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Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record

Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a... Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 180-188 ARTICLE June 2014 Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in P araguay , including a new country record 1,2,4 3 3 Paul Smith , Arne J. Lesterhuis and Rob P. Clay Fauna Paraguay, Encarnación, Paraguay. www.faunaparaguay.com Para La Tierra, Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Santa Rosa del Aguaray, San Pedro, Paraguay. BirdLife International–Americas Secretariat, Gaetano Martino 215, Asunción, Paraguay. Corresponding author: faunaparaguay@gmail.com Received on 18 August 2013. Accepted on 14 December 2013. ABSTRACT: The doraditos (Pseudocolopteryx spp.) are a little-known group of small, yellow-breasted tyrants, distributed mainly in southern South America. All five species occur in Paraguay, including Pseudocolopteryx citreola, here documented in the country for the first time. The distribution and habitat preferences of the species in Paraguay are clarified, and well-documented records for the three rarest species P. acutipennis, citreola, and dinelliana are listed in full. Owing to the difficulty in distinguishing between the species, a field key is provided to assist observers in making correct field identifications. KEYWORDS: Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis, Pseudocolopteryx citreola, Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana, Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris, Pseudocolopteryx sclateri, migrant. INTRODUCTION represents a challenge that is exacerbated by plumage wear and poorly known juvenile plumages. The doraditos, genus Pseudocolopteryx Lillo 1905, are a All doraditos give rather quiet, scratchy calls, but group of small tyrants (Tyrannidae) with their center only in the last decade has the importance of these vocalizations for identification become apparent, and of distribution in the southern cone of South America (Traylor & Fitzpatrick 1982). Though the populations of vocal analyses were an important factor in the recent most species are migratory or undergo local movements, revalidation of the cryptic P. citreola (Abalos & Areta some are resident and others display complex patterns of 2009). Further study of patterns of vocalizations may seasonal movements that differ throughout their range shed more light on species limits in this complex, with P. acutipennis in particular perhaps representing several (Fitzpatrick 2004). The doraditos are typically associated with marshes, seasonally inundated natural grasslands, cryptic species (Bostwick 2004). and scrub habitats close to water, but they may also Paraguay, with its location in the center of South be encountered in a wider variety of drier scrub and America, is particularly interesting for the study of grassland habitats and even crop fields (Stotz et al. 1996; migrants, yet it remains one of the most underwatched countries on the continent. Given the paucity of observers, Fitzpatrick 2004; Roesler 2009). Five species of doradito are currently recognized it is no surprise that the secretive doraditos have managed (Remsen et al. 2013): Subtropical Pseudocolopteryx to elude many visitors, and as late as 1940 Laubmann acutipennis (Sclater & Salvin, 1873); Dinelli’s P. dinelliana reported only the two most widespread species, P. sclateri (Lillo, 1905); Warbling P. flaviventris (Lafresnaye & and P. flaviventris, as present in the country (Laubmann 1940). In order to coordinate observer effort and update D´Orbigny, 1837); Crested P. sclateri (Oustalet, 1892); and the recently revalidated Ticking P. citreola (Landbeck, published distributional data, here we critically review 1864). They are characterized by their skulking behavior, the status and distribution of the genus in the country, generic yellow underparts, and greenish or brownish confirm the presence of P. citreola in Paraguay and provide upperparts (Ridgely & Tudor 2009). Observations are a basic field key to the species to assist inexperienced observers in making an accurate identification. often frustratingly brief and species-level identification Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record Paul Smith, Arne J. Lesterhuis and Rob P. Clay METHODS RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Records of doraditos in Paraguay were compiled from the Subtropical Doradito Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis published literature, museum specimens, on-line databases (e.g. Worldbirds www.worldbirds.org, eBird www.ebird. Rarely recorded in Paraguay, its distribution is restricted org), the Guyra Paraguay Biodiversity Database (www. to the Humid Chaco and correlates approximately with guyra.org.py), the authors’ own field observations the watershed of the Paraguay River. Currently the species and through consultations with ornithologists and is known from just 10 records in 6 localities in Paraguay birdwatchers. All records with information regarding (Figures 1 and 3). plumage or vocalizations were reviewed based on current Short (1972) described the habitat of the species as knowledge of key identification features (see field “brushland and shrubbery in the xeric chaco,” and “dry key) and distribution (the latter based on confirmed subtropical forest,” but all Paraguayan records correspond to identifications). Noteworthy distributional records marshes and bushy wetlands in Humid Chaco or Pantanal- lacking identification details were treated as hypothetical. type habitats, consistent with the habitat preference of FIGURE 1. Map of localities with Subtropical Doradito Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis records in Paraguay. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record Paul Smith, Arne J. Lesterhuis and Rob P. Clay presumed migrants (Jensen et al. 2009). Although Roesler Ticking Doradito Pseudocolopteryx citreola (2009) notes that the species is not closely tied to water during the breeding season in the central Argentine On 5 September 2010 at an extensive Humid Chaco Pampas, the speculation that the species “may breed in wetland at Km 165 on the Ruta Trans-Chaco (see Figure the western fringes of the Paraguayan...Chaco” (Short 1), Departamento Presidente Hayes (24º15'S, 58º16'W), 1972), the most arid part of the Chaco, was presumably an unfamiliar doradito song was heard from dense marshy based only on this being the part of Paraguay closest to the vegetation by PS. It had the strange buzzy timbre of P. species’ known range at the time (in the Andes). Guyra dinelliana but the phrases were different and lacked the Paraguay (2004, 2005) list it as a possible resident/breeder high notes characteristic of that species. The bird did not in Paraguay based on record phenology, but no breeding respond to playback of P. dinelliana, so playback of the activity has ever been reported. Given the possibility that call of other doraditos was attempted. Upon playback of more than one species may be involved in what is currently a recording of P. citreola a bird resembling a P. flaviventris called P. acutipennis (Bostwick 2004), caution is perhaps emerged from cover. From this point on the bird did not advisable when interpreting the limited data. sing, instead giving only occasional and quiet tic calls. FIGURE 2. Map of localities with Dinelli’s Doradito Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana records in Paraguay. