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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 26(4): 234–239. ARTICLE December 2018 1,4 1,2 3 Tatiana Galluppi-Selich , Hugo Cabral & Rob Clay Asociación Guyra Paraguay, Parque Ecológico Capital Verde, Av. Carlos Bóveda CC 1719, Asunción, Paraguay. Instituto de Investigación Biológica del Paraguay. Del Escudo 1607, Asunción, Paraguay. Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, Rodríguez de Francia 869, Asunción, Paraguay. Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org Received on 10 April 2018. Accepted on 03 November 2018. ABSTRACT: Paraguayan records of the recently described Ibera Seedeater Sporophila iberaensis are compiled and reviewed. Observations of birds identifi able to this species in Paraguay date from at least 1998, with the fi rst photographic documentation in December 2004. Th e species has now been recorded at a minimum of 11 localities in the departments of Cordillera, Itapúa, Misiones, San Pedro and Presidente Hayes. Th e fi rst two records of the species from Brazil (both from Mato Grosso do Sul) are also listed. Most Paraguayan records are of singing males, and breeding has been documented (a pair feeding fl edglings) at one locality in Cordillera department, signifi cantly expanding the known breeding range of the species. At least three localities appear to hold small populations (observations of multiple territorial males and/or pairs). In Paraguay, as in Argentina, the species appears to prefer wet tall grasslands bordering wetland areas. Its preference for tall grasslands makes the species particularly susceptible to habitat loss and degradation through overgrazing, frequent burning, and conversion to agriculture. Th ese threats are all present at the principal localities for the species in the country. A reassessment of the species global conservation status taking into consideration the Paraguayan range and population suggests that it may best be treated as “Vulnerable”. KEY-WORDS: Brazil, conservation, distribution, grassland, South America, Th raupidae. INTRODUCTION result of habitat loss and degradation and potentially it being captured for trade (BirdLife International 2017). Sporophila is a genus of about 40 species of seedeaters, A reassessment of the currently species categorization is almost entirely restricted to the Neotropics (Ridgely & needed, taking into consideration all the information Tudor 2009). Classifi cation of the genus Sporophila has about its distribution in Paraguay and Brazil. been diffi cult at all levels, from family placement to the To date, 15 species of Sporophila have been recorded specifi c or morph status of several forms. Traditionally in Paraguay (SACC 2016). Here we present an overview classifi ed within the Emberizidae, recent morphological of the known records of S. iberaensis in the country (fi ve and molecular studies have revealed the genus to belong of which were mentioned by Di Giacomo & Kopuchian to the Th raupidae (Mason & Burns 2013). Systematics 2016) and discuss the status of the species. We also present have been particularly confusing for the “capuchino” the fi rst two records of the species in Brazil (one of which group, which is primarily found in the grasslands of was mentioned by Di Giacomo & Kopuchian 2016). central and southern South America (Campagna et al. 2013). Recently, a new species of capuchino seedeater, Ibera Seedeater Sporophila iberaensis, was described from METHODS northern Argentina based on an analysis of vocalizations and plumages (Di Giacomo & Kopuchian 2016). Th e Records of S. iberaensis were compiled from published male S. iberaensis plumage type has been observed in literature and technical reports, our fi eld observations northern Argentina since at least late 1990s (López-Lanús and those of other observers, eBird (www.ebird.org) and et al. 2013), but its taxonomic status had been unclear the Guyra Paraguay biodiversity database. Th e previously due to its similarity to the pre-defi nitive plumages of unpublished record from Brazil was discovered by other capuchino species. reviewing photos in WikiAves (http://www.wikiaves. Currently the species is listed as “Endangered” on the com.br/). Th is species diff ers from other species of IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Sporophila since males present a leaden gray crown and Red List. Th is categorization was recommended by López- forehead that contrast with the nape, coverts, ear coverts, Lanús et al. (2013) due to the very small population and blackish brown chin and throat. Th e back and rump size of the species, that is thought to be declining as a are olive brown; breast, belly and under tail coverts are Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 26(4): 2018 Status of the Ibera Seedeater Gallupi-Selich et al. pallid yellow to buffi sh; white base rectrices same color fi rst known documentation of the species in the country as the dorsal wing-bar, which is slightly larger from the are photos of a male at km 97, Ruta 3 by F. Fragano (in other seedeaters. Females of this species are alike other