Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Subscribe now for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Rodent predation by Turdus leucomelas (Passeriformes: Turdidae)

Rodent predation by Turdus leucomelas (Passeriformes: Turdidae) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 410-412 SHORTCOMMUNICATION December 2014 Rodent predation by Turdus leucomelas (Passeriformes: Turdidae) 1,2 1 1 Pedro de Oliveira Mafia , Matheus Rocha Jorge Corrêa , Antônio Jorge do Rosário Cruz , Cristiano Schetini de Azevedo Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto. Pós-graduação em Ecologia de Biomas Tropicais. Departamento de Biodiversidade, Evolução e Meio Ambiente, Campus Morro do Cruzeiro, Bauxita, CEP 35400-000, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil. Corresponding author: pierremafia@hotmail.com Received on 30 September 2014. Accepted on 7 October 2014. ABSTRACT: Pale-breasted Thrush (Turdus leucomelas) is described as an omnivorous bird that forage solitarily or in pairs on the th soil. This note reports a rodent predation event by T. leucomelas. The event was recorded on November 14 2013, in a riparian Forest fragment of Grande River, in Igarapava Municipality, São Paulo, Brazil. Although the presence of small vertebrates on the diet of T. leucomelas is known, this is the first record of a mammal being predated by this bird species. This record is important because it contributes to a better understand of the natural history of Neotropical passerines. KEYWORDS: Diet, feeding, Pale-breasted Thrush, predation, rodent. The Pale-breasted Thrush Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, Although the capacity of predating small vertebrates 1818 (Passeriformes, Turdidae) (CBRO 2014) occurs in by T. leucomelas has already been attested (Lopes et al. the South American continent, from the Guianas and 2005b, Sazima & D’Angelo 2011), there is no report in Venezuela to Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil. In scientific literature of this bird species predating upon small Brazil, it has a wide distribution, not occurring only in the mammals. Thus, the aim of this short communication is central and western regions of the Amazonian forest and to report on the first record of T. leucomelas predating the eastern portions of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do upon a small rodent. Sul states (Sick 1997, Mendes-Neto & Vasconcelos 2005, The event was recorded on 14 November 2013, at Sigrist 2013). 03:30 PM, in a riparian forest fragment along the Grande This thrush normally inhabits semi-forested areas, River, in Igarapava Municipality, São Paulo, southeastern but it can be recorded in a variety of habitats, including Brazil (19°59'22.53"S / 47°48'38.25"W; elevation: 497 urban areas (Sick 1997). Female builds a bowl-shaped m). The riparian forest fragment is located near a sugar- nest, made up of clay, roots, and dried vegetal matter, on alcohol plantation and has many small ranches inside it. human constructions, ravines and hedgerows, in heights Two Pale-breasted Thrushes were observed varying from 1 to 2.5m from the ground (Sick 1997). persecuting two small rodents through the litter. During Two to three green-bluish red spotted eggs are incubated the persecution, the thrushes tried to capture the rodents by the female for 10 to 12 days, when the nestlings are using their beaks; this behavior was recorded during 30 born (Mendes-Neto & Vasconcelos 2005, Sigrist 2013). seconds, when one of the thrushes and one of the rodents Pale-breasted Thrush is described as an omnivorous run out of sight. The other thrush jumped into the rodent bird that forage solitarily or in pairs on the ground and captured it, holding the mouse against the ground (Willis 1979, Sick 1997). From stomach content with its beak. The mouse tried to escape wrestling, but he studies and direct observations in the wild, the diet of T. did not make it. Then, the thrush flew holding the dead leucomelas was delimited: fruits, seeds, insects, arachnids, mouse on its beak, first landing on the ground (Figure 