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New records and probable migration routes of the Sora Porzana Carolina (Aves: Rallidae) in Peru

New records and probable migration routes of the Sora Porzana Carolina (Aves: Rallidae) in Peru Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 221–225. SHORT-COMMUNIC ARA TICLE TION September 2017 New records and probable migration routes of the Sora Porzana carolina (Aves: Rallidae) in Peru 1,6 2 3,4 4 5 Luis Martin Vallejos , Irwing S. Saldaña , Elio Nuñez , Antonio García-Bravo & Maurício Brandão Vecchi Programa de Pós-graduação em Ecologia e Evolução, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes (IBRAG),Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-011, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Departamento de Ornitología, Centro de Investigación en Biología Tropical y Conservación – CINBIOTYC, Urb. Almirante Miguel Grau 2da Etapa Mz. E lote 16, Piura, Peru. Naturaleza y Cultura Internacional (NCI), los tulipanes C1-21 Santa Maria del Pinar, Piura, Peru. CORBIDI, Calle Santa Rita 105, of 201, Urb. Huertos de San Antonio, Surco, Lima 33, Peru. Departamento de Ecologia, IBRAG, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-011, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Corresponding author: martin.vallej@gmail.com Received on 16 June 2017. Accepted on 18 October 2017. ABSTRACT: The Sora Porzana carolina is the most abundant rail of North America, and historical records (1877–1994) indicate Peru as the southern limit of its wintering (October–May) range. Here, we present data from three consecutive austral summers (February/2014 to March/2016) recording this species on wetlands in north Peru, which fi ll a geographic gap of approximately 1000 km between Tumbes and Lima regions. Based on our records and secondary sources for South America, we indicate that Sora probably follows two parallel migration routes in western South America: the Pacific Coast and t he Andean routes. Another recent study recorded Sora in Cusco province, which suggests that Peruvian Andes wetlands may currently becoming more important as non-breeding sites for Nearctic migrant waterbirds. Unlike the sites of historical records of Sora in Peru, the wetlands on which this rail was recently recorded have no legal protection, deserving management policies and continued monitoring. KEY-WORDS: Andean wetlands, Boreal migration, Nearctic migrant, north Peru, Rail, wintering. The Sora Porzana carolina (Linnaeus, 1758) is a Rallidae other wetland habitats as artificial grassland; during species known to breed in North America (April–July), migration it can be found foraging both in wild and emigrating to South America in boreal late summer and domesticated rice fields (Gastezzi et al. 2013). early autumn (Melvin & Gibbs 1996). Although the Sora The historical records of Sora in Peru are restricted is the most abundant rail of North America (Melvin & to four localities: Tumbes Mangroves National Sanctuary, Gibbs 1996), its population, as well as the population of Tumbes region, in northwest (Taczanowski 1877); other rail species, is decreasing, particularly due to habitat Pantanos de Villa wetland, Pantanos de Villa Wildlife loss and disturbance in both breeding and wintering Refuge, Lima region, central coast (Koepcke 1954); Junin habitats (Conway et al. 1994, Conway 2011). It arrives Lake, Junin National Reserve, Junin region, central Andes in northern South America in the non-breeding season, (Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990); and Laguna de Mejía wetland, being recorded in Colombia (October–May), Venezuela Laguna de Mejia National Sanctuary, Arequipa region, (September–May) and Ecuador (January–February) southern coast (Wust et al. 1994). Here we report recent (Buitrón & Freile 2006, Restall et al. 2006). There are and original records of Sora on wetlands of the northwest scattered records in Peru and in the middle of the Pacific of Peru obtained in Cajamarca (Peruvian Andes) and Ocean in Galapagos (Schulenberg et al. 2010) and Hawaii Piura (Pacific Coast) regions. A dditionally, we present (Uyehara 2004) islands. Unlike other rails, Sora usually a map of the probable Andean and Pacific migration occurs along its entire range in slightly drier habitats, routes of this species, based on our records, coupled with where the water is only a few inches deep, and it is more secondary sources. likely to be found in wet grassy terrain that borders large Our records from Cajamarca region occurred in o o marshes (Taylor 2017). It also occupies wet meadows and the San Nicolas Lagoon (SNL; 7 14'04''S; 78 19'41''W; is strongly associated with wetlands