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record Paul Smith, Arne J. Lesterhuis and Rob P. Clay Playback of the song of P. flaviventris caused the observed Areta (2009). Little can be said regarding the status of individual to lose interest (similar to the behavior noted the species in Paraguay based on this single record, but by Abalos & Areta 2009), but it returned again with the it may be presumed to occur in passage or perhaps as a re-playing of the P. citreola recording, further supporting winter visitor. its identity. The bird was photographed by PS (Figure 4) and a poor-quality video of it reacting strongly to playback Dinelli’s Doradito Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana was taken by Robert Wynands (FAUNA Paraguay Photo Database 2013b). Unfortunately no recording equipment Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana is a Near Threatened species was available to the observers to record the vocalizations. (Birdlife International 2012) known from a total of The complex taxonomic history of this form is 19 confirmed records from 9 localities in Paraguay, all discussed by the SACC committee in Proposal 420 of which are associated with the drainage basin of the (Jaramillo 2010). It is indistinguishable from P . flaviventris Paraguay River (Figures 2 and 5). The majority of these in the field except for its vocalizations, with examined records (11) come from a single well-watched site, the specimens being slightly larger and somewhat longer Bahía de Asunción, Departamento Central. Additional winged (Abalos & Areta 2009). Abalos & Areta (2009) published reports from eastern Paraguay are best found the species in different types of habitats including treated as hypothetical due to a lack of corroboratory chilcales (Baccharis salicifolia), tamariscales (Tamarix documentation combined with the poor understanding gallica), brushland of pájaro bobo (Tessaria absinthioides) of the complexities of doradito identification at the time. with tamarisks, tamarisks and chilcales, and lagoons with These include two sights records (of presumably the same reeds (Typha sp. and Juncus sp.). The Paraguayan bird bird) from Estancia San Antonio, Departamento Alto was observed in an extensive marsh typical of the Humid Paraná in July 1992 (Brooks et al. 1993), and a third-hand Chaco, dominated by Cyperus giganteus (Cyperaceae) and report from Lago Ypacaraí, Departamento Paraguarí on Thalia geniculata (Maranthaceae). 7 August 1995 (Lowen et al. 1996). A report from the This observation represents the first record of P. Refugio Biológico Mbaracayú, Departamento Canindeyú citreola in Paraguay and confirms its presence in a fourth on 15 September 1993 by Pérez Villamayor & Colmán country in the Southern Cone in addition to Chile, Jara (1995) was treated as hypothetical by Straube (2003), Argentina, and Bolivia. The record sheds further light and later confirmed to be in Brazilian territory (Pérez- on the migratory movements of this species as it shows Villamayor et al. 2014). Though a specimen was collected an eastward movement in addition to the northward it has since been lost. migration along the Andes as discussed in Abalos & Short (1972) described the habitat of the species FIGURE 3. Subtropical Doradito Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis, Tres FIGURE 4. Ticking Doradito Pseudocolopteryx citreola, Km 165 on Gigantes, Departamento Alto Paraguay, 16 November 2012 (Photo the Ruta Trans-Chaco, Departamento Presidente Hayes, 5 September number FPAVE3774PH in FAUNA Paraguay online photo archive 2010 (Photo number FPAVE41PH in FAUNA Paraguay online photo www.faunaparaguay.com; Photo by Paul Smith). archive www.faunaparaguay.com; Photo by Paul Smith). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record Paul Smith, Arne J. Lesterhuis and Rob P. Clay as brushland and shrubbery in the xeric Chaco, but the austral winter months. Guyra Paraguay (2004, 2005) known distribution in Paraguay is associated principally similarly considers the species a winter visitor. The with Humid Chaco or Pantanal-type habitats in the presence of singing birds during the early breeding season watershed of the Río Paraguay and there are just a handful suggests that breeding might occur, but doraditos have of records from the xeric Chaco (Ridgely & Tudor 2009; been recorded singing during migration in northwestern this paper). Argentina (K. Roesler in litt. 2013) and so confirmation Guyra Paraguay (2004) gave the extreme dates for of the status of Paraguayan populations is required. the species in Paraguay as 24 April to 10 August, but an observation at the large wetland at Km 165 of the Ruta Warbling Doradito Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris Trans-Chaco, Departamento Presidente Hayes (24º15'S, 58º16'W) on 18 October 2004 by PS and RPC extended Considered an uncommon winter visitor to Paraguay the later date by more than two months (Guyra Paraguay (Guyra Paraguay 2005), with extreme dates 23 March 2005). In 2009 singing birds were located during six to 28 November (Hayes 1995). P. flaviventris is fairly visits to Bahía de Asunción, Departamento Central, widespread in the Humid Chaco, Paraguayan Pantanal, between 4 September and 18 October. A peak count of and Oriental region. Short (1972) described the habitat six individuals was made on 20 September (RPC, PS, of the species as shrub and brushland in open country, AJL) and the first photographs (Figure 5) and recordings but all Paraguayan records are from marshes and bushy of the bird’s vocalizations in Paraguay were also obtained wetlands. (FAUNA Paraguay 2013c). The discovery of P. citreola in Paraguay creates Hayes et al. (1994) considered the species to be a uncertainty regarding the precise distribution of this southern austral migrant, defined as a species that breeds species in Paraguay. The possibility that at least some to the south or west of the country in more temperate reports of P. flaviventris in fact refer to the cryptic P. areas, and that migrates to Paraguay during the colder citreola cannot be discounted and field work is required to better understand the limits of their distributions. A recently fledged juvenile of the flaviventris “morphotype” was captured in a mist net on 25 August 2005 (Figure 6) a few hundred meters from the banks of the Río Paraná at the now defunct Arroyo Mboi Kae (27º21'S, 55º52'W), on the outskirts of Encarnación, Departamento Itapúa (FAUNA Paraguay 2013d; Smith et al. 2013). The bird was a weak flyer and is possibly suggestive of local breeding, though the proximity of the site to the Río Paraná introduces the possibility that the bird may have crossed over from Argentina. Based on the known breeding