litt.) on 05 December 2004, the photo is available on species of seedeaters (López-Lanús 2015, Di Giacomo this link, (http://www.faunaparaguay.com/sporophila_ & Kopuchian 2016). Previously, S. iberaensis has been iberaensis.html). Increasing awareness of this distinctive confused with individuals of Sporophila rufi collis (Dark- plumage-type led to more reports from c. 2008 onwards, throated Seedeater) which has an odd pre-defi nitive and the species has now been reported from 11 localities plumage. After revision of both species, they were in the departments of Cordillera, Misiones, Itapúa, San separated due to behavior (vocalizations and breeding Pedro and Presidente Hayes (Table 1, Fig. 1). area) and morphological attributes (López-Lanús 2015, Many records of the species are from the Important Di Giacomo & Kopuchian 2016). Th e location of each Bird Area (IBA) PY025 Arroyos y Esteros, which is record was digitized using ArcGIS software, and habitat dominated by humid grasslands with species of the information was gathered when available. Poaceae family and the presence of annual and perennial All confi rmed records of the species were used to herbs (Cartes & Clay 2009, TNC 2005). Th is area is very generate the Minimum Convex Polygon for the species' similar to others where the species has been recorded such distribution. To select an optimal grid size for assessing as the IBA PY034 Campo Llano, which is characterized Area of Occupancy (hereafter AOO) and Extent of by the presence of fl ooded grasslands with marshes and Occurrence (hereafter EOO), the distances between all gallery forest (Fig. 2; Josse et al. 2003, Cartes & Clay locations were calculated, and the average distance in km 2009). used to determine grid size (15 × 15 km). For the extent To date, all but one record of the species have been in of occurrence all grids within a 10 km radius from each eastern Paraguay. Th e one record from western Paraguay point were selected, in recognition of the likelihood of (the Humid Chaco) is from an area of open fl ooded palm the species occurring in similar habitats in areas adjacent savanna with the predominant grass species being Poaceae to known localities. family (TNC 2005, Cartes & Clay 2009). Nomenclature follows the South American Nearly all Paraguayan records of S. iberaensis are Classifi cation Committee - SACC (http://www. from the austral spring (September to December) and museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm), with summer (December to January), with just one record the exception of S. iberaensis (as the taxon has yet to be from the austral winter (June 2004). Apart from this one recognized by SACC). For the latter, Di Giacomo & exception, regular visits to appropriate habitat (including Kopuchian (2016) and IUCN (2017) are followed. a confi rmed breeding site) outside of September to January have not recorded the species. Apparent pairs and singing males have been RESULTS recorded at three localities during October to January, with breeding confi rmed at one (a pair feeding young in Records of S. iberaensis in Paraguay date from at least two consecutive years at Ruta Juan de Mena, O. Bordón, October 1998, when a male was observed by R.C. close to in litt. 2017), representing a northward extension of the a locality where the species is now regularly recorded. Th e breeding range by about 300 km. Multiple males have Table 1. Locations and fi rst observations of S. iberaensis in Paraguay. Date Locality Observer 31 October 1998 Ñu Guazú, General Artigas, Itapúa department. R.C. 07 January 1999 Río Tacuary wetlands, Itapúa department. R.C. June 2004 Campo Llano, Misiones department. A.J. Lesterhuis 05 December 2004 km 97, Arroyos y Esteros, Cordillera department. F. Fragano October 2008 Ruta Juan de Mena, Cordillera department. P. Smith October 2008 Bajo Chaco, Presidente Hayes department. C. Morris 06 October 2011 San Cosme y San Damián, Itapúa department. C.D. Timm 08 December 2014 Yabebyry, Misiones department. A.J. Lesterhuis January 2016 Santiago, Misiones department. T.G., R. Ruiz, S. Rojas November 2017 Colonia Volendam, San Pedro department. M. Fast, M. Ens 13 December 2017 Estero San Mauricio, Itapúa department. T.G., V. Rojas Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 26(4): 2018 Status of the Ibera Seedeater Gallupi-Selich et al. been recorded at all three localities, with a high count of do Sul state on 09 January 2005 (http://ibc.lynxeds.com/ nine males at Ruta Juan de Mena in December 2016 and species/dark-throated-seedeater-sporophila-ruficollis). January 2017 (Fig. 2). A second record, clearly identifi able as S. iberaensis was Di Giacomo & Kopuchian (2016) list one record photographed at Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul state by of S. iberaensis from Brazil, a male photographed and N. Cabral on 26 August 2015 (http://www.wikiaves. videoed by J. del Hoyo at Pousana Aguapé, Mato Grosso com.br/1933758&p=27&t=s&s=11672). Figure 1. Records of Sporophila iberaensis in South America. Gray triangles: new localities with records of S. iberaensis including records from literature and other sources (Denton 2010, Smith & del Castillo 2012, López-Lanús 2015, Smith & Clay 2015). Figure 2. Sporophila iberaensis in Santiago, Misiones (A & B); in Campo Llano, Misiones (C); in Juan de Mena, Cordillera (D). Photo authors: R. Ruíz (A), T. Galluppi (B & D), H. Cabral (C). