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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(3), 327-335 ARTICLE September 2015 Population trends and conservation of the Mangrove Rail 1,2 Bianca P. Vieira Postgraduate Program, Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org Received on 2 June 2014. Accepted on 30 March 2015. ABSTRACT: The Mangrove Rail occupies only mangrove areas in South America. Though present in one of the most endangered forests in the world, there is little data available on the Mangrove Rail. In this paper, I present local population trends and the latest population density estimates for the Mangrove Rail in an urban mangrove area based on two years of fi eldwork conducted on the Island of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. I have also revised the global conservation status of the Mangrove Rail based on literature and specimen records. Surveys were conducted monthly at 10 stations along a 4 km-transect. Th e maximum number of individuals detected was 17 (2012). Total density was around 2 rails/ha, although a signifi cant increase in population occurred when the surveyed area developed from 8.7 ha to 43 ha. A strong relationship between the presence of rails records and mangrove extension was observed and already expected. Altogether, the Mangrove Rail occurs in an extent of 19,615 km² and an area of 12,455 km² in South America, strictly associated with mangrove forests under severe pressure by deforestation, therefore qualifying as Vulnerable at a global level according to IUCN criteria. Th e results presented herein reinforce the importance of preserved wetlands for the conservation of the Mangrove Rail as well as of mangrove restoration initiatives since even areas of human intervention can be a good alternative to future adaptive management strategies and the conservation of this endangered species. KE E EY Y Y-WORDS: Density, occupancy, Clapper Rail, Rallus longirostris, mangrove, South America. INTRODUCTION applies to French Guyana, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, Th e Mangrove Rail (Rallus longirostris s s) was recently split where the species is also found (Taylor 1996, Sick 1997, from the closely related rails R. crepitans, R. elegans, R. Ridgely et al. 2005, Sigrist 2009, Maley & Brumfi eld obsoletus s and R. caribaeus, and its distribution is now 2013). recognized as occurring on the eastern and western Th e state of Santa Catarina in Brazil is the only geopolitical unit to regard the Mangrove Rail as a coasts of South America (Maley & Brumfield 2013). Th e Mangrove Rail ranges from the latitudes 13°N Vulnerable species due to its dependence on mangrove in the northern coast of Venezuela to latitudes 3°S in areas (CONSEMA 2011). In contrast, lists of endangered Peru and 28°S in southern Brazil, with seven currently species throughout South America have not included recognized subspecies (Rosário 1996, Taylor 1996, Sick this species or any of its subspecies in the endangered categories. However, it is well known that mangrove 1997, Ridgely et al. 2005, Maley & Brumfi eld 2013). Unlike other Rallus, the Mangrove Rail is restricted to areas are at great risk, due to anthropogenic pressure by mangrove areas, and not found in salt marshes as their landfills, settlements, shrimp farmin g, predatory fishin g, closely related species in Central and North America dumping of waste, and other threats (Lugo & Snedaker (Eddleman & ConWay 1998, Maley & Brumfield 1974, Cintrón & Schaeffer-Novelli 1992, Valiel a et al. 2001, MMA 2003, Vieira et al. 2011, 2012). Herein, this 2013). The Brazilian coastline stretchin g from Pará to paper presents population trends and density estimates Santa Catarina holds available habitat with documented for Rallus longirostris s in an urban mangrove area on the records of the Mangrove Rail (Rosário 1996, Lees et al. Island of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, in addition to 2014). However, there are no studies available on the revising the species’ conservation status at a global level based on distributional records according to the IUCN species’ population trends, current distribution, threats, and other aspects. This overall lack of knowled ge also criteria (IUCN 2011, 2012). Population trends and conservation of the Mangrove Rail Bianca P. Vieira MATERIAL AND METHODS Surveys Population trends were based on data collected in Study area September 1994 (ENGEVIX 1994), as well as from April South America holds 26% of the mangrove forests in 2000 to April 2001, and December 2002 to December the world, with most part of these forests occurring 2003 (Rosário 2004). Additionally, a two-year long fieldwork was conducted between October 2009 and along the Brazilian coastline (Valiela et al. 2001, Magris September 2010, and October 2011 and September 2012. & Barreto 2010, Giri et al. 2011, Maley & Brumfield 2013). Mangrove areas in South America with known Th ese surveys were conducted monthly at 10 stations occurrence of the Mangrove Rail range from latitudes (within a 100 m radius) separated from each other by at 13°N in the northern coast of Venezuela to latitudes least 300 m along a single 4 km-transect (an adaptation of Hinojosa-Huerta et al. 2008), with a total sampling effort 3°S in Peru and 28°S in southern Brazil, including the of 214 hours. Playback was not used due to continuous coastline of Brazil, French Guyana, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, frequency of natural callings. Yearly abundance indexes and Peru (Valiela et al. 2001, Magris & Barreto 2010, were calculated by dividing the number of Mangrove Giri et al. 2011, Maley & Brumfi eld 2013). Rail contacts per the number of point-counts carried out each year (Hinojosa-Huerta et al. 2008). A robust Near the extreme southern limit of the Mangrove regression from the average number of individuals per Rail distribution, the Island of Santa Catarina has seven main mangrove patches distributed along two main bays month against year (1994 to 2012) was used to estimate ( (pers. obs.). Located in the southern bay, the Mangrove of population trends. The S pearman correlation coefficient Pirajubaé is protected by the Marine Extracting Reserve (rs) measured the relationship between available mangrove area and the average number of individuals detected per (RESEX) of Pirajubaé, and had spread northern along year. Population density was estimated for each year and the Saco dos Limões s Bay (27°36'S and 48°32'W; 27°38'S and 48°32'W; Figure 1). Mangrove colonization along based on the extent of mangrove area obtained from aerial this bay is related to landfill establishment. Man groves photographs (PMF 2014) and measured by Google Earth either naturally colonized the landfill or were planted Pro 4.2 (Google 2009). Population density was estimated using the Distance Sampling 6.0 software (Th omas between 1997 and 1998 to ensure that the area would et al. 2010). Estimates were stratified and based on not silt (Macedo 2003). Th is landfill was established for the construction of the Southern Expressway in 1995 Conventional Distance Sampling. A negative exponential (Trindade 2000), and had 43 ha of mangroves, as well rate model for the detection function was fi xed against the as a salty lagoon, directly infl uenced by urban area from records using a cosine function and assuming certainty of detection and measurements (Th omas et al. 2010). Th e 2009 onwards (Figure 1). FIGURE 1. A A A) Distribution of mangrove forests in South America; and B) local landscape changes occurring between 1994 and 2012 along the Southern Expressway on the Island of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Legend: mainland (dotted), water (white), mangroves (black), landfill (light grey), urban area (middle grey), and Atlantic forest (dark grey). Maps based on Giri et al. (2011) and PMF (2014). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(3), 2015 Population trends and conservation of the Mangrove Rail Bianca P. Vieira raw minimum and maximum numbers of rails observed with mangroves (Holliman 1978, Taylor 1996, Sick 1997, per year were also considered. Ridgely et al. 2005, Maley & Brumfi eld 2013) and known absence from salt marshes at latitudes higher than 28°S in Conservation southern Brazil (Rosário 1996, Sick 1997, Ridgely et al. 2005). Literature, web, and museum records (Figure 2) Th e Mangrove Rail global conservation status was revised were used to confirm the Mangrove Rail area of occurrence according to IUCN criteria and categories (see IUCN within the estimated mangrove forest distribution. Since 2011, 2012 for more details and defi nition of concepts). two major gaps of Mangrove Rail records were identifi ed Range and population sizes, habitat threats and specificity, (between Bragança in Brazil and Cayenne in French and population trends data presented herein as well