containing Cattail 2850 m a.s.l.), a wetland of 113 ha. One third of the marshes (Typha sp., Typhaceae) (Ripley & Beehler 1985, lagoon's surface is covered by Typha sp. and pondweeds Melvin & Gibbs 1996), along Beaver ponds and several (Potamogeton sp., Potamogetonaceae), mostly at margins. Sora Porzana carolina in Peru Vallejos et al. In addition, the lagoon surroundings present relicts determine its age or gender. The bir d was moving through of dry Andean shrubbery. SNL and its vicinity are the shoreline of the wetland, which is composed mainly of unprotected areas that receive anthropic impacts by Saltwort Batis maritima (Bataceae). local people who inhabit the neighborhood (Rabanal Our records fill a geographic gap of c. 1000 km & Vasquez 2013). Our first recor d of Sora on SNL was between Tumbes and Lima regions (Fig. 2). In addition on 12 February 2014 at mid-morning (10:45 h), when to corroborating Sora as a boreal migrant in Peru (Plenge we detected an individual a few meters from the border 2017) our records were the first documented ones after a of Cattail marshes. A few minutes later we observed it time gap of twenty years. The absence of confirmed reports for 30 min foraging on buds of Typha and Potamogeton. of Sora from Peru since 1994 do not appears to be only We identified t he species based on its olive-brown due to the lack of fieldwork effort, as the five localities of upperparts, streaked black and white, flanks prominently historical records of Sora in Peru are nationally protected barred and the yellow bill. Sora is unmistakable with areas in regularly surveyed regions (e.g. Franke 2006, other sympatric rails present on these wetlands such as Torres et al. 2006, Iannacone et al. 2010, Ugaz & Saldaña Plumbeous Rail Pardirallus sanguinolentus. The individual 2014, Núñez-Zapata et al. 2016). In addition, they from SNL was recognized as an adult female by having include places visited by tourists, especially birdwatchers, darker bill and less pronounced black on the face and interested in wildlife (SERNANP 2017). throat than the male (Restall et al. 2006, Taylor 2017). A few months after our record in Cajamarca, a new Next year (3 January 2015, 11:30 h) we detected an point of occurrence was recorded in Cusco province, individual at the same place, which fled into marshes at Huaypo Lagoon on 31 December 2014 (Venero when we approached. However, we used playback and a 2015), when a couple of adults were found foraging on female quickly appeared, which we could observe for 5 invertebrates in an open area of the lagoon (S. Sanchez, min before it disappeared from sight among the marshes. pers. comm.). This new recor d fi lls another geographic We returned at SNL on 12 January 2015, at 10:40 h, to gap for Sora in south Peru, as Huaypo Lagoon is 317 km photograph and observe for 10 min an adult female Sora northward from the Arequipa record, and approximately (Fig. 1A), which was foraging on Potamotogeton sp. and 500 km southeast of the Lima and Junin record points. slowly walking back and forth near the marshes. Additionally, a Sora individual attributed to a protected The recor d from Piura province occurred in the area in the Titicaca Lake (Puno Region, on 24 November o o Santa Julia Lagoon (SJL; 5 12'12''S; 80 39'50''W; 23 m 2015), 260 km northeastern from the Arequipa record, a.s.l.), a wetland in the northern Peruvian coast, 340 km had three photographs deposited anonymously in northwest of SNL (Fig. 2). SJL is a geographical depression the Macaulay Library (ML21372251, ML21372301, of 43.1 ha, that drains seasonal rains and fi lter waters of ML21372311). Based on our records of Sora in Peru, the urban surroundings. Around this lagoon occur relicts in addition to bibliographic and part of the occurrence of dry shrub and forest (for details, see Mogollón et al. records of the species held in the online repository Global 2013). We recorded a single Sora at SJL on the morning of Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF 2017), we were 02 February 2016 and on 02 March 2016. Based on our able to outline two possible migratory routes of Sora in brief sightings and photography (Fig. 1B) we are unable to western South America: the Pacific Coast route, and a Figure 1. (A) Female Sora Porzana carolina in San Nicolas Lagoon, Cajamarca, Peru (Photo author: L.M. Vallejos). (B) Adult Sora Porzana carolina in Santa Julia Lagoon, Piura, Peru. Photo author: E. Nuñez. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Sora Porzana carolina in Peru Vallejos et al. Figure 2. New Peruvian records (present study) of Sora Porzana carolina from Santa Julia Lagoon, Piura province (1), San Nicolas Lagoon, Cajamarca province (2), and recent record from literature (3). Numbered triangles indicate historical records of the species in Peru. parallel Andean route from Central American incursions, habitats constitute unique ecosystems, worthy of effective both rarely extending southward below 5 S (Fig. 3). protection and management measures. The biodiversity Notably, there was a recent isolated record of this importance of the wetlands and associate ecosystems where species in the southeastern Brazilian coast, where a single we recorded Sora in Peru is evidenced by the presence of individual was photographed in January 2015 in Rio de several bird species of conservation concern, including Janeiro state (point “D” in Fig. 3, Camacho & Accorsi other migrant birds (Mogollón et al. 2013, Rabanal & 2016). This first confirmed re cord from Brazil expands Vázquez 2013, Venero 2015). In the montane dry scrubs the southern limit of distribution of this species in c. 900 surrounding the SNL, we recorded two terrestrial endemic km, in relation to the previous known limit in Arequipa, bird species, the Buff-bridled In ca-finch Incaspiza laeta and the Great Spinetail Synallaxis hypochondriaca, the southwestern Peru (Wust et al. 1994). However, this extreme occurrence point (and any other from the latter categorized as “Vulnerable” by IUCN (2017). At least four bird species nationally threatened in Peru occur Brazilian coast) probably refers to vagrants coming from the northern South American route (Fig. 3). at SJL (Mogollón et al. 2013), where we also recorded one Despite the fact that Sora is considered local and species globally categorized as “Endangered”, the Rufous uncommon in southern Ecuador (Ridgely & Greenfield Flycatcher Myiarchus semirufus. 2006), we suggest that its increasing frequency in the The sites of historical o ccurrence of Sora in Peru are nationally protected areas, but this is not the case Peruvian Andes may be a recent process, such as observed over the last years in Colombia (e.g. Abril-Pulido et al. of the lagoons of our new records, nor the Huaypo Lagoon. Also, none of these three lagoons is included in 2012) and elsewhere in Ecuador (e.g. Cisneros-Heredia 2006). For example, the Piura region has been surveyed Peruvian sites from the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (Wittmann et al. 2015), previously to our record of Sora (Ugaz & Saldaña 2014, Saldaña et al. 2016) and this species was apparently which makes their long term conservation uncertain. Establishing management policies and the continued absent even in wetlands of suitable habitat, such as in sites sampled in different seasons downstream of Rio Piura monitoring of these wetlands, as well as other potential wetlands in the Coast Pacific and Andean routes, is of (I.S.S., pers. obs.). great importance as they can be major seasonal habitats The Sora is not directly protected by red lists in Peru nor in any South American country, but its wintering for migrant species, which have a greater risk of extinction Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Sora Porzana carolina in Peru Vallejos et al. Figure 3. Probable migration routes from Central American and Antillean Incursions of Sora Porzana carolina in South America inferred from occurrence records from GBIF (2017), literature and the present study. Isolated records: A. anonymous record from Isla Esteves, Titicaca Lake, Puno region, Peru (GBIF 2017); B. Preserved specimen from Paraguay on Royal Ontario Museum - Collection Birds (ID urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34954), without locality data (GBIF 2017); C. Preserved specimen without collector label from Bonito – Pernambuco, Brazil, on United States National Museum (catalog number 99992), which locality data is considered doubtful (Isler 2000); D. Photographic record from Maricá municipality, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Camacho & Accorsi 2016). than resident species of similar population size and body REFERENCES size (Pimm et al. 1988). While most migrant species, Abril-Pulido E., Pachon C. & Barragán-Barrera D. 2012. Bird including Sora, are cold-sensitive (Taylor 2017), and monitoring to conserve Salitre wetland in Bogotá: strengthening climate determines when and where they will winter local efforts in conservation. Journal of Environmental Science and (Adam et al. 2015, Lehikoinen et al. 2016), it is possible Engineering B 1: 1162–1166. that, in response to recent climate changes, Andean Adam M., Musilová Z., Musil P., Zouhar J. & Romportl D. 2015. Long-term changes in habitat selection of wintering waterbirds: wetlands will become increasingly important in the future high importance of cold weather refuge sites. Acta