1a) earthworms, gastropods, and small vertebrates, such as and then on a branch (Figure 1b). lizards and snakes (Moojen et al. 1941, Schubart et al. In a study on the small mammal community at 1965, Poulin et al. 1994, Piratelli & Pereira 2002, Durães the same area, Corrêa (2014) recorded nine rodent & Marini 2005, Lopes et al. 2005a,b, Lima et al. 2010, species, with the species of the genus Oligoryzomys being Sazima & D’Angelo 2011). the most frequent ones. Looking at the morphological Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 Rodent predation by Turdus leucomelas (Passeriformes: Turdidae) Pedro de Oliveira Mafia, Matheus Rocha Jorge Corrêa, Antônio Jorge do Rosário Cruz, Cristiano Schetini de Azevedo FIGURE 1. Pale-breasted Thrush (Turdus leucomelas) with a small dead rodent in its beak on the ground (A) and on a branch (B). characteristics of the predated mouse, it is very likely that ACKNOWLEDGMENTS it belonged to this genus (see Carleton & Musser 1989). Lopes et al. (2005b) suggested that vertebrate The authors would like to thank to CEMIG and predation events by Neotropical passerines were rare, FAPEMIG for the grants, logistic and technical support since these events were recorded in only 9% of the known to the researchers. We would also like to thank the staff of species; among these, in only 18% of the species, small Volta Grande reservoir for their logistic support. vertebrates other than frogs or lizards were recorded. Mammals were recorded in the diet of only 23 (11%) of the 203 species analysed, distributed in nine families, REFERENCES with Turdidae included (Lopes et al. 2005b). From the Aguiar, K. M. O. & Coltro-Jr, L. A. 2008. Dietas de algumas eight Turdidae species evaluated, only Turdus migratorius, espécies de aves das famílias Thanminophilidae, Grallariidae e native to North America, presented vestiges of mammals Formicariidae do Amapá. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 16 in its diet (Lopes et al. 2005b). These results suggested (4):376-379. that the mammal predation by Neotropical passerines is Brito, C. B. M.; Ribeiro, L. R. & Mendonça, S. V. 2014. An “increment” in the diet of the Pale-legged Hornero (Furnarius even rarer. leucopus Swainson 1838, Furnariidae). Atualidades Ornitológicas, According to Sazima & D’Angelo (2011), passerine 180: 24-25. birds hunt vertebrates mostly during the reproductive Carleton, M. D. & Musser, G. G. 1989. Systematics studies of season, because feeding vertebrates to the nestlings and oryzomyine rodents (Muridae, Sigmodontinae) - a synopsis of juveniles provide more proteins, calcium and energy to Microryzomys. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 191: 1-83. their development if compared to fruits and invertebrates. Carvalho-Filho, F. S. 2009. Predação pelo bem-te-vi Pitangus The predation event described herein occurred during the sulphuratus (Passeriformes, Tyrannidae) no baiacu Colomesus breeding season of T. leucomelas (October to December, asellus (Actinopterygii, Tetraodontidae) e camarão de água doce Lobato et al. 2011), indicating that it may include (Crustacea, Decapoda). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 17 (1):77-78. vertebrates in the diet of their nestlings or that they ingest Chapman, A. & Rosenberg, K. V. 1991. Diets of four sympatric such items to complement their nutritional necessities amazonian wood creepers (Dendrocolaptidae). Condor, 93: 904- during this critical period. Vertebrate predation events by passerine birds CBRO – Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos. 2014. have been recorded in the last decade; records came Listas das aves do Brasil, 11th Edition. http://www.cbro.org.br (access on 03 September 2014). from stomach content studies (Chapman & Rosenberg Christianini, A. V. 2005. A feeding record of the Short-tailed Hawk 1991, Lopes et al. 2005b, Aguiar & Coltro-Jr 2008) and Buteo brachyurus in its southern range. Revista Brasileira de occasional sightings (Sazima 2007, Lima & Rodrigues Ornitologia, 13 (2): 192-192. 