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 26(4): 2018 Status of the Ibera Seedeater Gallupi-Selich et al. Conservation status distribution could also be the result of undersampling or local extinctions. Ibera Seedeater is currently listed as “Endangered” at a Although the Paraguayan records signifi cantly global level under the criterion C2a(ii) of the IUCN Red expand the range of the species, the numbers recorded at List (IUCN 2017). Th is assessment was based on the any one site are low, and it seems very likely that the total species known distribution in Argentina, where it appears number of mature individuals in the overall population to be restricted to the Ibera Marshes and adjacent grasslands is less than 10,000 (and possibly not more than 1000). in Corrientes province (IUCN 2017). Given this restricted Combined with an estimated and projected continuing distribution, it was assumed to be one subpopulation, and decline in mature individuals due to habitat loss of at least to number less than 1000 mature individuals (Di Giacomo 10% in 10 years, this triggers Red List criterion C1 in & Kopuchian 2016, IUCN 2017). the category “Vulnerable”. If further research reveals that With documentation of the species range to include there are discrete subpopulations, then a higher level of southeastern and central Paraguay, its conservation status threat may be warranted under C2a. warrants reassessment. Taking into consideration the Th e species population is considered to be declining species apparent breeding range in Paraguay, S. iberaensis primarily due to habitat loss (IUCN 2017). Its preference has an EOO of 62,046 km in Argentina and Paraguay, for tall grasslands makes it particularly susceptible and an AOO of 12,365 km (Fig. 3). Th e two Brazilian to habitat loss and degradation through overgrazing, records have been excluded from these calculations given frequent burning, and conversion to agriculture. Th ese that they may be part of the non-breeding range of the threats are all present at the main localities for the species species. in Paraguay. Worryingly, the species is not currently While judging the limits of subpopulations of a known from any formally protected areas in Paraguay. migratory species can be particularly diffi cult, it seems plausible that there are at least two subpopulations within DISCUSSION Paraguay, one located in the extreme southeast (Itapúa and Misiones departments, and likely connected to the subpopulation in Argentina) and one in the center Southern and central Paraguay is clearly an important (Cordillera and San Pedro, and potentially Presidente part of the range of S. iberaensis, with records of multiple Hayes departments). However, the apparent gap in individuals and apparent pairs in appropriate habitat and Figure 3. Area of occupancy (AOO) of Sporophila iberaensis . The species has been recorded from or is considered likely to occur in 54 grid squares of 15 × 15 km. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 26(4): 2018 Status of the Ibera Seedeater Gallupi-Selich et al. breeding confi rmed in one area in Cordillera department. Cabral and Roberto Derna for providing information Records are primarily from the austral summer, and it about their records; Viviana Rojas and Carlos Giménez seems likely that as with other capuchino seedeaters, S. for comments that improved the manuscript. H.C.B. iberaensis winters to the north, in Brazil. Th e two records and T.G.S. would like to thank the National Science and from Mato Grosso do Sul state support this, though the Technology Council (CONACYT) for funding support fi rst is an atypical date for a wintering bird (or migrant), for the 14-INV-063 Project. Also H.C.B. would like and perhaps represents a bird over-summering on the to thank CONACYT for funding support through the wintering grounds, though it also raises the possibility PRONII program. that the breeding range may extend into southwestern Brazil. REFERENCES Paraguayan localities for the species are primarily from the Mesopotamian Grasslands and Humid Chaco Campagna L., Silveira L.F., Tubaro P.L. & Lougheed S.C. 2013. ecoregions (Dinerstein et al. 1995, del Castillo & Clay Identifying the sister species to the rapid capuchino seedeater 2004), where the species has a preference for tall wet radiation (Passeriformes: Sporophila). Auk 130: 645–655. grasslands, and may be an indicator of the degree of Cartes J.L. & Clay R.P. 2009. Áreas importantes para la conservación ecological integrity of such grasslands (as proposed by de las aves en Paraguay. Asunción: Guyra Paraguay/BirdLife International. López-Lanús et al. 2013). Th e one confi rmed breeding del Castillo H. & Clay R. 2004. Annotated checklist of the birds of location and the record from San Pedro department are Paraguay. Asunción: Guyra Paraguay. in grasslands associated