Ornithologica as non-breeding sites for the Sora and dozens of other 50: 127–138. Nearctic migrant waterbirds species. Buitrón G. & Freile J. 2006. Registros inusuales de aves migratorias y de bosques subtropicales en Quito, Ecuador. Cotinga 26: 54–56. Camacho I. & Accorsi M. 2016. Confirmação da Sora, Porzana carolina, em território brasileiro e contribuições para a conservação ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS das áreas úmidas da Área de Proteção Ambiental de Maricá (RJ) para espécies migratórias Neárticas. Atualidades Ornitológicas 191: We are grateful to Steve Sanchez who kindly provided 60–66. Cisneros-Heredia D.F. 2006. Aves, Podilymbus podiceps, Ardea alba, detailed information for Sora in Cusco; Manuel A. Plenge Egretta thula, Nycticorax nycticorax, Ixobrychus exilis, Porzana who kindly helped us with literature of Sora in Peru; carolina, Porphyrula martinica, Gallinula chloropus, Phalaropus Maria Alice S. Alves, Galo Buitron-Jurado, Manuel A. tricolor, Vanellus resplendens: distribution extensions, filling gaps, Plenge and an anonymous reviewer for their comments historical occurence. Check List 2: 27–31. Conway C.J. 2011. Standardized North American marsh bird that considerably improved an earlier version of the monitoring protocol. Waterbirds 34: 319–346. manuscript; Tom Schulenberg for confirming the species Conway C.J., Eddleman W.R. & Anderson S.H. 1994. Nesting identification; and Miran da Domico for helping with success and survival of Virginia Rails and Soras. Wilson Bulletin English corrections. L.M.V. received a MSc. scholarship 106: 466–473. from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Fjeldså J. & Krabbe N. 1990. Birds of the high Andes. A manual to the birds of the temperate zone of the Andes and Patagonia, South America. Tecnológico (CNPq/Brazil, No. 190594/2013-6), M.B.V. Copenhagem: Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen received a postdoctoral fellowship from Fundação Carlos and Apollo Books, Svendborg and Zoological Museum. Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Franke I. 2006. Final report, Waterbirds in Peru: Lima: Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marco Janeiro (FAPERJ, No. E-26/201.778/2017). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Sora Porzana carolina in Peru Vallejos et al. Gastezzi P., Martínez D. & Villarreal J. 2013. Monitoreo biológico de America, an identification guide . Connecticut: Yale University aves acuáticas en arrozales de la zona norte de Costa Rica. http:// Press. www.lacbiosafety.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Poster_ Ridgely R.S. & Greenfield P.J. 2006. Aves del Ecuador, guia de campo. Costa_Rica_Aves.pdf (access on 21 July 2016). Guayaquil: Fundación de Conservación Jocotoco. GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility). 2017. Free and open Ripley S.D. & Beehler B.M. 1985. Rails of the world: a compilation access to biodiversity data. http://www.gbif.org/species/2474639 of new information, 1975–1983 (Aves: Rallidae). Smithsonian (access on 11 March 2017). Contributions to Zoology 417: 1–28. Iannacone J., Atasi M., Bocanegra T., Camacho M., Montes A., Saldaña I., Ugaz A., Baldeón A. & Vallejos L.M. 2016. Extensiones de Santos S., Zuñiga H. & Alayo M. 2010. Diversidad de aves en rango y registros destacables de aves en el departamento de Piura, el humedal Pantanos de Villa, Lima, Perú: periodo 2004–2007. noroeste de Perú. Cotinga 38: 82–87. Biota Neotropica 10: 295–304. Schulenberg T.S., Stotz D.F., Lane D.F., O'Neill J.P. & Parker-III T.A. Isler M.L. 2000. The alleged Brazilian specimen of Sora ( Porzana 2010. Birds of Peru: revised and updated edition. Princeton and carolina) in the United States National Museum. Nattereria 1: 18. Oxford: Princeton University Press. IUCN. 2017. The IUCN red list of threatened species. http://www.iucn. SERNANP (Servicio Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el org (access on 11 October 2017). Estado). 2017. http://www.sernanp.gob.pe (access on 19 July Koepcke M. 1954. Corte ecológico transversal en los Andes del Perú 2016). central con especial consideración de las aves. Parte I: costa, Taczanowski L. 1877. Supplément à la liste des oiseaux recueillis au vertientes occidentales y región altoandina. Memorias del Museo de nord du Pérou occidental par MM. Jelski et Stolzmann. Proceedings Historia Natural “Javier Prado” 3: 1–119. of the Zoological Society of London 1877: 744–754. Lehikoinen A., Foppen R.P.B., Heldbjerg H., Lindström Å., van Taylor B. 2017. Sora (Porzana carolina). In: del Hoyo J., Elliott A., Manen W., Piirainen S., van Turnhout C.A.M. & Butchart Sargatal J., Christie D. & de Juana E. (eds.). Handbook of the birds S.H.M. 2016. Large-scale climatic drivers of regional winter bird of the world alive. Barcelona: Lynx Editions. http://www.hbw. population trends. Diversity and Distributions 22: 1163–1173. com/species/sora-porzana-carolina (access on 19 July 2016). Melvin S.M. & Gibbs J.P. 1996. Sora (Porzana carolina). In: Poole Torres M., Quinteros Z. & Takano F. 2006. Variación temporal de A. & Gill F. (eds). The bir ds of North America. Washington and la abundancia y diversidad de aves limícolas em el Refugio de Philadelphia: The A cademy of Natural Sciences and The American Vida Silvestre Pantanos de Villa, Lima - Perú. Ecología Aplicada Ornithologists' Union. 