Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Role of additives and surface passivation on the performance of perovskite solar cells

Role of additives and surface passivation on the performance of perovskite solar cells Outstanding improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) over 25% in a very short period and promising research developments to reach the theoretical PCE limit of single junction solar cells, 33%, enables organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells (OIPSCs) to gain much attention in the scientific and industrial community. The simplicity of production of OIP - SCs from precursor solution either on rigid or flexible substrates makes them even more attractive for low-cost roll-to-roll production processes. Though OIPSCs show as such higher PCE with simple solution processing methods, there are still unresolved issues, while attempts are made to commercialize these solar cells. Among the major problems is the instability of the photoactive layer of OIPSCs at the interface of the charge transport layers and /or electrodes during prolonged exposure to moisture, heat and radiation. To achieve matched PCE and stability, several techniques such as molecular and interfacial engineering of components in OIPSCs have been applied. Moreover, in recent times, engineering on additives, solvents, surface passivation, and structural tuning have been developed to reduce defects and large grain boundaries from the surface and/or interface of organic–inorganic perovskite films. Under this review, we have shown recently developed additives and passivation strategies, which are strongly focused to enhance PCE and long-term stability simultaneously. Keywords Organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells · Power conversion efficiency · Stability · Additives · Passivation Introduction selenide (CdSe), cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium disulfide (CIGS ), amorphous silicon, etc. [2–5]. In an era of photovoltaic technology, silicon is an efficient Even if their processing cost is low, they are not able to light absorber with relatively high-power conversion effi - compete with crystalline silicon in efficiency and stability. ciency and best stability [1]. But high processing cost to Additionally, they are criticized for toxic components and obtain pure silicon has been remained as a challenge since less abundance [6]. The second attempt was the develop- its usage for photovoltaic purpose. To solve such problems, a ment of the dye-sensitized, organic molecules and organic lot of works have been done. The first application of low-cost semiconducting polymers solar cells [7, 8]. Although they semiconductors for photovoltaic was made using cadmium are valued by their interesting properties like e fl xibility, light weight, colorful appearance and low cost, they lack to fulfill the main requirements for commercial application due to their low power conversion efficiency and stability [9 ]. The * Getachew Adam Workneh getachew.adam@aastu.edu.et highest record which is reported for the dye-sensitized solar cells is 14% after a long-time effort with less appreciated Department of Industrial Chemistry, Sustainable Energy stability. After the dawning of semiconducting polymer [10] Center of Excellence, College of Applied Science, Addis application of non-fullerene acceptors, the record PCE for Ababa Science and Technology University (AASTU), P.O. Box 16417, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia organic solar cells is increased to 18% with undefined stabil- ity [11]. Nowadays, low-cost organic–inorganic lead halide Division of Soft Matter Physics (SoMaP) and LIT Soft Materials Lab, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger perovskite materials which have been represented by general str. 69, 4040 Linz, Austria + + + 2+ formula, ABX , (A = CH NH , CH(NH ), Cs , B = Pb , 3 3 3 2 2 3 − − − Department of Chemistry, College of Natural X = Cl, Br, I ) are attracting the photovoltaic community and Computational Science, Addis Ababa University, due to its excellent optoelectronic properties such as high P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Vol.:(0123456789) 1 3 48 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 absorption coefficient [12], tunable band gaps [13], long with ligands. In this regard, addition of ligands or organic charge carrier diffusion length [14], low exciton binding salts into OIP solution has shown to improve the PCE and/ energy [15], ambipolar property and flexibility [16, 17]. or stability of the devices in the ambient air. This approach The unprecedented growth in PCE of organic–inorganic is mainly based on retarding the crystallization of PbX or perovskite solar cells (OIPSCs) from 3.9% in 2009 [12] to increasing the crystallization of OIP. Research results show 25.5% in 2020 [18] is another factor that motivates research- that uniform and smooth morphology of the OIP thin films ers and the industry. The rate of publications in the area is are obtained by incorporating some appropriate additives highly increased and over 13,200 publications have been [42–44]. Moreover, large grain size or small grain bounda- published since 2019 [19, 20]. Even though all evidences ries have been found to slow down deep-trap states, which have been supporting its unprecedented growth in the his- cause charge recombination on the surface of OIP thin films. tory of photovoltaic devices, instability towards chemical In this regard, formation of ionic or covalent or non-covalent and physical stresses are profoundly lagging their scalabil- bonds between ions or atoms in OIP and additives or pas- ity and commercialization. Thus, unparalleled growth of sivators is very important to suppress dissociation of OIP PCE and long-term stability has been lasting as an assign- films due to physical and chemical stresses [45]. ment for researchers in the area. Large grain boundaries, To improve both the PCE and long stability of OIPSCs, pinholes, residuals, and current density–voltage (J–V) hys- researchers are exhaustively working on several mechanisms teresis which are resulted from formation of deep and shal- to reduce high trap-density states in OIP polycrystalline thin low defects in addition to under-coordinated ions or atoms films. Compositional engineering, incorporation of addi- at the surface and/ or interfaces are well-thought-out for tives, interface and surface passivation of light absorber unmatched PCE and stability [21–24]. Octahedral tilting, layer, careful selection of charge transport layers, solvent 2− rotations and deformations of corner sharing PbI octa- engineering, and use of proper electrode layers get huge hedra are also suggested for lowering of the performance of attention to minimize barriers towards commercialization the OIPSCs [25–28]. Besides, the chemical, photochemical of OIPSCs [46–55]. Structural engineering of 3D or 2D con- and thermal instability, organic–inorganic perovskite (OIP) figurations is also investigated to get stable and reproducible thin films are sensitive to moisture, O , heat and UV light OIPSCs [56]. The role of deposition techniques on whole [29–34].These strengths that incomplete surface coverage performance is also studied as one of the mechanisms to of OIP films attributes the formation of non-uniform and fabricate stable OIP devices [57]. rough surface, which scrutinized as deep-trap-density states Recently, high-performance devices with significant centers at the grain boundaries (GBs) across the surface or stability were reported for large-area cells. Such findings interface of the OIP layer [35]. Defects formation across the inspire scholars in the area to look for different engineering interface of HOIP and hole transport layers is considered as strategies of additives, and surface passivation’s to cham- a major cause for instability. For example, high PCE devices pion OIPSCs in the future. Incorporation of additives into reported with Spiro-OMeTAD hole transport layer are facing the precursor solutions, and surface passivation of the film different challenges from instability in ambient air. Even if has been repeatedly done to inhibit degradation and form the active layer is good, oxidative doped Spiro-OMeTAD defect-free OIP polycrystalline thin films [58– 60]. In this layer induces leakage of air and moisture towards photoac- mini-review, we are attempting to introduce the efficacies tive layer [36, 37]. As a result, the overall performance of of additives and surface passivation on light absorber and the OIPSCs is abated because of recombination of charge charge transport layers. Additives are compounds which carriers at the surface and/ or across interfaces. The degrada- are added to precursors of photoactive film or charge trans- tion of HOIP in the presence of moisture has been analyzed porting layers in order to improve surface and/or interface and may result in the formation of PbX , HX, and X—where optoelectrical properties [61]. Passivation is the process of X = Cl, Br and I [38–40]. To support this, T.P. Gujar and deactivating (healing) the effect of under-coordinated ions, co-workers [41] studied the role of Pb I in C H NH PbI residual, defects at the grain boundaries and pin holes at the 2 3 3 3 perovskite stability, solar cell parameters and device deg- surface or interfaces. radation. XRD patterns show residual PbI formation on the surface of CH NH PbI films. The results prove that the 3 3 3 PbI peak intensity increases as annealing time increases, Photoactive layer additives and passivation while CH NH PbI peak intensity decreases. This indicates 3 3 3 residual PbI formation is favored during annealing which Photoactive layer additives lowers the quality of CH NH PbI film. Accordingly, the 3 3 3 non-radiative recombination can occur due to the defected Additives are species which are incorporated into targeted surface. To retard the crystallization of PbX , researchers are material to improve morphological properties for desirable 2+ working on the effect of chelation or coordination of Pb applications. In the history of the photovoltaics technology, 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 49 2+ additives have been applied to enhance the PCE and stability strong interactions with Pb . This proves that strong coor- of dye-sensitized, and organic solar cells [62–69]. Nowa- dination of NMP has resulted in the formation of a uniform days, this approach is extensively used for surface and/or and smooth surface of CsPbBr film. Consequently, greater interface treatment of defects of different layers of OIPSCs PCE and stability are reported for NMP under high relative [70, 71]. Its application has been driven from acid–base humidity. Solvent engineering to tune the adduct phase of 2+ adduct formation principle between Pb ions and lone mixed-cation perovskite precursor film was investigated by pair electrons of the nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur atoms of M. Wang and co-workers [77]. The XRD patterns (Fig. 1) additives. Hydrogen bonding between methyl ammonium before and after annealing demonstrate the appearance and or formamidinium and additives is also responsible for the disappearance of the adduct phase of mixed-cation precursor immobility of the ions in the structure of OIP [72]. film, respectively. It also validates that the quality of precur - sor film is improved when the volume of DMSO is increased Solvent additives due to the disappearance of unwanted δ-perovskite. Their work verified that exceeding DMF:DMSO vol- Nowadays, solvent engineering has been widely used in the ume ratio beyond 3:5 is decreasing the quality of film due area of OIP photovoltaic to control the crystallization and to excess DMSO interaction with PbI which results in grain growth during OIP film formation [73, 74]. On the residual PbI after removal of DMSO. These findings are other hand, the interaction of solvent with precursor solu- also supported by SEM images of their work (Fig. 2). They tion of OIP plays a crucial role in improving the crystal suggested that the formation of defect-free and large grain- growth of OIP thin film via retarding crystallization of pre- size crystals of mixed-cation perovskite films from Lewis cursors. The effect of weak and strong interaction of solvents 2+ with Pb in controlling crystallinity of the targeted OIP was studied [75]. Under this study, the coordinating abil- 2+ ity of the processing solvents with the P b center of the lead halide precursor is reported using Gutmann’s donat- ing number, D . As a consequence, the solvents which have high D are reported as best solvents, which are strongly 2+ interacting with Pb . In other words, strong interactions of 2+ Pb with solvent keep at the formation of precursor solution and decelerate the crystal growth rate, which is responsi- ble for formation of large-grained crystals of OIP film by decreasing immediate crystallization of lead halides. This indicates that the strength of acid–base interactions between solvent and precursor is very important in the selection of solvents to increase solubility of precursors. Based on this, interactions of two organic solvent molecules, acetonitrile (ACN) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) with PbBr to produce CsPbBr films are demonstrated by Y. Wu and co- Fig. 2 SEM images of perovskite films based on different DMF/ workers [76]. The ACN is reported as the solvent which DMSO volume ratios: a 3:1, b 3:3, c 3:5, d 3:7. Reproduced with per- has weak interactions and NMP as the solvent which has mission from [77], Copyright 2019 published by Elsevier Ltd Fig. 1 XRD patterns of perovs- kite films with different DMF/ DMSO volume ratios a before and b after annealing. Repro- duced with permission from [77], Copyright 2019 published by Elsevier Ltd 1 3 50 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 acid–base adduct by solvent engineering attributes for to reduce the formation of residual PbI on the surface of enhanced PCE and stability. OIP films. This is supported by results which are obtained Currently, OIPSCs technology calls for the fabrication of from XPS data, shift of peaks for Pb 4f, C = O, O 1 s. This ambient air-stable devices with optimum PCE to compete indicates the presence of interaction between the carbonyl 2+ with silicon solar cells using additives. It is well known that group and Pb ions. Accordingly, the results justify the 2+ 2+ OIPSCs with the highest PCEs are fabricated in the glove interaction of Pb with Pb sensitive functional groups has box to minimize the effect of moisture and O . Even though better potential to produce defect-free surfaces which facili- they have shown promising performance in the indoor envi- tate the charge carrier mobility with long diffusion length. ronment, their performance declines due to degradation of This effect not only improves the surface quality but also it photoactive or transport layers in the outdoor environment. advances the interface quality. Recently, researchers in the area are scrutinizing the achieve- Currently, this strategy is commonly deployed to form ment of improved PCE and stable OIPSCs in ambient air large grains which are expedient for charge carrier mobil- for commercialization [29, 52, 78, 79]. Different techniques ity on the surface of a light absorbing layer. For instance, have been attempted to fabricate efficient and stable OIP - C. Cui and his co-workers [84] mentioned that the device SCs in ambient air conditions. In very recent years, intro- performance is slow down due to small grains which are duction of additives into precursor solution of photoactive associated with abundant grain boundaries. They used the layers of OIPSCs is widely applied and helps to improve volatile Lewis base, thioacetamide (TAA) as an additive to the device performance in the ambient air. G. Wang et al. fabricate uniform films, smooth and high crystalline meth- [80] used N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as an active layer ylammonium lead iodide films with large grains. Scanning solvent additive to inhibit the formation of non-perovskite electron microscopy (SEM) images that prove the forma- polymorph (δ-FAPbI ) in open air. This is because NMP is tion of large grains CH NH PbI films with 1.0% TAA are 3 3 3 3 2+ strongly interacted with Pb to provide ameliorative nuclea- shown in Fig. 3. The large grains film formation is verified tion for FAI.Pb .NMP intermediate phase. The co-formation by the FTIR spectra, which verifies the strong interactions 2+ of non-perovskite polymorph (δ-FAPbI ) in the presence of of Pb with TAA and DMSO. Stoichiometric optimization dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is occurred in ambient air. But with 1.0% TAA results in less trap state density and shows a good solubility of PbI in NMP offers a defect-free surface superior PCE of 18.9%. They have also tested that the device for (α-FAPbI ) in ambient air. Better PCE and stability from with 1.0% TAA retains 88.9% of its initial performance after NMP suggests that there is a probability of scalable fabrica- aging for 816 h in ambient conditions with 25–35% relative tion in open air. Bekele et al. used the tendency of acetylac- humidity (RH). 2+ etone solvent additive to solvate Pb and form coordina- tion via two keto-oxygen ligands and demonstrated its dual Ionic additives role to improve the device performance and stability. It has shown to be a promising approach to fabricate a large-area Charge carriers need smooth and uniform surfaces to offer and stable devices with high reproducibility in the ambient good electrical conductivity. The contribution of organic environment [81]. salts such as ammonium acetate (NH Ac) and zinc acetate Halogenated solvent additives get attention in improving (ZnAc ) in smoothing the surface of hole conductor-free PCE and stability of OIPSCs. P.W. Liang and co-workers carbon electrode-based perovskite solar cell is worked out [82] reported that the increased coverage and smoothness of by Zhang et al. [85]. Volatile NH Ac gives better smooth the bidentate halogenated solvent additive, 1,8-diiodooctane surface than non-volatile ZnA c which forms pin holes and 2, (DIO) assisted film might be due to improved solubility of PbI residual on the surface of perovskite films (Fig.  4a). 2+ PbCl in mixed solvent DIO/DMF. They justified the incor - In addition, as shown in the schematic (Fig.  4b, c) Zn 2+ poration of DIO with DMF induces fast nucleation and slow undergoes doping to replace Pb , resulting in losing origi- rate crystal growth during the film formation. As a result, nal properties of MAPbI . XRD patterns also support the the whole performance of the device is drastically enhanced. findings of SEM images and the crystal structure of MAPbI in the presence of the salts. This suggests that using suit- Organic additives able salts may mitigate defect induced recombination in low-cost carbon-based perovskite films. Accordingly, ammo- The formation of pinholes, small grain sizes, and non-per- nium salts such as NH Cl and NH SCN additives in Spiro- 4 4 ovskite phases in OIP film bottlenecks the stability and scal- OMeTAD hole conductor for CH NH PbI (SCN) -based 3 3 3-x x ability of OIPSCs to date. Researchers in the area are inten- planar PSCs yields better results in ambient air [86]. sively working on different mechanisms and strategies that Cationic compositional engineering in perovskite solar enhances the performance of OIPSCs. Li et al. [83] applied cells has shown a blooming effect in improving both acetic acid as the additive in an anti-solvent chlorobenzene, PCE and stability [87–89]. Studies related to cationic 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 51 Fig. 3 a–d Top view SEM images of perovskite films with various 1.0% TAA. Reproduced with permission from [84], Copyright 2020 TAA contents (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%). e Cross-sectional SEM image Published by Elsevier B.V and the schematic structure of the perovskite solar cell device with Fig. 4 a Top view SEM images of the three types of films deposited the crystal structure of MAPbI and MAPbI :NHAc, MAPbI and 3 3 4 3 on FTO/TiO substrates by one-step method (without carbon layer). MAPbI :ZnAc . Reproduced with permission from [85], Copyright 2 3 2 The circular marks correspond to PbI . b, c Schematic diagram of 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V 1 3 52 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 engineering shows that the interchange or mixing of cati- Passivation of photoactive layer ons induces change in optical properties, whereas partial or full substitution of Pb ions or halide ions results in Nowadays, passivation approach becomes the most popu- tuning of the electrical properties of the OIPs. M. Kim lar strategy to minimize the recombination centers in either et al. [90] investigated that the incorporation of methyl- photoactive layer or interfaces between light absorber and ammonium chloride (MACl) builds an intermediate phase charge transport layers [22, 94–96]. Different molecules which is transformed into the high quality pure α-phase have been developed to avoid and stabilize different types of FAPbI film. Disappearing of δ-FAPbI and PbI during defects, which are triggering non-radiative recombination at 3 3 2 annealing of the film in the presence of MACl, and the the surface and/ or interfaces of the perovskite layer in differ - formation of high quality pure α-phase FAPbI film is jus- ent structures of OIPSCs [43, 97]. Passivation of the surface tified by experimental results as shown in Fig.  5. X-ray or interface can occur by either chemical or physical pro- diffraction (XRD) spectra (Fig.  5A), reciprocal full width cesses. Chemical passivating agents undergo reaction with at half maximum (FWHM) (Fig. 5B), time-resolved pho- charged or neutral species at the surface and/ or interface toluminescence (TRPL) (Fig. 5E) and steady state photo- before the generation of charge carriers. Physical passivating luminescence spectra (Fig. 5F) measurements for pristine, agents treat grain boundary defects and pin holes via physi- 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of MACl were reported cal interaction and improve surface coverage. To support by the group. But films with 40% MACl at 150 °C show this, M.S. Lee and co-workers [98] used a simple biden- large grains size. The corresponding device yield of PCE tate organic molecule, pyrazine (Pyr), which is undergoing is exceeding 24% with significant thermal stability from both chemical and physical passivation. Pyr forms bidentate 2+ pure α-phase FAPbI . coordination with Pb to prevent electrons reaction. This The role of surfactant-based additives in improving the indicates that chemical passivation inhibits the reduction or PCE and stability of perovskite solar cells gives the room oxidation of ions at the surface or interface of photoactive to use and look for them [91, 92]. J. Hong et al. [93] used layer to produce neutral atoms or molecules. They reported poly(ethylene glycol) tridecyl ether (PTE) as a non-volatile that insertion of Pyr boosts the PCE of the device. One of polymer additive. Introducing ultra-small amount (less the problems on the surface during operation is the chemi- than 0.1 wt%) of PTE into the perovskite precursor solu- cal reaction which changes the optoelectronic properties of tion controls the kinetics of crystallization. This facilitates OIP film. Using co-passivating additives reduces the chemi- the charge carrier mobility at the surface and interface of cal reactions which are taking place on the surface. Guo inverted OIPSCs. and co-workers [99] applied 1H, 1H-Perfluorooctylamine (PFA) as a co-passivating agent. The comparative results Fig. 5 A, B, E, F XRD spectra, reciprocal FWHM at the diffraction obtained from perovskite films prepared with MA-40 before and after peak 13.9̊ and photoluminescence data of perovskite films, respec- annealing at 150  °C for 10  min. Reproduced with permission from tively. C XRD data obtained from perovskite films prepared without [90], Copyright 2019 published by Elsevier Inc MACl before and after annealing at 150 °C for 10 min. D XRD data 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 53 between films with and without PEA show the importance into the PTAA hole transport layer is also reported and it of co-passivating agents for better performance of OIPSCs. provides high hydrophobic nature for the layer [114]. On Consequently, it helped to achieve promising results which the other hand, it improves the crystallinity of the OIP films motivate to design and synthesis other efficient co-passivat- by preventing moisture. Carbonyl groups of the PMAA con- ing agents to fabricate large-area OIPSCs. PEA via chlo- tribute large grain formation. This helps to yield better PCE robenzene (antisolvent) was introduced as co-passivating and stability for inverted structure. agent which simultaneously lowers the surface and grain Li et  al. [115] reported that addition of quinolone to boundary defects. CH NH PbI precursor solution effectively suppresses the 3 3 3 The existence of defects or impurities in semiconductors non-radiative recombination of carriers by co-passivating has potential to change the optical and electrical proper- the defects at surface and grain boundaries. The XRD pat- 2+ ties of the semiconductors in both negative and positive terns prove the interaction between Pb and lone pair elec- aspects [100–102]. For example, impurities in silicon trons in quinolone, which confirms the formation of Lewis increase electrical conductivity. But in OIPSCs, the pres- acid–base adduct. The optimized device with less hysteresis, ence of bulk defects and impurities reduces the electrical improved stability and high PCE indicates that quinolone conductivity due to non-radiative recombination of charge and compounds from the quinolone family can be applied carries [103–105]. Accordingly, they beget current–volt- as effective OIP additives. The high cost and less stable age (I–V) hysteresis, reduced PCE and instability for the states of some hole transport materials forces to manufac- device. D. Aidarkhanov et al. [106] showed that the defects ture hole-free OIPSCs. Adding most favorable polyethylene at the interface of SnO /mixed perovskite layers is passivated glycol (PEG) concentration into MAPbI precursor solu- 2 3 by introduction of optimal amount of organic cross linker, tion produced high surface coverage and large grain size 2,2ʹ-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylammonium iodide) (EDAI) [116]. However, it behaves hygroscopic; it prevents OIP at the interface. The study shows that problems which are film from moisture and delivers interesting stability for the created because of defects can be solved by using suitable device. This is because it is preventing water molecules additives at the interface. I–V hysteresis that may be rooted from reaching the surface of OIP films. Y.H. Lin et al. [117] due to ion migration [107], or charge trap states [108] across reported the effect of additives on the thermal stability of interfaces is significantly reduced and the PCE of the device mixed OIPSCs. It has been shown that the incorporation is increased with better stability. Dissolution of OIPs in a of organic–inorganic ionic salt additive 1-butyl-1-methyl- + − humid environment, which has some ionic and covalent piperidinium tetrafluoroborate ([BMP] [BF ] ) into the characteristics [109], may cause loss of optoelectronic prop- perovskite absorber minified deep-trap states. They justi- erties. This attributes to the formation of hydrated phases fied that defects in Cs 0. FAPb (I Br ) based per- 17 0.83 0.77 0.23 and lead halides on the surface of OIPs films [ 110, 111]. ovskite solar cells have been passivated through reaction + − Based on this, different hydrophobic additives have been between ([BMP] [BF ] ) and photogenerated superoxide developed to mitigate the impact of moisture. C.F. Arias- and peroxide species from the surface of Cs 0. FA Pb 17 0.83 Ramos et al. [112] applied a mixture of ethyl acetate (EA) (I Br ) film [57]. This effect improves the performance 0.77 0.23 and 4-tertbutyl-pyridine (tBP) as hydrophobic anti-solvent and enhances the operational thermal stability of mixed OIP- additive to extract the primary solvent from the precursor SCs which is stressed under full-spectrum sunlight at ele- solution. The results suggested that using appropriate hydro- vated temperatures up to 85 °C. In another study the impacts phobic anti-solvent with proper optimization may give room of lead halide residual are removed by adding an optimum to fabricate highly stable OIPSCs outside glovebox atmos- amount of tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) salt into phere. Liu et al. [113] demonstrated that polymethyl meth- pristine OIP films [118]. The role of TBAB is measured in acrylate (PMMA) passivate the interface of cesium forma- terms of crystal growth kinetics alteration [119, 120]. As a midinium methyl ammonium lead triiodide (CsF AMAPbI )/ result, it improved the PCE, stability and negative impact of Spiro-OMeTAD and methyl ammonium lead triiodide the hysteresis. (MAPbI )/Spiro-OMeTAD in planar perovskite solar cells. Mixed dimensional structure is another approach to Though doped Spiro-OMeTAD is appreciated for achieve- improve stability of OIPSCs [56, 121–124]. Studies show ment of the highest PCE, it is reproached for oxidation at that, however, two-dimensional (2D) OIPs are more sta- high temperature and infiltration of water through it to the ble than three-dimensional (3D), their low PCE is not yet photoactive layer. The insertion of hydrophobic PMMA attractive [125]. To surpass the whole performance of the between light absorbing and hole transport layer boosts both 2D OIPSCs, introduction of organic additives resulting in PCE and stability in outdoor because it reduces percolation good quality of OIP crystal structure [126]. Zheng et al. of water. It is also acknowledged for having higher V and [127], studied the synergistic effect of additives on 2D OIP OC FF and less hysteresis compared to corresponding reference films. N,N-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and thio-semicar - devices. Incorporation of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bazide (TSC) were introduced as additives into the precursor 1 3 54 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 solution. Consequently, trap state density of 2D OIP film EMIC (1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) treated is reduced and evidently about 93% increment of PCE and PEDOT:PSS and S-acetylthiocholinechloride passivated per- improved stability were achieved after the addition of addi- ovskite surface. The result show improvement in PCE as well tives. These results clearly magnify the positive impacts of as stability of ITO/PEDOT:PSS(EMIC)/CH