distributions of P. citreola and P. flaviventris (Abalos & Areta 2009), this individual might reasonably be assumed to be of the latter species. The northern extent of the known breeding range of P. flaviventris in Argentina is the Iberá marshes in Provincia Corrientes, but breeding in southern Misiones is also suspected (M. Pearman pers. comm.). Belton (1994) considers the species resident in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, at approximately the same latitude. This record suggests that the species may breed further north than is currently known and is perhaps even resident in extreme southern Paraguay. Crested Doradito Pseudocolopteryx sclateri The most widespread and commonly encountered doradito in Paraguay, P. sclateri (Figure 7) is associated with reedbeds, wet grasslands, and low shrubbery near FIGURE 5. Dinelli’s Doradito Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana, Bahía water (Short 1972; Fitzpatrick 2004). Considered a de Asunción, Departamento Central, 20 September 2009 (Photo breeding resident (Guyra Paraguay 2005), there is some number FPAVE1776PH in FAUNA Paraguay online photo archive www.faunaparaguay.com; Photo by Paul Smith). suggestion of seasonality at the Bahía de Asunción, Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record Paul Smith, Arne J. Lesterhuis and Rob P. Clay with birds more frequently observed during the austral winter and spring (RPC, AJL). The distribution is to some degree associated with the Río Paraguay, with most records in the western half of the Oriental region and fewer in the Humid Chaco and Pantanal regions. The most easterly record is of a bird at Arroyo Mboi Kae (27º21'S, 55º52'W) observed on the outskirts of Encarnación, Departamento Itapúa, by PS during July 2005 near the banks of the Paraná River (Smith et al. 2013). The most westerly record is at Defensores del Chaco National Park, Departamento Boquerón, and the most northerly at Fortín Patria, Departamento Alto Paraguay (19º55'S, 58º 35'W). Conclusions FIGURE 6. Warbling Doradito Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris, Arroyo FIGURE 7. Crested Doradito Pseudocolopteryx sclateri, Arroyos y Mboi Kae, Encarnación, Departamento Itapúa, 25 August 2005 Esteros Km 100, Departamento Paraguarí, 11 November 2008 (Photo (Photo number FPAVE1781PH in FAUNA Paraguay online photo number FPAVE3453PH in FAUNA Paraguay online photo archive archive www.faunaparaguay.com; Photo by Paul Smith). www.faunaparaguay.com; Photo by Paul Smith). TABLE 1: Paraguayan records of Subtropical Doradito Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis. Location Department Coordinates Date Source Lichtenau Presidente Hayes 22º50'S, 59º40'W 9 December 1970 AMNH 802830 (Short 1972) Lichtenau Presidente Hayes 22º50'S, 59º40'W 27 April 1973 AMNH 810650 (Short 1976) Riacho Michi, Ruta F. Hayes, D. Snider & R. Perrin Presidente Hayes 23º51'S, 58º28'W 9 December 1988 Trans Chaco km210 sight record (Hayes 1995) Pirahú, Ruta Trans Presidente Hayes 23º37'S, 58º42'W 10 August 1994 F. Hayes sight record (Hayes 1995) Chaco km 249 RPC, AJL; sight record of two Bahía de Asunción Central 25º17'S, 57º38'W 28 August 2004 individuals Estación Biológica Alto Paraguay 20°04'S, 58°09'W 27 June 2008 S. Centrón; sight record Tres Gigantes Bahía de Asunción Central 25º17'S, 57º38'W 8 May 2009 RPC; sight record AJL, R.Cardoso, S.Centrón, C. Bahía de Asunción Central 25º17'S, 57º38'W 27 September 2010 Morales; sight record Ruta Trans Chaco Presidente Hayes 24º15'S, 58º16'W 11 February 2012 PS; sight record km165 Estación Biológica PS; photograph (Figure 3; FAUNA Alto Paraguay 20°04'S, 58°09'W 16 November 2012 Tres Gigantes Paraguay 2013a) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record Paul Smith, Arne J. Lesterhuis and Rob P. Clay TABLE 2: Paraguayan records of Dinelli’s Doradito Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana. Location Department Coordinates Date Details &Source Laguna Gral. Diaz Presidente Hayes 22º18'S, 59º01'W 20 July 1945 FMNH 152593 (Hayes et al. 1994) Laguna Escalante Presidente Hayes 23º50'S, 60º46'W 3 August 1960 MAK 601593 (Steinbacher 1962) Ruta Trans Chaco P. Scharf; sight record of two birds Presidente Hayes 24º48'S, 57º47'W 9 May 1990 km79 (Collar et al. 1992; Hayes 1995) Ruta Trans Chaco P. Scharf; sight record of one bird Presidente Hayes 24º47'S, 58º23'W 16 June 1990 km 100 (Collar et al. 1992; Hayes 1995) Fortín Patria Alto Paraguay 19º55'S, 58º35'W 22 March 2002 J. Klavins, A. Esquivel; sight record Agua Dulce Alto Paraguay 19º57'S, 59º42'W 24 April 2004 J. Klavins; sight record Ruta Trans Chaco Presidente Hayes 24º15'S, 58º16'W 18 October 2004 RPC, PS; sight record km165 RPC, H. del Castillo, E. Coconier; Laguna Sanidad Presidente Hayes 24º08'S, 59º50'W 9, 10 October 2004 sight record of five singing birds RPC, AJL, D. Díaz; sight records of 4 September 2009 two individuals RPC, AJL; sight records of three 12 September 2009 individuals PS, RPC, AJL; sight records of six 20 September 2009 individuals (FAUNA Paraguay 2013c) Bahía de Asunción Central 25º17'S, 57º38'W RPC, AJL; sight records of three, one, 1, 16, 18 October 2009 and one individuals, respectively RPC, AJL; sight records of three and 17, 24 August 2012 four individuals respectively RPC, AJL; sight records of two 4, 7, 11 September 2012 individuals Threatened P. dinelliana would contribute to a better The information presented here represents a summary understanding of its status and hence conservation. of the little that is known about the distribution and Significant habitat loss in the nominally protected seasonality of doraditos in Paraguay. Though certain Important Bird Area, the 522-ha Bahía de Asunción inferences can be made regarding movement patterns Ecological Reserve (where the species was consistently in Paraguay in reference to records in neighboring observed singing and may have bred) during the countries, the scarcity of data available for most species, construction of the Asunción bayside road (Costanera the confusion created by identification difficulties and de Asunción) that started in 2010 is cause for concern, the heterogenic seasonal movements that some species and the impact of this loss on Paraguayan populations exhibit across their wide geographic ranges mean that of the species has yet to be determined. Further research further study is required to confirm these conclusions. to clarify the specific status of P. acutipennis throughout However one clear pattern that emerges is a strong the range would also be desirable in order to begin to association between the Paraguayan distribution of interpret the seasonal patterns observed in Paraguay. most species and the watershed of the Río Paraguay, Positive identification of doraditos requires which is presumably due, in part, to the greater familiarity with the species and in particular with their availability of wetland and low-lying grassland habitats vocalizations. With bird watching still in its infancy in in this region. Paraguay, and very few experienced birders active in At the local level clarification of the ranges and the field, all