as Guyana, and between Guajiras in Colombia and Cojimíes obtained from the literature, were contrasted against in Ecuador), they were subtracted from the mangrove IUCN criteria and categories. forest area cover in South America to obtain the species’ Global and national extents of occurrence for area of occurrence. Area measurements were obtained the Mangrove Rail were indirectly estimated based on from literature (Bacon 1993, Valiela et al. 2001, FAO mangrove forest cover in South America (based on Valiela 2005, Cumana et al. 2010, Magris & Barreto 2010, Giri et al. 2001, Cumana et al. 2010, Magris & Barreto 2010, et al. 2011, Anthony & Gratiot 2012) and confirmed or and Giri et al. 2011) due to the species’ strict association corrected with Google Earth Pro 4.2 (Google 2009). FIGURE 2. Occurrence of the Mangrove Rail (Rallus longirostris s s) and its subspecies in South America based on Maley & Brumfield (2013) and data compiled herein. Localities: 1 = Laguna (SC), Brazil; 2 = Palhoça (SC), Brazil; 3 = Florianópolis (SC), Brazil; 4 = Joinville (SC), Brazil; 5 = São Francisco do Sul (SC), Brazil; 6 = Morretes (PR), Brazil; 7 = Guaratuba (PR), Brazil; 8 = Guaraqueçaba (PR), Brazil; 9 = Antonina (PR), Brazil; 10 = Santos (SP), Brazil; 11 = Peruíbe (SP), Brazil; 12 = Itanhaém (SP), Brazil; 13 = Ilha Comprida (SP), Brazil; 14 = Cananeia (SP), Brazil; 15 = Iguapé (SP), Brazil; 16 = Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil; 17 = Campo dos Goytacazes (RJ), Brazil; 18 = Cabo Frio (RJ), Brazil; 19 = Arraial do Cabo (RJ), Brazil; 20 = Vitória (ES), Brazil; 21 = Caravelas (BA), Brazil; 22 = Canavieiras (BA), Brazil; 23 = Ituberá (BA), Brazil; 24 = Jaguaripe (BA), Brazil; 25 = Salvador (BA), Brazil; 26 = Entre Rios (BA), Brazil; 27 = Santa Luzia do Itanhy (SE), Brazil; 28 = Aracaju (SE), Brazil; 29 = Pacatuba (SE), Brazil; 30 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(3), 2015 Population trends and conservation of the Mangrove Rail Bianca P. Vieira = Recife (PE), Brazil; 31 = Sirinhaém (PE), Brazil; 32 = Natal (RN), Brazil; 33 = Macau (RN), Brazil; 34 = Grossos (RN), Brazil; 35 = Icapuí (CE), Brazil; 36 = Aquiraz (CE), Brazil; 37 = Caucaia (CE), Brazil; 38 = Paracuru (CE), Brazil; 39 = Jijoca de Jericoacoara (CE), Brazil; 40 = Camocim (CE), Brazil; 41 = São José de Ribamar (MA), Brazil; 42 = Raposa (MA), Brazil; 43 = São Luís (MA), Brazil; 44 = Alcântara (MA), Brazil; 45 = Apicum-Açu (MA), Brazil; 46 = Bragança (PA), Brazil; 47 = Ajuruteua (PA), Brazil; 48 = Cayenne (Cayenne), French Guyana; 49 = Awala-Yalimapo (Awala-Yalimapo), French Guyana; 50 = Warappa Creek (Commewijne), Suriname; 51 = Diana Creek (Paramaribo), Suriname; 52 = Berbice River (East Berbice-Corentyne), Guyana; 53 = Georgetown (Demerara-Mahaica), Guyana; 54 = Nariva (Saint Andrew), Trinidad and Tobago; 55 = Caroni (Caroni), Trinidad and Tobago; 56 = Oropouche (Princes Town), Trinidad and Tobago; 57 = Puerto Cruz (Anzoátegui), Venezuela; 58 = Boca del Río (Nueva Esparta), Venezuela; 59 = Cumaná (Sucre), Venezuela; 60 = Puerto Cabello (Carabobo), Venezuela; 61 = Morrocoy (Falcón), Venezuela; 62 = Pueblo Nuevo (Falcón), Venezuela; 63 = Sabaneta de Palmas (Zulia), Venezuela; 64 = Maracaibo (Zulia), Venezuela; 65 = Uribia (La Guajira), Colombia; 66 = Cojimíes (Manabi), Ecuador; 67 = Guayaquil (Guayas), Ecuador; 68 = Churute (Guayas), Ecuador; 69 = Tumbes (Tumbes), Peru. Sources: B = Braun et al. (2000); C = Coopmans et al. (2004); E = www.eBird.org; L = Lees et al. (2014); LC = Lira & Casler (1979); M = museum voucher on www.ornisnet.org; N = voucher in the Natural History Museum at Tring; P = Parker et al. (1995); R1 = Rosário (1996); R2 = Rosário (2004); V1 = Vieira et al. (2014); V2 = Vieira (this study); W = www.wikiaves.com.br; X = www.xeno-canto.org. RESULTS area along the Southern Expressway took 10 years, from the first to the latest records (Table 1). The density of Population trends Mangrove Rails as an established population at the study area was 2 individuals per hectare (Table 1). As expected, the Spearman coeffi cient showed a very Th e minimum number of detections was 1 individual recorded during 2009, and the maximum number strong correlation between mangrove area development was 17 recorded during 2012 (Table 1). In mangroves and Mangrove Rail population sizes (rs = 1; p = 0.016). planted between 1997 and 1998, the fi rst records of A regression clearly indicated signifi cant population Mangrove