NH PbI /S- 3 3 3 additives on the whole performance of 2D OIPSCs. Other acetylthiocholinechloride/C60/BCP/Ag configuration for a studies affirm that formation of the mixed 3D/2D structure large area. An increase in electrical conductivities for the yields efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in the pres- mentioned device is explained by an increase in the amount ence of additives [128, 129]. D. Yao et al. demonstrated the of PEDOT in the bipolaron states because of doping and the capability of long-chain alkylamine organic compounds in formation of defect-free OIP surface. Attempt to augment hindering moisture permeation towards light absorbing layer the performance of inverted PSCs has motivated the group [130]. As discussed in preceding part, the work proves that of Zheng [142] to explore the role of n-butylamine (BA), post-device treatment with vapor of diethyltriamine (DETA) phenethylamine (PEA), octylamine (OA) and oleylamine and triethylenetetraamine (TETA), transformed 3D OIPs to (OAm) in modifying grain boundaries and interface of the lower dimensional (LD) crystals on account of partial sub- light absorber. They have found that long-chain alkylamine stitution of cation by either DETA or TETA. Accordingly, ligands (AALs) have potential to subdue deep-trap densi- the LD perovskite crystals are passivating 3D layers from ties at the surface and/ or interfaces. This method enables moisture and deep-trap states across the interface. them to achieve an inverted champion device with a PCE Current studies are focusing on zwitterion molecules, of 23% with significantly improved operational stability. which can bind with negatively and positively charged It is well known that under-coordinated ions in OIPs are defects. These defects are intrinsic in nature, and they are responsible for I–V hysteresis in the presence of mobile supposed to be vacancies and ions at the surface and/ or ions in the crystal. To prevent this issue, researchers are interfaces. Thus, zwitterion type molecular passivators help dedicated in looking for efficient passivation of ions migra- to solve such problems by binding to two sites simultane- tion. Luo et al. [138] demonstrated the effectiveness of ionic ously. The comparative study between pyridine treated and liquid, 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bromide (MPIB), in 2+ pyridinium iodide, zwitterion molecule, was conducted passivating under-coordinated Pb in the perovskite film. by Y. Du and co-workers to indicate the role of zwitterion The formation of PbI residual during OIP film annealing 2+ molecule in boosting the whole performance of the mixed- in pristine and disappearance of under-coordinated Pb in cation perovskite solar cells [131]. To suppress cationic the presence of MPIB was proved using X-ray diffraction and anionic defects from the surface and interface of OIP, (XRD) (Fig. 6). This affects the quality of crystal growth for low-cost ammonium chloride was used [132]. It passivates OIP film with enhanced thermal stability. Hence, improved negatively charged cation vacancy defects by NH and posi- PCE with negligible I–V hysteresis was reported from pas- − 2+ tively charged vacancy defects by Cl . As a result, imperfec- sivation of under-coordinated Pb using MPIB. On other tion of polycrystalline OIP film was improved and PCE of hands, ionic or hydrogen bond interactions could be favored 21.38% was achieved. when additives are purposefully added to precursors of OIP Inverted architecture in perovskite solar cells has been or OIP solution. Group of Choi [143] worked on the role widely used to solve the stability problems which are incor- porated with mesoporous and planar devices [133, 134]. Emerging inverted perovskite solar cells which have used moisture sensitive and highly acidic poly (3, 4-ethylen- edioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate) PEDOT:PSS as a hole transport layer are not stable enough and are less efficient [135]. J–V hysteresis are common problems in PEDOT:PSS integrated PSCs. To resolve this effect, inor - ganic hole transport materials are applied in inverted PSCs [136, 137]. Even if stability of inverted PSCs is upgraded due to incorporation of inorganic hole transport materials, their efficiency is not sufficient for scalability of OIPSCs. In recent times, different groups show interest to resolve the negative impacts of PEDOT:PSS by adding efficient additives at ITO/PEDOT:PSS or PEDOT:PSS/ perovs- kite interface or light absorber or charge transport layer Fig. 6 X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the pristine perovskite and MPIB- surfaces [138–140]. Zhou and co-workers [141] studied perovskite (0.5) films. Reproduced with permission from [138], Cop- on synergetic effects of multiple functional ionic liquid, yright 2020 Royal Society of Chemistry 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 55 Scheme 1 Schematic repre- sentation of the interaction between perovskite and TMA. Reproduced with permission from [144], Copyright 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V of functional additives in performance of inverted planar perovskite solar cells. It is believed that the addition of OIPSCs. They found that OH functional groups in 2-hydrox- polymer additives can resolve such problems [140]. Based yethyl acrylate (HEA) is strongly interacted with organic on this, Yao and co-workers reported the effectiveness of + + cation (CH NH or HC(NH ) . They proved that the crys- polymer additives in improving the morphological quality 3 3 2 2 tallinity and grain sizes of OIP are improved and rate of and mechanical instability of flexible perovskite solar cells non-radiative recombination is decreased. As a result, they [145]. By doing this, they obtained mechanically stable achieved the highest PCE of 20.40% for a large-area (1.08 device. This shows that the addition of the optimum amount cm ) inverted planar OIPSCs. Under this study, the long- of polymer alloy additives has great potential to fabricate term stability is also reported for OIP with HEA. wearable electronics which are flexible. Similarly, S. Ma Morphology improvement in crystalline semiconducting et al. [146] introduced N,Nˈ-bis-(1-naphthalenyl)-N,Nʹ-bis- materials is very crucial to increase electrical conductivity. phenyl-(1,1ʹ-biphenyl)-4,4ʹ-diamine (NPB), to fabricate uni- Kinetics of crystallization justifies that slow crystallization form and pin holes-free OIP films. In addition to that, they process attributes for large grains size of crystal. This effect mentioned that NPB offers good communication between is modifying the surface and interface optoelectronic prop- PEDOT:PSS and OIP film due to its ability to adjust the erties of the materials. During OIP film formation, unre- energy level mismatch between PEDOT:PSS and OIP layers. acted lead halides or cation halides in a solution contribute The valence band energy of MAPbI and the HOMO energy for incomplete surface coverage of the film. In 2019, Su level of PEDOT:PSS are − 5.43 eV and − 4.92 eV, respec- et al. [144] engaged in the fabrication of defect-free OIP tively. But the HOMO energy level of NPB is − 5.40, which film using a two-step solution method in the presence of is able to adjust the mismatch between the two layers. This trimesic acid (TMA) as an additive in the lead precursor bestows enhanced performance for inverted flexible MAPbI solution. It is reported that coordination of oxygen atoms solar cells under a humid atmosphere and UV light. 2+ in TMA with Pb in lead precursor solution to form an Additives which have ion migration blocking effect in intermediate which slows down fast crystallization to con- perovskite solar cells are highly effective in eliminating trol the course of crystallization. Furthermore, the existence I–V hysteresis. In addition to this, such additives contribute of hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl group of TMA and to reduce recombination centers by providing large grain- iodide in perovskite is depicted (Scheme 1) under this study. sized crystallinity for OIP films. In this regard, K. Zhu et al. The cumulative effect of hydrogen bonding interactions with [147] investigated the role of ethylamine alcohol chloride 2+ perovskite and oxygen atoms interactions with Pb in the (EA.HCl) which contains hydroxyl (-OH) and ammonium precursor solution is able to produce stable and pinholes-free cation (–NH ) as the additive to reduce ion migration in large grain-sized perovskite film. the perovskite film. They verified that halide ion interactions Mechanical instability is the major challenge to fabricate in perovskite through hydrogen bonds of –OH or coordina- flexible solar cells which is also common issue in flexible tion of –NH passivate defects and avoid ion migrations. 1 3 56 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 Fig. 8 Energy levels and band structure diagram of functional layers for PVSC. Reproduced with permission from [150], Copyright 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V Fig. 7 Current density–voltage (J–V) curves of devices with 1 wt% electron donating (amine) groups into OIP film. The study EA⋅HCl additive for reverse and forward scans. Reproduced with per- suggested that similar features of ACP molecule with the mission from [147], Copyright 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V zwitterion to bind with negatively and positively charged point defects of the film decreases the charge recombination The introduction of the optimal amount of EA.HCl enables rate across the surface or interface of the film. The result to fabricate devices with improved PCE and negligible I–V indicates that incorporation of ACP imparts good mechani- hysteresis (Fig. 7). cal stability besides improving the PCE for regular flexible Researchers use different organic compound additives OIPSCs. containing carbonyl group to investigate its role to improve Even though mesoporous configurations of OIPSCs are the PCE and stability of perovskite devices. Lately, Wang noted in their highest PCE at this time, they are known et al. [148] studied that strong interaction of C=O groups in for their fast degradation [152]. To maintain the PCE of 2+ caffeine with Pb increases the activation energy of nuclea- mesoporous structure and improve the stability of devices, tion, which delays crystal growth to improve crystallinity of Xie et al. [153] applied three amides viz; formamide (FAM), the OIP films. The finding suggests that caffeine and related acetoamide (AAM) and propionamide (PAM) to passivate alkaloids can improve the electrical conductivity and opera- the surface and regulate crystallographic structures. The tional stability in ambient air. Inspiring results from bioma- result shows that 5% of AAM yields over 20% of PCE with terial, betulin, which contains hydroxyl (–OH) functional better stability for meso-configured OIPSCs. They rational- 2+ groups and give a chance to use biologically active materials ized that strong interaction between AAM-5% and Pb is to passivate under-coordinated ions defects at the surface or responsible for formation of smooth and uniform crystalline interfaces of OIP [149]. Thus, the experimental and theo- film for the enhancement of the performance. The formation retical results show that the hydrogen bonds of betulin lock of residual of PbI is one of the common problems as a sur- methylamine and halogen ion along the grain boundaries. face defect of perovskite films. Nishihara et al. [154] used This work reports the highest PCE, 21.15%, with remarkable formamidinium bromide (FABr) to react excess PbI to form chemical and thermal stability. FAPbBr I . The strategy is effective in passivating the sur - 3−x x The effect of electrostatic force to avoid the surface and face of the film and facilitates the charge transport process. interface drawbacks is inspected. Zhang et al. [150] observed Challenges in the case of the PCE and long-term stabil- that the addition of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) stabi- ity of OIPSCs are mainly dealt with defects across of the lizes the F APbI film by electrostatic interaction between HTL/light absorber layers interface. But defects at the inter- FAI and CDCA in which CDCA passivated the surface and face of ETL/OIP layers have been causing immense prob- interfaces of FAPbI . Moreover, the effect of passivation is lems, which are altering the optoelectronic properties of the justified by shift of HOMO and LUMO energy levels after interface. Amphoteric imidazole as passivator in inverted treatment which forms better communication at the interface OIPSCs structure was tested [155]. It improves the qual- of pristine and CDCA treated OPI l fi ms (Fig.  8). Other study ity of crystals as well as it reduces defects at the surface by Xin et al. [151] also assures that the electrostatic interac- and grain boundaries. Consequently, imidazole treated OIP tions of molecules with positively and negatively charged yields devices with promising PCE and stability. The deriva- point defects are declining the number of charge trapping tive of imidazole, 2-methylbenzimidazole was introduced centers from the surface by adding 2-amino-5-cyanopyridine at the interface of SnO /OIP film to solve defects-related 2+ (ACP), which contains electron-withdrawing (cyano) and anomalies [156]. Binding of the under-coordinated Pb 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 57 with lone pairs of 2-methylbenzimidazole to form acid–base recombination processes, which indicate their passivating adduct decreases the number of charge trapping centers. role. Moreover, they enhanced charge selectivity from OIP This approach yields devices with PCE of 21.6% having to HTL. BDAI interlayer increased the open circuit voltage better humidity and thermal stability. Similarly, imidazolium (Voc) of the device without affecting short-circuit current iodide is used as auto-passivator to produce MAPbI and density (Jsc) and fill factor (FF). These features helped to imidazole iodide [157] yield a competitor PCE for inverted OIPSCs with negligible Li et al. [158] studied organophosphorous ligands (trioc- hysteresis. tylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO)) as passivators. The results affirm that TPPO is more effective than TOPO. This is because benzene rings Charge transporting layers additives are facilitating charge transfer across the interface of HTM and passivators and photoactive layer in addition to oxygen atom which is 2+ an electron-rich center to bind with under-coordinated Pb . It is well known that the total number of charge carriers Dual advantages of TPPO result in the improved PCE and which are transported via charge transporting layers is criti- stability of the device. The group of Wu reported the poten- cal to harvest maximum PCE. But different defects in charge tial of applying other organophosphorous compounds like transporting layers are acting as trapping centers of charge tributyl phosphine (TBUP), triphenyl phosphine (PPh ), and carriers and lowering the performance of the OIPSCs. For trioctylphosphine (TOP) in reducing and oxidizing iodine example, mesoporous T iO as an electron and doped Spiro- o o (I ) and lead (Pb ) atoms defects [159]. TBUP is found to OMeTAD as hole transport layers are widely deployed in be more effective in reducing volatile I and an oxidized OIPSCs technologies [165]. Devices with mesoporous o 2+ form of TBUP is oxidizing Pb to Pb . The studies show TiO are showing better PCE than devices based on dense that the catalytic TBUP, which is passivating the defects, TiO which is due to an increase in surface area of the light is integrated with tributyl phosphine oxide, which is bind- absorber [166]. But both mesoporous scaffolds of TiO and 2+ ing with under-coordinated Pb , to subdue recombination dense TiO suffers from a large number of oxygen vacancies, impacts. So, it offers long-term operational thermal stability which are deliberated as trapping centers for electrons. The with attractive PCE for doped Spiro-OMeTAD containing commonly used additives are infused to charge transporting perovskite solar cell. layers to form uniform and smooth surface morphology. Not Triphenyl(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol- 3-yl)-phosphonium bro- only that, they helped to have good communication between mide (TCPBr) and iodide (TCPI) were also applied as pas- the interface of charge transporting and other layers in OIP- sivator of the OIP film [160]. The films which are without SCs by reducing charge carriers trapping centers, but they and with TCPBr and TCPI treatment are characterized by can also adjust energy level alignments [167, 168]. Lose XRD. Results indicate that the amount of PbI is increas- in the original properties of charge transporting layers in ing after one month for pristine because of moisture but it the presence of moisture, O , and UV–Vis light has been is very low after two months in case of treated OIP films. lowering PCE and stability of perovskite solar cells. For this This ascertains the great capability of TCPBr and TCPI in reason, different surface or interface properties modifiers improving PCE and stability of Spiro-OMeTAD HTL-based have been emerged to manage such problems. perovskite solar cell. N, N′-bis-(1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4-nonafluorodo- decan- Solvent‑based additives 6-yl)-perylenediimide (F-PDI), which is conductive, and hydrophobic organic molecule is analyzed for its compe- Organic halides or lead halide crystalline aggregates forma- tency in improving PCE and stability [161]. Its carbonyl tion on the surface during OIP film fabrication investigated 2+ groups which bind with under-coordinated Pb passivate as a contributor for charge carriers recombination. Recent the surface. Besides that fluoro groups which are interacted works point out that some charge transport materials which with methyl ammonium cation to form hydrogen bonding are suspicious towards the formation of aggregates [46, 169, provide immobility for monovalent cation. This strategy is 170]. Solvent additive engineering is used to minimize the crucial to ward off the phase transition of the cubic structure causes which are responsible for formation of aggregates of OIP during annealing [162, 163]. due to charge transporting layers. Ye et al. [171] worked on Wu et al. [164] have revealed the potential of three kinds engineering of a series of solvent additives (1,8-diiodoctane, of large alkylammonium iodides viz. phenylethylammonium 1-chloronaphthalene, 1-phenylnaphtha-lene, 1-methylnaph- iodide, (PEAI), 1,4- butanediammonium iodide (BDAI), and thalene) to improve the influence of electron transport layer, guanidinium iodide (GAI) as passivating interlayer between perylene diimide derivatives (PDIs) in the film morphology hole transport layer and OIP layer in inverted structure. and transport process. They found that 1-methylnaphthalene Their integration as an interlayer suppressed non-radiative (MN) was the best solvent additive to control the effect of 1 3 58 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 aggregates in 1,1ʹ-bis(2-methoxyethoxyl)-7,7ʹ-(2,5-thienyl) conditions. They observed that addition of these materials bis-(BIS-PDI-EG) films. In general, addition of 1-methyl- to OIP solution improves the crystal quality, enlarges grain naphthalene into perylenediimide derivatives (PDIs) was size and reduces grain boundaries. Consequently, the elec- effective in improving both PCE and stability of the OIPSCs. tron extraction and transport have been increased in OIP films. The FTIR spectra prove that the formation of Lewis 2+ Organic compounds‑based additives acid–base adduct from Pb and C derivatives and weak- ening of dissolution of PbI in the presence of moisture. Hygroscopic dopant, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) As a result, they reported improved stability from nitrogen imide (Li-TFSI), in Spiro-OMeTAD-based perovskite solar containing C60 derivatives in ambient environment. The cells is responsible for fast decay of the device performance development of naphthalene imide dimer (2FBT2NDI) by as a result of aggregate formation. Searching for hydropho- group of H. Wang [175] resulted in achieving maximum bic dopants which will substitute Li-TFSI is very crucial PCE of inverted OIPSCs. They affirmed the effectiveness to increase the electrical conductivity of Spiro-OMeTAD of it in passivating the surface and interface of OIP layer. layer in ambient air condition. Hydrophobic alkaline-earth The same forward and reverse current scans indicate, defects bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide additives such as Mg- and ions which are causing hysteresis are negligible in the TFSI and Ca-TFSI were developed by N.D. Pham and device. Furthermore, it facilitates electron extraction across 2 2 co-workers to increase moisture resistivity of the Spiro- the interface of OIP/PCBM. So, the summative qualities OMeTAD [172]. Comparative study of Li-TFSI, Mg-TFSI of 2FBT2NDI integration offer the maximum PCE for and Ca-TFSI by using different methods reveals that alka- inverted OIPSC. Poly (2,2ʹ-bithiazolothienyl-4,4ʹ,10,10ʹ- line-earth bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide additives have tetracarboxydiimide) (PDTzTI) which contains sulfur, nitro- better potential than Li-TFSI. For instance, the calculated gen and oxygen functional groups was also used as ETL in hole mobilities for Mg-TFSI and Ca-TFSI are greater than inverted OIPSCs [176]. In addition to charge selectivity, it is 2 2 Li-TFSI. Consequently, they obtained noteworthy PCE and passivating the interface of OIP due to possible interactions 2+ stability from Spiro-OMeTAD-based OIPSC.between Pb and the functional groups (Fig. 9). The syn- The main purpose of dopants in Spiro-OMeTAD is to ergistic effect of this polymer yields greater PCE (20.86%) oxidize the HTL. Consequently, thionyl chloride (SOCl ) than 2FBT2NDI, which is the highest for inverted structure dopant which is capable of generating more oxidized states to date. Hydrophobic nature of PDTzTI is also benefiting of spiro-OMetAD was developed by the group of Li [173]. to improve the long-term operational stability of OIPSCs. The experimental findings prove that the optimum amount Similarly, 4ʹ,4ʹʹʹ-(1,3,4-oxadiazole-2,5-diyl)bis(N,N- of SOCl increases the concentration of holes as well as bis(4-met hoxyphenyl)-[1,1ʹ-biphenyl]-4-amine) was its mobility to achieve better PCE. The instability which is designed and synthesized as HTL to transport holes and pas- 2+ criticized in the presence Li-TFSI is upgraded by inclusion sivate the Pb by Lee et al. [177]. They found that methoxy of SOCl because of suppression of density of defect states functional groups in the HTL are very important in adjusting from the interface. Moreover, Hu et al. [174] studied the energy alignment of HOMO of HTL with OIP. effectiveness of fullerene and its derivatives as OIP addi- Alkoxy-PTEG HTM with multifunctional groups was tives to improve the PCE and stability of OIPSCs in ambient designed and synthesized by Lee et al. [178]. The presence Fig. 9 Schematic illustration of the perovskite/PDTzTI interfaces. The enlarged area describes the possible interac- tions between unsaturated Pb ions (likely Pb trap/defect sites) and functional group (N, S, O) presented in the PDTzTI ETLs. Reproduced with permission from [176], Copyright 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 59 of alkoxy groups in it offers multipurpose advantages. For remarkable change in average grain size and grain bounda- example; (1) it increases solubility of alkoxy-PTEG in non- ries of the perovskite layer (Fig. 10). aromatic green solvent (3-methyl cyclohexanone) which is In addition, oxygen vacancies in T iO which are scaveng- occurring naturally, (2) it prevents the leakage of lead ions ing electrons are deactivated by incorporation of NaCl salt. by chelating with it, (3) it enhances the electrical conductiv- Thus, electron transporting potential of T iO is enhanced. ity of alkoxy-PTEG, which is comparable with doped Spiro- Also the measured higher recombination resistance owing OMeTAD and (4) it exhibits improved Voc and FF. Alkoxy- to NaCl has contributed significant change in long-term sta- PTEG HTM which is processed in nonaromatic green bility and hysteresis in n-i-p perovskite solar cells. Also, solvent exhibits inviting PCE (19.9%) from SnO planar Sun et al. [183] asserted the role of optimum Na S to pas- 2 2 OIPSCs. On the other hand, dopant-free alkoxy-PTEG HTM sivate TiO and OIP surfaces. Herein, Na ions are doping 2− 2+ which is processed in 2-methyl anisole (2-MA) which is an the TiO , while S ions are interacting with Pb ions to aromatic solvent with low toxicity potential shows 21.2% of form covalent bonds, which are ruled out by soft acid–base PCE which is reported as the highest value. Besides these, it principle. Na ions-doped TiO increased wettability degree improves chemical and thermal stability of OIP films. of OIP films as mentioned by Li et al. [182]. As a result, experimental results verify that incorporation of Na S pas- sivated the interface and improved the crystallinity of OIP Ionic‑based additives films. Significant change has been observed in current den- sity and Voc of planar OIPSCs fabricated after incorpora- Oxygen vacancies in commonly used ETL, TiO are con- tion of Na S into TiO ETLs. The other study (Fig. 11) on 2 2 2 sidered as trapping centers for electrons, which are causing inverted perovskite solar cells using surfactant additives has non-radiative recombinations in regular OIPSCs [179–181]. been reported by Wang et al. [184]. Unstability due to T iO demands several approaches which They coated an ultrathin sodium dodecyl benzene sul- can reduce side effects in regular planar perovskite solar fonate (SDBS) on the surface of nickel oxide (NiO ) HTL, cells. NaCl-assisted defect passivation study has been done that is between HTL and light absorber layer. They explained to empower electrons extraction of TiO by Li et al. [182]. that the reason for good communication at the interface of They reported that N a ions-doped T iO improved the wetta- NiO /perovskite surface is surface wettability potential of 2 x bility of OIP films. As a result, 5% Na-doped TiO shows the SDBS. Thus, the SDBS is adjusting the surface wettability Fig. 10 SEM images of the perovskite layer fabricated on a the pris- from individual images. Reproduced with permission from [182], tine and b 2%, c 5%, d 10%, and e 20% Na-doped T iO films, respec- Copyright 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V tively. The insets are the statistic distributions of grain size analyzed 1 3 60 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 Fig. 11 The contact angle of water on the NiOx/SDBS film with dif- tics of grain size and surface roughness of perovskite films deposited −1 ferent concentrations (mg mL ) of SDBS: a 0, b 0.05, c 0.20, d 1 on NiOx/SDBS film with different concentrations of SDBS solution. and e 10. Top view SEM and AFM images of perovskite films depos- Cross-sectional SEM images of perovskite layers grown on NiOx film −1 ited on NiOx/SDBS film with different concentrations (mg mL ) of q without and r with SDBS layer. Reproduced with permission from SDBS: 0 (f, k), 0.05 (g, l), 0.20 (h, m), 1 (i, n) and 10 (j, o). p Statis- [184], Copyright 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V of NiO to form a fully covered perovskite film, which pro- Nowadays, different additives are fruitful in ameliorating vides high quality crystalline perovskite film. poor crystallinity of the photoactive layer. They have been In general, the role of some additives and passivators in also applied in adjusting energy alignment between photo- improving PCE, Jsc, Voc, and FF of the different perovskite active and charge transporting layers. Even if hydrophobic solar cells since 2019 is summarized in Table 1. Their role approaches have been leading to prevent moisture interac- in improving the chemical, mechanical and thermal stability tion, hydrophilic surface passivation which is paradoxical of the device is also noticed as the foremost merit. approach has been becoming efficient in improving moisture instability as well as PCE due to hydrogen bonding. Degree of intra- or inter-molecular interactions between Conclusions and outlooks additives/passivators and photoactive or charge transporting layers or defects is determining the status of OMHPSCs sta- Even though the power conversion efficiency of OIPSCs bility. Accordingly, studies show that the binding energy of has been promising to go over the Shockley limitation of the atoms or ions can be used to relevant technique to deter- silicon solar cells, still their instability has been remained mine stability of the materials or devices. Thus, detailed as a gap. Managing the factors which are causing degrada- study on the binding energy of the different additives/passi- tion of layers, charge recombination across the interface and vators atoms or ions with organo-metal halide perovskites or surface and hysteresis of OIPSCs is very crucial. Different charge transporting layers or surface defects is vital to select approaches like compositional engineering, optimizing dep- worthy additive to obtain homogenized and well-ordered osition techniques, solvent engineering, anti-solvent engi- surfaces for ease transportation of charge carriers and stable neering, and additives/passivators engineering have been state of materials. In general, additives/passivators engineer- applied to abate the common problems in these devices. ing has becoming promising strategy to look for different 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 61 Table 1 Comparative summary of OIPSCs in the presence of additives/passivators and the reference cells Additives/passivators category Device with Jsc (mA/cm ) Voc (V) FF PCE (%) References Solvent DMF/DMSO 23.13 1.16 0.79 21.2 [77] Reference 22.91 1.11 0.69 18.3 DMF + DMSO 1.5 eq 24.21 0.95 0.61 14.11 [73] DMF 18.13 0.85 0.56 8.65 NMP 1.0% 7.64 1.57 0.83 9.53 [76] ACN 1.0% 7.60 1.57 0.82 9.22 Reference 7.05 1.56 0.81 8.27 C60/BCP 21.33 1.08 0.73 17.02 [185] Reference 17.97 1.07 0.71 12.31 DMSO 21.32 0.96 0.68 14.01 [80] NMP 23.30 1.00 0.74 17.29 Reference 22.68 0.97 0.71 15.53 Small organic molecules/polymer Formic acid 0.764 M 23.59 1.10 0.77 19.81 [186] Reference 23.01 1.07 0.73 17.82 Acetyl Acetone (AA) 18.50 0.99 0.76 14.00 [81] Reference 17.40 0.95 0.73 12.10 Acetic acid 8 v % 24.31 1.15 0.82 23.00 [83] Reference 22.90 1.11 0.75 19.10 TAA 1.0% 22.91 1.11 0.74 18.91 [84] Reference 22.70 1.09 0.69 17.01 PFA (CsFAMA) 24.10 1.14 0.78 21.31 [99] Reference 23.42 1.11 0.75 19.53 Quinoline 0.4 M 23.07 1.14 0.79 20.87 [115] Reference 22.48 1.11 0.75 18.65 TBAB 7.5 mM 23.41 1.12 0.77 20.16 [118] Reference 21.49 1.10 0.75 17.56 Pyrazine 0.5 mg/mL 23.07 1.13 0.79 20.10 [98] Reference 23.06 1.09 0.77 18.79 Y-Th2 23.7 1.14 0.80 21.50 [187] Reference 21.9 1.09 0.77 18.3 AIA 22.85 1.02 0.68 15.70 [188] HIA 23.05 1.05 0.71 17.29 CA 23.49 1.10 0.74 19.06 Reference 21.06 0.97 0.66 13.60 Benzoic acid (BA) 3% 21.19 1.05 0.75 16.26 [189] Reference 19.00 1.05 0.77 14.83 HEA 23.74 1.11 0.80 21.01 [143] Reference 21.95 1.07 0.77 18.17 2,2ʹ-bipyridine (Bpy) 1% 23.17 1.07 0.77 19.02 [190] 2,2ʹ:6ʹ ,2ʺ-terpyridine (Tpy) 0.2% 23.07 1.06 0.76 18.68 Reference 22.48 1.05 0.74 17.58 1 3 62 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 Table 1 (continued) Additives/passivators category Device with Jsc (mA/cm ) Voc (V) FF PCE (%) References EC 22.33 1.13 0.77 19.46 [191] PC 22.5 1.13 0.78 19.63 PPC 22.62 1.14 0.78 20.06 Reference 22.18 1.10 0.74 17.88 PTE 0.017% 19.69 1.08 0.80 16.76 [93] Reference 18.762 1.06 0.77 15.49 PS 21.67 1.06 0.77 18.60 [192] PCE10 21.69 1.08 0.80 19.60 Reference 21.94 1.08 0.82 18.20 PEG 10% 21.68 0.98 0.55 11.62 [116] Reference 18.82 0.93 0.44 7.74 Ionic compounds BMIMBF 0.3% 23.80 1.08 0.81 19.80 [193] Reference 23.20 1.02 0.79 18.50 Zinc acetate 22.60 0.92 0.59 12.30 [85] Ammonium acetate 24.35 0.98 0.59 13.88 Reference 21.75 0.93 0.55 11.11 19.50 1.16 0.77 17.30 [117] [BMP] BF 0.25 mol % Reference 19.50 1.11 0.75 16.60 TBUB-TBPO pair 22.97 1.13 0.79 20.48 [159] Reference 19.54 NH Cl 19.66 1.03 0.72 14.71 [86] NH SCN 21.17 1.05 0.75 16.61 Out additive/passivator 18.52 1.03 0.68 12.97 (BMImI) 0.2% MWCNT 27.98 1.085 0.7325 21.39 [194] Reference 23.63 0.82 0.65 12.56 PbTiO 0.05 M 21.72 1.00 0.49 10.55 [195] Reference 18.98 0.91 0.43 7.46 Spiro-OMeTAD:MoS 0.6% 24.48 1.10 0.75 21.18 [196] Spiro-OMeTAD 23.54 1.05 0.72 17.79 MACl 40% 25.92 1.13 0.82 24.02 [90] Reference 24.84 1.03 0.77 19.66 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attri- additives to alleviate either extrinsic or intrinsic negative bution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adapta- impacts in OIPSCs. tion, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the department of provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes Industrial Chemistry and Sustainable Energy Center of Excellence of were made. The images or other third party material in this article are Addis Ababa Science and Technology University (AASTU) for finan- included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated cial and infrastructure support to this work. otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 63 the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not CH NH PbI . ACS Photonics 3, 1060–1068 (2016). https:// doi. 3 3 3 permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will org/ 10. 