2008, Pizo 2008, Carvalho-Filho 2009, Mafia et al. 2011, Corrêa, M. R. J. 2014. Influência da sazonalidade e variáveis ambientais sobre pequenos mamíferos não voadores em fragmentos de mata Sazima & D’Angelo 2011, Brito et al. 2014), such as the ciliar do Rio Grande, MG/SP. Dissertação: Universidade Federal one presented herein. Therefore, our record is important de Ouro Preto. because it contributes to a better understand of the Durães, R. & Marini, M. A. 2005. A quantitative assessment of bird natural history of Neotropical passerines (Christianini diets in the brazilian Atlantic Forest, with recommendations for future diet studies. Ornitologia Neotropical, 16: 65-83. 2005, Mesquita 2009). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 Rodent predation by Turdus leucomelas (Passeriformes: Turdidae) Pedro de Oliveira Mafia, Matheus Rocha Jorge Corrêa, Antônio Jorge do Rosário Cruz, Cristiano Schetini de Azevedo Lima, A. M. X. & Rodrigues, R. C. 2008. Predação do arapaçu- Guira guira (Cuculidae, Crotophaginae) in the state of Ceará, de-bico-torto Campylorhamphus falcularius Vieillot 1822 Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 17 (1): 84-85. (Dendrocolaptidae) sobre anfíbios anuros em um remanescente Moojen, J.; Carvalho, J. C. & Lopes, H. S. 1941. Observações sobre de Floresta com Araucárias. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 16 o conteúdo gástrico das aves brasileiras. Memórias do Instituto (4): 380-382. Oswaldo Cruz, 36: 405-444. Lima, C. A.; Siqueira, P. R.; Gonçalves, R. M. M.; Vasconcelos, Piratelli, A. & Pereira, M. R. 2002. Dieta de aves na região leste de M. F. & Leite, L. O. 2010. Dieta das aves da Mata Atlântica: Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Ararajuba, 10 (2): 131-139. uma abordagem baseada em conteúdos estomacais. Ornitologia Pizo, M. A. 2008. An apparent instance of predation on a Yellow-billed Neotropical, 21: 425-438. Cardinal (Paroaria capitata) by the Chopi Blackbird (Gnorimopsar Lobato, D. N. C.; Braga, E. M.; Belo, N. O. & Antonini, Y. 2011. chopi). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 16 (3): 264-265. Hematological and parasitological health conditions of the Pale- Poulin, B.; Lefebvre, G. & Mcneil, R. 1994. Diets of land birds from breasted Thrush (Turdus leucomelas) (Passeriformes: Turdidae) in northeastern Venezuela. Condor, 96: 354-367. southeastern Brazil. Zoologia, 28: 771-776. Sazima, I. 2007. Like an earthworm: Chalk-browed Mockingbird Lopes, L. E.; Fernandes, A. M. & Marini, M. Â. 2005a. Diet of (Mimus saturninus) kills and eats a juvenile watersnake. Revista some Atlantic Forest birds. Ararajuba, 13: 95-103. Brasileira de Ornitologia, 15 (3): 470-471. Lopes, L. E.; Fernandes, A. M. & Marini, M. Â. 2005b. Predation Sazima, I. & D’Ângelo, G. B. 2011. The Pale-breasted Thrush (Turdus on vertebrates by Neotropical passerine birds. Lundiana, 6 (1): leucomelas) preys on a gekkonid lizard and an anomalepidid snake. 57-66. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 19 (3): 450-452. Mafia, P . O.; Souza, A. M. & Reis, M. J. 2011. Registro fotográfico da Schubart, O.; Aguirre, A. C. & Sick, H. 1965. Contribuição para predação de um vertebrado por Lochmias nematura (Passeriformes: o conhecimento da alimentação das aves brasileiras. Arquivos de Furnariidae). Atualidades Ornitológicas, 159: 4-5. Zoologia, 12: 95-249. Mendes-Neto, H. R. & Vasconcelos, M. F. 2005. Aves comuns do Sick, H. 1997. Ornitologia brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira. Estado de Minas Gerais: um guia de campo para o observador. Sigrist, T. 2013. Avifauna Brasileira. São Paulo: Avis Brasilis. Florianópolis: Letras Brasileiras. Willis, E. O. 1979. The composition of avian communities in Mesquita, P. C. M. D. 2009. A record of predation on a poisonous remanescent woodlots in southern Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de toad Rhinella granulosa (Anura, Bufonidae) by Guira Cuckoo Zoologia, 33 (1): 1-25. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ornithology Research Springer Journals

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer-journals/rodent-predation-by-turdus-leucomelas-passeriformes-turdidae-sf0Y6V0lEC

