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E. Oates, W. Ogilvie-Grant, Saville Reid (2010)Catalogue of the Collection of Birds' Eggs in the British Museum (Natural History)
G. Voelker, S. Rohwer, R. Bowie, D. Outlaw (2007)Molecular systematics of a speciose, cosmopolitan songbird genus: defining the limits of, and relationships among, the Turdus thrushes.
Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 42 2
L. Morellato, C. Haddad (2000)Introduction: The Brazilian Atlantic Forest 1
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G. Londoño (2005)A DESCRIPTION OF THE NEST AND EGGS OF THE PALE-EYED THRUSH (PLATYCICHLA LEUCOPS), WITH NOTES ON INCUBATION BEHAVIOR
A. Oliveira-Filho, M. Fontes (2000)Patterns of Floristic Differentiation among Atlantic Forests in Southeastern Brazil and the Influence of Climate 1
K. Halupka, H. Greeney (2009)BREEDING BIOLOGY OF PALE-EYED THRUSHES (TURDUS LEUCOPS) IN THE CLOUD FOREST OF NORTHEASTERN ECUADOR
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Mark Wimer, C. Collins (1994)Natal pterylosis of some neotropical thrushes (Muscicapidae: Turdinae)
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(1983)Breeding records of birds from Manaus, Brazil: V. Icteridae to Fringilidae
F. Knowlton (1913)Catalogue of the Collection of Birds' Eggs in the British Museum
(1959)Notes on the nesting of Turdus leucomelas in Surinam
(1991)Nests and eggs of some Ecuadorian birds
D. Snow, B. Snow (1963)Breeding and the Annual Cycle in Three Trinidad Thrushes
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N Collar, J del Hoyo, A Elliott, D A Christie (2005)Family Turdidae (Thrushes)
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L. Biancucci, T. Martin (2010)Can selection on nest size from nest predation explain the latitudinal gradient in clutch size?
The Journal of animal ecology, 79 5
G. Lichtenstein (1998)Parasitism by Shiny Cowbirds of Rufous-Bellied Thrushes
The Condor, 100
J. Simon, S. Pacheco (2013)On the standardization of nest descriptions of neotropical birds
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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 53-56 SHORTCOMMUNICATION March 2014 On the nest, eggs, and hatchlings of the Yellow-legged Thrush Turdus ﬂavipes ﬂavipes in Brazilian Atlantic Forest 1,3 2 1 1 Paulo R. R. Oliveira Jr. , Miguel N. Neto , Alexander V. Christianini , and Mercival R. Francisco Programa de Pós-graduação em Diversidade Biológica e Conservação, Departamento de Ciências Ambientais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Campus de Sorocaba, Rodovia João Leme dos Santos (SP-264), km 110, Bairro do Itinga, CEP 18052-780, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil. Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, núcleo Caraguatatuba, Rua do Horto Florestal, 1200, Bairro Rio do Ouro, CEP 11675-736, Caraguatatuba, SP, Brazil. Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org Received on 4 June 2013. Accepted on 22 December 2013. ABSTRACT: Here we present a description of a nest, eggs, and hatchlings of Yellow-legged Thrush (Turdus ﬂavipes ﬂavipes), from the Coastal Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil. The nest was found on 24 October 2011 containing two eggs. It was a “low cup/ base” nest hidden inside the dense foliage of an epiphytic bromeliad, built mainly of hairy rhizomes of epiphytic ferns, and small amounts of moss, rootlets, and strips of palm leaves, not presenting the typical mud layers found in nests of other sympatric thrush species. Nest measurements were: outside diameter 14.2 cm, inside diameter 9.1 cm, outside height 12.4 cm, inside height 7.6 cm, and height above ground 1.49 m. Eggs were greenish blue with reddish brown blotches and spots more concentrated at the large end. On 27 October the nest contained two nestlings in early developmental stage, with mouth lining, swallow ﬂanges, and bright yellow beaks, resembling the beaks of the adults. They were covered with a sparse light gray down, and had orange skin. The presence of an active nest at a location near sea level during the summer does not conform with existing information, in particular that this species occurs at low elevations only during the winter. It suggests that future studies involving breeding sites and movements of this species would be worthwhile. KEYWORDS: Brazil; breeding biology; nesting; thrushes; Turdidae. The