1021/ acsph otoni cs. 6b001 39 need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a 16. Yang, W.S., Park, B.W., Jung, E.H., Jeon, N.J., Kim, Y.C., Lee, copy of this licence, visit http://cr eativ ecommons. or g/licen ses/ b y/4.0/ . D.U., Shin, S.S., Seo, J., Kim, E.K., Noh, J.H., Seok, S. Il: Iodide management in formamidinium-lead-halide-based perovskite layers for efficient solar cells. Science (80-. ). 356, 1376–1379 (2017). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1126/ scien ce. aan23 01 17. Giorgi, G., Fujisawa, J.I., Segawa, H., Yamashita, K.: Small References photocarrier effective masses featuring ambipolar transport in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite: A density functional analysis. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4213–4216 (2013). https:// doi. 1. Yoshikawa, K., Yoshida, W., Irie, T., Kawasaki, H., Konishi, org/ 10. 1021/ jz402 3865 K., Ishibashi, H., Asatani, T., Adachi, D., Kanematsu, M., Uzu, 18. NREL: Best research-cell efficiencies, https://www .nr el.go v/pv/ H., Yamamoto, K.: Exceeding conversion efficiency of 26% by assets/ pdfs/ best- resea rch- cell- effic ienci es. 20200 104. pdf heterojunction interdigitated back contact solar cell with thin film 19. Olaleru, S.A., Kirui, J.K., Wamwangi, D., Roro, K.T., Mwaki- Si technology. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 173, 37–42 (2017). kunga, B.: Perovskite solar cells: the new epoch in photovoltaics. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. solmat. 2017. 06. 024 Sol. Energy. 196, 295–309 (2020). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. solen 2. Benamar, E., Rami, M., Fahoume, M., Chraibi, F., Ennaoui, A.: er. 2019. 12. 025 Electrodeposited cadmium selenide films for solar cells. Ann. 20. Park, N.G.: Research direction toward scalable, stable, and high Chim. Sci. des Mater. 23, 369–372 (1998). https:// doi. org/ 10. efficiency perovskite solar cells. Adv. Energy Mater. 10, 1903106 1016/ S0151- 9107(98) 80094-9 3. Bonnet, D., Meyers, P.: Cadmium-telluride - Material for thin (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1002/ aenm. 20190 3106 film solar cells. J. Mater. Res. 13, 2740–2753 (1998). https://doi. 21. Baumann, A., Väth, S., Rieder, P., Heiber, M.C., Tvingstedt, K., org/ 10. 1557/ JMR. 1998. 0376 Dyakonov, V.: Identification of trap states in perovskite solar 4. Vasekar, P.S., Jahagirdar, A.H., Dhere, N.G.: Photovoltaic char- cells. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 2350–2354 (2015). https:// doi. org/ acterization of Copper-Indium-Gallium Sulfide (CIGS10. 1021/ acs. jpcle tt. 5b009 53 ) solar 22. Fan, R., Zhou, W., Huang, Z., Zhou, H.: Defect suppression and cells for lower absorber thicknesses. Thin Solid Films 518, passivation for perovskite solar cells: from the birth to the life- 1788–1790 (2010). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. tsf. 2009. 09. 033 time operation. EnergyChem. 2, 100032 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 5. Stuckelberger, M., Biron, R., Wyrsch, N., Haug, F.J., Ballif, C.: 10. 1016/j. enchem. 2020. 100032 Progress in solar cells from hydrogenated amorphous silicon. 23. Wu, X., Trinh, M.T., Niesner, D., Zhu, H., Norman, Z., Owen, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 76, 1497–1523 (2017). https:// doi. J.S., Yaffe, O., Kudisch, B.J., Zhu, X.Y.: Trap states in lead org/ 10. 1016/j. rser. 2016. 11. 190 iodide perovskites. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 2089–2096 (2015). 6. Joël Tchognia Nkuissi, H., Kouadio Konan, F., Hartiti, B., https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ ja512 833n Ndjaka, J.-M.: Toxic materials used in thin film photovoltaics 24. Mahmud, M.A., Elumalai, N.K., Upama, M.B., Wang, D., Gon- and their impacts on environment. In: Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules. pp. 1–18 (2020) çales, V.R., Wright, M., Xu, C., Haque, F., Uddin, A.: Passivation 7. Regan, B.O., Gratzel, M.: A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell of interstitial and vacancy mediated trap-states for efficient and based on dyes-sensitized collodial T iO stable triple-cation perovskite solar cells. J. Power Sources. 383, films. Nature 353, 737– 59–71 (2018). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jpows our. 2018. 02. 030 740 (1991). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1038/ 35373 7a0 25. Berdiyorov, G.R., Madjet, M.E., El-Mellouhi, F., Peeters, F.M.: 8. Bernède, J.C.: Organic photovoltaic cells: History, principle and Effect of crystal structure on the electronic transport properties of techniques. J. Chil. Chem. Soc. 53, 1549–1564 (2008). https:// the organometallic perovskite CH NH PbI . Sol. Energy Mater. doi. org/ 10. 4067/ S0717- 97072 00800 03000 01 3 3 3 Sol. Cells. 148, 60–66 (2016). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. solmat. 9. Jørgensen, M., Norrman, K., Krebs, F.C.: Stability/degradation of 2015. 09. 006 polymer solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 92, 686–714 26. Varadwaj, P.R., Varadwaj, A., Marques, H.M., Yamashita, K.: (2008). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. solmat. 2008. 01. 005 Significance of hydrogen bonding and other noncovalent inter - 10. Shirakawa, H.: The discovery of polyacetylene l fi m: The dawning actions in determining octahedral tilting in the CH3NH3PbI3 of an era of conducting polymers. Synth. Met. 125, 3–10 (2002). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/ s0379- 6779(01) 00507-0 hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cell semi- 11. Liu, Q., Jiang, Y., Jin, K., Qin, J., Xu, J., Li, W., Xiong, J., Liu, J., conductor. Sci. Rep. 9, 1–29 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1038/ Xiao, Z., Sun, K., Yang, S., Zhang, X., Ding, L.: 18% Efficiency s41598- 018- 36218-1 organic solar cells. Sci. Bull. 65, 272–275 (2020). https://doi. or g/ 27. Brivio, F., Frost, J.M., Skelton, J.M., Jackson, A.J., Weber, O.J., 10. 1016/j. scib. 2020. 01. 001 Weller, M.T., Goñi, A.R., Leguy, A.M.A., Barnes, P.R.F., Walsh, 12. Kojima, A., Teshima, K., Shirai, Y., Miyasaka, T.: Organo-metal A.: Lattice dynamics and vibrational spectra of the orthorhombic, halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic tetragonal, and cubic phases of methylammonium lead iodide. cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 6050–6051 (2009). https:// doi. Phys. Rev. B - Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 92, 144308 (2015). org/ 10. 1021/ ja809 598rhttps:// doi. org/ 10. 1103/ PhysR evB. 92. 144308 13. Eperon, G.E., Stranks, S.D., Menelaou, C., Johnston, M.B., Herz, 28. Wu, T., Wang, Y., Dai, Z., Cui, D., Wang, T., Meng, X., Bi, E., L.M., Snaith, H.J.: Formamidinium lead trihalide: A broadly Yang, X., Han, L.: Efficient and stable CsPbI3 solar cells via tunable perovskite for efficient planar heterojunction solar cells. regulating lattice distortion with surface organic terminal groups. Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 982–988 (2014). https://doi. or g/10. 1039/ Adv. Mater. 31, 1900605 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1002/ adma. c3ee4 3822h20190 0605 14. Green, M.A., Ho-Baillie, A., Snaith, H.J.: The emergence of per- 29. Wang, F., Ye, Z., Sarvari, H., Park, S.M., Abtahi, A., Graham, ovskite solar cells. Nat. Photonics. 8, 506–514 (2014). https://doi. K., Zhao, Y., Wang, Y., Chen, Z.D., Li, S.: Humidity-insensitive org/ 10. 1038/ nphot on. 2014. 134 fabrication of efficient perovskite solar cells in ambient air. J. 15. Ziffer, M.E., Mohammed, J.C., Ginger, D.S.: Electroabsorption Power Sources. 412, 359–365 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. spectroscopy measurements of the exciton binding energy, elec-jpows our. 2018. 11. 013 tron-hole reduced effective mass, and band gap in the perovskite 1 3 64 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 30. Kumar, Y., Regalado-Pérez, E., Ayala, A.M., Mathews, N.R., 45. Zhu, M., Li, C., Li, B., Zhang, J., Sun, Y., Guo, W., Zhou, Z., Mathew, X.: Effect of heat treatment on the electrical proper - Pang, S., Yan, Y.: Interaction engineering in organic–inorganic ties of perovskite solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 157, hybrid perovskite solar cells. Mater. Horizons. 7, 2208–2236 10–17 (2016). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. solmat. 2016. 04. 055 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ d0mh0 0745e 31. Zhang, H., Qiao, X., Shen, Y., Wang, M.: Effect of tempera- 46. Ha, S.R., Jeong, W.H., Liu, Y., Oh, J.T., Bae, S.Y., Lee, S., Kim, ture on the efficiency of organometallic perovskite solar cells. J.W., Bandyopadhyay, S., Jeong, H.I., Kim, J.Y., Kim, Y., Song, J. Energy Chem. 24, 729–735 (2015). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. M.H., Park, S.H., Stranks, S.D., Lee, B.R., Friend, R.H., Choi, jechem. 2015. 10. 007 H.: Molecular aggregation method for perovskite-fullerene bulk 32. Zheng, H., Liu, G., Zhang, C., Zhu, L., Alsaedi, A., Hayat, T., heterostructure solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. A. 8, 1326–1334 Pan, X., Dai, S.: The influence of perovskite layer and hole (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c9ta1 1854c transport material on the temperature stability about perovskite 47. Rolston, N., Printz, A.D., Tracy, J.M., Weerasinghe, H.C., Vak, solar cells. Sol. Energy. 159, 914–919 (2018). https://doi. or g/10. D., Haur, L.J., Priyadarshi, A., Mathews, N., Slotcavage, D.J., 1016/j. solen er. 2017. 09. 039 McGehee, M.D., Kalan, R.E., Zielinski, K., Grimm, R.L., Tsai, 33. Mesquita, I., Andrade, L., Mendes, A.: Effect of relative humidity H., Nie, W., Mohite, A.D., Gholipour, S., Saliba, M., Grätzel, M., during the preparation of perovskite solar cells: Performance and Dauskardt, R.H.: Ee ff ct of cation composition on the mechanical stability. Sol. Energy. 199, 474–483 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. stability of perovskite solar cells. Adv. Energy Mater. 8, 1702116 1016/j. solen er. 2020. 02. 052 (2017). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1002/ aenm. 20170 2116 34. Dong, X., Fang, X., Lv, M., Lin, B., Zhang, S., Wang, Y., Yuan, 48. Chae, S., Yi, A., Kim, H.J.: Molecular engineering of a conju- N., Ding, J.: Method for improving illumination instability of gated polymer as a hole transporting layer for versatile p–i–n organic–inorganic halide perovskite solar cells. Sci. Bull. 61, perovskite solar cells. Mater. Today Energy. 14, 100341 (2019). 236–244 (2016). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s11434- 016- 0994-1https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. mtener. 2019. 100341 35. Lee, J.W., Bae, S.H., De Marco, N., Hsieh, Y.T., Dai, Z., Yang, 49. Bakr, Z.H., Wali, Q., Fakharuddin, A., Schmidt-Mende, L., Y.: The role of grain boundaries in perovskite solar cells. Mater. Brown, T.M., Jose, R.: Advances in hole transport materials Today Energy. 7, 149–160 (2018). https:// doi. or g/ 10. 1016/j. engineering for stable and efficient perovskite solar cells. Nano mtener. 2017. 07. 014 Energy 34, 271–305 (2017). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. 36. Wang, S., Sina, M., Parikh, P., Uekert, T., Shahbazian, B., 2017. 02. 025 Devaraj, A., Meng, Y.S.: Role of 4-tert-butylpyridine as a hole 50. Hou, F., Han, C., Isabella, O., Yan, L., Shi, B., Chen, J., An, S., transport layer morphological controller in perovskite solar cells. Zhou, Z., Huang, W., Ren, H., Huang, Q., Hou, G., Chen, X., Li, Nano Lett. 16, 5594–5600 (2016). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ acs. Y., Ding, Y., Wang, G., Wei, C., Zhang, D., Zeman, M., Zhao, nanol ett. 6b021 58 Y., Zhang, X.: Inverted pyramidally-textured PDMS antireflec- 37. Urieta-Mora, J., García-Benito, I., Molina-Ontoria, A., Mar- tive foils for perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with flat top tín, N.: Hole transporting materials for perovskite solar cells: cell. Nano Energy 56, 234–240 (2019). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. a chemical approach. Chem. Soc. Rev. 47, 8541–8571 (2018). nanoen. 2018. 11. 018 https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c8cs0 0262b 51. Wu, X., Zhang, L., Xu, Z., Olthof, S., Ren, X., Liu, Y., Yang, 38. Li, X., Fu, S., Liu, S., Wu, Y., Zhang, W., Song, W., Fang, J.: D., Gao, F., Liu, S.: Efficient perovskite solar cellsviasurface Suppressing the ions-induced degradation for operationally passivation by a multifunctional small organic ionic compound. stable perovskite solar cells. Nano Energy 64, 103962 (2019). J. Mater. Chem. A. 8, 8313–8322 (2020). https://d oi.o rg/1 0.1 039/ https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. 2019. 103962d0ta0 2222e 39. Han, Y., Meyer, S., Dkhissi, Y., Weber, K., Pringle, J.M., Bach, 52. Zhang, W., Li, Y., Liu, X., Tang, D., Li, X., Yuan, X.: Ethyl U., Spiccia, L., Cheng, Y.B.: Degradation observations of encap- acetate green antisolvent process for high-performance planar sulated planar CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells at high tem-low-temperature SnO -based perovskite solar cells made in ambi- peratures and humidity. J. Mater. Chem. A. 3, 8139–8147 (2015). ent air. Chem. Eng. J. 379, 122298 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c5ta0 0358j1016/j. cej. 2019. 122298 40. Chun-Ren Ke, J., Walton, A.S., Lewis, D.J., Tedstone, A., 53. Meng, Z., Guo, D., Yu, J., Fan, K.: Investigation of Al 2 O 3 and O’Brien, P., Thomas, A.G., Flavell, W.R.: In situ investigation of ZrO 2 spacer layers for fully printable and hole-conductor-free degradation at organometal halide perovskite surfaces by X-ray mesoscopic perovskite solar cells. Appl. Surf. Sci. 430, 632–638 photoelectron spectroscopy at realistic water vapour pressure. (2018). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. apsusc. 2017. 05. 018 Chem. Commun. 53, 5231–5234 (2017). https://doi. or g/10. 1039/ 54. Wu, T., Wu, J., Tu, Y., He, X., Lan, Z., Huang, M., Lin, J.: Sol- c7cc0 1538k vent engineering for high-quality perovskite solar cell with an 41. Gujar, T.P., Unger, T., Schönleber, A., Fried, M., Panzer, F., efficiency approaching 20%. J. Power Sources. 365, 1–6 (2017). Van Smaalen, S., Köhler, A., Thelakkat, M.: The role of PbI2 https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jpows our. 2017. 08. 074 in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite stability, solar cell parameters and 55. Tombe, S., Adam, G., Heilbrunner, H., Apaydin, D.H., Ulbricht, device degradation. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 20, 605–614 C., Sariciftci, N.S., Arendse, C.J., Iwuoha, E., Scharber, M.C.: (2017). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c7cp0 4749e Optical and electronic properties of mixed halide (X = I, Cl, Br) 42. Li, T., Pan, Y., Wang, Z., Xia, Y., Chen, Y., Huang, W.: Additive methylammonium lead perovskite solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. C. engineering for highly efficient organic-inorganic halide per - 5, 1714–1723 (2017). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c6tc0 4830g ovskite solar cells: Recent advances and perspectives. J. Mater. 56. Hartono, N.T.P., Sun, S., Gélvez-Rueda, M.C., Pierone, P.J., Chem. A. 5, 12602–12652 (2017). https://doi. or g/10. 1039/ c7t a0 Erodici, M.P., Yoo, J., Wei, F., Bawendi, M., Grozema, F.C., 1798g Sher, M.J., Buonassisi, T., Correa-Baena, J.P.: The effect of 43. Li, S., Ma, R.: Enhanced photovoltaic performance and stability structural dimensionality on carrier mobility in lead-halide per- of planar perovskite solar cells by introducing dithizone. Sol. ovskites. J. Mater. Chem. A. 7, 23949–23957 (2019). https://doi. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 206, 290 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. org/ 10. 1039/ c9ta0 5241k 1016/j. solmat. 2019. 110290 57. Lewis, D.J.: Deposition Techniques for Perovskite Solar Cells. 44. Liu, Z., Ono, L.K., Qi, Y.: Additives in metal halide perovskite In: Nanostructured Materials for Type III Photovoltaics. pp. films and their applications in solar cells. J. Energy Chem. 46, 341–366. The Royal Society of Chemistry, UK (2018) 215–228 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jechem. 2019. 11. 008 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 65 58. Nouri, E., Mohammadi, M.R., Lianos, P.: Improving the stability perovskite solar cells. Sci. Bull. 65, 1726–1734 (2020). https:// of inverted perovskite solar cells under ambient conditions with doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. scib. 2020. 05. 031 graphene-based inorganic charge transporting layers. Carbon N. 73. Afroz, M.A., Gupta, R.K., Garai, R., Hossain, M., Tripathi, S.P., Y. 126, 208–214 (2018). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. carbon. 2017. Iyer, P.K.: Crystallization and grain growth regulation through 10. 015 Lewis acid-base adduct formation in hot cast perovskite-based 59. Feria, D.N., Chang, C.Y., Mahesh, K.P.O., Hsu, C.L., Chao, Y.C.: solar cells. Org. Electron. 74, 172–178 (2019). https:// doi. org/ Perovskite solar cells based on a perovskite film with improved 10. 1016/j. orgel. 2019. 07. 007 film coverage. Synth. Met. 260, 1 (2020). https:// doi. or g/ 10. 74. González-Juárez, E., González-Quijano, D., Garcia-Gutierrez, 1016/j. synth met. 2019. 116283 D.F., Garcia-Gutierrez, D.I., Ibarra-Rodríguez, J., Sanchez, E.: 60. Wang, S., Wang, A., Deng, X., Xie, L., Xiao, A., Li, C., Xiang, Improving performance of perovskites solar cells using solvent Y., Li, T., Ding, L., Hao, F.: Lewis acid/base approach for effica- engineering, via Lewis adduct of MAI-DMSO-PbI i and incor- cious defect passivation in perovskite solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. poration of imidazolium cation. J. Alloys Compd. 817, 153076 A. 8, 12201–12225 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ d0ta0 3957h (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jallc om. 2019. 153076 61. Adam, G., Kaltenbrunner, M., Głowacki, E.D., Apaydin, D.H., 75. Hamill, J.C., Schwartz, J., Loo, Y.L.: Influence of Solvent Coor - White, M.S., Heilbrunner, H., Tombe, S., Stadler, P., Ernecker, dination on Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Formation. B., Klampfl, C.W., Sariciftci, N.S., Scharber, M.C.: Solu- ACS Energy Lett. 3, 92–97 (2018). https://doi. or g/10. 1021/ acsen tion processed perovskite solar cells using highly conductive ergyl ett. 7b010 57 PEDOT:PSS interfacial layer. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 157, 76. Wu, Y., Wang, Y., Duan, J., Yang, X., Zhang, J., Liu, L., Tang, 318–325 (2016). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. solmat. 2016. 05. 011 Q.: Cluster effect of additives in precursors for inorganic perovs- 62. Guo, X., Zhang, M., Ma, W., Zhang, S., Hou, J., Li, Y.: Effect kites solar cells. Electrochim. Acta. 331, 135379 (2020). https:// of solvent additive on active layer morphologies and photovol-doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. elect acta. 2019. 135379 taic performance of polymer solar cells based on PBDTTT-C-T 77. Wang, M., Cao, F., Deng, K., Li, L.: Adduct phases induced con- / PC71BM. RSC Adv. 6, 51924–51931 (2016). https:// doi. org/ trolled crystallization for mixed-cation perovskite solar cells with 10. 1039/ c6ra0 6020j efficiency over 21 %. Nano Energy 63, 103867 (2019). https:// 63. Liao, H.C., Ho, C.C., Chang, C.Y., Jao, M.H., Darling, S.B., doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. 2019. 103867 Su, W.F.: Additives for morphology control in high-efficiency 78. Zhou, X., Kong, F., Sun, Y., Huang, Y., Zhang, X., Ghadari, R.: organic solar cells. Mater. Today. 16, 326–336 (2013). https:// Dopant-free benzothiadiazole bridged hole transport materials doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. mattod. 2013. 08. 013 for highly stable and efficient perovskite solar cells. Dye. Pig- 64. Park, S.H., Jin, I.S., Ahn, H., Jung, J.W.: Non-halogenated addi- ment. 173, 107954 (2020). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. dy epig.2019. tive engineering for morphology optimization in environmen- 107954 tal-friendly solvent processed non-fullerene organic solar cells. 79. Wang, H., Zhang, X., Huang, T., Lu, Z., Gao, F., Shi, Z., Zhou, Org. Electron. 86, 105893 (2020). https://d oi.o rg/1 0.1 016/j.o rgel. L., Li, R., Tang, G.: Enhance the performance of ZnO-based per- 2020. 105893 ovskite solar cells under ambient conditions. Opt. Mater. (Amst) 65. Nazim, M., Abdullah, Akhtar, M.S., Kim, E.B., Shin, H.S., 89, 375–381 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. optmat. 2019. 01. Ameen, S.: Underlying effects of diiodooctane as additive on 059 the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based 80. Wang, G., Wang, L., Qiu, J., Yan, Z., Tai, K., Yu, W., Jiang, small organic molecule of isatin-core moiety. Synth. Met. 261, X.: Fabrication of efficient formamidinium perovskite solar cells 116304 (2020). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. synt hme t.2020. 116304 under ambient air via intermediate-modulated crystallization. 66. Carvalho, I.C., Barbosa, M.L., Costa, M.J.S., Longo, E., Caval- Sol. Energy. 187, 147–155 (2019). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. solen cante, L.S., Viana, V.G.F., Santos, R.S.: T iO -based dye-sensi-er. 2019. 05. 033 tized solar cells prepared with bixin and norbixin natural dyes: 81. Hailegnaw, B., Adam, G., Wielend, D., Pedarnig, J.D., Sariciftci, Effect of 2,2’-bipyridine additive on the current and voltage. N.S., Scharber, M.C.: Acetylacetone improves the performance Optik (Stuttg). 218, 165236 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. of mixed halide perovskite solar cells. J. Phys. Chem. C. 123, ijleo. 2020. 165236 23807–23816 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ acs. jpcc. 9b050 58 67. Zhang, L., Zhao, H., Yuan, J., Lin, B., Xing, Z., Meng, X., Ke, L., 82. Liang, P.W., Liao, C.Y., Chueh, C.C., Zuo, F., Williams, S.T., Hu, X., Ma, W., Yuan, Y.: Blade-coated efficient and stable large- Xin, X.K., Lin, J., Jen, A.K.Y.: Additive enhanced crystalliza- area organic solar cells with optimized additive. Org. Electron. tion of solution-processed perovskite for highly efficient planar- 83, 105771 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. orgel. 2020. 105771 heterojunction solar cells. Adv. Mater. 26, 3748–3754 (2014). 68. Cheng, J., Zhang, L., Jiang, H., Yuan, D., Wang, Q., Cao, Y., https:// doi. org/ 10. 1002/ adma. 20140 0231 Chen, J.: Investigation of halogen-free solvents towards high- 83. Li, Y., Shi, J., Zheng, J., Bing, J., Yuan, J., Cho, Y., Tang, S., performance additive-free non-fullerene organic solar cells. Org. Zhang, M., Yao, Y., Lau, C.F.J., Lee, D.S., Liao, C., Green, Electron. 85, 105871 (2020). h tt ps : // d oi . o r g / 1 0. 1 01 6 /j . o r g e l . M.A., Huang, S., Ma, W., Ho-Baillie, A.W.Y.: Acetic acid 2020. 105871 assisted crystallization strategy for high efficiency and long-rerm 69. Yu, R., Yao, H., Hong, L., Qin, Y., Zhu, J., Cui, Y., Li, S., Hou, stable perovskite solar cell. Adv. Sci. 7, 1903368 (2020). https:// J.: Design and application of volatilizable solid additives in non-doi. org/ 10. 1002/ advs. 20190 3368 fullerene organic solar cells. Nat. Commun. 9, 4645 (2018). 84. Cui, C., Xie, D., Lin, P., Hu, H., Che, S., Xiao, K., Wang, P., https:// doi. org/ 10. 1038/ s41467- 018- 07017-z Xu, L., Yang, D., Yu, X.: Thioacetamide additive assisted crys- 70. Liu, S., Guan, Y., Sheng, Y., Hu, Y., Rong, Y., Mei, A., Han, H.: tallization of solution-processed perovskite films for high per - A Review on Additives for Halide Perovskite Solar Cells (2019) formance planar heterojunction solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. 71. Yang, J., Chen, S., Xu, J., Zhang, Q., Liu, H., Liu, Z., Yuan, M.: Sol. Cells. 208, 110435 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. sol- A review on improving the quality of perovskite films in perovs-mat. 2020. 110435 kite solar cells via the weak forces induced by additives. Appl. 85. Zhang, Z., Fan, W., Wei, X., Zhang, L., Yang, Z., Wei, Z., Sci. 9, 4393 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 3390/ app92 04393 Shen, T., Si, H., Qi, J.: Promoted performance of carbon based 72. Xie, J., Yan, K., Zhu, H., Li, G., Wang, H., Zhu, H., Hang, P., perovskite solar cells by environmentally friendly additives Zhao, S., Guo, W., Ye, D., Shao, L., Guan, X., Ngai, T., Yu, X., of CH COONH and Zn(CH COO) . J. Alloys Compd. 802, 3 4 3 2 Xu, J.: Identifying the functional groups effect on passivating 694–703 (2019). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. jallc om. 2019. 06. 161 1 3 66 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 86. Li, Y., Zhang, Z., Zhou, Y., Xie, L., Gao, N., Lu, X., Gao, X., fluorocarbon based bifunctional molecules for perovskite solar Gao, J., Shui, L., Wu, S., Liu, J.: Enhanced performance and cells with efficiency over 21%. J. Mater. Chem. A. 7 , 2497–2506 stability of ambient-processed CH NH PbI (SCN) planar (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c8ta1 1524a 3 3 3-x x perovskite solar cells by introducing ammonium salts. Appl. 100. Duenas, S., Perez, E., Castan, H., Garcia, H., Bailon, L.: The role Surf. Sci. 513, 145790 (2020). https://d oi.o rg/1 0.1 016/j.a psusc. of defects in solar cells: Control and detection defects in solar 2020. 145790 cells. Proc. 2013 Spanish Conf. Electron Devices, CDE 2013. 87. Lu, H., Krishna, A., Zakeeruddin, S.M., Grätzel, M., Hagfeldt, 301–304 (2013). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1109/ CDE. 2013. 64814 02 A.: Compositional and interface engineering of organic-inor- 101. Yonenaga, I., Ohno, Y., Taishi, T., Tokumoto, Y.: Recent knowl- ganic lead halide perovskite solar cells. iScience. 23, 101359 edge of strength and dislocation mobility in wide band-gap semi- (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. isci. 2020. 101359 conductors. Phys. B Condens. Matter. 404, 4999–5001 (2009). 88. Li, X., Yang, J., Jiang, Q., Chu, W., Zhang, D., Zhou, Z., Ren, https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. physb. 2009. 08. 196 Y., Xin, J.: Enhanced photovoltaic performance and stability in 102. Queisser, H.J., Haller, E.E.: Defects in semiconductors: Some mixed-cation perovskite solar cells via compositional modula- fatal, some vital. Science 281, 945–950 (1998) tion. Electrochim. Acta. 247, 460–467 (2017). https://doi. or g/ 103. Chen, Y., Zhou, H.: Defects chemistry in high-efficiency and 10. 1016/j. elect acta. 2017. 07. 040 stable perovskite solar cells. J. Appl. Phys. 128, 1 (2020). https:// 89. Albero, J., Asiri, A.M., García, H.: Influence of the composi-doi. org/ 10. 1063/5. 00123 84 tion of hybrid perovskites on their performance in solar cells. 104. Montoya, D.M., Pérez-Gutiérrez, E., Barbosa-Garcia, O., Bernal, J. Mater. Chem. A. 4, 4353–4364 (2016). https:// doi. org/ 10. W., Maldonado, J.L., Percino, M.J., Meneses, M.A., Cerón, M.: 1039/ c6ta0 0334f Defects at the interface electron transport layer and alternative 90. Kim, M., Kim, G.H., Lee, T.K., Choi, I.W., Choi, H.W., Jo, counter electrode, their impact on perovskite solar cells perfor- Y., Yoon, Y.J., Kim, J.W., Lee, J., Huh, D., Lee, H., Kwak, mance. Sol. Energy. 195, 610–617 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. S.K., Kim, J.Y., Kim, D.S.: Methylammonium chloride induces 1016/j. solen er. 2019. 11. 098 intermediate phase stabilization for efficient perovskite solar 105. Agiorgousis, M.L., Sun, Y.Y., Zeng, H., Zhang, S.: Strong cova- cells. Joule. 3, 2179–2192 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. lency-induced recombination centers in perovskite solar cell joule. 2019. 06. 014material CH NH PbI . J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 14570–14575 3 3 3 91. Lee, K., Cho, K.H., Ryu, J., Yun, J., Yu, H., Lee, J., Na, W., (2014). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ ja507 9305 Jang, J.: Low-cost and efficient perovskite solar cells using 106. Aidarkhanov, D., Ren, Z., Lim, C.K., Yelzhanova, Z., Nigmetova, a surfactant-modified polyaniline:poly(styrenesulfonate) hole G., Taltanova, G., Baptayev, B., Liu, F., Cheung, S.H., Balanay, transport material. Electrochim. Acta. 224, 600–607 (2017). M., Baumuratov, A., Djurišić, A.B., So, S.K., Surya, C., Prasad, https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. elect acta. 2016. 