species are likely under-recorded, seriously seasonality of P. citreola versus P. flaviventris is a priority, hampering our understanding of the distribution of these whilst confirmation of potential breeding of the Near species in the country. To date no nest of any species Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record Paul Smith, Arne J. Lesterhuis and Rob P. Clay has been reported from Paraguay and, in general, much biology and conservation requirements of this charismatic remains to be learned about the taxonomy, distribution, but complex group. natural history, and movements of these unobtrusive little Here follows a basic field key to the species to assist flycatchers. It is hoped that this introductory paper will inexperienced observers with identification: contribute to a better range-wide understanding of the 1a Contrastingly dark bifurcate crest Pseudocolopteryx sclateri 1b Crestless 2 2a Head with distinct and contrasting rufous coloration, most notable on the crown 3 2b Head without contrasting rufous tinge, being uniform brownish or greenish 4 3a Vocalizations harsh and scratchy, “tick tick tick tick-tick-tick-you.” Head Pseudocolopteryx citreola movements accompanying each note first raise the head slowly, and as the velocity of the notes increases, the head is lowered rapidly with shaky movements 3b Vocalisations weak and squeaky, “u-eet-u, u-eét.” Head movements accompanying Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris the song are even and rhythmic 4a Head and upperparts dull greenish-olive, underparts bright golden-yellow. No Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis supercilium and adults do not usually show wing bars (though juveniles have both wing bar AND supercilium!). Scratchy song includes low liquid notes 4b Head and upperparts dull greenish, underparts bright golden-yellow with slight Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana olive tinge on the flanks. Often shows a hint of a supercilium and wing-bars at all ages. Scratchy song ends with high note, “tick-tick-ticktickaZEEP” Bostwick, K. S. 2004. Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis, p. 289. In: del ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; & Christie, D.A. (eds). Handbook of the birds of the world, v. 9, Cotingas to Pipits and Wagtails. Barcelona: This article is dedicated to the memory of Juan Mazar Lynx Ediciones. Barnett, with whom RPC shared several discussions Brooks, T. M.; Barnes, R. B.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Clay, R. P.; Esquivel, E. Z.; Etcheverry, N. I.; Lowen, J. C.; & Vincent, J. P. regarding doradito distribution and identification. 1993. Bird surveys and conservation in the Paraguayan Atlantic In fact, the Paraguayan record of P. citreola and recent Forest. BirdLife International Study Report No. 57. Cambridge: observations of the species in northern Argentina were a BirdLife International. topic in our last conversation together. PS would like to Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.;Madroño-Nieto, A.; thank to Robert and Ulrike Wynands for their company Naranjo, L. G.; Parker III, T. A.; & Wege, D.C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas. The ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book, 3rd ed., part in the field during the observation of P. citreola and for 2. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press. having the foresight to video the observed behavior! Hugo FAUNA Paraguay Photo Database. 2013a. [FPAVE3774PH del Castillo provided additional data on certain records. and FPAVE3775PH]. Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis. www. Thanks to Kini Roesler and Mark Pearman for sharing faunaparaguay.com/pseudocolopteryx_acutipennis.html (access their experiences with these birds in Argentina. Special on 3 April 2013). FAUNA Paraguay Photo Database. 2013b. [FPAVE40PH, thanks to Fatima Mereles for identifying the plant species FPAVE41PH, FPAVE1783VI]. Pseudocolopteryx citreola. www. associated with the P. citreola record. faunaparaguay.com/pseudocolopteryx_citreola.html (access on 3 April 2013). FAUNA Paraguay Photo Database. 2013c. [FPAVE1776PH, REFERENCES FPAVE1779RE, FPAVE1780RE]. Pseudocolopteryx dinellianus. www.faunaparaguay.com/pseudocolopteryx_dinellianus.html Abalos, R. & Areta, J. I. 2009. Historia natural y vocalizaciones (access on 3 April 2013). del doradito limón (Pseudocolopteryx cf. citreola) en Argentina. FAUNA Paraguay Photo Database. 2013d. [FPAVE1781PH Ornitologia Neotropical, 20: 215–230 and FPAVE1782PH]. Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris. www. BirdLife International. 2012. Species factsheet: Pseudocolopteryx faunaparaguay.com/pseudocolopteryx_flaviventris.html (access dinelliana. www.birdlife.org (access on 7 August 2012. on 3 April 2013). Belton, W. 1994. Aves do Rio Grande do Sul: Distribução e biologia. São Fitzpatrick, J. W. 2004. Family Tyrannidae, p. 170-463. In: del Hoyo, Leopoldo: Editoria UNISINOS. J.; Elliott, A.; & Christie, D.A. (eds). Handbook of the birds Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record Paul Smith, Arne J. Lesterhuis and Rob P. Clay of the world, v. 9, Cotingas to Pipits and Wagtails. Barcelona: Ridgely, R. S. & Tudor, G. 2009. Birds of South America, passerines. Lynx Ediciones. London: Christopher Helm. Guyra Paraguay. 2004. Lista comentada de las aves del Paraguay. Remsen, J. V., Jr.; Cadena, C. D.; Jaramillo, A.; Nores, M.; Asunción: Guyra Paraguay. Pacheco, J. F.; Pérez-Emán, J.; Robbins, M. B.; Stiles, F. 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Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural SACCprop420.html (access on 3 April 2013). History, 154: 163-352. Jensen, R. M.; Roesler, I.; & Soteras, G. 2009. Nuevos registros Short, L. L. 1976. Notes on a collection of birds from the Paraguayan provinciales de Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis en Argentina. Cotinga, Chaco. American Museum of Natural History Novitates, 31: 153-155. 2597: 1-16. Lafresnaye, M. de & A. D’Orbigny. 1837. Synopsis Avium. Magasin Slater, P. M. & O. Salvin. 1873. On Peruvian birds collected by de Zoologie 7, Clase II. Mr. Whitely. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London Landbeck, L. 1864. Contribuciónes a la Ornitolojia de Chile. Anales 1873: 184-191. de la Universidad de Chile, 24: 336–348. Smith, P.; Derna, R.; Wainwright, B.; Bromfield, G.; Nossent, R. & Laubmann, A. 1940. Die vogel von Paraguay, v. 2. Stuttgart: Verlag Betuel, A. 2013. 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Nouvelles Archives du Muséum D’Histoire Naturelle Paris territoriais do Brasil na frontera com o Paraguai e suas implicações 4: 211-220. para a consideração de registro ornitológicos. Ararajuba, Pérez Villamayor, N. & Colmán Jara, A. 1995. Avifauna de las áreas 11: 131-145. protegidas de Itaipú I: Aves del Refugio Biológico Mbaracayú, Traylor Jr., M. A. & Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1982. A survey of the tyrant Salto del Guairá, Paraguay. Itaipú Binacional Biota, 4: 1-24. flycatchers. The Living Bird, 19: 7-50. Pérez Villamayor, N.; Colmán Jara, A; & Straube F. C. 2014. Circunstanciação do registro de Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana na fronteira entre o Brasil e o Paraguai. Atualidades Ornitológicas, 178: 25. Associate Editor: Luciano N. Naka Coryphaspiza melanotis Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ornithology Research Springer Journals

Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record

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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 180-188 ARTICLE June 2014 Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in P araguay , including a new country record 1,2,4 3 3 Paul Smith , Arne J. Lesterhuis and Rob P. Clay Fauna Paraguay, Encarnación, Paraguay. www.faunaparaguay.com Para La Tierra, Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Santa Rosa del Aguaray, San Pedro, Paraguay. BirdLife International–Americas Secretariat, Gaetano Martino 215, Asunción, Paraguay. Corresponding author: faunaparaguay@gmail.com Received on 18 August 2013. Accepted on 14 December 2013. ABSTRACT: The doraditos (Pseudocolopteryx spp.) are a little-known group of small, yellow-breasted tyrants, distributed mainly in southern South America. All five species occur in Paraguay, including Pseudocolopteryx citreola, here documented in the country for the first time. The distribution and habitat preferences of the species in Paraguay are clarified, and well-documented records for the three rarest species P. acutipennis, citreola, and dinelliana are listed in full. Owing to the difficulty in distinguishing between the species, a field key is provided to assist observers in making correct field identifications. KEYWORDS: Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis, Pseudocolopteryx citreola, Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana, Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris, Pseudocolopteryx sclateri, migrant. INTRODUCTION represents a challenge that is exacerbated by plumage wear and poorly known juvenile plumages. The doraditos, genus Pseudocolopteryx Lillo 1905, are a All doraditos give rather quiet, scratchy calls, but group of small tyrants (Tyrannidae) with their center only in the last decade has the importance of these vocalizations for identification become apparent, and of distribution in the southern cone of South America (Traylor & Fitzpatrick 1982). Though the populations of vocal analyses were an important factor in the recent most species are migratory or undergo local movements, revalidation of the cryptic P. citreola (Abalos & Areta some are resident and others display complex patterns of 2009). Further study of patterns of vocalizations may seasonal movements that differ throughout their range shed more light on species limits in this complex, with P. acutipennis in particular perhaps representing several (Fitzpatrick 2004). The doraditos are typically associated with marshes, seasonally inundated natural grasslands, cryptic species (Bostwick 2004). and scrub habitats close to water, but they may also Paraguay, with its location in the center of South be encountered in a wider variety of drier scrub and America, is particularly interesting for the study of grassland habitats and even crop fields (Stotz et al. 1996; migrants, yet it remains one of the most underwatched countries on the continent. Given the paucity of observers, Fitzpatrick 2004; Roesler 2009). Five species of doradito are currently recognized it is no surprise that the secretive doraditos have managed (Remsen et al. 2013): Subtropical Pseudocolopteryx to elude many visitors, and as late as 1940 Laubmann acutipennis (Sclater & Salvin, 1873); Dinelli’s P. dinelliana reported only the two most widespread species, P. sclateri (Lillo, 1905); Warbling P. flaviventris (Lafresnaye & and P. flaviventris, as present in the country (Laubmann 1940). In order to coordinate observer effort and update D´Orbigny, 1837); Crested P. sclateri (Oustalet, 1892); and the recently revalidated Ticking P. citreola (Landbeck, published distributional data, here we critically review 1864). They are characterized by their skulking behavior, the status and distribution of the genus in the country, generic yellow underparts, and greenish or brownish confirm the presence of P. citreola in Paraguay and provide upperparts (Ridgely & Tudor 2009). Observations are a basic field key to the species to assist inexperienced observers in making an accurate identification. often frustratingly brief and species-level identification Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record Paul Smith, Arne J. Lesterhuis and Rob P. Clay METHODS RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Records of doraditos in Paraguay were compiled from the Subtropical Doradito Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis published literature, museum specimens, on-line databases (e.g. Worldbirds www.worldbirds.org, eBird www.ebird. Rarely recorded in Paraguay, its distribution is restricted org), the Guyra Paraguay Biodiversity Database (www. to the Humid Chaco and correlates approximately with guyra.org.py), the authors’ own field observations the watershed of the Paraguay River. Currently the species and through consultations with ornithologists and is known from just 10 records in 6 localities in Paraguay birdwatchers. All records with information regarding (Figures 1 and 3). plumage or vocalizations were reviewed based on current Short (1972) described the habitat of the species as knowledge of key identification features (see field “brushland and shrubbery in the xeric chaco,” and “dry key) and distribution (the latter based on confirmed subtropical forest,” but all Paraguayan records correspond to identifications). Noteworthy distributional records marshes and bushy wetlands in Humid Chaco or Pantanal- lacking identification details were treated as hypothetical. type habitats, consistent with the habitat preference of FIGURE 1. Map of localities with Subtropical Doradito Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis records in Paraguay. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record Paul Smith, Arne J. Lesterhuis and Rob P. Clay presumed migrants (Jensen et al. 2009). Although Roesler Ticking Doradito Pseudocolopteryx citreola (2009) notes that the species is not closely tied to water during the breeding season in the central Argentine On 5 September 2010 at an extensive Humid Chaco Pampas, the speculation that the species “may breed in wetland at Km 165 on the Ruta Trans-Chaco (see Figure the western fringes of the Paraguayan...Chaco” (Short 1), Departamento Presidente Hayes (24º15'S, 58º16'W), 1972), the most arid part of the Chaco, was presumably an unfamiliar doradito song was heard from dense marshy based only on this being the part of Paraguay closest to the vegetation by PS. It had the strange buzzy timbre of P. species’ known range at the time (in the Andes). Guyra dinelliana but the phrases were different and lacked the Paraguay (2004, 2005) list it as a possible resident/breeder high notes characteristic of that species. The bird did not in Paraguay based on record phenology, but no breeding respond to playback of P. dinelliana, so playback of the activity has ever been reported. Given the possibility that call of other doraditos was attempted. Upon playback of more than one species may be involved in what is currently a recording of P. citreola a bird resembling a P. flaviventris called P. acutipennis (Bostwick 2004), caution is perhaps emerged from cover. From this point on the bird did not advisable when interpreting the limited data. sing, instead giving only occasional and quiet tic calls. FIGURE 2. Map of localities with Dinelli’s Doradito Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana records in Paraguay. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record Paul Smith, Arne J. Lesterhuis and Rob P. Clay Playback of the song of P. flaviventris caused the observed Areta (2009). Little can be said regarding the status of individual to lose interest (similar to the behavior noted the species in Paraguay based on this single record, but by Abalos & Areta 2009), but it returned again with the it may be presumed to occur in passage or perhaps as a re-playing of the P. citreola recording, further supporting winter visitor. its identity. The bird was photographed by PS (Figure 4) and a poor-quality video of it reacting strongly to playback Dinelli’s Doradito Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana was taken by Robert Wynands (FAUNA Paraguay Photo Database 2013b). Unfortunately no recording equipment Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana is a Near Threatened species was available to the observers to record the vocalizations. (Birdlife International 2012) known from a total of The complex taxonomic history of this form is 19 confirmed records from 9 localities in Paraguay, all discussed by the SACC committee in Proposal 420 of which are associated with the drainage basin of the (Jaramillo 2010). It is indistinguishable from P . flaviventris Paraguay River (Figures 2 and 5). The majority of these in the field except for its vocalizations, with examined records (11) come from a single well-watched site, the specimens being slightly larger and somewhat longer Bahía de Asunción, Departamento Central. Additional winged (Abalos & Areta 2009). Abalos & Areta (2009) published reports from eastern Paraguay are best found the species in different types of habitats including treated as hypothetical due to a lack of corroboratory chilcales (Baccharis salicifolia), tamariscales (Tamarix documentation combined with the poor understanding gallica), brushland of pájaro bobo (Tessaria absinthioides) of the complexities of doradito identification at the time. with tamarisks, tamarisks and chilcales, and lagoons with These include two sights records (of presumably the same reeds (Typha sp. and Juncus sp.). The Paraguayan bird bird) from Estancia San Antonio, Departamento Alto was observed in an extensive marsh typical of the Humid Paraná in July 1992 (Brooks et al. 1993), and a third-hand Chaco, dominated by Cyperus giganteus (Cyperaceae) and report from Lago Ypacaraí, Departamento Paraguarí on Thalia geniculata (Maranthaceae). 7 August 1995 (Lowen et al. 1996). A report from the This observation represents the first record of P. Refugio Biológico Mbaracayú, Departamento Canindeyú citreola in Paraguay and confirms its presence in a fourth on 15 September 1993 by Pérez Villamayor & Colmán country in the Southern Cone in addition to Chile, Jara (1995) was treated as hypothetical by Straube (2003), Argentina, and Bolivia. The record sheds further light and later confirmed to be in Brazilian territory (Pérez- on the migratory movements of this species as it shows Villamayor et al. 2014). Though a specimen was collected an eastward movement in addition to the northward it has since been lost. migration along the Andes as discussed in Abalos & Short (1972) described the habitat of the species FIGURE 3. Subtropical Doradito Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis, Tres FIGURE 4. Ticking Doradito Pseudocolopteryx citreola, Km 165 on Gigantes, Departamento Alto Paraguay, 16 November 2012 (Photo the Ruta Trans-Chaco, Departamento Presidente Hayes, 5 September number FPAVE3774PH in FAUNA Paraguay online photo archive 2010 (Photo number FPAVE41PH in FAUNA Paraguay online photo www.faunaparaguay.com; Photo by Paul Smith). archive www.faunaparaguay.com; Photo by Paul Smith). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record Paul Smith, Arne J. Lesterhuis and Rob P. Clay as brushland and shrubbery in the xeric Chaco, but the austral winter months. Guyra Paraguay (2004, 2005) known distribution in Paraguay is associated principally similarly considers the species a winter visitor. The with Humid Chaco or Pantanal-type habitats in the presence of singing birds during the early breeding season watershed of the Río Paraguay and there are just a handful suggests that breeding might occur, but doraditos have of records from the xeric Chaco (Ridgely & Tudor 2009; been recorded singing during migration in northwestern this paper). Argentina (K. Roesler in litt. 2013) and so confirmation Guyra Paraguay (2004) gave the extreme dates for of the status of Paraguayan populations is required. the species in Paraguay as 24 April to 10 August, but an observation at the large wetland at Km 165 of the Ruta Warbling Doradito Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris Trans-Chaco, Departamento Presidente Hayes (24º15'S, 58º16'W) on 18 October 2004 by PS and RPC extended Considered an uncommon winter visitor to Paraguay the later date by more than two months (Guyra Paraguay (Guyra Paraguay 2005), with extreme dates 23 March 2005). In 2009 singing birds were located during six to 28 November (Hayes 1995). P. flaviventris is fairly visits to Bahía de Asunción, Departamento Central, widespread in the Humid Chaco, Paraguayan Pantanal, between 4 September and 18 October. A peak count of and Oriental region. Short (1972) described the habitat six individuals was made on 20 September (RPC, PS, of the species as shrub and brushland in open country, AJL) and the first photographs (Figure 5) and recordings but all Paraguayan records are from marshes and bushy of the bird’s vocalizations in Paraguay were also obtained wetlands. (FAUNA Paraguay 2013c). The discovery of P. citreola in Paraguay creates Hayes et al. (1994) considered the species to be a uncertainty regarding the precise distribution of this southern austral migrant, defined as a species that breeds species in Paraguay. The possibility that at least some to the south or west of the country in more temperate reports of P. flaviventris in fact refer to the cryptic P. areas, and that migrates to Paraguay during the colder citreola cannot be discounted and field work is required to better understand the limits of their distributions. A recently fledged juvenile of the flaviventris “morphotype” was captured in a mist net on 25 August 2005 (Figure 6) a few hundred meters from the banks of the Río Paraná at the now defunct Arroyo Mboi Kae (27º21'S, 55º52'W), on the outskirts