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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(3), 260-264 ARTICLE September 2014 Occurrence of the Eastern Slaty Thrush (Turdidae) in southern Brazil during the non-breeding season 1,2 Huilquer Francisco Vogel ¹ UNESPAR - Universidade Estadual do Paraná, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Praça Coronel Amazonas, s/nº, Caixa Postal 57, CEP 84600-000, União da Vitória, PR, Brazil. Corresponding author: email@example.com Received on 21 January 2013. Accepted on 18 May 2014. ABSTRACT: There are many gaps in the knowledge about Neotropical bird migration patterns. Among these gaps is the presence of some non-migrating individuals at their breeding sites, outside their wintering grounds. There is evidence that Turdus subalaris can occur in southern Brazil during the non-reproductive period. The objective of this work was: (1) to verify possible occurrences of T. subalaris in southern Brazil during its non-breeding season and; (2) to relate these occurrences to years of harsh winters (caused in southern Brazil mainly by the inﬂuence of the climatic phenomenon La Niña). After synthesizing speciﬁc literature data and ornithological collection records, the occurrence data were compared with the climatic events of the preceding years. Thirteen T. subalaris individuals were recorded in southern Brazil during the breeding season between 1973 and 2013. Eight of these records (61.53%) occurred in years preceded by harsh winters. These new data indicate that migration dynamics in T. subalaris is more complex than previously thought, indicating that forest formations in southern Brazil may act as habitats for this species during the post-reproductive resting period. KEYWORDS: Breeding sites, Turdus subalaris, migration, wintering grounds INTRODUCTION in September and October in Brasília. This shows that the wintering grounds of this species are probably more Birds of the Turdidae family are well-distributed over the northerly, in ecotone areas between the Amazonia and diﬀerent Brazilian ecosystems, but the ecology of some Cerrado biomes, in the states of Pará and Mato Grosso. This is also supported by the more recent records of Mestre species is still poorly understood (Vogel et al. 2013), including Turdus subalaris (Seebohm, 1887), commonly et al. (2011) and Somenzari et al. (2011). called the Eastern Slaty Thrush. According to Sibley & In southern Brazil, T. subalaris has been reported Monroe (1993), the taxonomic status of this species is from early September to late January (rarely until April), controversial, with T. subalaris considered a subspecies during its breeding season (Belton 1985; Collar 2005). Most of the information on the species is still based on of Turdus nigriceps (subsp. subalaris), in accordance with Collar (2005). Aspects of the migration of the species general literature sources such as Belton (1985), Sick T. n. nigriceps with Andean populations have been well (1997), Clement (2000), Ridgely & Tudor (2001), Collar documented (Capllonch et al. 2008a). However, this (2005) and Sigrist (2006). In general, these authors study considered them distinct species, in agreement report that the species occurs in southern Brazil during the breeding season. with the Brazilian Ornithological Committee Records (CBRO 2014). In March (autumn) of 2009 one juvenile T. subalaris Studies on the migratory patterns of T. subalaris have was captured in Guarapuava (Paraná state; more details so far been carried out on a local scale, and have focused can be found in Vogel et al. 2012a). Ghizoni-Jr et al. on the Cerrado biome, more speciﬁcally in Brasília-Federal (2013) have also disclosed an older record of T. subalaris from Santa Catarina state during the winter of 1984. district (Antas & Valle 1987; Ferreira & Bagno 2000). It has been suggested that in winter (the non-breeding The presence of individuals in later periods (autumn period), T. subalaris occurs in southern Mato Grosso state, occurrences) can also be interpreted as variations in the states of Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and the Distrito inter-annual migratory patterns (Antas & Valle 1987). Federal (Sick 1997; Ridgely & Tudor 2001; Sigrist According to Belton (1985), during more rigorous and dry winters, the arrival of T. subalaris in southern Brazil 2006). Ferreira & Bagno (2000) recorded T. subalaris Occurrence of the Eastern Slaty Thrush (Turdidae) in southern Brazil during the non-breeding season