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Occurrence of Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus in U.S. Oysters

Occurrence of Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus in U.S. Oysters Noroviruses (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are the leading causes of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in shellfish consumers worldwide. This study determined the seasonal and geographical distribution of NoV (genogroups I and II) and HAV in live U.S. market oysters. Samples were analyzed to determine the occurrence and levels of NoV and HAV using RT-qPCR and conventional RT-PCR. NoV and HAV were detected in 3.9 and 4.4%, respectively. NoV genogroups I and II were detected, with genogroup II predominating. Sequencing identified genotypes II.4, II.3, and II.7. The GII.4 strain showed ≥98% similarity with 2006–2007 circulating strains, Minerva and Laurens. HAV sequences from the 5′ non-coding region (NCR) of the genome were from genotypes I, II, or III. The incidence of NoV in oysters harvested from Atlantic Coast states was higher than that in oysters from other regions and its occurrence was greatest during the cooler months (December to February). HAV was detected at a higher frequency in shellfish harvested from the Gulf Coast and also predominated during cooler months. The seasonal occurrence of viruses in this study corresponded to the reported incidence of shellfish-associated viral illnesses. This investigation provides an overview of the occurrence and distribution of NoV and HAV in U.S. market shellfish. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Food and Environmental Virology Springer Journals

Occurrence of Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus in U.S. Oysters

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2010 by U. S. Food and Drug Administration
Subject
Biomedicine; Chemistry/Food Science, general ; Food Science ; Virology
ISSN
1867-0334
eISSN
1867-0342
DOI
10.1007/s12560-010-9040-7
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Noroviruses (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are the leading causes of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in shellfish consumers worldwide. This study determined the seasonal and geographical distribution of NoV (genogroups I and II) and HAV in live U.S. market oysters. Samples were analyzed to determine the occurrence and levels of NoV and HAV using RT-qPCR and conventional RT-PCR. NoV and HAV were detected in 3.9 and 4.4%, respectively. NoV genogroups I and II were detected, with genogroup II predominating. Sequencing identified genotypes II.4, II.3, and II.7. The GII.4 strain showed ≥98% similarity with 2006–2007 circulating strains, Minerva and Laurens. HAV sequences from the 5′ non-coding region (NCR) of the genome were from genotypes I, II, or III. The incidence of NoV in oysters harvested from Atlantic Coast states was higher than that in oysters from other regions and its occurrence was greatest during the cooler months (December to February). HAV was detected at a higher frequency in shellfish harvested from the Gulf Coast and also predominated during cooler months. The seasonal occurrence of viruses in this study corresponded to the reported incidence of shellfish-associated viral illnesses. This investigation provides an overview of the occurrence and distribution of NoV and HAV in U.S. market shellfish.

Journal

Food and Environmental VirologySpringer Journals

Published: Jun 16, 2010

References