of Encarnación, Departamento Itapúa (FAUNA Paraguay 2013d; Smith et al. 2013). The bird was a weak flyer and is possibly suggestive of local breeding, though the proximity of the site to the Río Paraná introduces the possibility that the bird may have crossed over from Argentina. Based on the known breeding distributions of P. citreola and P. flaviventris (Abalos & Areta 2009), this individual might reasonably be assumed to be of the latter species. The northern extent of the known breeding range of P. flaviventris in Argentina is the Iberá marshes in Provincia Corrientes, but breeding in southern Misiones is also suspected (M. Pearman pers. comm.). Belton (1994) considers the species resident in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, at approximately the same latitude. This record suggests that the species may breed further north than is currently known and is perhaps even resident in extreme southern Paraguay. Crested Doradito Pseudocolopteryx sclateri The most widespread and commonly encountered doradito in Paraguay, P. sclateri (Figure 7) is associated with reedbeds, wet grasslands, and low shrubbery near FIGURE 5. Dinelli’s Doradito Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana, Bahía water (Short 1972; Fitzpatrick 2004). Considered a de Asunción, Departamento Central, 20 September 2009 (Photo breeding resident (Guyra Paraguay 2005), there is some number FPAVE1776PH in FAUNA Paraguay online photo archive www.faunaparaguay.com; Photo by Paul Smith). suggestion of seasonality at the Bahía de Asunción, Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record Paul Smith, Arne J. Lesterhuis and Rob P. Clay with birds more frequently observed during the austral winter and spring (RPC, AJL). The distribution is to some degree associated with the Río Paraguay, with most records in the western half of the Oriental region and fewer in the Humid Chaco and Pantanal regions. The most easterly record is of a bird at Arroyo Mboi Kae (27º21'S, 55º52'W) observed on the outskirts of Encarnación, Departamento Itapúa, by PS during July 2005 near the banks of the Paraná River (Smith et al. 2013). The most westerly record is at Defensores del Chaco National Park, Departamento Boquerón, and the most northerly at Fortín Patria, Departamento Alto Paraguay (19º55'S, 58º 35'W). Conclusions FIGURE 6. Warbling Doradito Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris, Arroyo FIGURE 7. Crested Doradito Pseudocolopteryx sclateri, Arroyos y Mboi Kae, Encarnación, Departamento Itapúa, 25 August 2005 Esteros Km 100, Departamento Paraguarí, 11 November 2008 (Photo (Photo number FPAVE1781PH in FAUNA Paraguay online photo number FPAVE3453PH in FAUNA Paraguay online photo archive archive www.faunaparaguay.com; Photo by Paul Smith). www.faunaparaguay.com; Photo by Paul Smith). TABLE 1: Paraguayan records of Subtropical Doradito Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis. Location Department Coordinates Date Source Lichtenau Presidente Hayes 22º50'S, 59º40'W 9 December 1970 AMNH 802830 (Short 1972) Lichtenau Presidente Hayes 22º50'S, 59º40'W 27 April 1973 AMNH 810650 (Short 1976) Riacho Michi, Ruta F. Hayes, D. Snider & R. Perrin Presidente Hayes 23º51'S, 58º28'W 9 December 1988 Trans Chaco km210 sight record (Hayes 1995) Pirahú, Ruta Trans Presidente Hayes 23º37'S, 58º42'W 10 August 1994 F. Hayes sight record (Hayes 1995) Chaco km 249 RPC, AJL; sight record of two Bahía de Asunción Central 25º17'S, 57º38'W 28 August 2004 individuals Estación Biológica Alto Paraguay 20°04'S, 58°09'W 27 June 2008 S. Centrón; sight record Tres Gigantes Bahía de Asunción Central 25º17'S, 57º38'W 8 May 2009 RPC; sight record AJL, R.Cardoso, S.Centrón, C. Bahía de Asunción Central 25º17'S, 57º38'W 27 September 2010 Morales; sight record Ruta Trans Chaco Presidente Hayes 24º15'S, 58º16'W 11 February 2012 PS; sight record km165 Estación Biológica PS; photograph (Figure 3; FAUNA Alto Paraguay 20°04'S, 58°09'W 16 November 2012 Tres Gigantes Paraguay 2013a) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record Paul Smith, Arne J. Lesterhuis and Rob P. Clay TABLE 2: Paraguayan records of Dinelli’s Doradito Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana. Location Department Coordinates Date Details &Source Laguna Gral. Diaz Presidente Hayes 22º18'S, 59º01'W 20 July 1945 FMNH 152593 (Hayes et al. 1994) Laguna Escalante Presidente Hayes 23º50'S, 60º46'W 3 August 1960 MAK 601593 (Steinbacher 1962) Ruta Trans Chaco P. Scharf; sight record of two birds Presidente Hayes 24º48'S, 57º47'W 9 May 1990 km79 (Collar et al. 1992; Hayes 1995) Ruta Trans Chaco P. Scharf; sight record of one bird Presidente Hayes 24º47'S, 58º23'W 16 June 1990 km 100 (Collar et al. 1992; Hayes 1995) Fortín Patria Alto Paraguay 19º55'S, 58º35'W 22 March 2002 J. Klavins, A. Esquivel; sight record Agua Dulce Alto Paraguay 19º57'S, 59º42'W 24 April 2004 J. Klavins; sight record Ruta Trans Chaco Presidente Hayes 24º15'S, 58º16'W 18 October 2004 RPC, PS; sight record km165 RPC, H. del Castillo, E. Coconier; Laguna Sanidad Presidente Hayes 24º08'S, 59º50'W 9, 10 October 2004 sight record of five singing birds RPC, AJL, D. Díaz; sight records of 4 September 2009 two individuals RPC, AJL; sight records of three 12 September 2009 individuals PS, RPC, AJL; sight records of six 20 September 2009 individuals (FAUNA Paraguay 2013c) Bahía de Asunción Central 25º17'S, 57º38'W RPC, AJL; sight records of three, one, 1, 16, 18 October 2009 and one individuals, respectively RPC, AJL; sight records of three and 17, 24 August 2012 four individuals respectively RPC, AJL; sight records of two 4, 7, 11 September 2012 individuals Threatened P. dinelliana would contribute to a better The information presented here represents a summary understanding of its status and hence conservation. of the little that is known about the distribution and Significant habitat loss in the nominally protected seasonality of doraditos in Paraguay. Though certain Important Bird Area, the 522-ha Bahía de Asunción inferences can be made regarding movement patterns Ecological Reserve (where the species was consistently in Paraguay in reference to records in neighboring observed singing and may have bred) during the countries, the scarcity of data available for most species, construction of the Asunción bayside road (Costanera the confusion created by identification difficulties and de Asunción) that started in 2010 is cause for concern, the heterogenic seasonal movements that some species and the impact of this loss on Paraguayan populations exhibit across their wide geographic ranges mean that of the species has yet to be determined. Further research further study is required to confirm these conclusions. to clarify the specific status of P. acutipennis throughout However one clear pattern that emerges is a strong the range would also be desirable in order to begin to association between the Paraguayan distribution of interpret the seasonal patterns observed in Paraguay. most species and the watershed of the Río Paraguay, Positive identification of doraditos requires which is presumably due, in part, to the