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L. Lopes, Gustavo Malacco, Eduardo Alteff, M. Vasconcelos, Diego Hoffmann, L. Silveira (2009)Range extensions and conservation of some threatened or little known Brazilian grassland birds
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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 57-61 SHORTCOMMUNICATION March 2014 New records of the Rufous-faced Crake, Laterallus xenopterus (Gruiformes: Rallidae) in Brazil and observations about its habitat 1,5 2 3 4 Victor Gonçalves de Castro , Shayana de Jesus , Danilo Wilson da Mota Santos , and Luciano de Faria Silva Rua Eduardo de Noronha, 298, Bairro Sobradinho, CEP 38701-120, Patos de Minas, MG, Brasil. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal, IBILCE/UNESP, São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brasil. Rua Artur Magalhães, 216, Bairro Nova Floresta, Patos de Minas, MG, Brasil. Rua Antônio Santana Costa, 210/201, Bairro Jardim América, Pará de Minas, MG, Brasil. Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org Received 18 April 2013. Accepted 22 December 2013 ABSTRACT: New records of the Rufous-faced Crake, Laterallus xenopterus (Gruiformes: Rallidae) in Brazil and observations about its habitat. The Rufous-faced Crake, Laterallus xenopterus, is a bird that is rarely spotted at Paraguay, central Brazil, and central Bolivia. There are known species records at the Brazilian states of Distrito Federal, São Paulo, and Minas Gerais. Here, we provide information about new areas of occurrence for this species in Brazil and detailed observations of its habitats. In October 2012, two individuals were registered in the municipality of Cristalina, state of Goiás. In December 2012, the species was found in a new locality of Distrito Federal and at the municipality of Patrocínio, Minas Gerais. In February 2013, a new record for this species was obtained in the municipality of Itiquira, Mato Grosso. In all occasions, the bird was spotted in humid environments, which were characterized by the presence of grass and a thin water layer. KEYWORDS: cerrado; distribution; grasslands; rail; range extension. The rare Rufous-faced Crake, Laterallus xenopterus grasslands of the IBGE Ecological Reserve, and later, in (Gruiformes: Rallidae), has been recorded in highly March 1989, at the Brasilia Zoo (Negret & Teixeira 1984; disjoint areas of eastern Paraguay, central Brazil, and Collar et al. 1992). In São Paulo, a specimen was found central Bolivia (Taylor 1998; Bird Life International dead in Itirapina (Oniki & Willis 1996). Then, in 2004, 2013). Currently, its conservation status in Brazil is “least a specimen was captured in a trap for small mammals, at concern,” while at global scales this species is considered Jacaré-Riachão Farm, in the municipality of Felixlândia, “vulnerable” (IUCN 2012). The species is considered Minas Gerais (Vasconcelos et al. 2006). “critically endangered” in São Paulo (Antunes 2009) This communication aims to increase the knowledge and it is categorized as “data deﬁcient” in Minas Gerais about Laterallus xenopterus at the Brazilian Cerrado, (Fundação Biodiversitas 2008). providing additional information about new occurrence There were recent records in Paraguay in Concepción, areas and species habitats. th Canindeyú, Caazapá, Itapúa, San Pedro, and Amambay On October 25 2012, V.G.C. observed, (Myers & Hansen 1980; Storer 1981; Hayes 1995; Lowen photographed, and recorded a call of L. xenopterus in et al. 1996; Taylor 1998; BirdLife International 2013). In the municipality of Cristalina (16°45'S, 47°38'W), Bolivia, the only records are from Beni Biological Station state of Goiás, 150 km south of Distrito Federal. Biosphere Reserve and Estancia Cristalino, department The bird inhabited a region of water source amidst of Beni (Brace et al. 1998; Tobias & Seddon 2007). In a grassland (campo limpo), right above veredas (i.e., a Brazil, the species was registered in the Distrito Federal phytophysiognomy of cerrado predominantly dominated and in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. In by emergent palms of Mauritia ﬂexuosa growing in grass- 1978, a specimen was captured at Brasilia National Park, covered swamps). The environment was characterized Distrito Federal (Sick 1979). At the beginning of the by the presence of sparse