Huilquer Francisco Vogel occurs later than in years of milder winters. Rigorous and Turdus subalaris records in southern Brazil dry winters in southern Brazil occur mainly during La were sought, with May through August deﬁned as Niña years (Grimm et al. 2000; Marengo 2007). the non-breeding season, as records up to April are Therefore, if La Niña can really inﬂuence migration considered late migrants to southern Brazil (Belton patterns in T. subalaris, records of this species in southern 1985). Records of T. subalaris in southern Brazil Brazil during the non-breeding season are predicted to were sought in: (a) Web databases (Xeno canto be preceded by winters under the inﬂuence of La Niña. Foundation – XC [http://www.xeno-canto.org], The aim of this work was to: (a) search for evidence to WikiAves – WA [http://www.wikiaves.com.br] and support the hypothesis that individuals of T. subalaris Ebird – EB [http://www.ebird.org]); (b) Voucher can also occur in southern Brazil in their non-breeding specimens deposited in scientiﬁc collections in period and (b) investigate if there is any relationship Paraná (Natural History Museum Capão da Imbuia between such occurrences and years under the inﬂuence – MHNCI), Santa Catarina (Zoological Collection of rigorous winters. of the University of Blumenau – CZFURB and Bird Collection of the Zoology Laboratory of the University of Western Santa Catarina – CLZU), and Rio Grande MATERIALS AND METHODS do Sul (Science and Technology Museum of the Pontiﬁcal Catholic University – MCTPUCRS and Southern Brazil [states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Natural Sciences Museum of Zoobotany Foundation – Grande do Sul; ca. 576.5 km² according to IBGE (2013)] MCNFZ) states; and (c) Literature records retrieved has a subtropical or temperate climate, with annual through the Scirus web data base (http://www.scirus. mean temperatures between 12 and 22°C. In Paraná, com) until September 2013. Furthermore, a personal a tropical climate predominates in the north, while a record obtained in 2013 was included in the analyses. humid subtropical climate prevails in the south. Santa Records were summarized and the occurrence and Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul are more inﬂuenced intensity of climatic phenomena such as La Niña and El by cold air masses from the South Pole; thus, a humid Niño were checked for the winter preceding each record. subtropical climate is predominant in these states, with Climate data was provided by the National Oceanic and annual mean precipitation between from 1250 and 2000 Atmospheric Administration (NOAA 2013). Lastly, a mm, except along the coast of Paraná and western Santa chi-square test with the Yates’ correction ( = 0.05) was Catarina, where rainfall is excessive (up to 2000 mm), performed to compare the proportion of records of T. with vegetation composed of rainforests along the coast subalaris obtained during years followed by La Niña, and prairie-like vegetation in the south (Grimm et al. El Niño as well as those without the presence of these 2000; Maack 2002; Ab’Saber 2003). atmospheric phenomena. TABLE 1. Records of Turdus subalaris in southern Brazil during the non-breeding period. PCP = presence of climatic phenomenon in the winter preceding the record. (+) corresponds to the number of winter months under the inﬂuence of La Niña (La) or El Niño (El). (, , Y, A) represent male, female, young and adult, respectively. Author Source Date City PCP 1. Czaban, R. E. WA - 79584A July/22/2001 Curitiba, PR La ++++ 2. Linkowski, A. EB - S9093688 August/15/2009 Morretes, PR La++ 3. Lorin, D. WA - 373726Y June/17/2011 Apucarana, PR La ++++ 4. Vogel, H. F. pers. obs. A May/05/2013 Guarapuava, PR --- 5. Rosário, L. A. CZFURB -1529A July/14/1984 Florianópolis, SC --- 6. Straube, F. C.; Urben-Filho, A. MHNCI - 5196A May/08/1999 Itajaí, SC La +++ 7. Olmos, F. WA - 148649Y May/29/2010 Lajes, SC El ++++ 8. Amorim-Neto,A. WA - 401091A May/24/2011 São Joaquim, SC La+++ 9. Volkmann, K. M. WA - 401702A June/24/2011 Pomerode, SC La+++ 10. Miguel, V. S. WA - 358625 June/25/2011 Itajaí, SC La+++ 11. Freitas, P. A. WA - 348398A August/12/2011 Santo Amaro da Imperatriz, SC La+++ 12. Belton, W. in litt. (1985) c.f. August/24/1973 São Leopoldo, RS El ++++ 13. Godinho, D. WA - 1017153A July/11/2013 Canela, RS --- Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(3), 2014 Occurrence of the Eastern Slaty Thrush (Turdidae) in southern Brazil during the non-breeding season Huilquer