References (28)

Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © Sociedade Brasileira de Ornitologia 2014
eISSN
2178-7875
DOI
10.1007/bf03544276
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 410-412 SHORTCOMMUNICATION December 2014 Rodent predation by Turdus leucomelas (Passeriformes: Turdidae) 1,2 1 1 Pedro de Oliveira Mafia , Matheus Rocha Jorge Corrêa , Antônio Jorge do Rosário Cruz , Cristiano Schetini de Azevedo Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto. Pós-graduação em Ecologia de Biomas Tropicais. Departamento de Biodiversidade, Evolução e Meio Ambiente, Campus Morro do Cruzeiro, Bauxita, CEP 35400-000, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil. Corresponding author: pierremafia@hotmail.com Received on 30 September 2014. Accepted on 7 October 2014. ABSTRACT: Pale-breasted Thrush (Turdus leucomelas) is described as an omnivorous bird that forage solitarily or in pairs on the th soil. This note reports a rodent predation event by T. leucomelas. The event was recorded on November 14 2013, in a riparian Forest fragment of Grande River, in Igarapava Municipality, São Paulo, Brazil. Although the presence of small vertebrates on the diet of T. leucomelas is known, this is the first record of a mammal being predated by this bird species. This record is important because it contributes to a better understand of the natural history of Neotropical passerines. KEYWORDS: Diet, feeding, Pale-breasted Thrush, predation, rodent. The Pale-breasted Thrush Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, Although the capacity of predating small vertebrates 1818 (Passeriformes, Turdidae) (CBRO 2014) occurs in by T. leucomelas has already been attested (Lopes et al. the South American continent, from the Guianas and 2005b, Sazima & D’Angelo 2011), there is no report in Venezuela to Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil. In scientific literature of this bird species predating upon small Brazil, it has a wide distribution, not occurring only in the mammals. Thus, the aim of this short communication is central and western regions of the Amazonian forest and to report on the first record of T. leucomelas predating the eastern portions of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do upon a small rodent. Sul states (Sick 1997, Mendes-Neto & Vasconcelos 2005, The event was recorded on 14 November 2013, at Sigrist 2013). 03:30 PM, in a riparian forest fragment along the Grande This thrush normally inhabits semi-forested areas, River, in Igarapava Municipality, São Paulo, southeastern but it can be recorded in a variety of habitats, including Brazil (19°59'22.53"S / 47°48'38.25"W; elevation: 497 urban areas (Sick 1997). Female builds a bowl-shaped m). The riparian forest fragment is located near a sugar- nest, made up of clay, roots, and dried vegetal matter, on alcohol plantation and has many small ranches inside it. human constructions, ravines and hedgerows, in heights Two Pale-breasted Thrushes were observed varying from 1 to 2.5m from the ground (Sick 1997). persecuting two small rodents through the litter. During Two to three green-bluish red spotted eggs are incubated the persecution, the thrushes tried to capture the rodents by the female for 10 to 12 days, when the nestlings are using their beaks; this behavior was recorded during 30 born (Mendes-Neto & Vasconcelos 2005, Sigrist 2013). seconds, when one of the thrushes and one of the rodents Pale-breasted Thrush is described as an omnivorous run out of sight. The other thrush jumped into the rodent bird that forage solitarily or in pairs on the ground and captured it, holding the mouse against the ground (Willis 1979, Sick 1997). From stomach content with its beak. The mouse tried to escape wrestling, but he studies and direct observations in the wild, the diet of T. did not make it. Then, the thrush flew holding the dead leucomelas was delimited: fruits, seeds, insects, arachnids, mouse on its beak, first landing on the ground (Figure 1a) earthworms, gastropods, and small vertebrates, such as