Rail did not occur until 2002 (Table 1). increase (y = 0.5736x – 0.9014, r² = 0.86, t = 44.57, p = 0.02) through time. Mangrove Rail colonization of the whole mangrove TABLE 1. Number of Mangrove rails detected in the urban mangrove area along the Southern Expressway, Island of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil between 1994 and 2012. Average number Minimum Maximum Mangrove area Density (rails/ha) of rails number of rails number of rails (ha) 1994 0 0 0 0 0 2000 - 2001 0 0 0 0 0 2002 - 2003 2.1 1.5 0 48.7 2009 - 2010 1.4 3.2 1 8 27.1 2011 - 2012 2.0 7.2 3 17 43.5 Population size and colonizing time were probably of salt marshes. Most mangrove forests with confi rmed infl uenced by mangrove immaturity until 2002 (Figure records are described as having formations of Spartina a spp., 3), when the first Man grove rails were observed around which is often used by the Mangrove Rail to build nests the salty lagoon, the nearest formation to the Mangrove of and protect itself from predators ( (pers. obs.). Th e overall Pirajubaé (Figure 3; Rosário 2004). From 2009 to 2010, distribution of records confirmed the initial ex pectation densities were similar throughout the studied area (Figure of the Mangrove Rail being restricted to the extent of 3). However, greater densities occurred where mangroves 19,615 km² of mangrove forests in South America (Table were more developed after 2011 (Figure 3). 2). However, the Mangrove Rail apparently does not occur continuously throughout South American mangroves (Figure 2), since two major distributional gaps were Global Conservation found: 1) between Bragança, Pará (Brazil) and Cayenne Literature records and vouchers of Mangrove Rail (French Guyana); and 2) between Guajiras (Colombia) indicated occurrence at 69 localities throughout South and Cojimíes (Ecuador). Therefore, the estimated extent America (Figure 2). Most of them (n = 46) were situated of occurrence for the Mangrove Rail drops to 12,455 km² in Brazil (Figure 2). All records were taken in mangrove when these gaps are discounted from the total mangrove ecosystems. No Mangrove Rail records came from areas forest cover of South America (Table 2). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(3), 2015 Population trends and conservation of the Mangrove Rail Bianca P. Vieira FIGURE 3. Density per hectare, probable direction of colonization (black arrows) and distribution of Mangrove rails between 1994 and 2012 along the Southern Expressway, Island of Santa Catarina, Brazil. TABLE 2. Area of mangrove forests estimated in South America based on literature records and validated with Google Earth Pro 4.2 (Google 2009). Country Mangrove area (km²) Reference Brazil 11,114 Magris & Barreto (2010) Colombia 3,580 Valiela et al. (2001) Ecuador 1,620 Valiela et al. (2001) Venezuela 1,380 Cumana et al. (2010) Suriname 900 Correction of FAO (2005) who estimated 981.21 km² in 2002. French Guiana 760 Valiela et al. (2001) Guyana 160 Anthony & Gratiot (2012) Peru 51Valiela et al. (2001) Trinidad and Tobago 50 Correction of Bacon (1993) who estimated 70 km² in 1992. TOTAL IN SOUTH AMERICA 19,615 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(3), 2015 Population trends and conservation of the Mangrove Rail Bianca P. Vieira Records of Mangrove rails in Peru, Ecuador the density interval from 1.5 to 2.8 rail/ha in Arizona, and Trinidad and Tobago were inside or nearby the USA. Hinojosa-Huerta et al. (2008) estimated it at 1.03 protected areas of the National Sanctuary Manglares rails/ha, but the most conservative abundance estimate de Tumbes (Parker et al. 1995), Ecological Reserve of recorded 4,698 individuals in 5,800 ha at Ciénega de Manglares de Churute (Coopmans et al. 2004), and Santa Clara (México). In turn, Liu et al. (2012) modeled Caroni Swamp National Park (voucher MVZ Egg8005 densities ranging from 0.20 to 0.34 rails/ha in 13,254 on ORNIS), respectively. In Venezuela, the Morrocoy ha at San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and Suisun Bay and the Laguna de la Restinga national parks preserve (USA). They also estimated 1,167 Clapper Rails at San mangroves areas, and both have records of Mangrove Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and Suisun Bay between rails (Figure 2). Guyana has Coppename Nature Preserve 2009 and 2011 (Liu et al. 2012). and Wia-wia Nature Preserve protecting mangroves, Local population in this study increased due to but