5: 119–125. Mogollón E.L, Liciapoma E.P. & Cortez E.I.N. 2013. Aves del Ugaz A. & Saldaña I.S. 2014. Aves de Piura. Lambayeque: Emdecosege humedal de Santa Julia, Piura - Perú. Boletín Informativo de la S.A. Unión de Ornitólogos del Perú 8: 10–20. Uyehara K.J. 2004. First record of the Sora in the state of Hawaii. Núñez-Zapata J., Pollack-Velásquez L.E., Huamán E., Tiravanti J. & Western Birds 35: 47–49. García E. 2016. A compilation of the birds of La Libertad region, Venero J.L. 2015. Aves de la Laguna Huaypo, Cusco - Perú. Boletín de Peru. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 200–215. la Unión de Ornitólogos del Perú 10: 26–30. Pimm S.L., Jones H.L. & Diamond J. 1988. On the risk of extinction. Wittmann F., Householder E., Oliveira A., Lopes A., Wittmann A.O., American Naturalist 132: 757–785. Junk W.J. & Piedade M.T.F. 2015. Implementation of the Ramsar Plenge M. 2017. List of the birds of Peru. Lima. https://www.sites. Convention on South American wetlands: an update. Research google.com/site/boletinunop/checklist (access on 10 March and Reports in Biodiversity Studies 4: 47–58. 2017). Wust W.H., Luscombe A. & Valqui T. 1994. Las aves de los Pantanos de Rabanal M.R. & Vázquez M. 2013. San Nicolas Lagoon, Namora, Villa y alrededores. Lima: Asociación de Ecología y Conservación Cajamarca, Peru. Cajamarca: Martinez Compañón Editores (ECCO). S.R.L. Restall R., Rodner C. & Lentino M. 2006. Birds of northern South Associate Editor: Marcos P. Dantas. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ornithology Research Springer Journals

New records and probable migration routes of the Sora Porzana Carolina (Aves: Rallidae) in Peru

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Abstract

Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 221–225. SHORT-COMMUNIC ARA TICLE TION September 2017 New records and probable migration routes of the Sora Porzana carolina (Aves: Rallidae) in Peru 1,6 2 3,4 4 5 Luis Martin Vallejos , Irwing S. Saldaña , Elio Nuñez , Antonio García-Bravo & Maurício Brandão Vecchi Programa de Pós-graduação em Ecologia e Evolução, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes (IBRAG),Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-011, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Departamento de Ornitología, Centro de Investigación en Biología Tropical y Conservación – CINBIOTYC, Urb. Almirante Miguel Grau 2da Etapa Mz. E lote 16, Piura, Peru. Naturaleza y Cultura Internacional (NCI), los tulipanes C1-21 Santa Maria del Pinar, Piura, Peru. CORBIDI, Calle Santa Rita 105, of 201, Urb. Huertos de San Antonio, Surco, Lima 33, Peru. Departamento de Ecologia, IBRAG, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-011, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Corresponding author: martin.vallej@gmail.com Received on 16 June 2017. Accepted on 18 October 2017. ABSTRACT: The Sora Porzana carolina is the most abundant rail of North America, and historical records (1877–1994) indicate Peru as the southern limit of its wintering (October–May) range. Here, we present data from three consecutive austral summers (February/2014 to March/2016) recording this species on wetlands in north Peru, which fi ll a geographic gap of approximately 1000 km between Tumbes and Lima regions. Based on our records and secondary sources for South America, we indicate that Sora probably follows two parallel migration routes in western South America: the Pacific Coast and t he Andean routes. Another recent study recorded Sora in Cusco province, which suggests that Peruvian Andes wetlands may currently becoming more important as non-breeding sites for Nearctic migrant waterbirds. Unlike the sites of historical records of Sora in Peru, the wetlands on which this rail was recently recorded have no legal protection, deserving management policies and continued monitoring. KEY-WORDS: Andean wetlands, Boreal migration, Nearctic migrant, north Peru, Rail, wintering. The Sora Porzana carolina (Linnaeus, 1758) is a Rallidae