and then on a branch (Figure 1b). lizards and snakes (Moojen et al. 1941, Schubart et al. In a study on the small mammal community at 1965, Poulin et al. 1994, Piratelli & Pereira 2002, Durães the same area, Corrêa (2014) recorded nine rodent & Marini 2005, Lopes et al. 2005a,b, Lima et al. 2010, species, with the species of the genus Oligoryzomys being Sazima & D’Angelo 2011). the most frequent ones. Looking at the morphological Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 Rodent predation by Turdus leucomelas (Passeriformes: Turdidae) Pedro de Oliveira Mafia, Matheus Rocha Jorge Corrêa, Antônio Jorge do Rosário Cruz, Cristiano Schetini de Azevedo FIGURE 1. Pale-breasted Thrush (Turdus leucomelas) with a small dead rodent in its beak on the ground (A) and on a branch (B). characteristics of the predated mouse, it is very likely that ACKNOWLEDGMENTS it belonged to this genus (see Carleton & Musser 1989). Lopes et al. (2005b) suggested that vertebrate The authors would like to thank to CEMIG and predation events by Neotropical passerines were rare, FAPEMIG for the grants, logistic and technical support since these events were recorded in only 9% of the known to the researchers. We would also like to thank the staff of species; among these, in only 18% of the species, small Volta Grande reservoir for their logistic support. vertebrates other than frogs or lizards were recorded. Mammals were recorded in the diet of only 23 (11%) of the 203 species analysed, distributed in nine families, REFERENCES with Turdidae included (Lopes et al. 2005b). From the Aguiar, K. M. O. & Coltro-Jr, L. A. 2008. Dietas de algumas eight Turdidae species evaluated, only Turdus migratorius, espécies de aves das famílias Thanminophilidae, Grallariidae e native to North America, presented vestiges of mammals Formicariidae do Amapá. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 16 in its diet (Lopes et al. 2005b). These results suggested (4):376-379. that the mammal predation by Neotropical passerines is Brito, C. B. M.; Ribeiro, L. R. & Mendonça, S. V. 2014. An “increment” in the diet of the Pale-legged Hornero (Furnarius even rarer. leucopus Swainson 1838, Furnariidae). Atualidades Ornitológicas, According to Sazima & D’Angelo (2011), passerine 180: 24-25. birds hunt vertebrates mostly during the reproductive Carleton, M. D. & Musser, G. G. 1989. Systematics studies of season, because feeding vertebrates to the nestlings and oryzomyine rodents (Muridae, Sigmodontinae) - a synopsis of juveniles provide more proteins, calcium and energy to Microryzomys. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 191: 1-83. their development if compared to fruits and invertebrates. Carvalho-Filho, F. S. 2009. Predação pelo bem-te-vi Pitangus The predation event described herein occurred during the sulphuratus (Passeriformes, Tyrannidae) no baiacu Colomesus breeding season of T. leucomelas (October to December, asellus (Actinopterygii, Tetraodontidae) e camarão de água doce Lobato et al. 2011), indicating that it may include (Crustacea, Decapoda). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 17 (1):77-78. vertebrates in the diet of their nestlings or that they ingest Chapman, A. & Rosenberg, K. V. 1991. Diets of four sympatric such items to complement their nutritional necessities amazonian wood creepers (Dendrocolaptidae). Condor, 93: 904- during this critical period. Vertebrate predation events by passerine birds CBRO – Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos. 2014. have been recorded in the last decade; records came Listas das aves do Brasil, 11th Edition. http://www.cbro.org.br (access on 03 September 2014). from stomach content studies (Chapman & Rosenberg Christianini, A. V. 2005. A feeding record of the Short-tailed Hawk 1991, Lopes et al. 2005b, Aguiar & Coltro-Jr 2008) and Buteo brachyurus in its southern range. Revista Brasileira de occasional sightings (Sazima 2007, Lima & Rodrigues Ornitologia, 13 (2): 192-192. 