available Mangrove Rail records were outside these dispersal, whereas spatial density remained stable after areas in Georgetown and Berbice (Figure 2). Records colonization of the whole sampled area. For populations of Mangrove rails in Colombia come from Guajiras, on already established in a certain territory, Overton et the border with Venezuela, and outside the six national al. (2014) found subspecies Rallus obsoletus obsoletus parks (Sanquianga, Tairona, Ensenada de Utría, MacBean declining in California, though Rallus obsoletus levipes Lagoon, Isla Salamanca, and Uramba Bahía Málaga) that had a stable population in the same state (Powell 2006). protect mangroves throughout the Colombian coastline Such variety of results in population trends is related to (MADS 2015). specific interactions with habitats and resources, as well Brazil has dozens of protected areas covered with as due to diff erences in the prediction power of models mangrove forests with different sizes (ICMBIO 2011). and measures used. The positive relationship between Nevertheless, these protected areas may or may not presence of rails and habitat availability was already allow human activities ranging from sustainable use to expected, because Mangrove rails are found specifi cally industrial parks (ICMBIO 2011). According to Magris in mangrove areas, and their presence mostly depends & Barreto (2010) and ICMBIO (2011), Brazil has six on availability of grass, mainly Spartina a spp., and large protected mangrove forest areas (Biological Reserve intertidal invertebrates, mainly Uca a spp. ( (pers. obs.). Foin of Lago do Piratuba and Environmental Protection & Brenchley-Jackson (1991) suggested that restoring Areas of Reentrâncias Maranhenses, Archipelago of wetlands could help improving rail populations, and the Marajó, Baixada Maranhense, Delta do Parnaíba, and Mangrove Rail showed good capability for colonizing Guaraqueçaba), which combined preserve a total of 4,280 mangrove habitats in southern Brazil. km² of mangrove forests, with most of them allowing If the density of individuals found in southern only sustainable use of natural resources. Of these six Brazil could be extrapolated for the whole species’ range, protected areas, three (Reentrâncias Maranhenses, the Mangrove Rail global population would be in good Delta do Parnaíba, and Guaraqueçaba) have confi rmed numbers in South America, probably having more than records of the Mangrove Rail (Figure 2). Other smaller 100,000 individuals. Nonetheless, mangrove forests protected mangrove areas also preserve the extremes of in South America are not properly preserved in most the Brazilian area of occurrence of the Mangrove Rail. of its distribution, and special management measures Extreme confirmed records (Fi gure 2) were at or nearby are justified. Thou gh the loss of habitat is apparently the Marine Reserves of Tracuateua, Caetetaperaçu, not considerable in most extensive mangrove forests Arai-Peroba, and Gurupi-Piria in the state of Pará, in north and northeastern Brazil, all other countries in and at Ecological Station of Carijós, Marine Extractive South America and even southeastern and southern Reserve of Pirajubaé, Serra do Tabuleiro State Park, and Brazil face the impacts of mangrove deforestation and Environmental Protection Area of Baleia Franca in the contamination (Lugo & Snedaker 1974, Cintrón & state of Santa Catarina (Figure 2). Schaeffer-Novelli 1992 , Valiela et al. 2001, MMA 2003, Anthony & Gratiot 2012, Vieira et al. 2011, 2012). The absence of records of Mangrove Rail in Colombia may DISCUSSION be related to geographic constraints such as the Andes ( (pers. obs.). In Brazil, the abscence of records in extensive Total density of Rallus longirostris crassirostris from the fi rst mangrove forests mainly in the state of Amapá is mirrored and latest observations in the Island of Santa Catarina was by a similar gap found between northern South American around 2 rails/ha, even when both available habitat and populations of Aramides mangle (Marcondes et al. 2014). the average number of Mangrove Rails increased. Other Whether this gap for A. mangle and R. longirostris studies found similar densities for the former Rallus represent true absence or sampling artifact remains to be longirostris s complex. Anderson & Ohmart (1985) found determined by future surveys (Marcondes et al. 2014). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(3), 2015 Population trends and conservation of the Mangrove Rail Bianca P. Vieira Nevertheless this gap may be also related to ecological levels, the Vulnerable status would also be supported constrains such as low salinity levels near the mouth of for the Brazilian populations. In Colombia, the species the Amazon River, which may aff ect the habitat used by (represented by R. l. phelpsi) should be considered as these rails (Alexander Lees 2015 pers. comm.). Endangered according to criterion EN-D since the local The IUCN criteria for establishing the conservation population size is most estimated as fewer than 250 mature status of a species demands investigating its degree of individuals (Figure 2; Lira & Casler 1979, Pantaleón- isolation and dispersion capacity, extent of occurrence, Lizarazu & Rodríguez-Gacha 2002). Rates of mangrove area of occurrence, presence in protected areas, and deforestation in Suriname, French Guyana, Guyana, and main threats. As local results obtained for the Island of Venezuela and national extents of occurrence calculated Santa Catarina show, dispersion to new areas depends for these countries support the criterion EN-B1ab(i,ii,iii) on connectivity between developed mangrove forests. for Mangrove Rail local populations, also indicating an Connectivity between neighboring populations also Endangered status. Criteria EN-B2ab(i,ii,iii) and CR- depends on mangrove extents. B1ab(i,ii,iii), respectively, support classifying Ecuadorian The presence of Mangrove Rails in protected areas is and Peruvian populations (R. l. cypereti) as Endangered a positive sign to its conservation, but it is important to and Critically Endangered. The Trinidad and Toba go remember that the presence in a protected area itself does population (R. l. pelodramus s s) would also be classified not guarantee the species conservation. Management as Critically Endangered according to criterion CR- must be eff ective and connectivity between mangroves B1ab(i,ii,iii). must exist to allow meta-population flux. Man groves As demonstrated by the Mangrove Rail, the are the most endangered forest formation in the world conservation status of other species strictly associated (Valiela et al. 2001), and anthropogenic pressures have a with mangrove forests in South America need to be devastating result in South America (Cintrón & Schaeff er- revised. Results obtained by this study show that habitat Novelli 1992, Valiela et al. 2001, Anthony & Gratiot restoration can contribute to the recovery of mangrove- 2012), reflected b y the existence of less than 20,000 km² associated species even in areas of intensive human of mangrove forests in the whole continent. intervention (e.g. urban areas), which can be an alternative Loss of habitat due to landfills , industrial activities, to future adaptive management of endangered species. shrimp farms and settlements is the greatest problem Mangrove Rail populations face. Th ese activities not only ACKNOWLEDGMENT promote the loss of habitat but also contaminate the environment with dangerous and cumulative chemicals (Lugo & Snedaker 1974, Cintrón & Schaeffer-Novelli Thanks to Dayse Dias for her hel p in the fieldwork and 1992, Valiela et al. 2001). Guyana, Suriname, and French Felipe Lima for the English review. Also, thanks to Alex Guyana have a fast replacement of mangrove forests for Lees, the editor Alexandre Aleixo and the reviewers for valuable comments. settlements (Anthony & Gratiot 2012), while Brazil loses almost 1,000 km² of mangrove forests per year (Valiela et al. 2001) as a result of illegal settlements, landfills, shrimp farming, and harbors even inside restricted protected REFERENCES areas ( (pers. obs.). Even though not tested yet in South Anderson, B. W. & Ohmart, R. D. 1985. Habitat use by clapper rails America, the Mangrove Rail population may also be in the Lower Colorado River Valley. Condor, 87: 116-126. affected by heavy metals and dumpin g of waste as Rallus Anthony, E. J. & Gratiot, N. 2012. Coastal engineering and crepitans in North America (Novak et al. 2006). In a local large-scale mangrove destruction in Guyana, South America: Averting an environmental catastrophe in the making. 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Ornithology Research – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 1, 2015
Keywords: Density; occupancy; Clapper Rail; Rallus longirostris; mangrove; South America
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