with the Humid Chaco ecoregion Denton M. 2010. BirdQuest Paraguay Tour Report. http://www. (Dinerstein et al. 1995, del Castillo & Clay 2004), but in birdquest-tours.com/pdfs/report/PARAGUAY%20REP%2010. a transitional zone toward more Cerrado-like grasslands. pdf (access on 14 December 2018). Di Giacomo A.S. & Kopuchian C. 2016. Una nueva especie de Ibera Seedeater can often be found in proximity capuchino (Sporophila: Th raupidae) de los Estero del Iberá, to other threatened grassland birds such as Strange- Corrientes, Argentina. Nuestras Aves 61: 3–5. tailed Tyrant Alectrurus risora and Chestnut Seedeater Dinerstein E., Olson D.M., Graham D.J., Webster A.L., Primm S.A., Sporophila cinnamomea. All three species and the habitats Bookbinder M.P. & Ledec G. 1995. U na evaluación del estado they depend upon are all increasingly threatened in de conservación de las ecorregiones terrestres de América Latina y el Caribe. Washington: Banco Mundial. Paraguay from conversion to agriculture, overgrazing, IUCN [International Union for Conservation of Nature]. 2017. frequent burning, and the drying of wetland habitats. Th e IUCN Red List of threatened species v. 2017-3. http://www. A reassessment of the global conservation status iucnredlist.org/details/103818544/0 (access on 09 September of the species taking into account its Paraguayan range 2017). Josse C., Navarro G., Comer P., Evans R., Faber-Langendoen D., and population suggests that the species should perhaps Fellows M., Kittel G., Menard S., Pyne M., Reid M., Schulz K., best be considered “Vulnerable” under criterion C1. Th e Snow K. & Teague J. 2003. Ecological systems of Latin America Paraguayan National Red List assessment is currently and the Caribbean: a working classifi cation of terrestrial systems. being updated, and the species has been proposed as Arlington: NatureServe. “Vulnerable” under criteria C1. Given the signifi cant López-Lanús B. 2015. Una nueva especie de capuchino (Emberizidae: Sporophila) de los pastizales anegados del Iberá, Corrientes, overlap in range and threats as other capuchino seedeaters, Argentina, p. 473–489. In: López-Lanús B. (ed). Guía Audiornis de similar conservation measures should be implemented las aves de Argentina, fotos y sonidos, identifi cación por características for S. iberaensis, including listing on Appendix I of contrapuestas y marcas sobre imágenes. Buenos Aires: Audiornis the Convention of Migratory Species, creation of a Producciones. protected area within its Paraguayan range, and working López-Lanús B.M., Di Giacomo A.S., Azpiroz P., Haynes P., Galimberti A., Keyel A., Ocampo A., Güller R., Moller-Jensen R., with ranchers to set-aside areas of appropriate habitat Mattalía M., Cardozo H., Giarduz C., Papini G. & Di Giacomo during the breeding season. Furthermore, observers are A.G. 2013. Inventario focal de fauna de las estancias La Higuera, encouraged to document new records and localities for María Concepción, La Sirena y Virocay en el sitio piloto Aguapey: the species. Th ese records could include the department Corrientes, Argentina, p. 135–170. In: Marino G.D., Miñarro F., Zaccagnini M.E. & López-Lanús B. (eds.). Pastizales y sabanas of Paraguari, in order to sustain the idea that there are del cono sur de Sudamérica: iniciativas para su conservación en la two subpopulations of the species; and in particular to Argentina. Buenos Aires: Aves Argentinas/AOP y Fundación Vida search for it in southwestern and central Brazil during the Silvestre Argentina. austral winter. Mason N. & Burns K.J. 2013. Molecular phylogenetics of the Neotropical seedeaters and seed-fi nches (Sporophila, Oryzoborus, Dolospingus). Ornitología Neotropical 24: 139–155. Ridgely R.S. & Tudor G. 2009. Th e birds of South America: Passerines. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS London: Cristopher Helm. SACC [South American Classifi cation Comitee]. 2016. A classifi cation We thank Paul Smith, Oscar Bordón, Oscar Rodríguez, of the bird species of South America. http://www.museum.lsu. Rodolfo Ruíz, Arne Lesterhuis, Marko Fast, Nelson edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm (access on 27 December 2016). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 26(4): 2018 Status of the Ibera Seedeater Gallupi-Selich et al. Smith P. & del Castillo H. 2012. BirdQuest Paraguay tour report. 15-ebook.pdf (access on 14 December 2018). http://www.birdquest-tours.com/pdfs/report/PARAGUAY%20 TNC [Th e Nature Conservancy]. 2005. Evaluación ecorregional del REP%2012-ebook.pdf (access on 14 December 2018). Gran Chaco americano. Buenos Aires: Fundación Vida Silvestre Smith P., Clay R. & Morris P. 2015. BirdQuest tour report: Paraguay Argentina. Neotropical Bird Club Fundraiser. http://www.birdquest-tours. com/pdfs/repor t/PARAGUAY%20-NBC-%20REP%20 Associate Editor: Luis F. Silveira. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 26(4): 2018
Ornithology Research – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 1, 2018
Keywords: Brazil; conservation; distribution; grassland; South America; Thraupidae
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