2008, Pizo 2008, Carvalho-Filho 2009, Mafia et al. 2011, Corrêa, M. R. J. 2014. Influência da sazonalidade e variáveis ambientais sobre pequenos mamíferos não voadores em fragmentos de mata Sazima & D’Angelo 2011, Brito et al. 2014), such as the ciliar do Rio Grande, MG/SP. Dissertação: Universidade Federal one presented herein. Therefore, our record is important de Ouro Preto. because it contributes to a better understand of the Durães, R. & Marini, M. A. 2005. A quantitative assessment of bird natural history of Neotropical passerines (Christianini diets in the brazilian Atlantic Forest, with recommendations for future diet studies. Ornitologia Neotropical, 16: 65-83. 2005, Mesquita 2009). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 Rodent predation by Turdus leucomelas (Passeriformes: Turdidae) Pedro de Oliveira Mafia, Matheus Rocha Jorge Corrêa, Antônio Jorge do Rosário Cruz, Cristiano Schetini de Azevedo Lima, A. M. X. & Rodrigues, R. C. 2008. Predação do arapaçu- Guira guira (Cuculidae, Crotophaginae) in the state of Ceará, de-bico-torto Campylorhamphus falcularius Vieillot 1822 Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 17 (1): 84-85. (Dendrocolaptidae) sobre anfíbios anuros em um remanescente Moojen, J.; Carvalho, J. C. & Lopes, H. S. 1941. Observações sobre de Floresta com Araucárias. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 16 o conteúdo gástrico das aves brasileiras. Memórias do Instituto (4): 380-382. Oswaldo Cruz, 36: 405-444. Lima, C. A.; Siqueira, P. R.; Gonçalves, R. M. M.; Vasconcelos, Piratelli, A. & Pereira, M. R. 2002. Dieta de aves na região leste de M. F. & Leite, L. O. 2010. Dieta das aves da Mata Atlântica: Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Ararajuba, 10 (2): 131-139. uma abordagem baseada em conteúdos estomacais. Ornitologia Pizo, M. A. 2008. An apparent instance of predation on a Yellow-billed Neotropical, 21: 425-438. Cardinal (Paroaria capitata) by the Chopi Blackbird (Gnorimopsar Lobato, D. N. C.; Braga, E. M.; Belo, N. O. & Antonini, Y. 2011. chopi). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 16 (3): 264-265. Hematological and parasitological health conditions of the Pale- Poulin, B.; Lefebvre, G. & Mcneil, R. 1994. Diets of land birds from breasted Thrush (Turdus leucomelas) (Passeriformes: Turdidae) in northeastern Venezuela. Condor, 96: 354-367. southeastern Brazil. Zoologia, 28: 771-776. Sazima, I. 2007. Like an earthworm: Chalk-browed Mockingbird Lopes, L. E.; Fernandes, A. M. & Marini, M. Â. 2005a. Diet of (Mimus saturninus) kills and eats a juvenile watersnake. Revista some Atlantic Forest birds. Ararajuba, 13: 95-103. Brasileira de Ornitologia, 15 (3): 470-471. Lopes, L. E.; Fernandes, A. M. & Marini, M. Â. 2005b. Predation Sazima, I. & D’Ângelo, G. B. 2011. The Pale-breasted Thrush (Turdus on vertebrates by Neotropical passerine birds. Lundiana, 6 (1): leucomelas) preys on a gekkonid lizard and an anomalepidid snake. 57-66. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 19 (3): 450-452. Mafia, P . O.; Souza, A. M. & Reis, M. J. 2011. Registro fotográfico da Schubart, O.; Aguirre, A. C. & Sick, H. 1965. Contribuição para predação de um vertebrado por Lochmias nematura (Passeriformes: o conhecimento da alimentação das aves brasileiras. Arquivos de Furnariidae). Atualidades Ornitológicas, 159: 4-5. Zoologia, 12: 95-249. Mendes-Neto, H. R. & Vasconcelos, M. F. 2005. Aves comuns do Sick, H. 1997. Ornitologia brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira. Estado de Minas Gerais: um guia de campo para o observador. Sigrist, T. 2013. Avifauna Brasileira. São Paulo: Avis Brasilis. Florianópolis: Letras Brasileiras. Willis, E. O. 1979. The composition of avian communities in Mesquita, P. C. M. D. 2009. A record of predation on a poisonous remanescent woodlots in southern Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de toad Rhinella granulosa (Anura, Bufonidae) by Guira Cuckoo Zoologia, 33 (1): 1-25. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014

Journal

Ornithology ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Dec 1, 2014

Keywords: Diet; feeding; Pale-breasted Thrush; predation; rodent

There are no references for this article.