Francisco Vogel FIGURE 1. Records of Turdus subalaris in southern Brazil during the non-breeding season. The geographic range of the species was based on Ridgely et al. & BirdLife International (2012). The numbers represent the records in Table 1. Brazil during the non-reproductive period; however, RESULTS the possibility of reaction to the La Niña phenomenon There were 13 records of T. subalaris in southern Brazil is weakly supported by the chi-square test, as a non- between 1973 and 2013, covering the non-breeding signiﬁcant association was recovered. th th The recorded observations in this region during the season (May 5 to August 15 ; Table 1, Figure 1). Eight of these records (61.53%) occurred during years followed winter might be of young individuals that remained in by harsh winters under the inﬂuence of La Niña (Table 1). their birth area until becoming adults and later migrating In contrast, two records were preceded by El Niño years, the following year, similar to the pattern observed for and three were without the presence of these atmospheric birds of the families Charadriidae and Scolopacidae (Campos et al. 2008, p. 41). This hypothesis is based on phenomena. However, the higher frequency of records following La Niña winters was not statistically signiﬁcant the records of a young male in late autumn and a young (² = 3.25, df = 2, P = 0.19). female in winter (Table 1). Yates The migration of T. subalaris is possibly very similar to that of Turdus amaurochalinus (Capllonch et DISCUSSION al. 2008b). Populations of migrating individuals might overlap with those of non-migrating populations. In this There are important gaps in the knowledge concerning the case, a portion of the population might cease migrating migratory behavior of bird species (Alves 2007). Here, it due to the seasonal availability of resources or to favorable is demonstrated that Turdus subalaris occurs in southern conditions at the resting or breeding sites (Sick 1997; Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(3), 2014 Occurrence of the Eastern Slaty Thrush (Turdidae) in southern Brazil during the non-breeding season Huilquer Francisco Vogel Alves 2007). It is worth noting that T. subalaris and T. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS amaurochalinus are morphologically very similar (Vogel et al. 2012b) and juveniles of the former species can Thanks are due to the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de be confused with females of the latter (Belton 1985). Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for providing a doctoral Accordingly, T. subalaris can only be identiﬁed from scholarship, the Programa de Pós-graduação em Ecologia spring onwards, when its breeding activities start and de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais for logistical allow identiﬁcation through its distinctive vocalization support, Fernando Costa Straube (Hori Environmental (Ridgely & Tudor 2001; Collar 2005). Evidence of this is Consulting) and Antenor Silva Junior (collection curator that some skins deposited at the MCNFZ had not been of the MHNCI) for providing necessary information; identiﬁed yet with certainty as either T. subalaris or T. Dr . Carla Suertegaray Fontana and Biologist Alessandra amaurochalinus. Daniele da Silva Boos for providing information on Intense winters on preceding years do not the specimens deposited at MCTPUCRS; Biologist conclusively explain T. subalaris occurrences in southern Glayson Ariel Bencke for providing information on the Brazil between late autumn and winter. More records are birds deposited at MCNFZ; and Dr. Cláudio Henrique needed to establish a more reliable pattern. Necessary for Zawadzki for his valuable comments on the manuscript. long migration needs, such as weight gain and molting, I appreciate the important contributions of anonymous food resources probably become scarce in colder and drier reviewers to this manuscript. winters (Sillett et al. 2000; Capllonch et al. 2008a). The eﬀect of atmospheric phenomena such as El Niño and La Niña in the winter resting areas of the species is still REFERENCES little known. These phenomena can certainly inﬂuence migration patterns, due to rainfall dynamics aﬀecting the Ab’Saber, A. N. 2003. 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Ornithology Research – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 1, 2014
Keywords: Breeding sites; Turdus subalaris; migration; wintering grounds
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