12. 103 P.N., Ng, A.: Passivation engineering for hysteresis-free mixed 92. Chang, C.Y., Chang, Y.C., Huang, W.K., Lee, K.T., Cho, A.C., perovskite solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 215, 110648 Hsu, C.C.: Enhanced performance and stability of semitrans- (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. solmat. 2020. 110648 parent perovskite solar cells using solution-processed thiol- 107. Chen, B., Yang, M., Priya, S., Zhu, K.: Origin of J-V hysteresis functionalized cationic surfactant as cathode buffer layer. in perovskite solar cells. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 905–917 (2016). Chem. Mater. 27, 7119–7127 (2015). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ acs. jpcle tt. 6b002 15 acs. chemm ater. 5b031 37 108. Yuan, Y., Bi, C., Xiao, Z., Huang, J., Shao, Y., Xiao, Z., Bi, 93. Hong, J., Kim, H., Hwang, I.: Defect site engineering for C., Yuan, Y., Huang, J.: Origin and elimination of photocurrent charge recombination and stability via polymer surfactant hysteresis by fullerene passivation in CH NH PbI . planar het- 3 3 3 incorporation with an ultra-small amount in perovskite solar erojunction solar cells. Nat Commun. 5, 1–7 (2014). https:// doi. cells. Org. Electron. 73, 87–93 (2019). https:// doi. or g/ 10. org/ 10. 1038/ ncomm s6784 1016/j. orgel. 2019. 06. 003 109. Song, T.-B., Zhou, H., Chen, C.-C., Yang, Y.: Under the spot- 94. Gao, F., Zhao, Y., Zhang, X., You, J.: Recent progresses on light: The organic–inorganic hybrid halide perovskite for opto- defect passivation toward efficient perovskite solar cells. Adv. electronic applications. Nano Today 10, 355–396 (2015). https:// Energy Mater. 10, 1902650 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1002/ doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. nantod. 2015. 04. 009 aenm. 20190 2650 110. Yang, J., Siempelkamp, B.D., Liu, D., Kelly, T.L.: Investigation 95. Liao, K., Li, C., Xie, L., Yuan, Y., Wang, S., Cao, Z., Ding, of CH3NH3PbI3 degradation rates and mechanisms in controlled L., Hao, F.: Hot-casting large-grain perovskite film for effi- humidity environments using in situ techniques. ACS Nano 9, cient solar cells: Film formation and device performance. 1955–1963 (2015). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ nn506 864k Nano-Micro Lett. 12, 156 (2020). h t t p s : / / d o i . o r g / 1 0 . 1 0 0 7 / 111. Huang, W., Manser, J.S., Kamat, P.V., Ptasinska, S.: Evolution of s40820- 020- 00494-2 chemical composition, morphology, and photovoltaic efficiency 96. Guo, F., Li, X., Jiang, X., Zhao, X., Guo, C., Rao, Z.: Charac-of CH NH PbI . perovskite under ambient conditions. Chem. 3 3 3 teristics and toxic dye adsorption of magnetic activated carbon Mater. 28, 303–311 (2016). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ acs. chemm prepared from biomass waste by modified one-step synthesis. ater. 5b041 22 Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 1, 3–46 (2018). https:// 112. Arias-Ramos, C.F., Kumar, Y., Abrego-Martínez, P.G., Hu, doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. colsu rfa. 2018. 06. 061 H.: Efficient and stable hybrid perovskite prepared at 60% 97. Chen, B., Rudd, P.N., Yang, S., Yuan, Y., Huang, J.: Imperfec- relative humidity with a hydrophobic additive in anti-solvent. tions and their passivation in halide perovskite solar cells. Chem. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 215, 1 (2020). https:// doi. org/ Soc. Rev. 48, 3842–3867 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c8cs0 10. 1016/j. solmat. 2020. 110625 0853a 113. Liu, P., Liu, Z., Qin, C., He, T., Li, B., Ma, L., Shaheen, K., 98. Lee, M.S., Sarwar, S., Park, S., Asmat, U., Thuy, D.T., Han, Yang, J., Yang, H., Liu, H., Liu, K., Yuan, M.: High-perfor- C.H., Ahn, S.J., Jeong, I., Hong, S.: Efficient defect passivation mance perovskite solar cells based on passivating interfacial of perovskite solar cells: via stitching of an organic bidentate and intergranular defects. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 212, molecule. Sustain. Energy Fuels. 4, 3318–3325 (2020). https:// 110555 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. solmat. 2020. 110555 doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c9se0 1041f 114. Wang, Z., Fan, P., Zhang, D., Yang, G., Yu, J.: Enhanced effi- 99. Guo, P., Ye, Q., Yang, X., Zhang, J., Xu, F., Shchukin, D., Wei, ciency and stability of p-i-n perovskite solar cells using PMMA B., Wang, H.: Surface & grain boundary co-passivation by 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 67 doped PTAA as hole transport layers. Synth. Met. 265, 116428 129. Li, J., Wu, M., Yang, G., Zhang, D., Wang, Z., Zheng, D., Yu, J.: (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. synth met. 2020. 116428 Bottom-up passivation effects by using 3D/2D mix structure for 115. Li, G., Wu, J., Song, J., Meng, C., Song, Z., Wang, X., Liu, high performance p-i-n perovskite solar cells. Sol. Energy. 205, X., Yang, Y., Wang, D., Lan, Z.: Excellent quinoline additive 44–50 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. solen er. 2020. 05. 042 in perovskite toward to efficient and stable perovskite solar 130. Yao, D., Mao, X., Wang, X., Yang, Y., Hoang, M.T., Du, A., cells. J. Power Sources. 481, 228857 (2021). https:// doi. org/ Waclawik, E.R., Wilson, G.J., Wang, H.: The effect of ethylene- 10. 1016/j. jpows our. 2020. 228857 amine ligands enhancing performance and stability of perovskite 116. Wang, S., Li, H., Zhang, B., Guo, Z.: Perovskite solar cells solar cells. J. Power Sources. 463, 228210 (2020). https://doi. or g/ based on the synergy between carbon electrodes and polyeth-10. 1016/j. jpows our. 2020. 228210 ylene glycol additive with excellent stability. Org. Electron. 83, 131. Du, Y., Wu, J., Zhang, X., Zhu, Q., Zhang, M., Liu, X., Zou, Y., 734 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. orgel. 2020. 105734 Wang, S., Sun, W.: Surface passivation using pyridinium iodide 117. Lin, Y.H., Sakai, N., Da, P., Wu, J., Sansom, H.C., Ramadan, for highly ec ffi ient planar perovskite solar cells. J. Energy Chem. A.J., Mahesh, S., Liu, J., Oliver, R.D.J., Lim, J., Aspitarte, L., 52, 84–91 (2021). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. jec hem.2020. 04. 049 Sharma, K., Madhu, P.K., Morales-Vilches, A.B., Nayak, P.K., 132. Si, H., Xu, C., Ou, Y., Zhang, G., Fan, W., Xiong, Z., Kausar, A., Bai, S., Gao, F., Grovenor, C.R.M., Johnston, M.B., Labram, Liao, Q., Zhang, Z., Sattar, A., Kang, Z., Zhang, Y.: Dual-pas- J.G., Durrant, J.R., Ball, J.M., Wenger, B., Stannowski, B., sivation of ionic defects for highly crystalline perovskite. Nano Snaith, H.J.: A piperidinium salt stabilizes efficient metal-hal- Energy 68, 104320 (2020). https:// doi. or g/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. ide perovskite solar cells. Science (80-. ). 369, 96–102 (2020). 2019. 104320 https:// doi. org/ 10. 1126/ scien ce. aba16 28 133. Wali, Q., Iftikhar, F.J., Khan, M.E., Ullah, A., Iqbal, Y., Jose, R.: 118. Jin, S., Wei, Y., Rong, B., Fang, Y., Zhao, Y., Guo, Q., Huang, Advances in stability of perovskite solar cells. Org. Electron. 78, Y., Fan, L., Wu, J.: Improving perovskite solar cells photovol- 105590 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. orgel. 2019. 105590 taic performance using tetrabutylammonium salt as additive. J. 134. Mesquita, I., Andrade, L., Mendes, A.: Perovskite solar cells: Power Sources. 450, 227623 (2020). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. materials, configurations and stability. Renew. Sustain. Energy jpows our. 2019. 227623 Rev. 82, 2471–2489 (2018). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. rser. 2017. 119. Parveen, S., Obaidulla, S.M., Giri, P.K.: Growth kinetics of 09. 011 hybrid perovskite thin films on different substrates at elevated 135. Jeng, J.Y., Chiang, Y.F., Lee, M.H., Peng, S.R., Guo, T.F., Chen, temperature and its direct correlation with the microstructure P., Wen, T.C.: CH NH PbI . perovskite/fullerene planar-hetero- 3 3 3 and optical properties. Appl. Surf. Sci. 530, 147224 (2020). junction hybrid solar cells. Adv. Mater. 25, 3727–3732 (2013). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. apsusc. 2020. 147224https:// doi. org/ 10. 1002/ adma. 20130 1327 120. Nancollas, G.H., Purdie, N.: The kinetics of crystal growth. 136. Chowdhury, T.H., Kaneko, R., Kayesh, M.E., Akhtaruzzaman, Q. Rev. Chem. Soc. 18, 1–20 (1964). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ M., Sopian, K. Bin, Lee, J.J., Islam, A.: Nanostructured NiOxas qr964 18000 01 hole transport material for low temperature processed stable per- 121. Large-area perovskite solar cells: Yang, J., Zuo, C., Peng, Y., ovskite solar cells. Mater. Lett. 223, 109–111 (2018). https://doi. (Michael) Yang, Y., Yang, X., Ding, L. Sci. Bull. 65, 872–875 org/ 10. 1016/j. matlet. 2018. 04. 040 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. scib. 2020. 02. 023 137. Sun, J., Lu, J., Li, B., Jiang, L., Chesman, A.S.R., Scully, 122. Meng, L., You, J., Yang, Y.: Addressing the stability issue A.D., Gengenbach, T.R., Cheng, Y.B., Jasieniak, J.J.: Inverted of perovskite solar cells for commercial applications. perovskite solar cells with high fill-factors featuring chemical Nat. Commun. 9, 5265 (2018). https:// doi. or g/ 10. 1038/ bath deposited mesoporous NiO hole transporting layers. Nano s41467- 018- 07255-1 Energy 49, 163–171 (2018). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. 123. Mali, S.S., Patil, J.V., Arandiyan, H., Luque, R., Hong, C.K.: 2018. 04. 026 Stability of unstable perovskites: recent strategies for making 138. Luo, C., Li, G., Chen, L., Dong, J., Yu, M., Xu, C., Yao, Y., stable perovskite solar cells. ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 8, Wang, M., Song, Q., Zhang, S.: Passivation of defects in inverted Q111–Q117 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1149/2. 02019 06jss perovskite solar cells using an imidazolium-based ionic liquid. 124. Zimmermann, I., Mosconi, E., Lee, X., Martineau, D., Narbey, Sustain. Energy Fuels. 4, 3971–3978 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. S., Oswald, F., Grancini, G., Rolda, C.: One-year stable perovs-1039/ d0se0 0528b kite solar cells by 2D/3D interface engineering. Nat. Commun. 139. Huang, D., Goh, T., Kong, J., Zheng, Y., Zhao, S., Xu, Z., Taylor, 8, 15684 (2017). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1038/ ncomm s15684 A.D.: Perovskite solar cells with a DMSO-treated PEDOT:PSS 125. Shao, Y., Fang, Y., Huang, J., Cao, L., Mulligan, P., Dong, Q., hole transport layer exhibit higher photovoltaic performance and Qiu, J.: Electron-hole diffusion lengths > 175 μm in solution- enhanced durability. Nanoscale 9, 4236–4243 (2017). https://doi. grown CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 single crystals. Science (80-). 347, org/ 10. 1039/ c6nr0 8375g 967–970 (2015). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1126/ scien ce. aaa57 60 140. Kaltenbrunner, M., Adam, G., Głowacki, E.D., Drack, M., 126. Yan, X., Hu, S., Zhang, Y., Li, H., Sheng, C.: Methylammonium Schwödiauer, R., Leonat, L., Apaydin, D.H., Groiss, H., Schar- acetate as an additive to improve performance and eliminate J-V ber, M.C., White, M.S., Sariciftci, N.S., Bauer, S.: Flexible high hysteresis in 2D homologous organic-inorganic perovskite solar power-per-weight perovskite solar cells with chromium oxide- cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 191, 283–289 (2019). https:// metal contacts for improved stability in air. Nat. Mater. 14, doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. solmat. 2018. 11. 030 1032–1039 (2015). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1038/ nmat4 388 127. Zheng, H., Liu, D., Wang, Y., Yang, Y., Li, H., Zhang, T., 141. Zhou, X., Hu, M., Liu, C., Zhang, L., Zhong, X., Li, X., Tian, Y., Chen, H., Ji, L., Chen, Z., Li, S.: Synergistic effect of additives Cheng, C., Xu, B.: Synergistic effects of multiple functional ionic on 2D perovskite film towards efficient and stable solar cell. liquid-treated PEDOT:PSS and less-ion-defects S-acetylthiocho- Chem. Eng. J. 389, 124266 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. line chloride-passivated perovskite surface enabling stable and cej. 2020. 124266 hysteresis-free inverted perovskite solar cells with conversion 128. Chen, M., Li, P., Liang, C., Gu, H., Tong, W., Cheng, S., Li, efficiency over 2. Nano Energy 63, 103866 (2019). https:// doi. W., Zhao, G., Shao, G.: Enhanced efficiency and stability of org/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. 2019. 103866 perovskite solar cells by 2D perovskite vapor-assisted interface 142. Zheng, X., Hou, Y., Bao, C., Yin, J., Yuan, F., Huang, Z., Song, optimization. J. Energy Chem. 45, 103–109 (2020). https:// doi. K., Liu, J., Troughton, J., Gasparini, N., Zhou, C., Lin, Y., Xue, org/ 10. 1016/j. jechem. 2019. 10. 006 D.J., Chen, B., Johnston, A.K., Wei, N., Hedhili, M.N., Wei, 1 3 68 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 M., Alsalloum, A.Y., Maity, P., Turedi, B., Yang, C., Baran, D., induced large-grained perovskite with reduced defect density for Anthopoulos, T.D., Han, Y., Lu, Z.H., Mohammed, O.F., Gao, high performance inverted solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. F., Sargent, E.H., Bakr, O.M.: Managing grains and interfaces via Cells. 212, 110553 (2020). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. solmat. 2020. ligand anchoring enables 22.3%-efficiency inverted perovskite 110553 solar cells. Nat. Energy. 5, 131–140 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 156. Sonmezoglu, S., Akin, S.: Suppression of the interface-dependent 1038/ s41560- 019- 0538-4 nonradiative recombination by using 2-methylbenzimidazole as 143. Choi, M.J., Lee, Y.S., Cho, I.H., Kim, S.S., Kim, D.H., Kwon, interlayer for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells. S.N., Na, S.I.: Functional additives for high-performance inverted Nano Energy 76, 105127 (2020). https:// doi. or g/ 10. 1016/j. planar perovskite solar cells with exceeding 20% efficiency: nanoen. 2020. 105127 selective complexation of organic cations in precursors. Nano 157. Zhang, Y., Grancini, G., Fei, Z., Shirzadi, E., Liu, X., Oveisi, E., Energy 71, 104639 (2020). https:// doi. or g/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. Tirani, F.F., Scopelliti, R., Feng, Y., Nazeeruddin, M.K., Dyson, 2020. 104639 P.J.: Auto-passivation of crystal defects in hybrid imidazolium/ 144. Su, L., Xiao, Y., Han, G., Lu, L., Li, H., Zhu, M.: Performance methylammonium lead iodide films by fumigation with methyl- enhancement of perovskite solar cells using trimesic acid addi- amine affords high efficiency perovskite solar cells. Nano Energy tive in the two-step solution method. J. Power Sources. 426, 58, 105–111 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. 2019. 01. 11–15 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jpows our. 2019. 04. 024 027 145. Yao, Z., Qu, D., Guo, Y., Huang, H.: Grain boundary regulation 158. Li, W., Lai, X., Meng, F., Li, G., Wang, K., Kyaw, A.K.K., Sun, of flexible perovskite solar cells via a polymer alloy additive. X.W.: Efficient defect-passivation and charge-transfer with Org. Electron. 70, 205–210 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. interfacial organophosphorus ligand modification for enhanced orgel. 2019. 04. 029 performance of perovskite solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. 146. Ma, S., Liu, X., Wu, Y., Tao, Y., Ding, Y., Cai, M., Dai, S., Liu, Cells. 211, 110527 (2020). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. solmat. 2020. X., Alsaedi, A., Hayat, T.: Efficient and flexible solar cells with 110527 improved stability through incorporation of a multifunctional 159. Wu, Z., Zhang, M., Liu, Y., Dou, Y., Kong, Y., Gao, L., Han, small molecule at PEDOT:PSS/perovskite interface. Sol. Energy W., Liang, G., Zhang, X.L., Huang, F., Cheng, Y.B., Zhong, J.: Mater. Sol. Cells. 208, 110379 (2020). https://d oi.o rg/1 0.1 016/j. Groups-dependent phosphines as the organic redox for point solmat. 2019. 110379 defects elimination in hybrid perovskite solar cells. J. Energy 147. Zhu, K., Cong, S., Lu, Z., Lou, Y., He, L., Li, J., Ding, J., Yuang, Chem. 54, 23–29 (2020). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. jec hem.2020. N., Rümmeli, M.H., Zou, G.: Enhanced perovskite solar cell per-05. 047 formance via defect passivation with ethylamine alcohol chlo- 160. He, Q., Worku, M., Xu, L., Zhou, C., Lteif, S., Schlenoff, J.B., rides additive. J. Power Sources. 428, 82–87 (2019). https:// doi. Ma, B.: Surface passivation of perovskite thin films by phospho- org/ 10. 1016/j. jpows our. 2019. 04. 056 nium halides for efficient and stable solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. 148. Wang, R., Xue, J., Meng, L., Lee, J.W., Zhao, Z., Sun, P., Cai, A. 8, 2039–2046 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c9ta1 2597c L., Huang, T., Wang, Z., Wang, Z.K., Duan, Y., Yang, J.L., Tan, 161. Yang, J., Liu, C., Cai, C., Hu, X., Huang, Z., Duan, X., Meng, X., S., Yuan, Y., Huang, Y., Yang, Y.: Caffeine improves the perfor - Yuan, Z., Tan, L., Chen, Y.: High-performance perovskite solar mance and thermal stability of perovskite solar cells. Joule. 3, cells with excellent humidity and thermo-stability via fluorinated 1464–1477 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. joule. 2019. 04. 005 perylenediimide. Adv. Energy Mater. 9, 1900198 (2019). https:// 149. Xiong, S., Hao, T., Sun, Y., Yang, J., Ma, R., Wang, J., Gong, S., doi. org/ 10. 1002/ aenm. 20190 0198 Liu, X., Ding, L., Fahlman, M., Bao, Q.: Defect passivation by 162. Maaej, A., Bahri, M., Abid, Y., Jaidane, N., Lakhdar, Z.B., Lau- nontoxic biomaterial yields 21% efficiency perovskite solar cells. tié, A.: Raman study of low temperature phase transitions in the J. Energy Chem. 55, 265–271 (2021). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. cubic perovskite CH NH PbCl . Phase Transitions 64, 179–190 3 3 3 jechem. 2020. 06. 061 (1998). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1080/ 01411 59980 82079 97 150. Zhang, X., Wu, J., Du, Y., Li, Z., Chen, Q., Zhang, Z., Rong, 163. Luo, D., Yu, L., Wang, H., Zou, T., Luo, L., Liu, Z., Lu, Z.: Cubic B., Wang, D., Li, G., Sun, W.: Interfacial defect passivation by structure of the mixed halide perovskite CH NH PbI Cl via 3 3 3-x x chenodeoxycholic acid for efficient and stable perovskite solar thermal annealing. RSC Adv. 5, 85480–85485 (2015). https:// cells. J. Power Sources. 472, 228502 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c5ra1 6516d 1016/j. jpows our. 2020. 228502 164. Wu, S., Zhang, J., Li, Z., Liu, D., Qin, M., Cheung, S.H., Lu, X., 151. Xin, D., Tie, S., Zheng, X., Zhu, J., Zhang, W.H.: Defect passiva- Lei, D., So, S.K., Zhu, Z., Jen, A.K.Y.: Modulation of defects tion through electrostatic interaction for high performance flex- and interfaces through alkylammonium interlayer for efficient ible perovskite solar cells. J. Energy Chem. 46, 173–177 (2020). inverted perovskite solar cells. Joule. 4, 1248–1262 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jechem. 2019. 11. 015https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. joule. 2020. 04. 001 152. Umeyama, T., Imahori, H.: A chemical approach to perovskite 165. Cahen, D., Hodes, G., Rosenwaks, Y., Gartsman, K., Mukhopad- solar cells: control of electron-transporting mesoporous TiO2 hyay, S., Henning, A., Kirmayer, S., Edri, E.: Why lead meth- and utilization of nanocarbon materials. Dalt. Trans. 1, 15615– ylammonium tri-iodide perovskite-based solar cells require a 15627 (2017). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ C7DT0 2421E mesoporous electron transporting scaffold (but not necessarily a 153. Xie, J., Zhou, Z., Qiao, H., Chen, M., Wang, L., Yang, S., Hou, hole conductor). Nano Lett. 14, 1000–1004 (2014) Y., Yang, H.: Modulating MAPbI3 perovskite solar cells by 166. Batch, U., Lupo, D.: Solid-state dye-sensitized mesoporous TiO amide molecules: crystallographic regulation and surface pas- solar cells with high photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies. sivation. J. Energy Chem. 56, 179–185 (2021). https:// doi. org/ Nature 395, 583–585 (1998). https:// doi. or g/ 10. 1002/ 97804 10. 1016/j. jechem. 2020. 07. 05070638 859. conrr 518 154. Nishihara, Y., Onozawa-Komatsuzaki, N., Zou, X., Marumoto, 167. Jiang, H., Jiang, G., Xing, W., Xiong, W., Zhang, X., Wang, K., Chikamatsu, M., Yoshida, Y.: Effect of passivation on the B., Zhang, H., Zheng, Y.: High current density and low hys- interface between perovskite and donor–acceptor copolymer- teresis effect of planar perovskite solar cells via PCBM-doping based hole-transport Layer in perovskite solar cells. Chem. Lett. and interfacial improvement. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 10, 49, 1341–1344 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1246/ cl. 200497 29954–29964 (2018). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ acsami. 8b060 20 155. Wang, Y., Yang, Y., Han, D.W., Yang, Q.F., Yuan, Q., Li, H.Y., 168. Hailegnaw, B., Adam, G., Heilbrunner, H., Apaydin, D.H., Yang, Y., Zhou, D.Y., Feng, L.: Amphoteric imidazole doping Ulbricht, C., Sariciftci, N.S., Scharber, M.C.: Inverted (p-i-n) 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 69 perovskite solar cells using a low temperature processed TiOx 182. Li, H., Li, D., Zhao, W., Yuan, S., Liu, Z., Wang, D., Liu, S.: interlayer. RSC Adv. 8, 24836–24846 (2018). https://doi. or g/10. NaCl-assisted defect passivation in the bulk and surface of TiO 1039/ c8ra0 3993c enhancing efficiency and stability of planar perovskite solar cells. 169. Zhang, L., Wu, B., Lin, S., Li, J.: Structures and properties of J. Power Sources. 448, 227586 (2020). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. higher-degree aggregates of methylammonium iodide toward hal-jpows our. 2019. 227586 ide perovskite solar cells. Russ. J. Phys. Chem. A. 93, 2250–2255 183. Sun, H., Xie, D., Song, Z., Liang, C., Xu, L., Qu, X., Yao, Y., (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1134/ S0036 02441 91103 60 Li, D., Zhai, H., Zheng, K., Cui, C., Zhao, Y.: Interface defects 170. Li, M., Li, N., Hu, W., Chen, G., Sasaki, S.I., Sakai, K., Ikeuchi, passivation and conductivity improvement in planar perovskite T., Miyasaka, T., Tamiaki, H., Wang, X.F.: Effects of cyclic solar cells using Na S-doped compact TiO electron transport 2 2 tetrapyrrole rings of aggregate-forming chlorophyll derivatives layers. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 12, 22853–22861 (2020). as hole-transporting materials on performance of perovskite solar https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ acsami. 0c031 80 cells. ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 1, 9–16 (2018). https:// doi. org/ 184. Wang, T., Xie, M., Abbasi, S., Cheng, Z., Liu, H., Shen, W.: High 10. 1021/ acsaem. 7b000 18 efficiency perovskite solar cells with tailorable surface wettabil- 171. Ye, T., Jin, S., Singh, R., Kumar, M., Chen, W., Wang, D., Zhang, ity by surfactant. J. Power Sources. 448, 227584 (2020). https:// X., Li, W., He, D.: Effects of solvent additives on the morphol-doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jpows our. 2019. 227584 ogy and transport property of a perylene diimide dimer film in 185. Huang, S.H., Tian, K.Y., Huang, H.C., Li, C.F., Chu, W.C., Lee, perovskite solar cells for improved performance. Sol. Energy. K.M., Lee, K.M., Huang, Y.C., Su, W.F.: Controlling the mor- 201, 927–934 (2020). https://doi. or g/10. 101 6/j.solen er .2020 .03. phology and interface of the perovskite layer for scalable high- 062 efficiency solar cells fabricated using green solvents and blade 172. Pham, N.D., Shang, J., Yang, Y., Hoang, M.T., Tiong, V.T., coating in an ambient environment. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. Wang, X., Fan, L., Chen, P., Kou, L., Wang, L., Wang, H.: Alka- 12, 26041–26049 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ acsami. 0c062 line-earth bis(trifluoromethanesulfonimide) additives for effi - 11 cient and stable perovskite solar cells. Nano Energy 69, 104412 186. Meng, L., Wei, Q., Yang, Z., Yang, D., Feng, J., Ren, X., Liu, (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. 2019. 104412 Y., Liu, S.: (Frank): Improved perovskite solar cell efficiency by 173. Li, Z., Wu, J., Liu, X., Zhu, Q., Yang, Y., Dou, Y., Du, Y., Zhang, tuning the colloidal size and free ion concentration in precursor X., Chen, Q., Sun, W., Lin, J.Y.: Highly efficient and stable per - solution using formic acid additive. J. Energy Chem. 41, 43–51 ovskite solar cells using thionyl chloride as a p-type dopant for (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jechem. 2019. 04. 019 spiro-OMeTAD. J. Alloys Compd. 847, 156500 (2020). https:// 187. Koo, D., Cho, Y., Kim, U., Jeong, G., Lee, J., Seo, J., Yang, C., doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jallc om. 2020. 156500 Park, H.: High-performance inverted perovskite solar cells with 174. Hu, L., Li, S., Zhang, L., Liu, Y., Zhang, C., Wu, Y., Sun, Q., operational stability via n-type small molecule additive-assisted Cui, Y., Zhu, F., Hao, Y., Wu, Y.C.: Unravelling the role of C60 defect passivation. Adv. Energy Mater. 2001920 (2020). https:// derivatives as additives into active layer for achieving high-effi-doi. org/ 10. 1002/ aenm. 20200 1920 ciency planar perovskite solar cells. Carbon N. Y. 167, 160–168 188. Garai, R., Afroz, M.A., Gupta, R.K., Iyer, P.K.: Efficient trap (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. carbon. 2020. 05. 079 passivation of MAPbI3 via multifunctional anchoring for high- 175. Wang, H., Zhang, F., Li, Z., Zhang, J., Lian, J., Song, J., Qu, J., performance and stable perovskite solar cells. Adv. Sustain. Syst. Wong, W.Y.: Naphthalene imide dimer as interface engineering 4, 2000078 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1002/ adsu. 20200 0078 material: an efficient strategy for achieving high-performance 189. Guan, L., Zheng, Z., Guo, Y.: Enhanced hole transport in benzoic perovskite solar cells. Chem. Eng. J. 395, 125062 (2020). https:// acid doped spiro-OMeTAD composite layer with intergrowing doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. cej. 2020. 125062 benzoate phase for perovskite solar cells. J. Alloys Compd. 832, 176. Chen, W., Shi, Y., Wang, Y., Feng, X., Djurišić, A.B., Woo, H.Y., 154991 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jallc om. 2020. 154991 Guo, X., He, Z.: N-type conjugated polymer as efficient electron 190. Chen, J., Kim, S.G., Ren, X., Jung, H.S., Park, N.G.: Effect of transport layer for planar inverted perovskite solar cells with bidentate and tridentate additives on the photovoltaic perfor- power conversion efficiency of 2086%. Nano Energy 68, 4363 mance and stability of perovskite solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. A. (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. 2019. 104363 7, 4977–4987 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c8ta1 1977e 177. Lee, S., Lee, J., Park, H., Choi, J., Baac, H.W., Park, S., Park, 191. Han, T.H., Lee, J.W., Choi, C., Tan, S., Lee, C., Zhao, Y., Dai, H.J.: Defect-passivating organic/inorganic bicomponent hole- Z., De Marco, N., Lee, S.J., Bae, S.H., Yuan, Y., Lee, H.M., transport layer for high efficiency metal-halide perovskite device. Huang, Y., Yang, Y.: Perovskite-polymer composite cross- ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 12, 40310–40317 (2020). https:// linker approach for highly-stable and efficient perovskite solar doi. org/ 10. 1021/ acsami. 0c097 84 cells. Nat. Commun. 10, 1–10 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1038/ 178. Lee, J., Kim, G.W., Kim, M., Park, S.A., Park, T.: Nonaromatic s41467- 019- 08455-z green-solvent-processable, dopant-free, and lead-capturable hole 192. Ma, Y., Cheng, Y., Xu, X., Li, M., Zhang, C., Cheung, S.H., transport polymers in perovskite solar cells with high efficiency. Zeng, Z., Shen, D., Xie, Y.M., Chiu, K.L., Lin, F., So, S.K., Adv. Energy Mater. 10, 1902662 (2020). https://d oi.o rg/1 0.1 002/ Lee, C.S., Tsang, S.W.: Suppressing ion migration across perovs- aenm. 20190 2662 kite grain boundaries by polymer additives. Adv. Funct. Mater. 179. Wali, Q., Iqbal, Y., Pal, B., Lowe, A., Jose, R.: Tin oxide as an 2006802 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1002/ adfm. 20200 6802 emerging electron transport medium in perovskite solar cells. 193. Bai, S., Da, P., Li, C., Wang, Z., Yuan, Z., Fu, F., Kawecki, M., Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 179, 102–117 (2018). https:// doi. Liu, X., Sakai, N., Wang, J.T.W., Huettner, S., Buecheler, S., org/ 10. 1016/j. solmat. 2018. 02. 007 Fahlman, M., Gao, F., Snaith, H.J.: Planar perovskite solar cells 180. Gra, C., Zakeeruddin, S.M.: Recent trends in mesoscopic solar with long-term stability using ionic liquid additives. Nature 571, cells based on molecular and nanopigment light harvesters. 245–250 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1038/ s41586- 019- 1357-2 Mater. Today. 16, 11–18 (2013) 194. Mohammed, M.K.A.: 21.4% efficiency of perovskite solar cells 181. Zhang, F., Ma, W., Guo, H., Zhao, Y., Shan, X., Jin, K., Tian, H., using BMImI additive in the lead iodide precursor based on Zhao, Q., Yu, D., Lu, X., Lu, G., Meng, S.: Interfacial oxygen carbon nanotubes/ T iO electron transfer layer. Ceram. Int. 46, vacancies as a potential cause of hysteresis in perovskite solar 27647–27654 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. ceram int. 2020. cells. Chem. Mater. 28, 802–812 (2016). https://doi. or g/10. 1021/ 07. 260 acs. chemm ater. 5b040 19 1 3 70 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 195. Zhang, B., Fu, W., Meng, X., Runa, A., Su, P., Yang, Spiro-OMeTAD layer for highly efficient and stable perovskite H.: Improved crystallization of perovskite films using solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. A. 7, 3655–3663 (2019). https://doi. PbTiO -decorated mesoporous scaffold layers for high stable org/ 10. 1039/ c8ta1 1800k carbon-counter-electrode solar cells. Org. Electron. 69, 164–173 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. orgel. 2019. 03. 022 Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to 196. Jiang, L.L., Wang, Z.K., Li, M., Li, C.H., Fang, P.F., Liao, L.S.: jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Flower-like MoS 2 nanocrystals: A powerful sorbent of Li in the 1 3 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy Springer Journals

Role of additives and surface passivation on the performance of perovskite solar cells

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer-journals/role-of-additives-and-surface-passivation-on-the-performance-of-QvO4sLNv0G
Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s) 2021
ISSN
2194-1459
eISSN
2194-1467
DOI
10.1007/s40243-021-00206-9
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Outstanding improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) over 25% in a very short period and promising research developments to reach the theoretical PCE limit of single junction solar cells, 33%, enables organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells (OIPSCs) to gain much attention in the scientific and industrial community. The simplicity of production of OIP - SCs from precursor solution either on rigid or flexible substrates makes them even more attractive for low-cost roll-to-roll production processes. Though OIPSCs show as such higher PCE with simple solution processing methods, there are still unresolved issues, while attempts are made to commercialize these solar cells. Among the major problems is the instability of the photoactive layer of OIPSCs at the interface of the charge transport layers and /or electrodes during prolonged exposure to moisture, heat and radiation. To achieve matched PCE and stability, several techniques such as molecular and interfacial engineering of components in OIPSCs have been applied. Moreover, in recent times, engineering on additives, solvents, surface passivation, and structural tuning have been developed to reduce defects and large grain boundaries from the surface and/or interface of organic–inorganic perovskite films. Under this review, we have shown recently developed additives and passivation strategies, which are strongly focused to enhance PCE and long-term stability simultaneously. Keywords Organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells · Power conversion efficiency · Stability · Additives · Passivation Introduction selenide (CdSe), cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium disulfide (CIGS ), amorphous silicon, etc. [2–5]. In an era of photovoltaic technology, silicon is an efficient Even if their processing cost is low, they are not able to light absorber with relatively high-power conversion effi - compete with crystalline silicon in efficiency and stability. ciency and best stability [1]. But high processing cost to Additionally, they are criticized for toxic components and obtain pure silicon has been remained as a challenge since less abundance [6]. The second attempt was the develop- its usage for photovoltaic purpose. To solve such problems, a ment of the dye-sensitized, organic molecules and organic lot of works have been done. The first application of low-cost semiconducting polymers solar cells [7, 8]. Although they semiconductors for photovoltaic was made using cadmium are valued by their interesting properties like e fl xibility, light weight, colorful appearance and low cost, they lack to fulfill the main requirements for commercial application due to their low power conversion efficiency and stability [9 ]. The * Getachew Adam Workneh getachew.adam@aastu.edu.et highest record which is reported for the dye-sensitized solar cells is 14% after a long-time effort with less appreciated Department of Industrial Chemistry, Sustainable Energy stability. After the dawning of semiconducting polymer [10] Center of Excellence, College of Applied Science, Addis application of non-fullerene acceptors, the record PCE for Ababa Science and Technology University (AASTU), P.O. Box 16417, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia organic solar cells is increased to 18% with undefined stabil- ity [11]. Nowadays, low-cost organic–inorganic lead halide Division of Soft Matter Physics (SoMaP) and LIT Soft Materials Lab, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger perovskite materials which have been represented by general str. 69, 4040 Linz, Austria + + + 2+ formula, ABX , (A = CH NH , CH(NH ), Cs , B = Pb , 3 3 3 2 2 3 − − − Department of Chemistry, College of Natural X = Cl, Br, I ) are attracting the photovoltaic community and Computational Science, Addis Ababa University, due to its excellent optoelectronic properties such as high P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Vol.:(0123456789) 1 3 48 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 absorption coefficient [12], tunable band gaps [13], long with ligands. In this regard, addition of ligands or organic charge carrier diffusion length [14], low exciton binding salts into OIP solution has shown to improve the PCE and/ energy [15], ambipolar property and flexibility [16, 17]. or stability of the devices in the ambient air. This approach The unprecedented growth in PCE of organic–inorganic is mainly based on retarding the crystallization of PbX or perovskite solar cells (OIPSCs) from 3.9% in 2009 [12] to increasing the crystallization of OIP. Research results show 25.5% in 2020 [18] is another factor that motivates research- that uniform and smooth morphology of the OIP thin films ers and the industry. The rate of publications in the area is are obtained by incorporating some appropriate additives highly increased and over 13,200 publications have been [42–44]. Moreover, large grain size or small grain bounda- published since 2019 [19, 20]. Even though all evidences ries have been found to slow down deep-trap states, which have been supporting its unprecedented growth in the his- cause charge recombination on the surface of OIP thin films. tory of photovoltaic devices, instability towards chemical In this regard, formation of ionic or covalent or non-covalent and physical stresses are profoundly lagging their scalabil- bonds between ions or atoms in OIP and additives or pas- ity and commercialization. Thus, unparalleled growth of sivators is very important to suppress dissociation of OIP PCE and long-term stability has been lasting as an assign- films due to physical and chemical stresses [45]. ment for researchers in the area. Large grain boundaries, To improve both the PCE and long stability of OIPSCs, pinholes, residuals, and current density–voltage (J–V) hys- researchers are exhaustively working on several mechanisms teresis which are resulted from formation of deep and shal- to reduce high trap-density states in OIP polycrystalline thin low defects in addition to under-coordinated ions or atoms films. Compositional engineering, incorporation of addi- at the surface and/ or interfaces are well-thought-out for tives, interface and surface passivation of light absorber unmatched PCE and stability [21–24]. Octahedral tilting, layer, careful selection of charge transport layers, solvent 2− rotations and deformations of corner sharing PbI octa- engineering, and use of proper electrode layers get huge hedra are also suggested for lowering of the performance of attention to minimize barriers towards commercialization the OIPSCs [25–28]. Besides, the chemical, photochemical of OIPSCs [46–55]. Structural engineering of 3D or 2D con- and thermal instability, organic–inorganic perovskite (OIP) figurations is also investigated to get stable and reproducible thin films are sensitive to moisture, O , heat and UV light OIPSCs [56]. The role of deposition techniques on whole [29–34].These strengths that incomplete surface coverage performance is also studied as one of the mechanisms to of OIP films attributes the formation of non-uniform and fabricate stable OIP devices [57]. rough surface, which scrutinized as deep-trap-density states Recently, high-performance devices with significant centers at the grain boundaries (GBs) across the surface or stability were reported for large-area cells. Such findings interface of the OIP layer [35]. Defects formation across the inspire scholars in the area to look for different engineering interface of HOIP and hole transport layers is considered as strategies of additives, and surface passivation’s to cham- a major cause for instability. For example, high PCE devices pion OIPSCs in the future. Incorporation of additives into reported with Spiro-OMeTAD hole transport layer are facing the precursor solutions, and surface passivation of the film different challenges from instability in ambient air. Even if has been repeatedly done to inhibit degradation and form the active layer is good, oxidative doped Spiro-OMeTAD defect-free OIP polycrystalline thin films [58– 60]. In this layer induces leakage of air and moisture towards photoac- mini-review, we are attempting to introduce the efficacies tive layer [36, 37]. As a result, the overall performance of of additives and surface passivation on light absorber and the OIPSCs is abated because of recombination of charge charge transport layers. Additives are compounds which carriers at the surface and/ or across interfaces. The degrada- are added to precursors of photoactive film or charge trans- tion of HOIP in the presence of moisture has been analyzed porting layers in order to improve surface and/or interface and may result in the formation of PbX , HX, and X—where optoelectrical properties [61]. Passivation is the process of X = Cl, Br and I [38–40]. To support this, T.P. Gujar and deactivating (healing) the effect of under-coordinated ions, co-workers [41] studied the role of Pb I in C H NH PbI residual, defects at the grain boundaries and pin holes at the 2 3 3 3 perovskite stability, solar cell parameters and device deg- surface or interfaces. radation. XRD patterns show residual PbI formation on the surface of CH NH PbI films. The results prove that the 3 3 3 PbI peak intensity increases as annealing time increases, Photoactive layer additives and passivation while CH NH PbI peak intensity decreases. This indicates 3 3 3 residual PbI formation is favored during annealing which Photoactive layer additives lowers the quality of CH NH PbI film. Accordingly, the 3 3 3 non-radiative recombination can occur due to the defected Additives are species which are incorporated into targeted surface. To retard the crystallization of PbX , researchers are material to improve morphological properties for desirable 2+ working on the effect of chelation or coordination of Pb applications. In the history of the photovoltaics technology, 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 49 2+ additives have been applied to enhance the PCE and stability strong interactions with Pb . This proves that strong coor- of dye-sensitized, and organic solar cells [62–69]. Nowa- dination of NMP has resulted in the formation of a uniform days, this approach is extensively used for surface and/or and smooth surface of CsPbBr film. Consequently, greater interface treatment of defects of different layers of OIPSCs PCE and stability are reported for NMP under high relative [70, 71]. Its application has been driven from acid–base humidity. Solvent engineering to tune the adduct phase of 2+ adduct formation principle between Pb ions and lone mixed-cation perovskite precursor film was investigated by pair electrons of the nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur atoms of M. Wang and co-workers [77]. The XRD patterns (Fig. 1) additives. Hydrogen bonding between methyl ammonium before and after annealing demonstrate the appearance and or formamidinium and additives is also responsible for the disappearance of the adduct phase of mixed-cation precursor immobility of the ions in the structure of OIP [72]. film, respectively. It also validates that the quality of precur - sor film is improved when the volume of DMSO is increased Solvent additives due to the disappearance of unwanted δ-perovskite. Their work verified that exceeding DMF:DMSO vol- Nowadays, solvent engineering has been widely used in the ume ratio beyond 3:5 is decreasing the quality of film due area of OIP photovoltaic to control the crystallization and to excess DMSO interaction with PbI which results in grain growth during OIP film formation [73, 74]. On the residual PbI after removal of DMSO. These findings are other hand, the interaction of solvent with precursor solu- also supported by SEM images of their work (Fig. 2). They tion of OIP plays a crucial role in improving the crystal suggested that the formation of defect-free and large grain- growth of OIP thin film via retarding crystallization of pre- size crystals of mixed-cation perovskite films from Lewis cursors. The effect of weak and strong interaction of solvents 2+ with Pb in controlling crystallinity of the targeted OIP was studied [75]. Under this study, the coordinating abil- 2+ ity of the processing solvents with the P b center of the lead halide precursor is reported using Gutmann’s donat- ing number, D . As a consequence, the solvents which have high D are reported as best solvents, which are strongly 2+ interacting with Pb . In other words, strong interactions of 2+ Pb with solvent keep at the formation of precursor solution and decelerate the crystal growth rate, which is responsi- ble for formation of large-grained crystals of OIP film by decreasing immediate crystallization of lead halides. This indicates that the strength of acid–base interactions between solvent and precursor is very important in the selection of solvents to increase solubility of precursors. Based on this, interactions of two organic solvent molecules, acetonitrile (ACN) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) with PbBr to produce CsPbBr films are demonstrated by Y. Wu and co- Fig. 2 SEM images of perovskite films based on different DMF/ workers [76]. The ACN is reported as the solvent which DMSO volume ratios: a 3:1, b 3:3, c 3:5, d 3:7. Reproduced with per- has weak interactions and NMP as the solvent which has mission from [77], Copyright 2019 published by Elsevier Ltd Fig. 1 XRD patterns of perovs- kite films with different DMF/ DMSO volume ratios a before and b after annealing. Repro- duced with permission from [77], Copyright 2019 published by Elsevier Ltd 1 3 50 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 acid–base adduct by solvent engineering attributes for to reduce the formation of residual PbI on the surface of enhanced PCE and stability. OIP films. This is supported by results which are obtained Currently, OIPSCs technology calls for the fabrication of from XPS data, shift of peaks for Pb 4f, C = O, O 1 s. This ambient air-stable devices with optimum PCE to compete indicates the presence of interaction between the carbonyl 2+ with silicon solar cells using additives. It is well known that group and Pb ions. Accordingly, the results justify the 2+ 2+ OIPSCs with the highest PCEs are fabricated in the glove interaction of Pb with Pb sensitive functional groups has box to minimize the effect of moisture and O . Even though better potential to produce defect-free surfaces which facili- they have shown promising performance in the indoor envi- tate the charge carrier mobility with long diffusion length. ronment, their performance declines due to degradation of This effect not only improves the surface quality but also it photoactive or transport layers in the outdoor environment. advances the interface quality. Recently, researchers in the area are scrutinizing the achieve- Currently, this strategy is commonly deployed to form ment of improved PCE and stable OIPSCs in ambient air large grains which are expedient for charge carrier mobil- for commercialization [29, 52, 78, 79]. Different techniques ity on the surface of a light absorbing layer. For instance, have been attempted to fabricate efficient and stable OIP - C. Cui and his co-workers [84] mentioned that the device SCs in ambient air conditions. In very recent years, intro- performance is slow down due to small grains which are duction of additives into precursor solution of photoactive associated with abundant grain boundaries. They used the layers of OIPSCs is widely applied and helps to improve volatile Lewis base, thioacetamide (TAA) as an additive to the device performance in the ambient air. G. Wang et al. fabricate uniform films, smooth and high crystalline meth- [80] used N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as an active layer ylammonium lead iodide films with large grains. Scanning solvent additive to inhibit the formation of non-perovskite electron microscopy (SEM) images that prove the forma- polymorph (δ-FAPbI ) in open air. This is because NMP is tion of large grains CH NH PbI films with 1.0% TAA are 3 3 3 3 2+ strongly interacted with Pb to provide ameliorative nuclea- shown in Fig. 3. The large grains film formation is verified tion for FAI.Pb .NMP intermediate phase. The co-formation by the FTIR spectra, which verifies the strong interactions 2+ of non-perovskite polymorph (δ-FAPbI ) in the presence of of Pb with TAA and DMSO. Stoichiometric optimization dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is occurred in ambient air. But with 1.0% TAA results in less trap state density and shows a good solubility of PbI in NMP offers a defect-free surface superior PCE of 18.9%. They have also tested that the device for (α-FAPbI ) in ambient air. Better PCE and stability from with 1.0% TAA retains 88.9% of its initial performance after NMP suggests that there is a probability of scalable fabrica- aging for 816 h in ambient conditions with 25–35% relative tion in open air. Bekele et al. used the tendency of acetylac- humidity (RH). 2+ etone solvent additive to solvate Pb and form coordina- tion via two keto-oxygen ligands and demonstrated its dual Ionic additives role to improve the device performance and stability. It has shown to be a promising approach to fabricate a large-area Charge carriers need smooth and uniform surfaces to offer and stable devices with high reproducibility in the ambient good electrical conductivity. The contribution of organic environment [81]. salts such as ammonium acetate (NH Ac) and zinc acetate Halogenated solvent additives get attention in improving (ZnAc ) in smoothing the surface of hole conductor-free PCE and stability of OIPSCs. P.W. Liang and co-workers carbon electrode-based perovskite solar cell is worked out [82] reported that the increased coverage and smoothness of by Zhang et al. [85]. Volatile NH Ac gives better smooth the bidentate halogenated solvent additive, 1,8-diiodooctane surface than non-volatile ZnA c which forms pin holes and 2, (DIO) assisted film might be due to improved solubility of PbI residual on the surface of perovskite films (Fig.  4a). 2+ PbCl in mixed solvent DIO/DMF. They justified the incor - In addition, as shown in the schematic (Fig.  4b, c) Zn 2+ poration of DIO with DMF induces fast nucleation and slow undergoes doping to replace Pb , resulting in losing origi- rate crystal growth during the film formation. As a result, nal properties of MAPbI . XRD patterns also support the the whole performance of the device is drastically enhanced. findings of SEM images and the crystal structure of MAPbI in the presence of the salts. This suggests that using suit- Organic additives able salts may mitigate defect induced recombination in low-cost carbon-based perovskite films. Accordingly, ammo- The formation of pinholes, small grain sizes, and non-per- nium salts such as NH Cl and NH SCN additives in Spiro- 4 4 ovskite phases in OIP film bottlenecks the stability and scal- OMeTAD hole conductor for CH NH PbI (SCN) -based 3 3 3-x x ability of OIPSCs to date. Researchers in the area are inten- planar PSCs yields better results in ambient air [86]. sively working on different mechanisms and strategies that Cationic compositional engineering in perovskite solar enhances the performance of OIPSCs. Li et al. [83] applied cells has shown a blooming effect in improving both acetic acid as the additive in an anti-solvent chlorobenzene, PCE and stability [87–89]. Studies related to cationic 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 51 Fig. 3 a–d Top view SEM images of perovskite films with various 1.0% TAA. Reproduced with permission from [84], Copyright 2020 TAA contents (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%). e Cross-sectional SEM image Published by Elsevier B.V and the schematic structure of the perovskite solar cell device with Fig. 4 a Top view SEM images of the three types of films deposited the crystal structure of MAPbI and MAPbI :NHAc, MAPbI and 3 3 4 3 on FTO/TiO substrates by one-step method (without carbon layer). MAPbI :ZnAc . Reproduced with permission from [85], Copyright 2 3 2 The circular marks correspond to PbI . b, c Schematic diagram of 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V 1 3 52 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 engineering shows that the interchange or mixing of cati- Passivation of photoactive layer ons induces change in optical properties, whereas partial or full substitution of Pb ions or halide ions results in Nowadays, passivation approach becomes the most popu- tuning of the electrical properties of the OIPs. M. Kim lar strategy to minimize the recombination centers in either et al. [90] investigated that the incorporation of methyl- photoactive layer or interfaces between light absorber and ammonium chloride (MACl) builds an intermediate phase charge transport layers [22, 94–96]. Different molecules which is transformed into the high quality pure α-phase have been developed to avoid and stabilize different types of FAPbI film. Disappearing of δ-FAPbI and PbI during defects, which are triggering non-radiative recombination at 3 3 2 annealing of the film in the presence of MACl, and the the surface and/ or interfaces of the perovskite layer in differ - formation of high quality pure α-phase FAPbI film is jus- ent structures of OIPSCs [43, 97]. Passivation of the surface tified by experimental results as shown in Fig.  5. X-ray or interface can occur by either chemical or physical pro- diffraction (XRD) spectra (Fig.  5A), reciprocal full width cesses. Chemical passivating agents undergo reaction with at half maximum (FWHM) (Fig. 5B), time-resolved pho- charged or neutral species at the surface and/ or interface toluminescence (TRPL) (Fig. 5E) and steady state photo- before the generation of charge carriers. Physical passivating luminescence spectra (Fig. 5F) measurements for pristine, agents treat grain boundary defects and pin holes via physi- 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of MACl were reported cal interaction and improve surface coverage. To support by the group. But films with 40% MACl at 150 °C show this, M.S. Lee and co-workers [98] used a simple biden- large grains size. The corresponding device yield of PCE tate organic molecule, pyrazine (Pyr), which is undergoing is exceeding 24% with significant thermal stability from both chemical and physical passivation. Pyr forms bidentate 2+ pure α-phase FAPbI . coordination with Pb to prevent electrons reaction. This The role of surfactant-based additives in improving the indicates that chemical passivation inhibits the reduction or PCE and stability of perovskite solar cells gives the room oxidation of ions at the surface or interface of photoactive to use and look for them [91, 92]. J. Hong et al. [93] used layer to produce neutral atoms or molecules. They reported poly(ethylene glycol) tridecyl ether (PTE) as a non-volatile that insertion of Pyr boosts the PCE of the device. One of polymer additive. Introducing ultra-small amount (less the problems on the surface during operation is the chemi- than 0.1 wt%) of PTE into the perovskite precursor solu- cal reaction which changes the optoelectronic properties of tion controls the kinetics of crystallization. This facilitates OIP film. Using co-passivating additives reduces the chemi- the charge carrier mobility at the surface and interface of cal reactions which are taking place on the surface. Guo inverted OIPSCs. and co-workers [99] applied 1H, 1H-Perfluorooctylamine (PFA) as a co-passivating agent. The comparative results Fig. 5 A, B, E, F XRD spectra, reciprocal FWHM at the diffraction obtained from perovskite films prepared with MA-40 before and after peak 13.9̊ and photoluminescence data of perovskite films, respec- annealing at 150  °C for 10  min. Reproduced with permission from tively. C XRD data obtained from perovskite films prepared without [90], Copyright 2019 published by Elsevier Inc MACl before and after annealing at 150 °C for 10 min. D XRD data 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 53 between films with and without PEA show the importance into the PTAA hole transport layer is also reported and it of co-passivating agents for better performance of OIPSCs. provides high hydrophobic nature for the layer [114]. On Consequently, it helped to achieve promising results which the other hand, it improves the crystallinity of the OIP films motivate to design and synthesis other efficient co-passivat- by preventing moisture. Carbonyl groups of the PMAA con- ing agents to fabricate large-area OIPSCs. PEA via chlo- tribute large grain formation. This helps to yield better PCE robenzene (antisolvent) was introduced as co-passivating and stability for inverted structure. agent which simultaneously lowers the surface and grain Li et  al. [115] reported that addition of quinolone to boundary defects. CH NH PbI precursor solution effectively suppresses the 3 3 3 The existence of defects or impurities in semiconductors non-radiative recombination of carriers by co-passivating has potential to change the optical and electrical proper- the defects at surface and grain boundaries. The XRD pat- 2+ ties of the semiconductors in both negative and positive terns prove the interaction between Pb and lone pair elec- aspects [100–102]. For example, impurities in silicon trons in quinolone, which confirms the formation of Lewis increase electrical conductivity. But in OIPSCs, the pres- acid–base adduct. The optimized device with less hysteresis, ence of bulk defects and impurities reduces the electrical improved stability and high PCE indicates that quinolone conductivity due to non-radiative recombination of charge and compounds from the quinolone family can be applied carries [103–105]. Accordingly, they beget current–volt- as effective OIP additives. The high cost and less stable age (I–V) hysteresis, reduced PCE and instability for the states of some hole transport materials forces to manufac- device. D. Aidarkhanov et al. [106] showed that the defects ture hole-free OIPSCs. Adding most favorable polyethylene at the interface of SnO /mixed perovskite layers is passivated glycol (PEG) concentration into MAPbI precursor solu- 2 3 by introduction of optimal amount of organic cross linker, tion produced high surface coverage and large grain size 2,2ʹ-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylammonium iodide) (EDAI) [116]. However, it behaves hygroscopic; it prevents OIP at the interface. The study shows that problems which are film from moisture and delivers interesting stability for the created because of defects can be solved by using suitable device. This is because it is preventing water molecules additives at the interface. I–V hysteresis that may be rooted from reaching the surface of OIP films. Y.H. Lin et al. [117] due to ion migration [107], or charge trap states [108] across reported the effect of additives on the thermal stability of interfaces is significantly reduced and the PCE of the device mixed OIPSCs. It has been shown that the incorporation is increased with better stability. Dissolution of OIPs in a of organic–inorganic ionic salt additive 1-butyl-1-methyl- + − humid environment, which has some ionic and covalent piperidinium tetrafluoroborate ([BMP] [BF ] ) into the characteristics [109], may cause loss of optoelectronic prop- perovskite absorber minified deep-trap states. They justi- erties. This attributes to the formation of hydrated phases fied that defects in Cs 0. FAPb (I Br ) based per- 17 0.83 0.77 0.23 and lead halides on the surface of OIPs films [ 110, 111]. ovskite solar cells have been passivated through reaction + − Based on this, different hydrophobic additives have been between ([BMP] [BF ] ) and photogenerated superoxide developed to mitigate the impact of moisture. C.F. Arias- and peroxide species from the surface of Cs 0. FA Pb 17 0.83 Ramos et al. [112] applied a mixture of ethyl acetate (EA) (I Br ) film [57]. This effect improves the performance 0.77 0.23 and 4-tertbutyl-pyridine (tBP) as hydrophobic anti-solvent and enhances the operational thermal stability of mixed OIP- additive to extract the primary solvent from the precursor SCs which is stressed under full-spectrum sunlight at ele- solution. The results suggested that using appropriate hydro- vated temperatures up to 85 °C. In another study the impacts phobic anti-solvent with proper optimization may give room of lead halide residual are removed by adding an optimum to fabricate highly stable OIPSCs outside glovebox atmos- amount of tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) salt into phere. Liu et al. [113] demonstrated that polymethyl meth- pristine OIP films [118]. The role of TBAB is measured in acrylate (PMMA) passivate the interface of cesium forma- terms of crystal growth kinetics alteration [119, 120]. As a midinium methyl ammonium lead triiodide (CsF AMAPbI )/ result, it improved the PCE, stability and negative impact of Spiro-OMeTAD and methyl ammonium lead triiodide the hysteresis. (MAPbI )/Spiro-OMeTAD in planar perovskite solar cells. Mixed dimensional structure is another approach to Though doped Spiro-OMeTAD is appreciated for achieve- improve stability of OIPSCs [56, 121–124]. Studies show ment of the highest PCE, it is reproached for oxidation at that, however, two-dimensional (2D) OIPs are more sta- high temperature and infiltration of water through it to the ble than three-dimensional (3D), their low PCE is not yet photoactive layer. The insertion of hydrophobic PMMA attractive [125]. To surpass the whole performance of the between light absorbing and hole transport layer boosts both 2D OIPSCs, introduction of organic additives resulting in PCE and stability in outdoor because it reduces percolation good quality of OIP crystal structure [126]. Zheng et al. of water. It is also acknowledged for having higher V and [127], studied the synergistic effect of additives on 2D OIP OC FF and less hysteresis compared to corresponding reference films. N,N-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and thio-semicar - devices. Incorporation of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bazide (TSC) were introduced as additives into the precursor 1 3 54 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 solution. Consequently, trap state density of 2D OIP film EMIC (1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) treated is reduced and evidently about 93% increment of PCE and PEDOT:PSS and S-acetylthiocholinechloride passivated per- improved stability were achieved after the addition of addi- ovskite surface. The result show improvement in PCE as well tives. These results clearly magnify the positive impacts of as stability of ITO/PEDOT:PSS(EMIC)/CH NH PbI /S- 3 3 3 additives on