pteridophytes and dense native 1980’s, the Rufous-faced Crake was registered at the wet grasses, ranging from 0.5 to 0.8 m high. A thin water New records of the Rufous-faced Crake, Laterallus xenopterus (Gruiformes: Rallidae) in Brazil and observations about its habitat Victor Gonçalves de Castro, Shayana de Jesus, Danilo Wilson da Mota Santos, and Luciano de Faria Silva layer about 1- to 2-cm deep was covering the soil. The very humid, with areas covered by a thin water layer about following day, at the same location, two individuals were 0.2- to 1.0-cm deep. Some spots had dense pteridophytes registered after the use of playback method. One of the tussocks. th individuals was photographed (Figure 1) and had its On December 27 2012, two individuals had call recorded, which was then deposited at the website their calls recorded by V.G.C. and D.W.M.S. They were Wikiaves (WA789394). While this specimen was being spotted in a grassland (campo limpo), located in the recorded, the second individual was heard some meters municipality of Patrocínio (19° 2'S, 46°58'W), state of distant from the observer. Although no record was Minas Gerais, about 520 km away from Brasília (the area taken, the threatened Dwarf Tinamou, Taoniscus nanus where was recorded the greatest number of occurrences). (Tinamiformes: Tinamidae), was spotted at the same site, Located directly upland from a riparian area and a rugged in a place that had exposed soil not covered by water. terrain, this moist environment had dense clumps of th On November 15 2012, an audio record of the an pteridophytes and dense tussocks of natural grass, ranging individual was made by V.G.C. at Fazenda Água Limpa from 0.6 to 0.9 m in height. The water layer varied from (15°56'S, 47°46'W), located south of Brasilia, in Distrito 0.3- to 1.5-cm deep. These individuals responded well to Federal. This bird inhabited a hilly area of dense native the playback and one individual even appeared in a clear grasses near the riparian vegetation. The environment was area, allowing good visualization. FIGURE 1. Rufous-faced Crake Laterallus xenopterus observed in the municipality of Cristalina, Goiás (photo by V.G.C.). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 New records of the Rufous-faced Crake, Laterallus xenopterus (Gruiformes: Rallidae) in Brazil and observations about its habitat Victor Gonçalves de Castro, Shayana de Jesus, Danilo Wilson da Mota Santos, and Luciano de Faria Silva th On February 28 2013, another two individuals del Bosque Mbaracayú, Department of Canindeyú, in were photographed and had their calls recorded (Figure Paraguay (Brace et al. 1998) also points to a potential 2) by V.G.C. and L.F.S. They were recorded at a preserved occurrence of this species in the adjacent Brazilian state area of veredas, in the municipality of Itiquira (17°13'S, of Mato Grosso do Sul. Records from the present study 54°9'W), state of Mato Grosso, about 850 km from as well as previously documented records of the species Brasilia. These were the ﬁrst documented records of this in Brazil, Paraguay, and Bolivia are compiled in Figure 4. species for the state. The habitat (Figure 3) was humid In all habitats where the species was registered, the with a thin water layer (0.4- to 2.0-cm deep) covering the presence of a dense grass cover and a thin water layer soil and dense clumps of natural glass, varying from 0.3- appeared to be a determinant factor for the occurrence to 1.4-m tall. We also observed a juvenile L. xenopterus. of this species. These observations corroborate the works When compared to the adult bird, the juvenile was smaller of Myers & Hansen (1980) and Brace et al. (1998), who and had a noticeably paler plumage. While the adult has a also found the bird in ﬂooded areas partially covered by ferruginous head and neck, white throat, and cream chest grass tussocks. In the present study it was noted that the (Gwynne et al. 2010), the juvenile form presented shades Rufous-faced Crake used similar habitat to that of the of dark gray on the head, neck, throat, and chest. Unlike Ocellated Crake, Micropygia schomburgkii (Gruiformes: the adult, whose sides are barred black (Gwynne et al. Rallidae), but Ocellated Crake habitat had no water layer. 