greater familiarity with the species and in particular with their availability of wetland and low-lying grassland habitats vocalizations. With bird watching still in its infancy in in this region. Paraguay, and very few experienced birders active in At the local level clarification of the ranges and the field, all species are likely under-recorded, seriously seasonality of P. citreola versus P. flaviventris is a priority, hampering our understanding of the distribution of these whilst confirmation of potential breeding of the Near species in the country. To date no nest of any species Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record Paul Smith, Arne J. Lesterhuis and Rob P. Clay has been reported from Paraguay and, in general, much biology and conservation requirements of this charismatic remains to be learned about the taxonomy, distribution, but complex group. natural history, and movements of these unobtrusive little Here follows a basic field key to the species to assist flycatchers. It is hoped that this introductory paper will inexperienced observers with identification: contribute to a better range-wide understanding of the 1a Contrastingly dark bifurcate crest Pseudocolopteryx sclateri 1b Crestless 2 2a Head with distinct and contrasting rufous coloration, most notable on the crown 3 2b Head without contrasting rufous tinge, being uniform brownish or greenish 4 3a Vocalizations harsh and scratchy, “tick tick tick tick-tick-tick-you.” Head Pseudocolopteryx citreola movements accompanying each note first raise the head slowly, and as the velocity of the notes increases, the head is lowered rapidly with shaky movements 3b Vocalisations weak and squeaky, “u-eet-u, u-eét.” Head movements accompanying Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris the song are even and rhythmic 4a Head and upperparts dull greenish-olive, underparts bright golden-yellow. No Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis supercilium and adults do not usually show wing bars (though juveniles have both wing bar AND supercilium!). Scratchy song includes low liquid notes 4b Head and upperparts dull greenish, underparts bright golden-yellow with slight Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana olive tinge on the flanks. Often shows a hint of a supercilium and wing-bars at all ages. Scratchy song ends with high note, “tick-tick-ticktickaZEEP” Bostwick, K. S. 2004. Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis, p. 289. In: del ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; & Christie, D.A. (eds). Handbook of the birds of the world, v. 9, Cotingas to Pipits and Wagtails. Barcelona: This article is dedicated to the memory of Juan Mazar Lynx Ediciones. Barnett, with whom RPC shared several discussions Brooks, T. M.; Barnes, R. B.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Clay, R. P.; Esquivel, E. Z.; Etcheverry, N. I.; Lowen, J. C.; & Vincent, J. P. regarding doradito distribution and identification. 1993. Bird surveys and conservation in the Paraguayan Atlantic In fact, the Paraguayan record of P. citreola and recent Forest. BirdLife International Study Report No. 57. Cambridge: observations of the species in northern Argentina were a BirdLife International. topic in our last conversation together. PS would like to Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.;Madroño-Nieto, A.; thank to Robert and Ulrike Wynands for their company Naranjo, L. G.; Parker III, T. A.; & Wege, D.C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas. The ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book, 3rd ed., part in the field during the observation of P. citreola and for 2. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press. having the foresight to video the observed behavior! Hugo FAUNA Paraguay Photo Database. 2013a. [FPAVE3774PH del Castillo provided additional data on certain records. and FPAVE3775PH]. Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis. www. Thanks to Kini Roesler and Mark Pearman for sharing faunaparaguay.com/pseudocolopteryx_acutipennis.html (access their experiences with these birds in Argentina. Special on 3 April 2013). FAUNA Paraguay Photo Database. 2013b. [FPAVE40PH, thanks to Fatima Mereles for identifying the plant species FPAVE41PH, FPAVE1783VI]. Pseudocolopteryx citreola. www. associated with the P. citreola record. faunaparaguay.com/pseudocolopteryx_citreola.html (access on 3 April 2013). FAUNA Paraguay Photo Database. 2013c. [FPAVE1776PH, REFERENCES FPAVE1779RE, FPAVE1780RE]. Pseudocolopteryx dinellianus. www.faunaparaguay.com/pseudocolopteryx_dinellianus.html Abalos, R. & Areta, J. I. 2009. Historia natural y vocalizaciones (access on 3 April 2013). del doradito limón (Pseudocolopteryx cf. citreola) en Argentina. FAUNA Paraguay Photo Database. 2013d. [FPAVE1781PH Ornitologia Neotropical, 20: 215–230 and FPAVE1782PH]. Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris. www. BirdLife International. 2012. Species factsheet: Pseudocolopteryx faunaparaguay.com/pseudocolopteryx_flaviventris.html (access dinelliana. www.birdlife.org (access on 7 August 2012. on 3 April 2013). Belton, W. 1994. Aves do Rio Grande do Sul: Distribução e biologia. São Fitzpatrick, J. W. 2004. Family Tyrannidae, p. 170-463. In: del Hoyo, Leopoldo: Editoria UNISINOS. J.; Elliott, A.; & Christie, D.A. (eds). Handbook of the birds Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record Paul Smith, Arne J. Lesterhuis and Rob P. Clay of the world, v. 9, Cotingas to Pipits and Wagtails. Barcelona: Ridgely, R. S. & Tudor, G. 2009. Birds of South America, passerines. Lynx Ediciones. London: Christopher Helm. Guyra Paraguay. 2004. Lista comentada de las aves del Paraguay. Remsen, J. V., Jr.; Cadena, C. D.; Jaramillo, A.; Nores, M.; Asunción: Guyra Paraguay. Pacheco, J. F.; Pérez-Emán, J.; Robbins, M. B.; Stiles, F. 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Nouvelles Archives du Muséum D’Histoire Naturelle Paris territoriais do Brasil na frontera com o Paraguai e suas implicações 4: 211-220. para a consideração de registro ornitológicos. Ararajuba, Pérez Villamayor, N. & Colmán Jara, A. 1995. Avifauna de las áreas 11: 131-145. protegidas de Itaipú I: Aves del Refugio Biológico Mbaracayú, Traylor Jr., M. A. & Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1982. A survey of the tyrant Salto del Guairá, Paraguay. Itaipú Binacional Biota, 4: 1-24. flycatchers. The Living Bird, 19: 7-50. Pérez Villamayor, N.; Colmán Jara, A; & Straube F. C. 2014. Circunstanciação do registro de Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana na fronteira entre o Brasil e o Paraguai. Atualidades Ornitológicas, 178: 25. Associate Editor: Luciano N. Naka Coryphaspiza melanotis Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014

Journal

Ornithology ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Jun 1, 2014

Keywords: Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis; Pseudocolopteryx citreola; Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana; Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris; Pseudocolopteryx sclateri; migrant

References