Yellow-legged Thrush (Turdus ﬂavipes) was eggs, and hatchlings of T. f. ﬂavipes from the coastal formerly classiﬁed in the genus Platycichla, together Atlantic Forest. with the Pale-eyed Thrush (T. leucops; Ridgely & Tudor We found a nest of T. f. ﬂavipes on 24 October 2011 1994). However, molecular studies have not supported at Serra do Mar State Park, Caraguatatuba, on the coast the separation of this genus from Turdus (Voelker et al. of São Paulo state, Brazil. This conservation unit holds 2007). It holds ﬁve subspecies (T. f. venezuelensis, T. f. 50,000 ha of coastal Atlantic Forest, at an elevation of melanopleura, T. f. xanthoscela, T. f. polionota, and T. about 60 to more than 800 m above sea level. The climate f. ﬂavipes; Collar 2005). Three nests and eggs of T. f. is tropical and annual rainfall can reach 3,600 mm, melanopleura, from Trinidad, were described by Belcher without a remarkable dry season (Morellato & Haddad & Smooker (1937), and Biancucci & Martin (2010) 2000; Oliveira-Filho & Fontes 2000). The nest contained provide measurements of 46 nests from Venezuela. two eggs that were photographed but not measured. We Wimer & Collins (1994) present data on the pterylosis of revisited the nest on 27 October, when two hatchlings two nestlings, also from Venezuelan populations. were observed. The nominal subspecies occurs in southeastern The nest was located in an artiﬁcial forest gap of South America, from southeastern Brazil to southeastern approximately 1 ha, where the administrative facilities of Paraguay and northeastern Argentina, and is the the conservation unit were located (23º35'S, 45º25'W; only subspecies not distributed in northern South elevation 60 m). The form of the nest was “low cup/base” America (Ridgely & Tudor 1994; Collar 2005). To our (Simon & Pacheco 2005) and it was hidden inside the knowledge, data on its nesting biology is limited to a dense foliage of an epiphytic bromeliad at a height of 1.49 description of three eggs from Rio de Janeiro (Oates m above the ground. The bromeliad was on the trunk of 1905). The objective of our work is to describe a nest, an exotic palm (Phoenix sp., Arecaceae; Figure 1). Nest On the nest, eggs, and hatchlings of the Yellow-legged Thrush Turdus ﬂavipes ﬂavipes in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Paulo R. R. Oliveira Jr., Miguel N. Neto, Alexander V. Christianini, and Mercival R. Francisco walls were built mainly with hairy rhizomes of epiphytic end (Figure 2a). Oates (1905) measured three eggs found ferns (some containing live green leaves), varying from in a nest and found them to be 3.74 x 2.03, 3.0 x 2.03, 1–2 mm in diameter. Moss, rootlets, and strips of palm and 3.1 x 2.03 cm. Once eggs hatched, we observed the leaves were also used in nest walls, while the incubatory nestlings in an early developmental stage with their eyes chamber was lined with ﬁner roots. A small amount still closed. Mouth lining, swallow ﬂanges, and beaks of sandy forest soil rich in humic material (including were bright yellow, resembling the beaks of the adults. decaying leaves) was found in the nest base. We measured They were covered with a sparse light gray down, and had the nest using metal calipers. Nest measurements were: orange skin (Figure 2b). The nest was not observed until outside diameter 14.2 cm, inside diameter 9.1 cm, three weeks later, when we found it empty. We collected outside height 12.4 cm and inside height 7.6 cm. Eggs the nest and deposited in the ornithological collection of were not measured, but were greenish blue with reddish the Museum of Zoology of Universidade de São Paulo – brown blotches and spots more concentrated at the large MZUSP (# 2280). FIGURE 1. Exotic palm (Phoenix sp.) and bromeliad where the nest was found (photograph by P. R. R. Oliveira Jr.). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 On the nest, eggs, and hatchlings of the Yellow-legged Thrush Turdus ﬂavipes ﬂavipes in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Paulo R. R. Oliveira Jr., Miguel N. Neto, Alexander V. Christianini, and Mercival R. Francisco A B FIGURE 2. Nest, a) eggs, and b) hatchlings of Yellow-legged Thrush, T. f. ﬂavipes, at Serra do Mar State Park, Caraguatatuba, São Paulo, Brazil (photograph by M. N. Neto). The nest we described here was remarkably diﬀerent The color of the eggs we found matched the in relation to the nests reported by Belcher & Smooker description presented by Oates (1905) for T. f. ﬂavipes, (1937) for the Trinidad subspecies, T. f. melanopleura. as well as other Neotropical Turdus (Haverschmidt Although we describe only one nest, so deﬁnitive 1959; Snow & Snow 1963; Dyrcz 1983; Oniki & conclusions cannot be drawn, it is useful to compare the Willis 1983; Marin & Carrion 1991; Londoño 2005). nest to previous reports. According to these authors, nests When the hatchlings were observed, a male and a were cups made of roots and mud, lined with moss and female were repeatedly ﬂying into the nest to feed them, ﬁner roots. Our nest had a distinct absence of mud, a indicating that both sexes shared nestling provisioning characteristic that was also observed for the congeneric activities, as shown by Belcher & Smooker (1937) for T. leucops in Ecuador (Marin & Carrion 1991), and T. f. melanopleura. The nest was found during the rainy in Colombia (Londoño 2005). Mud layers visible in season in southeastern Brazil, when other thrush species the outer walls are typical features of the nests of other also breed in the region. Active nests of T. leucomelas and sympatric thrush species, i.e., Pale-breasted Thrush (T. Creamy-bellied Thrush (T. amaurochalinus) were found leucomelas), and Rufous-bellied Thrush (T. ruﬁventris; in October in Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro Haverschmidt 1959; Lichtenstein 1998). The presence (Alves 2007), and T. leucomelas nested from September of mud in the nests of T. f. melanopleura (Belcher & to January at Sorocaba, in the countryside of São Paulo Smooker 1937) was considered by Londoño (2005) to be (P.V. Davanço, pers. comm.). In the Serra do Mar the main diﬀerence between the nests of T. ﬂavipes and T. and Itatiaia mountain ranges, T. ﬂavipes is believed to leucops, but this was not supported by our observations. perform elevational migrations, staying at high elevations The abundant hairy rhizomes of epiphytic ferns used in during the summer and in lowlands during the winter nest walls, as well as the humic material found in the nest (Alves 2007). The presence of an active nest near sea base were other unique aspects of our nest, not previously level during the summer does not conform to existing reported for other Neotropical thrushes (Haverschmidt information. The knowledge about bird migration in the 1959; Snow & Snow 1963; Dyrcz 1983; Oniki & Willis Neotropics is scant, even for common species (Jahn et 1983; Marin & Carrion 1991; Londoño 2005). Nest al. 2010), and a broader geographical perspective of the placement also diverged. In Trinidad all three of the T. f. presence and movements of this species in future studies melanopleura nests observed were located in ravines and is worthwhile. rock faces on banks (Belcher & Smooker 1937), rather than in trees. However, this divergence must be viewed with caution because the number of nests described for ACKNOWLEDGMENTS both subspecies is still low. In T. leucops, for instance, nests can be placed in both embankments and trees (Marin & Carrion 1991; Londoño 2005; Halupka & We are grateful to Carlos Zacchi and the Fundação Greeney 2009). Since we have found only one nest, we Florestal for logistical support and permissions to perform cannot assume that the characteristics we describe here our ﬁeld work in Serra do Mar State Park; SAVE-Brasil for ﬁnancial support; two anonymous referees; and the are representative of the whole subspecies. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 On the nest, eggs, and hatchlings of the Yellow-legged Thrush Turdus ﬂavipes ﬂavipes in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Paulo R. R. Oliveira Jr., Miguel N. Neto, Alexander V. Christianini, and Mercival R. Francisco Londoño, G. A. 2005. A description of the nest and eggs of the associate editor Cristiano S. Azevedo for important Pale-eyed Thrush (Platycichla leucops) with notes on incubation comments on the previous version of the manuscript. behavior. Wilson Bulletin, 117: 394–399. Marin, A. M. & Carrion, J. M. B. 1991. Nests and eggs of some Ecuadorian birds. Ornitología Neotropical, 2: 44–46. REFERENCES Morellato, L. P. & Haddad, C. F. 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Ornithology Research – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 1, 2014
Keywords: Brazil; breeding biology; nesting; thrushes; Turdidae
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