the whole performance of 2D OIPSCs. Other acetylthiocholinechloride/C60/BCP/Ag configuration for a studies affirm that formation of the mixed 3D/2D structure large area. An increase in electrical conductivities for the yields efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in the pres- mentioned device is explained by an increase in the amount ence of additives [128, 129]. D. Yao et al. demonstrated the of PEDOT in the bipolaron states because of doping and the capability of long-chain alkylamine organic compounds in formation of defect-free OIP surface. Attempt to augment hindering moisture permeation towards light absorbing layer the performance of inverted PSCs has motivated the group [130]. As discussed in preceding part, the work proves that of Zheng [142] to explore the role of n-butylamine (BA), post-device treatment with vapor of diethyltriamine (DETA) phenethylamine (PEA), octylamine (OA) and oleylamine and triethylenetetraamine (TETA), transformed 3D OIPs to (OAm) in modifying grain boundaries and interface of the lower dimensional (LD) crystals on account of partial sub- light absorber. They have found that long-chain alkylamine stitution of cation by either DETA or TETA. Accordingly, ligands (AALs) have potential to subdue deep-trap densi- the LD perovskite crystals are passivating 3D layers from ties at the surface and/ or interfaces. This method enables moisture and deep-trap states across the interface. them to achieve an inverted champion device with a PCE Current studies are focusing on zwitterion molecules, of 23% with significantly improved operational stability. which can bind with negatively and positively charged It is well known that under-coordinated ions in OIPs are defects. These defects are intrinsic in nature, and they are responsible for I–V hysteresis in the presence of mobile supposed to be vacancies and ions at the surface and/ or ions in the crystal. To prevent this issue, researchers are interfaces. Thus, zwitterion type molecular passivators help dedicated in looking for efficient passivation of ions migra- to solve such problems by binding to two sites simultane- tion. Luo et al. [138] demonstrated the effectiveness of ionic ously. The comparative study between pyridine treated and liquid, 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bromide (MPIB), in 2+ pyridinium iodide, zwitterion molecule, was conducted passivating under-coordinated Pb in the perovskite film. by Y. Du and co-workers to indicate the role of zwitterion The formation of PbI residual during OIP film annealing 2+ molecule in boosting the whole performance of the mixed- in pristine and disappearance of under-coordinated Pb in cation perovskite solar cells [131]. To suppress cationic the presence of MPIB was proved using X-ray diffraction and anionic defects from the surface and interface of OIP, (XRD) (Fig. 6). This affects the quality of crystal growth for low-cost ammonium chloride was used [132]. It passivates OIP film with enhanced thermal stability. Hence, improved negatively charged cation vacancy defects by NH and posi- PCE with negligible I–V hysteresis was reported from pas- − 2+ tively charged vacancy defects by Cl . As a result, imperfec- sivation of under-coordinated Pb using MPIB. On other tion of polycrystalline OIP film was improved and PCE of hands, ionic or hydrogen bond interactions could be favored 21.38% was achieved. when additives are purposefully added to precursors of OIP Inverted architecture in perovskite solar cells has been or OIP solution. Group of Choi [143] worked on the role widely used to solve the stability problems which are incor- porated with mesoporous and planar devices [133, 134]. Emerging inverted perovskite solar cells which have used moisture sensitive and highly acidic poly (3, 4-ethylen- edioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate) PEDOT:PSS as a hole transport layer are not stable enough and are less efficient [135]. J–V hysteresis are common problems in PEDOT:PSS integrated PSCs. To resolve this effect, inor - ganic hole transport materials are applied in inverted PSCs [136, 137]. Even if stability of inverted PSCs is upgraded due to incorporation of inorganic hole transport materials, their efficiency is not sufficient for scalability of OIPSCs. In recent times, different groups show interest to resolve the negative impacts of PEDOT:PSS by adding efficient additives at ITO/PEDOT:PSS or PEDOT:PSS/ perovs- kite interface or light absorber or charge transport layer Fig. 6 X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the pristine perovskite and MPIB- surfaces [138–140]. Zhou and co-workers [141] studied perovskite (0.5) films. Reproduced with permission from [138], Cop- on synergetic effects of multiple functional ionic liquid, yright 2020 Royal Society of Chemistry 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 55 Scheme 1 Schematic repre- sentation of the interaction between perovskite and TMA. Reproduced with permission from [144], Copyright 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V of functional additives in performance of inverted planar perovskite solar cells. It is believed that the addition of OIPSCs. They found that OH functional groups in 2-hydrox- polymer additives can resolve such problems [140]. Based yethyl acrylate (HEA) is strongly interacted with organic on this, Yao and co-workers reported the effectiveness of + + cation (CH NH or HC(NH ) . They proved that the crys- polymer additives in improving the morphological quality 3 3 2 2 tallinity and grain sizes of OIP are improved and rate of and mechanical instability of flexible perovskite solar cells non-radiative recombination is decreased. As a result, they [145]. By doing this, they obtained mechanically stable achieved the highest PCE of 20.40% for a large-area (1.08 device. This shows that the addition of the optimum amount cm ) inverted planar OIPSCs. Under this study, the long- of polymer alloy additives has great potential to fabricate term stability is also reported for OIP with HEA. wearable electronics which are flexible. Similarly, S. Ma Morphology improvement in crystalline semiconducting et al. [146] introduced N,Nˈ-bis-(1-naphthalenyl)-N,Nʹ-bis- materials is very crucial to increase electrical conductivity. phenyl-(1,1ʹ-biphenyl)-4,4ʹ-diamine (NPB), to fabricate uni- Kinetics of crystallization justifies that slow crystallization form and pin holes-free OIP films. In addition to that, they process attributes for large grains size of crystal. This effect mentioned that NPB offers good communication between is modifying the surface and interface optoelectronic prop- PEDOT:PSS and OIP film due to its ability to adjust the erties of the materials. During OIP film formation, unre- energy level mismatch between PEDOT:PSS and OIP layers. acted lead halides or cation halides in a solution contribute The valence band energy of MAPbI and the HOMO energy for incomplete surface coverage of the film. In 2019, Su level of PEDOT:PSS are − 5.43 eV and − 4.92 eV, respec- et al. [144] engaged in the fabrication of defect-free OIP tively. But the HOMO energy level of NPB is − 5.40, which film using a two-step solution method in the presence of is able to adjust the mismatch between the two layers. This trimesic acid (TMA) as an additive in the lead precursor bestows enhanced performance for inverted flexible MAPbI solution. It is reported that coordination of oxygen atoms solar cells under a humid atmosphere and UV light. 2+ in TMA with Pb in lead precursor solution to form an Additives which have ion migration blocking effect in intermediate which slows down fast crystallization to con- perovskite solar cells are highly effective in eliminating trol the course of crystallization. Furthermore, the existence I–V hysteresis. In addition to this, such additives contribute of hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl group of TMA and to reduce recombination centers by providing large grain- iodide in perovskite is depicted (Scheme 1) under this study. sized crystallinity for OIP films. In this regard, K. Zhu et al. The cumulative effect of hydrogen bonding interactions with [147] investigated the role of ethylamine alcohol chloride 2+ perovskite and oxygen atoms interactions with Pb in the (EA.HCl) which contains hydroxyl (-OH) and ammonium precursor solution is able to produce stable and pinholes-free cation (–NH ) as the additive to reduce ion migration in large grain-sized perovskite film. the perovskite film. They verified that halide ion interactions Mechanical instability is the major challenge to fabricate in perovskite through hydrogen bonds of –OH or coordina- flexible solar cells which is also common issue in flexible tion of –NH passivate defects and avoid ion migrations. 1 3 56 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 Fig. 8 Energy levels and band structure diagram of functional layers for PVSC. Reproduced with permission from [150], Copyright 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V Fig. 7 Current density–voltage (J–V) curves of devices with 1 wt% electron donating (amine) groups into OIP film. The study EA⋅HCl additive for reverse and forward scans. Reproduced with per- suggested that similar features of ACP molecule with the mission from [147], Copyright 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V zwitterion to bind with negatively and positively charged point defects of the film decreases the charge recombination The introduction of the optimal amount of EA.HCl enables rate across the surface or interface of the film. The result to fabricate devices with improved PCE and negligible I–V indicates that incorporation of ACP imparts good mechani- hysteresis (Fig. 7). cal stability besides improving the PCE for regular flexible Researchers use different organic compound additives OIPSCs. containing carbonyl group to investigate its role to improve Even though mesoporous configurations of OIPSCs are the PCE and stability of perovskite devices. Lately, Wang noted in their highest PCE at this time, they are known et al. [148] studied that strong interaction of C=O groups in for their fast degradation [152]. To maintain the PCE of 2+ caffeine with Pb increases the activation energy of nuclea- mesoporous structure and improve the stability of devices, tion, which delays crystal growth to improve crystallinity of Xie et al. [153] applied three amides viz; formamide (FAM), the OIP films. The finding suggests that caffeine and related acetoamide (AAM) and propionamide (PAM) to passivate alkaloids can improve the electrical conductivity and opera- the surface and regulate crystallographic structures. The tional stability in ambient air. Inspiring results from bioma- result shows that 5% of AAM yields over 20% of PCE with terial, betulin, which contains hydroxyl (–OH) functional better stability for meso-configured OIPSCs. They rational- 2+ groups and give a chance to use biologically active materials ized that strong interaction between AAM-5% and Pb is to passivate under-coordinated ions defects at the surface or responsible for formation of smooth and uniform crystalline interfaces of OIP [149]. Thus, the experimental and theo- film for the enhancement of the performance. The formation retical results show that the hydrogen bonds of betulin lock of residual of PbI is one of the common problems as a sur- methylamine and halogen ion along the grain boundaries. face defect of perovskite films. Nishihara et al. [154] used This work reports the highest PCE, 21.15%, with remarkable formamidinium bromide (FABr) to react excess PbI to form chemical and thermal stability. FAPbBr I . The strategy is effective in passivating the sur - 3−x x The effect of electrostatic force to avoid the surface and face of the film and facilitates the charge transport process. interface drawbacks is inspected. Zhang et al. [150] observed Challenges in the case of the PCE and long-term stabil- that the addition of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) stabi- ity of OIPSCs are mainly dealt with defects across of the lizes the F APbI film by electrostatic interaction between HTL/light absorber layers interface. But defects at the inter- FAI and CDCA in which CDCA passivated the surface and face of ETL/OIP layers have been causing immense prob- interfaces of FAPbI . Moreover, the effect of passivation is lems, which are altering the optoelectronic properties of the justified by shift of HOMO and LUMO energy levels after interface. Amphoteric imidazole as passivator in inverted treatment which forms better communication at the interface OIPSCs structure was tested [155]. It improves the qual- of pristine and CDCA treated OPI l fi ms (Fig.  8). Other study ity of crystals as well as it reduces defects at the surface by Xin et al. [151] also assures that the electrostatic interac- and grain boundaries. Consequently, imidazole treated OIP tions of molecules with positively and negatively charged yields devices with promising PCE and stability. The deriva- point defects are declining the number of charge trapping tive of imidazole, 2-methylbenzimidazole was introduced centers from the surface by adding 2-amino-5-cyanopyridine at the interface of SnO /OIP film to solve defects-related 2+ (ACP), which contains electron-withdrawing (cyano) and anomalies [156]. Binding of the under-coordinated Pb 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 57 with lone pairs of 2-methylbenzimidazole to form acid–base recombination processes, which indicate their passivating adduct decreases the number of charge trapping centers. role. Moreover, they enhanced charge selectivity from OIP This approach yields devices with PCE of 21.6% having to HTL. BDAI interlayer increased the open circuit voltage better humidity and thermal stability. Similarly, imidazolium (Voc) of the device without affecting short-circuit current iodide is used as auto-passivator to produce MAPbI and density (Jsc) and fill factor (FF). These features helped to imidazole iodide [157] yield a competitor PCE for inverted OIPSCs with negligible Li et al. [158] studied organophosphorous ligands (trioc- hysteresis. tylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO)) as passivators. The results affirm that TPPO is more effective than TOPO. This is because benzene rings Charge transporting layers additives are facilitating charge transfer across the interface of HTM and passivators and photoactive layer in addition to oxygen atom which is 2+ an electron-rich center to bind with under-coordinated Pb . It is well known that the total number of charge carriers Dual advantages of TPPO result in the improved PCE and which are transported via charge transporting layers is criti- stability of the device. The group of Wu reported the poten- cal to harvest maximum PCE. But different defects in charge tial of applying other organophosphorous compounds like transporting layers are acting as trapping centers of charge tributyl phosphine (TBUP), triphenyl phosphine (PPh ), and carriers and lowering the performance of the OIPSCs. For trioctylphosphine (TOP) in reducing and oxidizing iodine example, mesoporous T iO as an electron and doped Spiro- o o (I ) and lead (Pb ) atoms defects [159]. TBUP is found to OMeTAD as hole transport layers are widely deployed in be more effective in reducing volatile I and an oxidized OIPSCs technologies [165]. Devices with mesoporous o 2+ form of TBUP is oxidizing Pb to Pb . The studies show TiO are showing better PCE than devices based on dense that the catalytic TBUP, which is passivating the defects, TiO which is due to an increase in surface area of the light is integrated with tributyl phosphine oxide, which is bind- absorber [166]. But both mesoporous scaffolds of TiO and 2+ ing with under-coordinated Pb , to subdue recombination dense TiO suffers from a large number of oxygen vacancies, impacts. So, it offers long-term operational thermal stability which are deliberated as trapping centers for electrons. The with attractive PCE for doped Spiro-OMeTAD containing commonly used additives are infused to charge transporting perovskite solar cell. layers to form uniform and smooth surface morphology. Not Triphenyl(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol- 3-yl)-phosphonium bro- only that, they helped to have good communication between mide (TCPBr) and iodide (TCPI) were also applied as pas- the interface of charge transporting and other layers in OIP- sivator of the OIP film [160]. The films which are without SCs by reducing charge carriers trapping centers, but they and with TCPBr and TCPI treatment are characterized by can also adjust energy level alignments [167, 168]. Lose XRD. Results indicate that the amount of PbI is increas- in the original properties of charge transporting layers in ing after one month for pristine because of moisture but it the presence of moisture, O , and UV–Vis light has been is very low after two months in case of treated OIP films. lowering PCE and stability of perovskite solar cells. For this This ascertains the great capability of TCPBr and TCPI in reason, different surface or interface properties modifiers improving PCE and stability of Spiro-OMeTAD HTL-based have been emerged to manage such problems. perovskite solar cell. N, N′-bis-(1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4-nonafluorodo- decan- Solvent‑based additives 6-yl)-perylenediimide (F-PDI), which is conductive, and hydrophobic organic molecule is analyzed for its compe- Organic halides or lead halide crystalline aggregates forma- tency in improving PCE and stability [161]. Its carbonyl tion on the surface during OIP film fabrication investigated 2+ groups which bind with under-coordinated Pb passivate as a contributor for charge carriers recombination. Recent the surface. Besides that fluoro groups which are interacted works point out that some charge transport materials which with methyl ammonium cation to form hydrogen bonding are suspicious towards the formation of aggregates [46, 169, provide immobility for monovalent cation. This strategy is 170]. Solvent additive engineering is used to minimize the crucial to ward off the phase transition of the cubic structure causes which are responsible for formation of aggregates of OIP during annealing [162, 163]. due to charge transporting layers. Ye et al. [171] worked on Wu et al. [164] have revealed the potential of three kinds engineering of a series of solvent additives (1,8-diiodoctane, of large alkylammonium iodides viz. phenylethylammonium 1-chloronaphthalene, 1-phenylnaphtha-lene, 1-methylnaph- iodide, (PEAI), 1,4- butanediammonium iodide (BDAI), and thalene) to improve the influence of electron transport layer, guanidinium iodide (GAI) as passivating interlayer between perylene diimide derivatives (PDIs) in the film morphology hole transport layer and OIP layer in inverted structure. and transport process. They found that 1-methylnaphthalene Their integration as an interlayer suppressed non-radiative (MN) was the best solvent additive to control the effect of 1 3 58 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 aggregates in 1,1ʹ-bis(2-methoxyethoxyl)-7,7ʹ-(2,5-thienyl) conditions. They observed that addition of these materials bis-(BIS-PDI-EG) films. In general, addition of 1-methyl- to OIP solution improves the crystal quality, enlarges grain naphthalene into perylenediimide derivatives (PDIs) was size and reduces grain boundaries. Consequently, the elec- effective in improving both PCE and stability of the OIPSCs. tron extraction and transport have been increased in OIP films. The FTIR spectra prove that the formation of Lewis 2+ Organic compounds‑based additives acid–base adduct from Pb and C derivatives and weak- ening of dissolution of PbI in the presence of moisture. Hygroscopic dopant, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) As a result, they reported improved stability from nitrogen imide (Li-TFSI), in Spiro-OMeTAD-based perovskite solar containing C60 derivatives in ambient environment. The cells is responsible for fast decay of the device performance development of naphthalene imide dimer (2FBT2NDI) by as a result of aggregate formation. Searching for hydropho- group of H. Wang [175] resulted in achieving maximum bic dopants which will substitute Li-TFSI is very crucial PCE of inverted OIPSCs. They affirmed the effectiveness to increase the electrical conductivity of Spiro-OMeTAD of it in passivating the surface and interface of OIP layer. layer in ambient air condition. Hydrophobic alkaline-earth The same forward and reverse current scans indicate, defects bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide additives such as Mg- and ions which are causing hysteresis are negligible in the TFSI and Ca-TFSI were developed by N.D. Pham and device. Furthermore, it facilitates electron extraction across 2 2 co-workers to increase moisture resistivity of the Spiro- the interface of OIP/PCBM. So, the summative qualities OMeTAD [172]. Comparative study of Li-TFSI, Mg-TFSI of 2FBT2NDI integration offer the maximum PCE for and Ca-TFSI by using different methods reveals that alka- inverted OIPSC. Poly (2,2ʹ-bithiazolothienyl-4,4ʹ,10,10ʹ- line-earth bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide additives have tetracarboxydiimide) (PDTzTI) which contains sulfur, nitro- better potential than Li-TFSI. For instance, the calculated gen and oxygen functional groups was also used as ETL in hole mobilities for Mg-TFSI and Ca-TFSI are greater than inverted OIPSCs [176]. In addition to charge selectivity, it is 2 2 Li-TFSI. Consequently, they obtained noteworthy PCE and passivating the interface of OIP due to possible interactions 2+ stability from Spiro-OMeTAD-based OIPSC.between Pb and the functional groups (Fig. 9). The syn- The main purpose of dopants in Spiro-OMeTAD is to ergistic effect of this polymer yields greater PCE (20.86%) oxidize the HTL. Consequently, thionyl chloride (SOCl ) than 2FBT2NDI, which is the highest for inverted structure dopant which is capable of generating more oxidized states to date. Hydrophobic nature of PDTzTI is also benefiting of spiro-OMetAD was developed by the group of Li [173]. to improve the long-term operational stability of OIPSCs. The experimental findings prove that the optimum amount Similarly, 4ʹ,4ʹʹʹ-(1,3,4-oxadiazole-2,5-diyl)bis(N,N- of SOCl increases the concentration of holes as well as bis(4-met hoxyphenyl)-[1,1ʹ-biphenyl]-4-amine) was its mobility to achieve better PCE. The instability which is designed and synthesized as HTL to transport holes and pas- 2+ criticized in the presence Li-TFSI is upgraded by inclusion sivate the Pb by Lee et al. [177]. They found that methoxy of SOCl because of suppression of density of defect states functional groups in the HTL are very important in adjusting from the interface. Moreover, Hu et al. [174] studied the energy alignment of HOMO of HTL with OIP. effectiveness of fullerene and its derivatives as OIP addi- Alkoxy-PTEG HTM with multifunctional groups was tives to improve the PCE and stability of OIPSCs in ambient designed and synthesized by Lee et al. [178]. The presence Fig. 9 Schematic illustration of the perovskite/PDTzTI interfaces. The enlarged area describes the possible interac- tions between unsaturated Pb ions (likely Pb trap/defect sites) and functional group (N, S, O) presented in the PDTzTI ETLs. Reproduced with permission from [176], Copyright 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 59 of alkoxy groups in it offers multipurpose advantages. For remarkable change in average grain size and grain bounda- example; (1) it increases solubility of alkoxy-PTEG in non- ries of the perovskite layer (Fig. 10). aromatic green solvent (3-methyl cyclohexanone) which is In addition, oxygen vacancies in T iO which are scaveng- occurring naturally, (2) it prevents the leakage of lead ions ing electrons are deactivated by incorporation of NaCl salt. by chelating with it, (3) it enhances the electrical conductiv- Thus, electron transporting potential of T iO is enhanced. ity of alkoxy-PTEG, which is comparable with doped Spiro- Also the measured higher recombination resistance owing OMeTAD and (4) it exhibits improved Voc and FF. Alkoxy- to NaCl has contributed significant change in long-term sta- PTEG HTM which is processed in nonaromatic green bility and hysteresis in n-i-p perovskite solar cells. Also, solvent exhibits inviting PCE (19.9%) from SnO planar Sun et al. [183] asserted the role of optimum Na S to pas- 2 2 OIPSCs. On the other hand, dopant-free alkoxy-PTEG HTM sivate TiO and OIP surfaces. Herein, Na ions are doping 2− 2+ which is processed in 2-methyl anisole (2-MA) which is an the TiO , while S ions are interacting with Pb ions to aromatic solvent with low toxicity potential shows 21.2% of form covalent bonds, which are ruled out by soft acid–base PCE which is reported as the highest value. Besides these, it principle. Na ions-doped TiO increased wettability degree improves chemical and thermal stability of OIP films. of OIP films as mentioned by Li et al. [182]. As a result, experimental results verify that incorporation of Na S pas- sivated the interface and improved the crystallinity of OIP Ionic‑based additives films. Significant change has been observed in current den- sity and Voc of planar OIPSCs fabricated after incorpora- Oxygen vacancies in commonly used ETL, TiO are con- tion of Na S into TiO ETLs. The other study (Fig. 11) on 2 2 2 sidered as trapping centers for electrons, which are causing inverted perovskite solar cells using surfactant additives has non-radiative recombinations in regular OIPSCs [179–181]. been reported by Wang et al. [184]. Unstability due to T iO demands several approaches which They coated an ultrathin sodium dodecyl benzene sul- can reduce side effects in regular planar perovskite solar fonate (SDBS) on the surface of nickel oxide (NiO ) HTL, cells. NaCl-assisted defect passivation study has been done that is between HTL and light absorber layer. They explained to empower electrons extraction of TiO by Li et al. [182]. that the reason for good communication at the interface of They reported that N a ions-doped T iO improved the wetta- NiO /perovskite surface is surface wettability potential of 2 x bility of OIP films. As a result, 5% Na-doped TiO shows the SDBS. Thus, the SDBS is adjusting the surface wettability Fig. 10 SEM images of the perovskite layer fabricated on a the pris- from individual images. Reproduced with permission from [182], tine and b 2%, c 5%, d 10%, and e 20% Na-doped T iO films, respec- Copyright 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V tively. The insets are the statistic distributions of grain size analyzed 1 3 60 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 Fig. 11 The contact angle of water on the NiOx/SDBS film with dif- tics of grain size and surface roughness of perovskite films deposited −1 ferent concentrations (mg mL ) of SDBS: a 0, b 0.05, c 0.20, d 1 on NiOx/SDBS film with different concentrations of SDBS solution. and e 10. Top view SEM and AFM images of perovskite films depos- Cross-sectional SEM images of perovskite layers grown on NiOx film −1 ited on NiOx/SDBS film with different concentrations (mg mL ) of q without and r with SDBS layer. Reproduced with permission from SDBS: 0 (f, k), 0.05 (g, l), 0.20 (h, m), 1 (i, n) and 10 (j, o). p Statis- [184], Copyright 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V of NiO to form a fully covered perovskite film, which pro- Nowadays, different additives are fruitful in ameliorating vides high quality crystalline perovskite film. poor crystallinity of the photoactive layer. They have been In general, the role of some additives and passivators in also applied in adjusting energy alignment between photo- improving PCE, Jsc, Voc, and FF of the different perovskite active and charge transporting layers. Even if hydrophobic solar cells since 2019 is summarized in Table 1. Their role approaches have been leading to prevent moisture interac- in improving the chemical, mechanical and thermal stability tion, hydrophilic surface passivation which is paradoxical of the device is also noticed as the foremost merit. approach has been becoming efficient in improving moisture instability as well as PCE due to hydrogen bonding. Degree of intra- or inter-molecular interactions between Conclusions and outlooks additives/passivators and photoactive or charge transporting layers or defects is determining the status of OMHPSCs sta- Even though the power conversion efficiency of OIPSCs bility. Accordingly, studies show that the binding energy of has been promising to go over the Shockley limitation of the atoms or ions can be used to relevant technique to deter- silicon solar cells, still their instability has been remained mine stability of the materials or devices. Thus, detailed as a gap. Managing the factors which are causing degrada- study on the binding energy of the different additives/passi- tion of layers, charge recombination across the interface and vators atoms or ions with organo-metal halide perovskites or surface and hysteresis of OIPSCs is very crucial. Different charge transporting layers or surface defects is vital to select approaches like compositional engineering, optimizing dep- worthy additive to obtain homogenized and well-ordered osition techniques, solvent engineering, anti-solvent engi- surfaces for ease transportation of charge carriers and stable neering, and additives/passivators engineering have been state of materials. In general, additives/passivators engineer- applied to abate the common problems in these devices. ing has becoming promising strategy to look for different 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 61 Table 1 Comparative summary of OIPSCs in the presence of additives/passivators and the reference cells Additives/passivators category Device with Jsc (mA/cm ) Voc (V) FF PCE (%) References Solvent DMF/DMSO 23.13 1.16 0.79 21.2 [77] Reference 22.91 1.11 0.69 18.3 DMF + DMSO 1.5 eq 24.21 0.95 0.61 14.11 [73] DMF 18.13 0.85 0.56 8.65 NMP 1.0% 7.64 1.57 0.83 9.53 [76] ACN 1.0% 7.60 1.57 0.82 9.22 Reference 7.05 1.56 0.81 8.27 C60/BCP 21.33 1.08 0.73 17.02 [185] Reference 17.97 1.07 0.71 12.31 DMSO 21.32 0.96 0.68 14.01 [80] NMP 23.30 1.00 0.74 17.29 Reference 22.68 0.97 0.71 15.53 Small organic molecules/polymer Formic acid 0.764 M 23.59 1.10 0.77 19.81 [186] Reference 23.01 1.07 0.73 17.82 Acetyl Acetone (AA) 18.50 0.99 0.76 14.00 [81] Reference 17.40 0.95 0.73 12.10 Acetic acid 8 v % 24.31 1.15 0.82 23.00 [83] Reference 22.90 1.11 0.75 19.10 TAA 1.0% 22.91 1.11 0.74 18.91 [84] Reference 22.70 1.09 0.69 17.01 PFA (CsFAMA) 24.10 1.14 0.78 21.31 [99] Reference 23.42 1.11 0.75 19.53 Quinoline 0.4 M 23.07 1.14 0.79 20.87 [115] Reference 22.48 1.11 0.75 18.65 TBAB 7.5 mM 23.41 1.12 0.77 20.16 [118] Reference 21.49 1.10 0.75 17.56 Pyrazine 0.5 mg/mL 23.07 1.13 0.79 20.10 [98] Reference 23.06 1.09 0.77 18.79 Y-Th2 23.7 1.14 0.80 21.50 [187] Reference 21.9 1.09 0.77 18.3 AIA 22.85 1.02 0.68 15.70 [188] HIA 23.05 1.05 0.71 17.29 CA 23.49 1.10 0.74 19.06 Reference 21.06 0.97 0.66 13.60 Benzoic acid (BA) 3% 21.19 1.05 0.75 16.26 [189] Reference 19.00 1.05 0.77 14.83 HEA 23.74 1.11 0.80 21.01 [143] Reference 21.95 1.07 0.77 18.17 2,2ʹ-bipyridine (Bpy) 1% 23.17 1.07 0.77 19.02 [190] 2,2ʹ:6ʹ ,2ʺ-terpyridine (Tpy) 0.2% 23.07 1.06 0.76 18.68 Reference 22.48 1.05 0.74 17.58 1 3 62 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 Table 1 (continued) Additives/passivators category Device with Jsc (mA/cm ) Voc (V) FF PCE (%) References EC 22.33 1.13 0.77 19.46 [191] PC 22.5 1.13 0.78 19.63 PPC 22.62 1.14 0.78 20.06 Reference 22.18 1.10 0.74 17.88 PTE 0.017% 19.69 1.08 0.80 16.76 [93] Reference 18.762 1.06 0.77 15.49 PS 21.67 1.06 0.77 18.60 [192] PCE10 21.69 1.08 0.80 19.60 Reference 21.94 1.08 0.82 18.20 PEG 10% 21.68 0.98 0.55 11.62 [116] Reference 18.82 0.93 0.44 7.74 Ionic compounds BMIMBF 0.3% 23.80 1.08 0.81 19.80 [193] Reference 23.20 1.02 0.79 18.50 Zinc acetate 22.60 0.92 0.59 12.30 [85] Ammonium acetate 24.35 0.98 0.59 13.88 Reference 21.75 0.93 0.55 11.11 19.50 1.16 0.77 17.30 [117] [BMP] BF 0.25 mol % Reference 19.50 1.11 0.75 16.60 TBUB-TBPO pair 22.97 1.13 0.79 20.48 [159] Reference 19.54 NH Cl 19.66 1.03 0.72 14.71 [86] NH SCN 21.17 1.05 0.75 16.61 Out additive/passivator 18.52 1.03 0.68 12.97 (BMImI) 0.2% MWCNT 27.98 1.085 0.7325 21.39 [194] Reference 23.63 0.82 0.65 12.56 PbTiO 0.05 M 21.72 1.00 0.49 10.55 [195] Reference 18.98 0.91 0.43 7.46 Spiro-OMeTAD:MoS 0.6% 24.48 1.10 0.75 21.18 [196] Spiro-OMeTAD 23.54 1.05 0.72 17.79 MACl 40% 25.92 1.13 0.82 24.02 [90] Reference 24.84 1.03 0.77 19.66 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attri- additives to alleviate either extrinsic or intrinsic negative bution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adapta- impacts in OIPSCs. tion, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the department of provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes Industrial Chemistry and Sustainable Energy Center of Excellence of were made. The images or other third party material in this article are Addis Ababa Science and Technology University (AASTU) for finan- included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated cial and infrastructure support to this work. otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 63 the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not CH NH PbI . ACS Photonics 3, 1060–1068 (2016). https:// doi. 3 3 3 permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will org/ 10. 