chalybea x Cur W Tachycineta albiventer x Co W R (XC15335) Riparia riparia x VN Cur, IC Hirundo rustica x VN Cur, IC V R (JMB:T9) TROGLODYTIDAE Troglodytes musculus x x Bp, Cn, Co, Gp, A B O F 45,54 S (CAHZ 226); IC, PB, Rm R (WA1143402; JMB:T8) ssp Cantorchilus longirostris x x Cn, Co,Gp, IC, A B 19,8 R (JMB:T8) Ma POLIOPTILIDAE Polioptila plumbea x x Bp, Cn, Co, Gp, A B O 27,72 S (CAHZ 208); IC, PB, Rm F R P (WA1121632); R (JMB:T8) TURDIDAE Turdus rufiventris x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B F R 3,96 P (WA705501); Rm R (JMB:T7) Turdus amaurochalinus x x Cn, Co B F 3,96 S (CAHZ 216); R (JMB:T8) MIMIDAE ssp Mimus saturninus x x Bp, Cn, Co B O 7,92 PASSERELLIDAE Zonotrichia capensis x x Cn, Co, IC B O Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Field season 1 3 4 5 6 7 Families and species Status Localities Habitats Ab. Documentation 1997-98 2011 Ammodramus humeralis x x Cn, Co, PB B O 3,96 S (CAHZ 204); P (WA960804); R (JMB:T6) ICTERIDAE Procacicus solitarius x IC P (WA879413); R (JMB:T9) Icterus pyrrhopterus x x Bp, Co, Gp, IC, A F R 1,98 P (W A710908); Pr R (JMB:T8) sp Icterus jamacaii x x br Bp, Cn, Co, A B O F 3,96 P (WA973957; Gp,IC, Rm R (JMB:T4) Chrysomus ruficapillus x Co, Pr O R (XC15396) sp Agelaioides fringillarius x br Bp, Cn, IC B R P (WA710906); R (JMB:T9) Molothrus rufoaxillaris xCn A Molothrus bonariensis x Cn, Pr B O Sturnella superciliaris Wikiaves R (WA141160; JMB:T8) THRAUPIDAE Coereba flaveola x x Bp, Co, PB, Rm A B F 6,93 S (CAHZ 213); R (JMB:T4) Saltator coerulescens x IC R (JMB:T9) Saltator similis x Cn, IC A B R (JMB:T8) sp Compsothraupis loricata x x br Bp, Cn, Co, Ga, A B 3,96 P (WA961425); Gp, PB R (JMB:T4) Nemosia pileata x Bp, Co, Gp,Rm A R (XC15437) Thlypopsis sordida x IC R (JMB:T9) Coryphospingus pileatus x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B O R 42,57 S (CAHZ 235); PB, Rm R (WA143333; JMB:T8) Tangara sayaca x x Cn, Co,Gp, IC A B F R 5,94 Paroaria dominicana x x br Bp, Cn, Co,Gp, A B O F R 24,75 S (CAHZ 188); IC, PB P (WA765294); R (JMB:T5) Conirostrum speciosum x x Bp, Co, PB A B F 2,97 Sicalis columbiana x Cur V P (WA606652); R (JMB:T9) Sicalis flaveola x br Co B P (WA961434); R (JMB:T6) Sicalis luteola x Co B R (JMB:T6) Volatinia jacarina x x Bp, Co, IC, Rm A B O 8,91 S (CAHZ 206); R (JMB:T9) Sporophila lineola x x Co, Cur, IC, Rm A O R 0,99 R (XC33350) Sporophila nigricollis x Co W R (WA141097; JMB:T8) Sporophila caerulescens xCo W sp Sporophila albogularis x x Bp, Co B O F 12,87 S (CAHZ 229) Sporophila bouvreuil x Co, IC W R (JMB:T6) Charitospiza eucosma x Br / NT Cn, Co B P (WA791455); R (JMB:T7) CARDINALIDAE Cyanoloxia brissonii x x Co, IC, Gp A B 1,98 R (JMB:T9) FRINGILLIDAE Euphonia chlorotica x x Cn, Co, Gp, IC, A B F R 6,93 R (JMB:T9) Rm Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw Mazar Barnett et al. Field season 1 3 4 5 6 7 Families and species Status Localities Habitats Ab. Documentation 1997-98 2011 PASSERIDAE Passer domesticus x Introduced Co, Cur V Families and Species. Caatinga endemic taxa are denoted by a superscript note referring to whether a given taxon represents an SP SSP endemic species , or subspecies . Field Season. Refers to the date when our observations were obtained. Because two independent groups provided records, this information may be important for follow-up inquiries or to assess temporal changes in the avifauna. Rather than including a third column for JMB’s observations during a short period in 2000, we included his novel observations under the 1997-98 column followed by “JMB 00”. When records were not obtained by any of the authors, we included a note indicating the source of the data. Status. We include here data on breeding, migratory, or conservation status. Breeding species (br) represent those species for which we personally made observations suggestive of breeding activity. Observations included i) pairs copulating, ii) birds attending or building a nest or carrying nesting material, iii) presence of chicks, nestlings or fledgings, or iv) birds carrying food. Migratory species represent taxa that are unlikely to spend the entire year in Curaçá, and include Northern Visitors (NV), represented by birds that breed in the Northern Hemisphere and spend the austral summer (November – April) in the area; Southern Visitors (SV), which breed in Southern South America spend apparently spend the austral winter (May - September) in the area; and Seasonal Visitors (Sea), which are likely to performed seasonal movements that are not well understood. We also noted those seasonal visitors that appear following the availability of water resources (Sea/W), such as natural ponds or artificial lakes. We believe that all other species are likely residents and breed in the area, but we do not have data to support this assessment. We also included whether a species is endangered according to the IUCN (BirdLife International 2013), denoting which species is Extinct (Ext), Critically Endangered (CE), Vulnerable (Vul), or Near-threatened (NT). Localities. Refers to the general locations where each species was recorded. Fazendas Concórdia (Co), Gangorra (Ga), Canabrava (Cn), Prazeres (Pr), and Macambira (Ma), Gruta Patamuté (Gp), Island of Curaçá (IC), Poço do Baú (PB), Town of Curaçá (Cur), Riacho da Melancia (Rm), and Barragem do Plácido (Bp). For coordinates and a brief description of these localities see Study Area. Habitat. Represents the major habitats where we recorded each species in Curaçá. A: Arboreal of dense Caatinga; B: Shrubby or low Caatinga; F: Gallery Forest; O: Open areas; R: Riparian Forest; V: villages and towns; W: wetlands and ponds. Abundance. Refer to frequency of observations derived from quantitative data obtained through MacKinnon lists. Abundance data was only included for the 2011 field season. Documentation. Refers to the hard evidence supporting the presence of each species in the study area. S: specimens (held at the Bird Collections of the Federal Universites of Paraíba (UFPB) and Feira de Santana (UEFS); R: recordings, are available at Xeno-canto (xenocanto.org), wikiaves (wikiaves.org.br), or the personal collection of JMB, which is currently being included in the Macaulay Library database (macaulaylibrary.org). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014

Journal

Ornithology ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Jun 1, 2014

Keywords: Birds; Caatinga; Cyanopsitta spixii; gallery forest; survey

References