2010), the ﬂanks of the young were also gray. It is important to note that a major ﬁre occurred It is worth mentioning that this record was taken a sometime after V.G.C. visited the occurrence site and few kilometers from the border of the state of Mato Grosso recorded Laterallus xenopterus in the city of Cristalina, do Sul, inferring that the bird might also occur in that state of Goiás. A month later, the same author returned state. The record of L. xenopterus in the Reserva Natural and discovered the ﬁre had signiﬁcantly modiﬁed the FIGURE 2. Spectogram of complete song given by Rufous-faced Crake Laterallus xenopterus in the municipality of Itiquira, Mato Grosso. FIGURE 3. Veredas habitat in the municipality of Itiquira, Mato Grosso, where two individuals of Rufous-faced Crake Laterallus xenopterus were recorded (photo by V.G.C.). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 New records of the Rufous-faced Crake, Laterallus xenopterus (Gruiformes: Rallidae) in Brazil and observations about its habitat Victor Gonçalves de Castro, Shayana de Jesus, Danilo Wilson da Mota Santos, and Luciano de Faria Silva FIGURE 4. Distribution of Rufous-faced Crake Laterallus xenopterus. White circle: previous records; black star: new records. habitat. At this time, he registered two L. xenopterus individuals present. Recently acquired knowledge individuals, reconﬁrming the permanence of the species at about L. xenopterus about its vocalizations and habitat the site and reinforcing the theory that this bird presents preferences facilitated our ﬁeld work. Nevertheless, there some tolerance to ﬁres (BirdLife International 2013). is a need for more focused research about the species, The expansion of agriculture, especially of soybean especially that would provide new information about its and maize monocultures, cattle raising, Eucalyptus and biology and geographical distribution, which is necessary Pinus plantations, mining activities, and hydroelectric for future conservation eﬀorts. projects in central Brazil results in habitat loss and modiﬁcation of habitat quality (Collar et al. 1992; Lopes et al. 2009). Therefore, these expansions threaten the ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS permanence of many bird species, including Laterallus xenopterus. These changes are possibly leading L. We thank Guy Kirwan for theoretical support in the xenopterus to a population decline (BirdLife International beginning of the investigation. Thanks to Glauco Kohler, 2013). for his valuable revision of the manuscript. Thanks to In the present study, it was observed that the Adriano César Buzzato for helping in the elaboration of the map. Thanks to Marcelo Lisita Junqueira for Rufous-faced Crake often uses a speciﬁc habitat type. It was mainly found next to water springs, riparian helping in the elaboration of the sonogram. Thanks to areas, and veredas, which are locations that are very Pedro Henrique Pereira Braga for revising the English threatened by the expansion of agriculture and livestock. version. Thanks to Reinaldo Guedes for creating the Furthermore, we noticed that not all areas characterized website WikiAves, which is responsible for encouraging new ornithological records for Brazil. We also thank the as typical habitat for this species (i.e., with the presence of clumps of grasses and a thin covering of water) had referees for making valuable comments to the manuscript. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 New records of the Rufous-faced Crake, Laterallus xenopterus (Gruiformes: Rallidae) in Brazil and observations about its habitat Victor Gonçalves de Castro, Shayana de Jesus, Danilo Wilson da Mota Santos, and Luciano de Faria Silva conservation of some threatened or little known Brazilian REFERENCES grassland birds. Bird Conservation International, 19: 1-11. Lowen, J. C.; Bartrina, L.; Clay, R. P.; & Tobias, J. A. 1996. Antunes, A.Z. 2009. Laterallus xenopterus, p.147. In: Bressan, P.M; Biological surveys and conservation priorities in eastern Paraguay (the Kierulﬀ, M.C.M.; & Sugieda, A.M. (Org.). Fauna ameaçada ﬁnal reports of Projects Canopy ‘92 and Yacutinga ‘95). Cambridge: de extinção no Estado de São Paulo - Vertebrados. 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Ornithology Research – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 1, 2014
Keywords: cerrado; distribution; grasslands; rail; range extension
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