1021/ acsph otoni cs. 6b001 39 need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a 16. Yang, W.S., Park, B.W., Jung, E.H., Jeon, N.J., Kim, Y.C., Lee, copy of this licence, visit http://cr eativ ecommons. or g/licen ses/ b y/4.0/ . D.U., Shin, S.S., Seo, J., Kim, E.K., Noh, J.H., Seok, S. Il: Iodide management in formamidinium-lead-halide-based perovskite layers for efficient solar cells. Science (80-. ). 356, 1376–1379 (2017). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1126/ scien ce. aan23 01 17. Giorgi, G., Fujisawa, J.I., Segawa, H., Yamashita, K.: Small References photocarrier effective masses featuring ambipolar transport in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite: A density functional analysis. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4213–4216 (2013). https:// doi. 1. Yoshikawa, K., Yoshida, W., Irie, T., Kawasaki, H., Konishi, org/ 10. 1021/ jz402 3865 K., Ishibashi, H., Asatani, T., Adachi, D., Kanematsu, M., Uzu, 18. NREL: Best research-cell efficiencies, https://www .nr el.go v/pv/ H., Yamamoto, K.: Exceeding conversion efficiency of 26% by assets/ pdfs/ best- resea rch- cell- effic ienci es. 20200 104. pdf heterojunction interdigitated back contact solar cell with thin film 19. Olaleru, S.A., Kirui, J.K., Wamwangi, D., Roro, K.T., Mwaki- Si technology. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 173, 37–42 (2017). kunga, B.: Perovskite solar cells: the new epoch in photovoltaics. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. solmat. 2017. 06. 024 Sol. Energy. 196, 295–309 (2020). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. solen 2. Benamar, E., Rami, M., Fahoume, M., Chraibi, F., Ennaoui, A.: er. 2019. 12. 025 Electrodeposited cadmium selenide films for solar cells. Ann. 20. Park, N.G.: Research direction toward scalable, stable, and high Chim. Sci. des Mater. 23, 369–372 (1998). https:// doi. org/ 10. efficiency perovskite solar cells. Adv. Energy Mater. 10, 1903106 1016/ S0151- 9107(98) 80094-9 3. Bonnet, D., Meyers, P.: Cadmium-telluride - Material for thin (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1002/ aenm. 20190 3106 film solar cells. J. Mater. Res. 13, 2740–2753 (1998). https://doi. 21. Baumann, A., Väth, S., Rieder, P., Heiber, M.C., Tvingstedt, K., org/ 10. 1557/ JMR. 1998. 0376 Dyakonov, V.: Identification of trap states in perovskite solar 4. Vasekar, P.S., Jahagirdar, A.H., Dhere, N.G.: Photovoltaic char- cells. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 2350–2354 (2015). https:// doi. org/ acterization of Copper-Indium-Gallium Sulfide (CIGS10. 1021/ acs. jpcle tt. 5b009 53 ) solar 22. Fan, R., Zhou, W., Huang, Z., Zhou, H.: Defect suppression and cells for lower absorber thicknesses. Thin Solid Films 518, passivation for perovskite solar cells: from the birth to the life- 1788–1790 (2010). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. tsf. 2009. 09. 033 time operation. EnergyChem. 2, 100032 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 5. Stuckelberger, M., Biron, R., Wyrsch, N., Haug, F.J., Ballif, C.: 10. 1016/j. enchem. 2020. 100032 Progress in solar cells from hydrogenated amorphous silicon. 23. Wu, X., Trinh, M.T., Niesner, D., Zhu, H., Norman, Z., Owen, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 76, 1497–1523 (2017). https:// doi. J.S., Yaffe, O., Kudisch, B.J., Zhu, X.Y.: Trap states in lead org/ 10. 1016/j. rser. 2016. 11. 190 iodide perovskites. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 2089–2096 (2015). 6. Joël Tchognia Nkuissi, H., Kouadio Konan, F., Hartiti, B., https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ ja512 833n Ndjaka, J.-M.: Toxic materials used in thin film photovoltaics 24. Mahmud, M.A., Elumalai, N.K., Upama, M.B., Wang, D., Gon- and their impacts on environment. In: Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules. pp. 1–18 (2020) çales, V.R., Wright, M., Xu, C., Haque, F., Uddin, A.: Passivation 7. Regan, B.O., Gratzel, M.: A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell of interstitial and vacancy mediated trap-states for efficient and based on dyes-sensitized collodial T iO stable triple-cation perovskite solar cells. J. Power Sources. 383, films. Nature 353, 737– 59–71 (2018). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jpows our. 2018. 02. 030 740 (1991). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1038/ 35373 7a0 25. Berdiyorov, G.R., Madjet, M.E., El-Mellouhi, F., Peeters, F.M.: 8. Bernède, J.C.: Organic photovoltaic cells: History, principle and Effect of crystal structure on the electronic transport properties of techniques. J. Chil. Chem. Soc. 53, 1549–1564 (2008). https:// the organometallic perovskite CH NH PbI . Sol. Energy Mater. doi. org/ 10. 4067/ S0717- 97072 00800 03000 01 3 3 3 Sol. Cells. 148, 60–66 (2016). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. solmat. 9. Jørgensen, M., Norrman, K., Krebs, F.C.: Stability/degradation of 2015. 09. 006 polymer solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 92, 686–714 26. Varadwaj, P.R., Varadwaj, A., Marques, H.M., Yamashita, K.: (2008). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. solmat. 2008. 01. 005 Significance of hydrogen bonding and other noncovalent inter - 10. Shirakawa, H.: The discovery of polyacetylene l fi m: The dawning actions in determining octahedral tilting in the CH3NH3PbI3 of an era of conducting polymers. Synth. Met. 125, 3–10 (2002). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/ s0379- 6779(01) 00507-0 hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cell semi- 11. Liu, Q., Jiang, Y., Jin, K., Qin, J., Xu, J., Li, W., Xiong, J., Liu, J., conductor. Sci. Rep. 9, 1–29 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1038/ Xiao, Z., Sun, K., Yang, S., Zhang, X., Ding, L.: 18% Efficiency s41598- 018- 36218-1 organic solar cells. Sci. Bull. 65, 272–275 (2020). https://doi. or g/ 27. Brivio, F., Frost, J.M., Skelton, J.M., Jackson, A.J., Weber, O.J., 10. 1016/j. scib. 2020. 01. 001 Weller, M.T., Goñi, A.R., Leguy, A.M.A., Barnes, P.R.F., Walsh, 12. Kojima, A., Teshima, K., Shirai, Y., Miyasaka, T.: Organo-metal A.: Lattice dynamics and vibrational spectra of the orthorhombic, halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic tetragonal, and cubic phases of methylammonium lead iodide. cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 6050–6051 (2009). https:// doi. Phys. Rev. B - Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 92, 144308 (2015). org/ 10. 1021/ ja809 598rhttps:// doi. org/ 10. 1103/ PhysR evB. 92. 144308 13. Eperon, G.E., Stranks, S.D., Menelaou, C., Johnston, M.B., Herz, 28. Wu, T., Wang, Y., Dai, Z., Cui, D., Wang, T., Meng, X., Bi, E., L.M., Snaith, H.J.: Formamidinium lead trihalide: A broadly Yang, X., Han, L.: Efficient and stable CsPbI3 solar cells via tunable perovskite for efficient planar heterojunction solar cells. regulating lattice distortion with surface organic terminal groups. Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 982–988 (2014). https://doi. or g/10. 1039/ Adv. Mater. 31, 1900605 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1002/ adma. c3ee4 3822h20190 0605 14. Green, M.A., Ho-Baillie, A., Snaith, H.J.: The emergence of per- 29. Wang, F., Ye, Z., Sarvari, H., Park, S.M., Abtahi, A., Graham, ovskite solar cells. Nat. Photonics. 8, 506–514 (2014). https://doi. K., Zhao, Y., Wang, Y., Chen, Z.D., Li, S.: Humidity-insensitive org/ 10. 1038/ nphot on. 2014. 134 fabrication of efficient perovskite solar cells in ambient air. J. 15. Ziffer, M.E., Mohammed, J.C., Ginger, D.S.: Electroabsorption Power Sources. 412, 359–365 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. spectroscopy measurements of the exciton binding energy, elec-jpows our. 2018. 11. 013 tron-hole reduced effective mass, and band gap in the perovskite 1 3 64 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 30. Kumar, Y., Regalado-Pérez, E., Ayala, A.M., Mathews, N.R., 45. Zhu, M., Li, C., Li, B., Zhang, J., Sun, Y., Guo, W., Zhou, Z., Mathew, X.: Effect of heat treatment on the electrical proper - Pang, S., Yan, Y.: Interaction engineering in organic–inorganic ties of perovskite solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 157, hybrid perovskite solar cells. Mater. Horizons. 7, 2208–2236 10–17 (2016). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. solmat. 2016. 04. 055 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ d0mh0 0745e 31. Zhang, H., Qiao, X., Shen, Y., Wang, M.: Effect of tempera- 46. Ha, S.R., Jeong, W.H., Liu, Y., Oh, J.T., Bae, S.Y., Lee, S., Kim, ture on the efficiency of organometallic perovskite solar cells. J.W., Bandyopadhyay, S., Jeong, H.I., Kim, J.Y., Kim, Y., Song, J. Energy Chem. 24, 729–735 (2015). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. M.H., Park, S.H., Stranks, S.D., Lee, B.R., Friend, R.H., Choi, jechem. 2015. 10. 007 H.: Molecular aggregation method for perovskite-fullerene bulk 32. Zheng, H., Liu, G., Zhang, C., Zhu, L., Alsaedi, A., Hayat, T., heterostructure solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. A. 8, 1326–1334 Pan, X., Dai, S.: The influence of perovskite layer and hole (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c9ta1 1854c transport material on the temperature stability about perovskite 47. Rolston, N., Printz, A.D., Tracy, J.M., Weerasinghe, H.C., Vak, solar cells. Sol. Energy. 159, 914–919 (2018). https://doi. or g/10. D., Haur, L.J., Priyadarshi, A., Mathews, N., Slotcavage, D.J., 1016/j. solen er. 2017. 09. 039 McGehee, M.D., Kalan, R.E., Zielinski, K., Grimm, R.L., Tsai, 33. Mesquita, I., Andrade, L., Mendes, A.: Effect of relative humidity H., Nie, W., Mohite, A.D., Gholipour, S., Saliba, M., Grätzel, M., during the preparation of perovskite solar cells: Performance and Dauskardt, R.H.: Ee ff ct of cation composition on the mechanical stability. Sol. Energy. 199, 474–483 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. stability of perovskite solar cells. Adv. Energy Mater. 8, 1702116 1016/j. solen er. 2020. 02. 052 (2017). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1002/ aenm. 20170 2116 34. Dong, X., Fang, X., Lv, M., Lin, B., Zhang, S., Wang, Y., Yuan, 48. Chae, S., Yi, A., Kim, H.J.: Molecular engineering of a conju- N., Ding, J.: Method for improving illumination instability of gated polymer as a hole transporting layer for versatile p–i–n organic–inorganic halide perovskite solar cells. Sci. Bull. 61, perovskite solar cells. Mater. Today Energy. 14, 100341 (2019). 236–244 (2016). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s11434- 016- 0994-1https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. mtener. 2019. 100341 35. Lee, J.W., Bae, S.H., De Marco, N., Hsieh, Y.T., Dai, Z., Yang, 49. Bakr, Z.H., Wali, Q., Fakharuddin, A., Schmidt-Mende, L., Y.: The role of grain boundaries in perovskite solar cells. Mater. Brown, T.M., Jose, R.: Advances in hole transport materials Today Energy. 7, 149–160 (2018). https:// doi. or g/ 10. 1016/j. engineering for stable and efficient perovskite solar cells. Nano mtener. 2017. 07. 014 Energy 34, 271–305 (2017). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. 36. Wang, S., Sina, M., Parikh, P., Uekert, T., Shahbazian, B., 2017. 02. 025 Devaraj, A., Meng, Y.S.: Role of 4-tert-butylpyridine as a hole 50. Hou, F., Han, C., Isabella, O., Yan, L., Shi, B., Chen, J., An, S., transport layer morphological controller in perovskite solar cells. Zhou, Z., Huang, W., Ren, H., Huang, Q., Hou, G., Chen, X., Li, Nano Lett. 16, 5594–5600 (2016). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ acs. Y., Ding, Y., Wang, G., Wei, C., Zhang, D., Zeman, M., Zhao, nanol ett. 6b021 58 Y., Zhang, X.: Inverted pyramidally-textured PDMS antireflec- 37. Urieta-Mora, J., García-Benito, I., Molina-Ontoria, A., Mar- tive foils for perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with flat top tín, N.: Hole transporting materials for perovskite solar cells: cell. Nano Energy 56, 234–240 (2019). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. a chemical approach. Chem. Soc. Rev. 47, 8541–8571 (2018). nanoen. 2018. 11. 018 https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c8cs0 0262b 51. Wu, X., Zhang, L., Xu, Z., Olthof, S., Ren, X., Liu, Y., Yang, 38. Li, X., Fu, S., Liu, S., Wu, Y., Zhang, W., Song, W., Fang, J.: D., Gao, F., Liu, S.: Efficient perovskite solar cellsviasurface Suppressing the ions-induced degradation for operationally passivation by a multifunctional small organic ionic compound. stable perovskite solar cells. Nano Energy 64, 103962 (2019). J. Mater. Chem. A. 8, 8313–8322 (2020). https://d oi.o rg/1 0.1 039/ https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. 2019. 103962d0ta0 2222e 39. Han, Y., Meyer, S., Dkhissi, Y., Weber, K., Pringle, J.M., Bach, 52. Zhang, W., Li, Y., Liu, X., Tang, D., Li, X., Yuan, X.: Ethyl U., Spiccia, L., Cheng, Y.B.: Degradation observations of encap- acetate green antisolvent process for high-performance planar sulated planar CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells at high tem-low-temperature SnO -based perovskite solar cells made in ambi- peratures and humidity. J. Mater. Chem. A. 3, 8139–8147 (2015). ent air. Chem. Eng. J. 379, 122298 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c5ta0 0358j1016/j. cej. 2019. 122298 40. Chun-Ren Ke, J., Walton, A.S., Lewis, D.J., Tedstone, A., 53. Meng, Z., Guo, D., Yu, J., Fan, K.: Investigation of Al 2 O 3 and O’Brien, P., Thomas, A.G., Flavell, W.R.: In situ investigation of ZrO 2 spacer layers for fully printable and hole-conductor-free degradation at organometal halide perovskite surfaces by X-ray mesoscopic perovskite solar cells. Appl. Surf. Sci. 430, 632–638 photoelectron spectroscopy at realistic water vapour pressure. (2018). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. apsusc. 2017. 05. 018 Chem. Commun. 53, 5231–5234 (2017). https://doi. or g/10. 1039/ 54. Wu, T., Wu, J., Tu, Y., He, X., Lan, Z., Huang, M., Lin, J.: Sol- c7cc0 1538k vent engineering for high-quality perovskite solar cell with an 41. Gujar, T.P., Unger, T., Schönleber, A., Fried, M., Panzer, F., efficiency approaching 20%. J. Power Sources. 365, 1–6 (2017). Van Smaalen, S., Köhler, A., Thelakkat, M.: The role of PbI2 https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jpows our. 2017. 08. 074 in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite stability, solar cell parameters and 55. Tombe, S., Adam, G., Heilbrunner, H., Apaydin, D.H., Ulbricht, device degradation. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 20, 605–614 C., Sariciftci, N.S., Arendse, C.J., Iwuoha, E., Scharber, M.C.: (2017). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c7cp0 4749e Optical and electronic properties of mixed halide (X = I, Cl, Br) 42. Li, T., Pan, Y., Wang, Z., Xia, Y., Chen, Y., Huang, W.: Additive methylammonium lead perovskite solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. C. engineering for highly efficient organic-inorganic halide per - 5, 1714–1723 (2017). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c6tc0 4830g ovskite solar cells: Recent advances and perspectives. J. Mater. 56. Hartono, N.T.P., Sun, S., Gélvez-Rueda, M.C., Pierone, P.J., Chem. A. 5, 12602–12652 (2017). https://doi. or g/10. 1039/ c7t a0 Erodici, M.P., Yoo, J., Wei, F., Bawendi, M., Grozema, F.C., 1798g Sher, M.J., Buonassisi, T., Correa-Baena, J.P.: The effect of 43. Li, S., Ma, R.: Enhanced photovoltaic performance and stability structural dimensionality on carrier mobility in lead-halide per- of planar perovskite solar cells by introducing dithizone. Sol. ovskites. J. Mater. Chem. A. 7, 23949–23957 (2019). https://doi. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 206, 290 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. org/ 10. 1039/ c9ta0 5241k 1016/j. solmat. 2019. 110290 57. Lewis, D.J.: Deposition Techniques for Perovskite Solar Cells. 44. Liu, Z., Ono, L.K., Qi, Y.: Additives in metal halide perovskite In: Nanostructured Materials for Type III Photovoltaics. pp. films and their applications in solar cells. J. Energy Chem. 46, 341–366. The Royal Society of Chemistry, UK (2018) 215–228 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jechem. 2019. 11. 008 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 65 58. Nouri, E., Mohammadi, M.R., Lianos, P.: Improving the stability perovskite solar cells. Sci. Bull. 65, 1726–1734 (2020). https:// of inverted perovskite solar cells under ambient conditions with doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. scib. 2020. 05. 031 graphene-based inorganic charge transporting layers. Carbon N. 73. Afroz, M.A., Gupta, R.K., Garai, R., Hossain, M., Tripathi, S.P., Y. 126, 208–214 (2018). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. carbon. 2017. Iyer, P.K.: Crystallization and grain growth regulation through 10. 015 Lewis acid-base adduct formation in hot cast perovskite-based 59. Feria, D.N., Chang, C.Y., Mahesh, K.P.O., Hsu, C.L., Chao, Y.C.: solar cells. Org. Electron. 74, 172–178 (2019). https:// doi. org/ Perovskite solar cells based on a perovskite film with improved 10. 1016/j. orgel. 2019. 07. 007 film coverage. Synth. Met. 260, 1 (2020). https:// doi. or g/ 10. 74. González-Juárez, E., González-Quijano, D., Garcia-Gutierrez, 1016/j. synth met. 2019. 116283 D.F., Garcia-Gutierrez, D.I., Ibarra-Rodríguez, J., Sanchez, E.: 60. Wang, S., Wang, A., Deng, X., Xie, L., Xiao, A., Li, C., Xiang, Improving performance of perovskites solar cells using solvent Y., Li, T., Ding, L., Hao, F.: Lewis acid/base approach for effica- engineering, via Lewis adduct of MAI-DMSO-PbI i and incor- cious defect passivation in perovskite solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. poration of imidazolium cation. J. Alloys Compd. 817, 153076 A. 8, 12201–12225 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ d0ta0 3957h (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jallc om. 2019. 153076 61. Adam, G., Kaltenbrunner, M., Głowacki, E.D., Apaydin, D.H., 75. Hamill, J.C., Schwartz, J., Loo, Y.L.: Influence of Solvent Coor - White, M.S., Heilbrunner, H., Tombe, S., Stadler, P., Ernecker, dination on Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Formation. B., Klampfl, C.W., Sariciftci, N.S., Scharber, M.C.: Solu- ACS Energy Lett. 3, 92–97 (2018). https://doi. or g/10. 1021/ acsen tion processed perovskite solar cells using highly conductive ergyl ett. 7b010 57 PEDOT:PSS interfacial layer. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 157, 76. Wu, Y., Wang, Y., Duan, J., Yang, X., Zhang, J., Liu, L., Tang, 318–325 (2016). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. solmat. 2016. 05. 011 Q.: Cluster effect of additives in precursors for inorganic perovs- 62. Guo, X., Zhang, M., Ma, W., Zhang, S., Hou, J., Li, Y.: Effect kites solar cells. Electrochim. Acta. 331, 135379 (2020). https:// of solvent additive on active layer morphologies and photovol-doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. elect acta. 2019. 135379 taic performance of polymer solar cells based on PBDTTT-C-T 77. Wang, M., Cao, F., Deng, K., Li, L.: Adduct phases induced con- / PC71BM. RSC Adv. 6, 51924–51931 (2016). https:// doi. org/ trolled crystallization for mixed-cation perovskite solar cells with 10. 1039/ c6ra0 6020j efficiency over 21 %. Nano Energy 63, 103867 (2019). https:// 63. Liao, H.C., Ho, C.C., Chang, C.Y., Jao, M.H., Darling, S.B., doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. 2019. 103867 Su, W.F.: Additives for morphology control in high-efficiency 78. Zhou, X., Kong, F., Sun, Y., Huang, Y., Zhang, X., Ghadari, R.: organic solar cells. Mater. Today. 16, 326–336 (2013). https:// Dopant-free benzothiadiazole bridged hole transport materials doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. mattod. 2013. 08. 013 for highly stable and efficient perovskite solar cells. Dye. Pig- 64. Park, S.H., Jin, I.S., Ahn, H., Jung, J.W.: Non-halogenated addi- ment. 173, 107954 (2020). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. dy epig.2019. tive engineering for morphology optimization in environmen- 107954 tal-friendly solvent processed non-fullerene organic solar cells. 79. Wang, H., Zhang, X., Huang, T., Lu, Z., Gao, F., Shi, Z., Zhou, Org. Electron. 86, 105893 (2020). https://d oi.o rg/1 0.1 016/j.o rgel. L., Li, R., Tang, G.: Enhance the performance of ZnO-based per- 2020. 105893 ovskite solar cells under ambient conditions. Opt. Mater. (Amst) 65. Nazim, M., Abdullah, Akhtar, M.S., Kim, E.B., Shin, H.S., 89, 375–381 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. optmat. 2019. 01. Ameen, S.: Underlying effects of diiodooctane as additive on 059 the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based 80. Wang, G., Wang, L., Qiu, J., Yan, Z., Tai, K., Yu, W., Jiang, small organic molecule of isatin-core moiety. Synth. Met. 261, X.: Fabrication of efficient formamidinium perovskite solar cells 116304 (2020). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. synt hme t.2020. 116304 under ambient air via intermediate-modulated crystallization. 66. Carvalho, I.C., Barbosa, M.L., Costa, M.J.S., Longo, E., Caval- Sol. Energy. 187, 147–155 (2019). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. solen cante, L.S., Viana, V.G.F., Santos, R.S.: T iO -based dye-sensi-er. 2019. 05. 033 tized solar cells prepared with bixin and norbixin natural dyes: 81. Hailegnaw, B., Adam, G., Wielend, D., Pedarnig, J.D., Sariciftci, Effect of 2,2’-bipyridine additive on the current and voltage. N.S., Scharber, M.C.: Acetylacetone improves the performance Optik (Stuttg). 218, 165236 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. of mixed halide perovskite solar cells. J. Phys. Chem. C. 123, ijleo. 2020. 165236 23807–23816 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ acs. jpcc. 9b050 58 67. Zhang, L., Zhao, H., Yuan, J., Lin, B., Xing, Z., Meng, X., Ke, L., 82. Liang, P.W., Liao, C.Y., Chueh, C.C., Zuo, F., Williams, S.T., Hu, X., Ma, W., Yuan, Y.: Blade-coated efficient and stable large- Xin, X.K., Lin, J., Jen, A.K.Y.: Additive enhanced crystalliza- area organic solar cells with optimized additive. Org. Electron. tion of solution-processed perovskite for highly efficient planar- 83, 105771 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. orgel. 2020. 105771 heterojunction solar cells. Adv. Mater. 26, 3748–3754 (2014). 68. Cheng, J., Zhang, L., Jiang, H., Yuan, D., Wang, Q., Cao, Y., https:// doi. org/ 10. 1002/ adma. 20140 0231 Chen, J.: Investigation of halogen-free solvents towards high- 83. Li, Y., Shi, J., Zheng, J., Bing, J., Yuan, J., Cho, Y., Tang, S., performance additive-free non-fullerene organic solar cells. Org. Zhang, M., Yao, Y., Lau, C.F.J., Lee, D.S., Liao, C., Green, Electron. 85, 105871 (2020). h tt ps : // d oi . o r g / 1 0. 1 01 6 /j . o r g e l . M.A., Huang, S., Ma, W., Ho-Baillie, A.W.Y.: Acetic acid 2020. 105871 assisted crystallization strategy for high efficiency and long-rerm 69. Yu, R., Yao, H., Hong, L., Qin, Y., Zhu, J., Cui, Y., Li, S., Hou, stable perovskite solar cell. Adv. Sci. 7, 1903368 (2020). https:// J.: Design and application of volatilizable solid additives in non-doi. org/ 10. 1002/ advs. 20190 3368 fullerene organic solar cells. Nat. Commun. 9, 4645 (2018). 84. Cui, C., Xie, D., Lin, P., Hu, H., Che, S., Xiao, K., Wang, P., https:// doi. org/ 10. 1038/ s41467- 018- 07017-z Xu, L., Yang, D., Yu, X.: Thioacetamide additive assisted crys- 70. Liu, S., Guan, Y., Sheng, Y., Hu, Y., Rong, Y., Mei, A., Han, H.: tallization of solution-processed perovskite films for high per - A Review on Additives for Halide Perovskite Solar Cells (2019) formance planar heterojunction solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. 71. Yang, J., Chen, S., Xu, J., Zhang, Q., Liu, H., Liu, Z., Yuan, M.: Sol. Cells. 208, 110435 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. sol- A review on improving the quality of perovskite films in perovs-mat. 2020. 110435 kite solar cells via the weak forces induced by additives. Appl. 85. Zhang, Z., Fan, W., Wei, X., Zhang, L., Yang, Z., Wei, Z., Sci. 9, 4393 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 3390/ app92 04393 Shen, T., Si, H., Qi, J.: Promoted performance of carbon based 72. Xie, J., Yan, K., Zhu, H., Li, G., Wang, H., Zhu, H., Hang, P., perovskite solar cells by environmentally friendly additives Zhao, S., Guo, W., Ye, D., Shao, L., Guan, X., Ngai, T., Yu, X., of CH COONH and Zn(CH COO) . J. Alloys Compd. 802, 3 4 3 2 Xu, J.: Identifying the functional groups effect on passivating 694–703 (2019). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. jallc om. 2019. 06. 161 1 3 66 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 86. Li, Y., Zhang, Z., Zhou, Y., Xie, L., Gao, N., Lu, X., Gao, X., fluorocarbon based bifunctional molecules for perovskite solar Gao, J., Shui, L., Wu, S., Liu, J.: Enhanced performance and cells with efficiency over 21%. J. Mater. Chem. A. 7 , 2497–2506 stability of ambient-processed CH NH PbI (SCN) planar (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c8ta1 1524a 3 3 3-x x perovskite solar cells by introducing ammonium salts. Appl. 100. Duenas, S., Perez, E., Castan, H., Garcia, H., Bailon, L.: The role Surf. Sci. 513, 145790 (2020). https://d oi.o rg/1 0.1 016/j.a psusc. of defects in solar cells: Control and detection defects in solar 2020. 145790 cells. Proc. 2013 Spanish Conf. Electron Devices, CDE 2013. 87. Lu, H., Krishna, A., Zakeeruddin, S.M., Grätzel, M., Hagfeldt, 301–304 (2013). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1109/ CDE. 2013. 64814 02 A.: Compositional and interface engineering of organic-inor- 101. Yonenaga, I., Ohno, Y., Taishi, T., Tokumoto, Y.: Recent knowl- ganic lead halide perovskite solar cells. iScience. 23, 101359 edge of strength and dislocation mobility in wide band-gap semi- (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. isci. 2020. 101359 conductors. Phys. B Condens. Matter. 404, 4999–5001 (2009). 88. Li, X., Yang, J., Jiang, Q., Chu, W., Zhang, D., Zhou, Z., Ren, https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. physb. 2009. 08. 196 Y., Xin, J.: Enhanced photovoltaic performance and stability in 102. Queisser, H.J., Haller, E.E.: Defects in semiconductors: Some mixed-cation perovskite solar cells via compositional modula- fatal, some vital. Science 281, 945–950 (1998) tion. Electrochim. Acta. 247, 460–467 (2017). https://doi. or g/ 103. Chen, Y., Zhou, H.: Defects chemistry in high-efficiency and 10. 1016/j. elect acta. 2017. 07. 040 stable perovskite solar cells. J. Appl. Phys. 128, 1 (2020). https:// 89. Albero, J., Asiri, A.M., García, H.: Influence of the composi-doi. org/ 10. 1063/5. 00123 84 tion of hybrid perovskites on their performance in solar cells. 104. Montoya, D.M., Pérez-Gutiérrez, E., Barbosa-Garcia, O., Bernal, J. Mater. Chem. A. 4, 4353–4364 (2016). https:// doi. org/ 10. W., Maldonado, J.L., Percino, M.J., Meneses, M.A., Cerón, M.: 1039/ c6ta0 0334f Defects at the interface electron transport layer and alternative 90. Kim, M., Kim, G.H., Lee, T.K., Choi, I.W., Choi, H.W., Jo, counter electrode, their impact on perovskite solar cells perfor- Y., Yoon, Y.J., Kim, J.W., Lee, J., Huh, D., Lee, H., Kwak, mance. Sol. Energy. 195, 610–617 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. S.K., Kim, J.Y., Kim, D.S.: Methylammonium chloride induces 1016/j. solen er. 2019. 11. 098 intermediate phase stabilization for efficient perovskite solar 105. Agiorgousis, M.L., Sun, Y.Y., Zeng, H., Zhang, S.: Strong cova- cells. Joule. 3, 2179–2192 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. lency-induced recombination centers in perovskite solar cell joule. 2019. 06. 014material CH NH PbI . J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 14570–14575 3 3 3 91. Lee, K., Cho, K.H., Ryu, J., Yun, J., Yu, H., Lee, J., Na, W., (2014). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ ja507 9305 Jang, J.: Low-cost and efficient perovskite solar cells using 106. Aidarkhanov, D., Ren, Z., Lim, C.K., Yelzhanova, Z., Nigmetova, a surfactant-modified polyaniline:poly(styrenesulfonate) hole G., Taltanova, G., Baptayev, B., Liu, F., Cheung, S.H., Balanay, transport material. Electrochim. Acta. 224, 600–607 (2017). M., Baumuratov, A., Djurišić, A.B., So, S.K., Surya, C., Prasad, https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. elect acta. 2016. 12. 103 P.N., Ng, A.: Passivation engineering for hysteresis-free mixed 92. Chang, C.Y., Chang, Y.C., Huang, W.K., Lee, K.T., Cho, A.C., perovskite solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 215, 110648 Hsu, C.C.: Enhanced performance and stability of semitrans- (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. solmat. 2020. 110648 parent perovskite solar cells using solution-processed thiol- 107. Chen, B., Yang, M., Priya, S., Zhu, K.: Origin of J-V hysteresis functionalized cationic surfactant as cathode buffer layer. in perovskite solar cells. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 905–917 (2016). Chem. Mater. 27, 7119–7127 (2015). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ acs. jpcle tt. 6b002 15 acs. chemm ater. 5b031 37 108. Yuan, Y., Bi, C., Xiao, Z., Huang, J., Shao, Y., Xiao, Z., Bi, 93. Hong, J., Kim, H., Hwang, I.: Defect site engineering for C., Yuan, Y., Huang, J.: Origin and elimination of photocurrent charge recombination and stability via polymer surfactant hysteresis by fullerene passivation in CH NH PbI . planar het- 3 3 3 incorporation with an ultra-small amount in perovskite solar erojunction solar cells. Nat Commun. 5, 1–7 (2014). https:// doi. cells. Org. Electron. 73, 87–93 (2019). https:// doi. or g/ 10. org/ 10. 1038/ ncomm s6784 1016/j. orgel. 2019. 06. 003 109. Song, T.-B., Zhou, H., Chen, C.-C., Yang, Y.: Under the spot- 94. Gao, F., Zhao, Y., Zhang, X., You, J.: Recent progresses on light: The organic–inorganic hybrid halide perovskite for opto- defect passivation toward efficient perovskite solar cells. Adv. electronic applications. Nano Today 10, 355–396 (2015). https:// Energy Mater. 10, 1902650 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1002/ doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. nantod. 2015. 04. 009 aenm. 20190 2650 110. Yang, J., Siempelkamp, B.D., Liu, D., Kelly, T.L.: Investigation 95. Liao, K., Li, C., Xie, L., Yuan, Y., Wang, S., Cao, Z., Ding, of CH3NH3PbI3 degradation rates and mechanisms in controlled L., Hao, F.: Hot-casting large-grain perovskite film for effi- humidity environments using in situ techniques. ACS Nano 9, cient solar cells: Film formation and device performance. 1955–1963 (2015). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ nn506 864k Nano-Micro Lett. 12, 156 (2020). h t t p s : / / d o i . o r g / 1 0 . 1 0 0 7 / 111. Huang, W., Manser, J.S., Kamat, P.V., Ptasinska, S.: Evolution of s40820- 020- 00494-2 chemical composition, morphology, and photovoltaic efficiency 96. Guo, F., Li, X., Jiang, X., Zhao, X., Guo, C., Rao, Z.: Charac-of CH NH PbI . perovskite under ambient conditions. Chem. 3 3 3 teristics and toxic dye adsorption of magnetic activated carbon Mater. 28, 303–311 (2016). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ acs. chemm prepared from biomass waste by modified one-step synthesis. ater. 5b041 22 Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 1, 3–46 (2018). https:// 112. Arias-Ramos, C.F., Kumar, Y., Abrego-Martínez, P.G., Hu, doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. colsu rfa. 2018. 06. 061 H.: Efficient and stable hybrid perovskite prepared at 60% 97. Chen, B., Rudd, P.N., Yang, S., Yuan, Y., Huang, J.: Imperfec- relative humidity with a hydrophobic additive in anti-solvent. tions and their passivation in halide perovskite solar cells. Chem. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 215, 1 (2020). https:// doi. org/ Soc. Rev. 48, 3842–3867 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c8cs0 10. 1016/j. solmat. 2020. 110625 0853a 113. Liu, P., Liu, Z., Qin, C., He, T., Li, B., Ma, L., Shaheen, K., 98. Lee, M.S., Sarwar, S., Park, S., Asmat, U., Thuy, D.T., Han, Yang, J., Yang, H., Liu, H., Liu, K., Yuan, M.: High-perfor- C.H., Ahn, S.J., Jeong, I., Hong, S.: Efficient defect passivation mance perovskite solar cells based on passivating interfacial of perovskite solar cells: via stitching of an organic bidentate and intergranular defects. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 212, molecule. Sustain. Energy Fuels. 4, 3318–3325 (2020). https:// 110555 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. solmat. 2020. 110555 doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c9se0 1041f 114. Wang, Z., Fan, P., Zhang, D., Yang, G., Yu, J.: Enhanced effi- 99. Guo, P., Ye, Q., Yang, X., Zhang, J., Xu, F., Shchukin, D., Wei, ciency and stability of p-i-n perovskite solar cells using PMMA B., Wang, H.: Surface & grain boundary co-passivation by 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 67 doped PTAA as hole transport layers. Synth. Met. 265, 116428 129. Li, J., Wu, M., Yang, G., Zhang, D., Wang, Z., Zheng, D., Yu, J.: (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. synth met. 2020. 116428 Bottom-up passivation effects by using 3D/2D mix structure for 115. Li, G., Wu, J., Song, J., Meng, C., Song, Z., Wang, X., Liu, high performance p-i-n perovskite solar cells. Sol. Energy. 205, X., Yang, Y., Wang, D., Lan, Z.: Excellent quinoline additive 44–50 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. solen er. 2020. 05. 042 in perovskite toward to efficient and stable perovskite solar 130. Yao, D., Mao, X., Wang, X., Yang, Y., Hoang, M.T., Du, A., cells. J. Power Sources. 481, 228857 (2021). https:// doi. org/ Waclawik, E.R., Wilson, G.J., Wang, H.: The effect of ethylene- 10. 1016/j. jpows our. 2020. 228857 amine ligands enhancing performance and stability of perovskite 116. Wang, S., Li, H., Zhang, B., Guo, Z.: Perovskite solar cells solar cells. J. Power Sources. 463, 228210 (2020). https://doi. or g/ based on the synergy between carbon electrodes and polyeth-10. 1016/j. jpows our. 2020. 228210 ylene glycol additive with excellent stability. Org. Electron. 83, 131. Du, Y., Wu, J., Zhang, X., Zhu, Q., Zhang, M., Liu, X., Zou, Y., 734 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. orgel. 2020. 105734 Wang, S., Sun, W.: Surface passivation using pyridinium iodide 117. Lin, Y.H., Sakai, N., Da, P., Wu, J., Sansom, H.C., Ramadan, for highly ec ffi ient planar perovskite solar cells. J. Energy Chem. A.J., Mahesh, S., Liu, J., Oliver, R.D.J., Lim, J., Aspitarte, L., 52, 84–91 (2021). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. jec hem.2020. 04. 049 Sharma, K., Madhu, P.K., Morales-Vilches, A.B., Nayak, P.K., 132. Si, H., Xu, C., Ou, Y., Zhang, G., Fan, W., Xiong, Z., Kausar, A., Bai, S., Gao, F., Grovenor, C.R.M., Johnston, M.B., Labram, Liao, Q., Zhang, Z., Sattar, A., Kang, Z., Zhang, Y.: Dual-pas- J.G., Durrant, J.R., Ball, J.M., Wenger, B., Stannowski, B., sivation of ionic defects for highly crystalline perovskite. Nano Snaith, H.J.: A piperidinium salt stabilizes efficient metal-hal- Energy 68, 104320 (2020). https:// doi. or g/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. ide perovskite solar cells. Science (80-. ). 369, 96–102 (2020). 2019. 104320 https:// doi. org/ 10. 1126/ scien ce. aba16 28 133. Wali, Q., Iftikhar, F.J., Khan, M.E., Ullah, A., Iqbal, Y., Jose, R.: 118. Jin, S., Wei, Y., Rong, B., Fang, Y., Zhao, Y., Guo, Q., Huang, Advances in stability of perovskite solar cells. Org. Electron. 78, Y., Fan, L., Wu, J.: Improving perovskite solar cells photovol- 105590 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. orgel. 2019. 105590 taic performance using tetrabutylammonium salt as additive. J. 134. Mesquita, I., Andrade, L., Mendes, A.: Perovskite solar cells: Power Sources. 450, 227623 (2020). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. materials, configurations and stability. Renew. Sustain. Energy jpows our. 2019. 227623 Rev. 82, 2471–2489 (2018). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. rser. 2017. 119. Parveen, S., Obaidulla, S.M., Giri, P.K.: Growth kinetics of 09. 011 hybrid perovskite thin films on different substrates at elevated 135. Jeng, J.Y., Chiang, Y.F., Lee, M.H., Peng, S.R., Guo, T.F., Chen, temperature and its direct correlation with the microstructure P., Wen, T.C.: CH NH PbI . perovskite/fullerene planar-hetero- 3 3 3 and optical properties. Appl. Surf. Sci. 530, 147224 (2020). junction hybrid solar cells. Adv. Mater. 25, 3727–3732 (2013). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. apsusc. 2020. 147224https:// doi. org/ 10. 1002/ adma. 20130 1327 120. Nancollas, G.H., Purdie, N.: The kinetics of crystal growth. 136. Chowdhury, T.H., Kaneko, R., Kayesh, M.E., Akhtaruzzaman, Q. Rev. Chem. Soc. 18, 1–20 (1964). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ M., Sopian, K. Bin, Lee, J.J., Islam, A.: Nanostructured NiOxas qr964 18000 01 hole transport material for low temperature processed stable per- 121. Large-area perovskite solar cells: Yang, J., Zuo, C., Peng, Y., ovskite solar cells. Mater. Lett. 223, 109–111 (2018). https://doi. (Michael) Yang, Y., Yang, X., Ding, L. Sci. Bull. 65, 872–875 org/ 10. 1016/j. matlet. 2018. 04. 040 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. scib. 2020. 02. 023 137. Sun, J., Lu, J., Li, B., Jiang, L., Chesman, A.S.R., Scully, 122. Meng, L., You, J., Yang, Y.: Addressing the stability issue A.D., Gengenbach, T.R., Cheng, Y.B., Jasieniak, J.J.: Inverted of perovskite solar cells for commercial applications. perovskite solar cells with high fill-factors featuring chemical Nat. Commun. 9, 5265 (2018). https:// doi. or g/ 10. 1038/ bath deposited mesoporous NiO hole transporting layers. Nano s41467- 018- 07255-1 Energy 49, 163–171 (2018). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. 123. Mali, S.S., Patil, J.V., Arandiyan, H., Luque, R., Hong, C.K.: 2018. 04. 026 Stability of unstable perovskites: recent strategies for making 138. Luo, C., Li, G., Chen, L., Dong, J., Yu, M., Xu, C., Yao, Y., stable perovskite solar cells. ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 8, Wang, M., Song, Q., Zhang, S.: Passivation of defects in inverted Q111–Q117 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1149/2. 02019 06jss perovskite solar cells using an imidazolium-based ionic liquid. 124. Zimmermann, I., Mosconi, E., Lee, X., Martineau, D., Narbey, Sustain. Energy Fuels. 4, 3971–3978 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. S., Oswald, F., Grancini, G., Rolda, C.: One-year stable perovs-1039/ d0se0 0528b kite solar cells by 2D/3D interface engineering. Nat. Commun. 139. Huang, D., Goh, T., Kong, J., Zheng, Y., Zhao, S., Xu, Z., Taylor, 8, 15684 (2017). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1038/ ncomm s15684 A.D.: Perovskite solar cells with a DMSO-treated PEDOT:PSS 125. Shao, Y., Fang, Y., Huang, J., Cao, L., Mulligan, P., Dong, Q., hole transport layer exhibit higher photovoltaic performance and Qiu, J.: Electron-hole diffusion lengths > 175 μm in solution- enhanced durability. Nanoscale 9, 4236–4243 (2017). https://doi. grown CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 single crystals. Science (80-). 347, org/ 10. 1039/ c6nr0 8375g 967–970 (2015). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1126/ scien ce. aaa57 60 140. Kaltenbrunner, M., Adam, G., Głowacki, E.D., Drack, M., 126. Yan, X., Hu, S., Zhang, Y., Li, H., Sheng, C.: Methylammonium Schwödiauer, R., Leonat, L., Apaydin, D.H., Groiss, H., Schar- acetate as an additive to improve performance and eliminate J-V ber, M.C., White, M.S., Sariciftci, N.S., Bauer, S.: Flexible high hysteresis in 2D homologous organic-inorganic perovskite solar power-per-weight perovskite solar cells with chromium oxide- cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 191, 283–289 (2019). https:// metal contacts for improved stability in air. Nat. Mater. 14, doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. solmat. 2018. 11. 030 1032–1039 (2015). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1038/ nmat4 388 127. Zheng, H., Liu, D., Wang, Y., Yang, Y., Li, H., Zhang, T., 141. Zhou, X., Hu, M., Liu, C., Zhang, L., Zhong, X., Li, X., Tian, Y., Chen, H., Ji, L., Chen, Z., Li, S.: Synergistic effect of additives Cheng, C., Xu, B.: Synergistic effects of multiple functional ionic on 2D perovskite film towards efficient and stable solar cell. liquid-treated PEDOT:PSS and less-ion-defects S-acetylthiocho- Chem. Eng. J. 389, 124266 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. line chloride-passivated perovskite surface enabling stable and cej. 2020. 124266 hysteresis-free inverted perovskite solar cells with conversion 128. Chen, M., Li, P., Liang, C., Gu, H., Tong, W., Cheng, S., Li, efficiency over 2. Nano Energy 63, 103866 (2019). https:// doi. W., Zhao, G., Shao, G.: Enhanced efficiency and stability of org/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. 2019. 103866 perovskite solar cells by 2D perovskite vapor-assisted interface 142. Zheng, X., Hou, Y., Bao, C., Yin, J., Yuan, F., Huang, Z., Song, optimization. J. Energy Chem. 45, 103–109 (2020). https:// doi. K., Liu, J., Troughton, J., Gasparini, N., Zhou, C., Lin, Y., Xue, org/ 10. 1016/j. jechem. 2019. 10. 006 D.J., Chen, B., Johnston, A.K., Wei, N., Hedhili, M.N., Wei, 1 3 68 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 M., Alsalloum, A.Y., Maity, P., Turedi, B., Yang, C., Baran, D., induced large-grained perovskite with reduced defect density for Anthopoulos, T.D., Han, Y., Lu, Z.H., Mohammed, O.F., Gao, high performance inverted solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. F., Sargent, E.H., Bakr, O.M.: Managing grains and interfaces via Cells. 212, 110553 (2020). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. solmat. 2020. ligand anchoring enables 22.3%-efficiency inverted perovskite 110553 solar cells. Nat. Energy. 5, 131–140 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 156. Sonmezoglu, S., Akin, S.: Suppression of the interface-dependent 1038/ s41560- 019- 0538-4 nonradiative recombination by using 2-methylbenzimidazole as 143. Choi, M.J., Lee, Y.S., Cho, I.H., Kim, S.S., Kim, D.H., Kwon, interlayer for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells. S.N., Na, S.I.: Functional additives for high-performance inverted Nano Energy 76, 105127 (2020). https:// doi. or g/ 10. 1016/j. planar perovskite solar cells with exceeding 20% efficiency: nanoen. 2020. 105127 selective complexation of organic cations in precursors. Nano 157. Zhang, Y., Grancini, G., Fei, Z., Shirzadi, E., Liu, X., Oveisi, E., Energy 71, 104639 (2020). https:// doi. or g/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. Tirani, F.F., Scopelliti, R., Feng, Y., Nazeeruddin, M.K., Dyson, 2020. 104639 P.J.: Auto-passivation of crystal defects in hybrid imidazolium/ 144. Su, L., Xiao, Y., Han, G., Lu, L., Li, H., Zhu, M.: Performance methylammonium lead iodide films by fumigation with methyl- enhancement of perovskite solar cells using trimesic acid addi- amine affords high efficiency perovskite solar cells. Nano Energy tive in the two-step solution method. J. Power Sources. 426, 58, 105–111 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. 2019. 01. 11–15 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jpows our. 2019. 04. 024 027 145. Yao, Z., Qu, D., Guo, Y., Huang, H.: Grain boundary regulation 158. Li, W., Lai, X., Meng, F., Li, G., Wang, K., Kyaw, A.K.K., Sun, of flexible perovskite solar cells via a polymer alloy additive. X.W.: Efficient defect-passivation and charge-transfer with Org. Electron. 70, 205–210 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. interfacial organophosphorus ligand modification for enhanced orgel. 2019. 04. 029 performance of perovskite solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. 146. Ma, S., Liu, X., Wu, Y., Tao, Y., Ding, Y., Cai, M., Dai, S., Liu, Cells. 211, 110527 (2020). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. solmat. 2020. X., Alsaedi, A., Hayat, T.: Efficient and flexible solar cells with 110527 improved stability through incorporation of a multifunctional 159. Wu, Z., Zhang, M., Liu, Y., Dou, Y., Kong, Y., Gao, L., Han, small molecule at PEDOT:PSS/perovskite interface. Sol. Energy W., Liang, G., Zhang, X.L., Huang, F., Cheng, Y.B., Zhong, J.: Mater. Sol. Cells. 208, 110379 (2020). https://d oi.o rg/1 0.1 016/j. Groups-dependent phosphines as the organic redox for point solmat. 2019. 110379 defects elimination in hybrid perovskite solar cells. J. Energy 147. Zhu, K., Cong, S., Lu, Z., Lou, Y., He, L., Li, J., Ding, J., Yuang, Chem. 54, 23–29 (2020). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. jec hem.2020. N., Rümmeli, M.H., Zou, G.: Enhanced perovskite solar cell per-05. 047 formance via defect passivation with ethylamine alcohol chlo- 160. He, Q., Worku, M., Xu, L., Zhou, C., Lteif, S., Schlenoff, J.B., rides additive. J. Power Sources. 428, 82–87 (2019). https:// doi. Ma, B.: Surface passivation of perovskite thin films by phospho- org/ 10. 1016/j. jpows our. 2019. 04. 056 nium halides for efficient and stable solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. 148. Wang, R., Xue, J., Meng, L., Lee, J.W., Zhao, Z., Sun, P., Cai, A. 8, 2039–2046 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c9ta1 2597c L., Huang, T., Wang, Z., Wang, Z.K., Duan, Y., Yang, J.L., Tan, 161. Yang, J., Liu, C., Cai, C., Hu, X., Huang, Z., Duan, X., Meng, X., S., Yuan, Y., Huang, Y., Yang, Y.: Caffeine improves the perfor - Yuan, Z., Tan, L., Chen, Y.: High-performance perovskite solar mance and thermal stability of perovskite solar cells. Joule. 3, cells with excellent humidity and thermo-stability via fluorinated 1464–1477 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. joule. 2019. 04. 005 perylenediimide. Adv. Energy Mater. 9, 1900198 (2019). https:// 149. Xiong, S., Hao, T., Sun, Y., Yang, J., Ma, R., Wang, J., Gong, S., doi. org/ 10. 1002/ aenm. 20190 0198 Liu, X., Ding, L., Fahlman, M., Bao, Q.: Defect passivation by 162. Maaej, A., Bahri, M., Abid, Y., Jaidane, N., Lakhdar, Z.B., Lau- nontoxic biomaterial yields 21% efficiency perovskite solar cells. tié, A.: Raman study of low temperature phase transitions in the J. Energy Chem. 55, 265–271 (2021). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. cubic perovskite CH NH PbCl . Phase Transitions 64, 179–190 3 3 3 jechem. 2020. 06. 061 (1998). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1080/ 01411 59980 82079 97 150. Zhang, X., Wu, J., Du, Y., Li, Z., Chen, Q., Zhang, Z., Rong, 163. Luo, D., Yu, L., Wang, H., Zou, T., Luo, L., Liu, Z., Lu, Z.: Cubic B., Wang, D., Li, G., Sun, W.: Interfacial defect passivation by structure of the mixed halide perovskite CH NH PbI Cl via 3 3 3-x x chenodeoxycholic acid for efficient and stable perovskite solar thermal annealing. RSC Adv. 5, 85480–85485 (2015). https:// cells. J. Power Sources. 472, 228502 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c5ra1 6516d 1016/j. jpows our. 2020. 228502 164. Wu, S., Zhang, J., Li, Z., Liu, D., Qin, M., Cheung, S.H., Lu, X., 151. Xin, D., Tie, S., Zheng, X., Zhu, J., Zhang, W.H.: Defect passiva- Lei, D., So, S.K., Zhu, Z., Jen, A.K.Y.: Modulation of defects tion through electrostatic interaction for high performance flex- and interfaces through alkylammonium interlayer for efficient ible perovskite solar cells. J. Energy Chem. 46, 173–177 (2020). inverted perovskite solar cells. Joule. 4, 1248–1262 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jechem. 2019. 11. 015https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. joule. 2020. 04. 001 152. Umeyama, T., Imahori, H.: A chemical approach to perovskite 165. Cahen, D., Hodes, G., Rosenwaks, Y., Gartsman, K., Mukhopad- solar cells: control of electron-transporting mesoporous TiO2 hyay, S., Henning, A., Kirmayer, S., Edri, E.: Why lead meth- and utilization of nanocarbon materials. Dalt. Trans. 1, 15615– ylammonium tri-iodide perovskite-based solar cells require a 15627 (2017). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ C7DT0 2421E mesoporous electron transporting scaffold (but not necessarily a 153. Xie, J., Zhou, Z., Qiao, H., Chen, M., Wang, L., Yang, S., Hou, hole conductor). Nano Lett. 14, 1000–1004 (2014) Y., Yang, H.: Modulating MAPbI3 perovskite solar cells by 166. Batch, U., Lupo, D.: Solid-state dye-sensitized mesoporous TiO amide molecules: crystallographic regulation and surface pas- solar cells with high photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies. sivation. J. Energy Chem. 56, 179–185 (2021). https:// doi. org/ Nature 395, 583–585 (1998). https:// doi. or g/ 10. 1002/ 97804 10. 1016/j. jechem. 2020. 07. 05070638 859. conrr 518 154. Nishihara, Y., Onozawa-Komatsuzaki, N., Zou, X., Marumoto, 167. Jiang, H., Jiang, G., Xing, W., Xiong, W., Zhang, X., Wang, K., Chikamatsu, M., Yoshida, Y.: Effect of passivation on the B., Zhang, H., Zheng, Y.: High current density and low hys- interface between perovskite and donor–acceptor copolymer- teresis effect of planar perovskite solar cells via PCBM-doping based hole-transport Layer in perovskite solar cells. Chem. Lett. and interfacial improvement. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 10, 49, 1341–1344 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1246/ cl. 200497 29954–29964 (2018). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ acsami. 8b060 20 155. Wang, Y., Yang, Y., Han, D.W., Yang, Q.F., Yuan, Q., Li, H.Y., 168. Hailegnaw, B., Adam, G., Heilbrunner, H., Apaydin, D.H., Yang, Y., Zhou, D.Y., Feng, L.: Amphoteric imidazole doping Ulbricht, C., Sariciftci, N.S., Scharber, M.C.: Inverted (p-i-n) 1 3 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 69 perovskite solar cells using a low temperature processed TiOx 182. Li, H., Li, D., Zhao, W., Yuan, S., Liu, Z., Wang, D., Liu, S.: interlayer. RSC Adv. 8, 24836–24846 (2018). https://doi. or g/10. NaCl-assisted defect passivation in the bulk and surface of TiO 1039/ c8ra0 3993c enhancing efficiency and stability of planar perovskite solar cells. 169. Zhang, L., Wu, B., Lin, S., Li, J.: Structures and properties of J. Power Sources. 448, 227586 (2020). https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. higher-degree aggregates of methylammonium iodide toward hal-jpows our. 2019. 227586 ide perovskite solar cells. Russ. J. Phys. Chem. A. 93, 2250–2255 183. Sun, H., Xie, D., Song, Z., Liang, C., Xu, L., Qu, X., Yao, Y., (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1134/ S0036 02441 91103 60 Li, D., Zhai, H., Zheng, K., Cui, C., Zhao, Y.: Interface defects 170. Li, M., Li, N., Hu, W., Chen, G., Sasaki, S.I., Sakai, K., Ikeuchi, passivation and conductivity improvement in planar perovskite T., Miyasaka, T., Tamiaki, H., Wang, X.F.: Effects of cyclic solar cells using Na S-doped compact TiO electron transport 2 2 tetrapyrrole rings of aggregate-forming chlorophyll derivatives layers. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 12, 22853–22861 (2020). as hole-transporting materials on performance of perovskite solar https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ acsami. 0c031 80 cells. ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 1, 9–16 (2018). https:// doi. org/ 184. Wang, T., Xie, M., Abbasi, S., Cheng, Z., Liu, H., Shen, W.: High 10. 1021/ acsaem. 7b000 18 efficiency perovskite solar cells with tailorable surface wettabil- 171. Ye, T., Jin, S., Singh, R., Kumar, M., Chen, W., Wang, D., Zhang, ity by surfactant. J. Power Sources. 448, 227584 (2020). https:// X., Li, W., He, D.: Effects of solvent additives on the morphol-doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jpows our. 2019. 227584 ogy and transport property of a perylene diimide dimer film in 185. Huang, S.H., Tian, K.Y., Huang, H.C., Li, C.F., Chu, W.C., Lee, perovskite solar cells for improved performance. Sol. Energy. K.M., Lee, K.M., Huang, Y.C., Su, W.F.: Controlling the mor- 201, 927–934 (2020). https://doi. or g/10. 101 6/j.solen er .2020 .03. phology and interface of the perovskite layer for scalable high- 062 efficiency solar cells fabricated using green solvents and blade 172. Pham, N.D., Shang, J., Yang, Y., Hoang, M.T., Tiong, V.T., coating in an ambient environment. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. Wang, X., Fan, L., Chen, P., Kou, L., Wang, L., Wang, H.: Alka- 12, 26041–26049 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1021/ acsami. 0c062 line-earth bis(trifluoromethanesulfonimide) additives for effi - 11 cient and stable perovskite solar cells. Nano Energy 69, 104412 186. Meng, L., Wei, Q., Yang, Z., Yang, D., Feng, J., Ren, X., Liu, (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. 2019. 104412 Y., Liu, S.: (Frank): Improved perovskite solar cell efficiency by 173. Li, Z., Wu, J., Liu, X., Zhu, Q., Yang, Y., Dou, Y., Du, Y., Zhang, tuning the colloidal size and free ion concentration in precursor X., Chen, Q., Sun, W., Lin, J.Y.: Highly efficient and stable per - solution using formic acid additive. J. Energy Chem. 41, 43–51 ovskite solar cells using thionyl chloride as a p-type dopant for (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jechem. 2019. 04. 019 spiro-OMeTAD. J. Alloys Compd. 847, 156500 (2020). https:// 187. Koo, D., Cho, Y., Kim, U., Jeong, G., Lee, J., Seo, J., Yang, C., doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jallc om. 2020. 156500 Park, H.: High-performance inverted perovskite solar cells with 174. Hu, L., Li, S., Zhang, L., Liu, Y., Zhang, C., Wu, Y., Sun, Q., operational stability via n-type small molecule additive-assisted Cui, Y., Zhu, F., Hao, Y., Wu, Y.C.: Unravelling the role of C60 defect passivation. Adv. Energy Mater. 2001920 (2020). https:// derivatives as additives into active layer for achieving high-effi-doi. org/ 10. 1002/ aenm. 20200 1920 ciency planar perovskite solar cells. Carbon N. Y. 167, 160–168 188. Garai, R., Afroz, M.A., Gupta, R.K., Iyer, P.K.: Efficient trap (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. carbon. 2020. 05. 079 passivation of MAPbI3 via multifunctional anchoring for high- 175. Wang, H., Zhang, F., Li, Z., Zhang, J., Lian, J., Song, J., Qu, J., performance and stable perovskite solar cells. Adv. Sustain. Syst. Wong, W.Y.: Naphthalene imide dimer as interface engineering 4, 2000078 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1002/ adsu. 20200 0078 material: an efficient strategy for achieving high-performance 189. Guan, L., Zheng, Z., Guo, Y.: Enhanced hole transport in benzoic perovskite solar cells. Chem. Eng. J. 395, 125062 (2020). https:// acid doped spiro-OMeTAD composite layer with intergrowing doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. cej. 2020. 125062 benzoate phase for perovskite solar cells. J. Alloys Compd. 832, 176. Chen, W., Shi, Y., Wang, Y., Feng, X., Djurišić, A.B., Woo, H.Y., 154991 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jallc om. 2020. 154991 Guo, X., He, Z.: N-type conjugated polymer as efficient electron 190. Chen, J., Kim, S.G., Ren, X., Jung, H.S., Park, N.G.: Effect of transport layer for planar inverted perovskite solar cells with bidentate and tridentate additives on the photovoltaic perfor- power conversion efficiency of 2086%. Nano Energy 68, 4363 mance and stability of perovskite solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. A. (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. nanoen. 2019. 104363 7, 4977–4987 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1039/ c8ta1 1977e 177. Lee, S., Lee, J., Park, H., Choi, J., Baac, H.W., Park, S., Park, 191. Han, T.H., Lee, J.W., Choi, C., Tan, S., Lee, C., Zhao, Y., Dai, H.J.: Defect-passivating organic/inorganic bicomponent hole- Z., De Marco, N., Lee, S.J., Bae, S.H., Yuan, Y., Lee, H.M., transport layer for high efficiency metal-halide perovskite device. Huang, Y., Yang, Y.: Perovskite-polymer composite cross- ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 12, 40310–40317 (2020). https:// linker approach for highly-stable and efficient perovskite solar doi. org/ 10. 1021/ acsami. 0c097 84 cells. Nat. Commun. 10, 1–10 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1038/ 178. Lee, J., Kim, G.W., Kim, M., Park, S.A., Park, T.: Nonaromatic s41467- 019- 08455-z green-solvent-processable, dopant-free, and lead-capturable hole 192. Ma, Y., Cheng, Y., Xu, X., Li, M., Zhang, C., Cheung, S.H., transport polymers in perovskite solar cells with high efficiency. Zeng, Z., Shen, D., Xie, Y.M., Chiu, K.L., Lin, F., So, S.K., Adv. Energy Mater. 10, 1902662 (2020). https://d oi.o rg/1 0.1 002/ Lee, C.S., Tsang, S.W.: Suppressing ion migration across perovs- aenm. 20190 2662 kite grain boundaries by polymer additives. Adv. Funct. Mater. 179. Wali, Q., Iqbal, Y., Pal, B., Lowe, A., Jose, R.: Tin oxide as an 2006802 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1002/ adfm. 20200 6802 emerging electron transport medium in perovskite solar cells. 193. Bai, S., Da, P., Li, C., Wang, Z., Yuan, Z., Fu, F., Kawecki, M., Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 179, 102–117 (2018). https:// doi. Liu, X., Sakai, N., Wang, J.T.W., Huettner, S., Buecheler, S., org/ 10. 1016/j. solmat. 2018. 02. 007 Fahlman, M., Gao, F., Snaith, H.J.: Planar perovskite solar cells 180. Gra, C., Zakeeruddin, S.M.: Recent trends in mesoscopic solar with long-term stability using ionic liquid additives. Nature 571, cells based on molecular and nanopigment light harvesters. 245–250 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1038/ s41586- 019- 1357-2 Mater. Today. 16, 11–18 (2013) 194. Mohammed, M.K.A.: 21.4% efficiency of perovskite solar cells 181. Zhang, F., Ma, W., Guo, H., Zhao, Y., Shan, X., Jin, K., Tian, H., using BMImI additive in the lead iodide precursor based on Zhao, Q., Yu, D., Lu, X., Lu, G., Meng, S.: Interfacial oxygen carbon nanotubes/ T iO electron transfer layer. Ceram. Int. 46, vacancies as a potential cause of hysteresis in perovskite solar 27647–27654 (2020). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. ceram int. 2020. cells. Chem. Mater. 28, 802–812 (2016). https://doi. or g/10. 1021/ 07. 260 acs. chemm ater. 5b040 19 1 3 70 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy (2022) 11:47–70 195. Zhang, B., Fu, W., Meng, X., Runa, A., Su, P., Yang, Spiro-OMeTAD layer for highly efficient and stable perovskite H.: Improved crystallization of perovskite films using solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. A. 7, 3655–3663 (2019). https://doi. PbTiO -decorated mesoporous scaffold layers for high stable org/ 10. 1039/ c8ta1 1800k carbon-counter-electrode solar cells. Org. Electron. 69, 164–173 (2019). https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. orgel. 2019. 03. 022 Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to 196. Jiang, L.L., Wang, Z.K., Li, M., Li, C.H., Fang, P.F., Liao, L.S.: jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Flower-like MoS 2 nanocrystals: A powerful sorbent of Li in the 1 3

Journal

Materials for Renewable and Sustainable EnergySpringer Journals

Published: Apr 1, 2022

Keywords: Organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells; Power conversion efficiency; Stability; Additives; Passivation

References