other wetland habitats as artificial grassland; during species known to breed in North America (April–July), migration it can be found foraging both in wild and emigrating to South America in boreal late summer and domesticated rice fields (Gastezzi et al. 2013). early autumn (Melvin & Gibbs 1996). Although the Sora The historical records of Sora in Peru are restricted is the most abundant rail of North America (Melvin & to four localities: Tumbes Mangroves National Sanctuary, Gibbs 1996), its population, as well as the population of Tumbes region, in northwest (Taczanowski 1877); other rail species, is decreasing, particularly due to habitat Pantanos de Villa wetland, Pantanos de Villa Wildlife loss and disturbance in both breeding and wintering Refuge, Lima region, central coast (Koepcke 1954); Junin habitats (Conway et al. 1994, Conway 2011). It arrives Lake, Junin National Reserve, Junin region, central Andes in northern South America in the non-breeding season, (Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990); and Laguna de Mejía wetland, being recorded in Colombia (October–May), Venezuela Laguna de Mejia National Sanctuary, Arequipa region, (September–May) and Ecuador (January–February) southern coast (Wust et al. 1994). Here we report recent (Buitrón & Freile 2006, Restall et al. 2006). There are and original records of Sora on wetlands of the northwest scattered records in Peru and in the middle of the Pacific of Peru obtained in Cajamarca (Peruvian Andes) and Ocean in Galapagos (Schulenberg et al. 2010) and Hawaii Piura (Pacific Coast) regions. A dditionally, we present (Uyehara 2004) islands. Unlike other rails, Sora usually a map of the probable Andean and Pacific migration occurs along its entire range in slightly drier habitats, routes of this species, based on our records, coupled with where the water is only a few inches deep, and it is more secondary sources. likely to be found in wet grassy terrain that borders large Our records from Cajamarca region occurred in o o marshes (Taylor 2017). It also occupies wet meadows and the San Nicolas Lagoon (SNL; 7 14'04''S; 78 19'41''W; is strongly associated with wetlands containing Cattail 2850 m a.s.l.), a wetland of 113 ha. One third of the marshes (Typha sp., Typhaceae) (Ripley & Beehler 1985, lagoon's surface is covered by Typha sp. and pondweeds Melvin & Gibbs 1996), along Beaver ponds and several (Potamogeton sp., Potamogetonaceae), mostly at margins. Sora Porzana carolina in Peru Vallejos et al. In addition, the lagoon surroundings present relicts determine its age or gender. The bir d was moving through of dry Andean shrubbery. SNL and its vicinity are the shoreline of the wetland, which is composed mainly of unprotected areas that receive anthropic impacts by Saltwort Batis maritima (Bataceae). local people who inhabit the neighborhood (Rabanal Our records fill a geographic gap of c. 1000 km & Vasquez 2013). Our first recor d of Sora on SNL was between Tumbes and Lima regions (Fig. 2). In addition on 12 February 2014 at mid-morning (10:45 h), when to corroborating Sora as a boreal migrant in Peru (Plenge we detected an individual a few meters from the border 2017) our records were the first documented ones after a of Cattail marshes. A few minutes later we observed it time gap of twenty years. The absence of confirmed reports for 30 min foraging on buds of Typha and Potamogeton. of Sora from Peru since 1994 do not appears to be only We identified t he species based on its olive-brown due to the lack of fieldwork effort, as the five localities of upperparts, streaked black and white, flanks prominently historical records of Sora in Peru are nationally protected barred and the yellow bill. Sora is unmistakable with areas in regularly surveyed regions (e.g. Franke 2006, other sympatric rails present on these wetlands such as Torres et al. 2006, Iannacone et al. 2010, Ugaz & Saldaña Plumbeous Rail Pardirallus sanguinolentus. The individual 2014, Núñez-Zapata et al. 2016). In addition, they from SNL was recognized as an adult female by having include places visited by tourists, especially birdwatchers, darker bill and less pronounced black on the face and interested in wildlife (SERNANP 2017). throat than the male (Restall et al. 2006, Taylor 2017). A few months after our record in Cajamarca, a new Next year (3 January 2015, 11:30 h) we detected an point of occurrence was recorded in Cusco province, individual at the same place, which fled into marshes at Huaypo Lagoon on 31 December 2014 (Venero when we approached. However, we used playback and a 2015), when a couple of adults were found foraging on female quickly appeared, which we could observe for 5 invertebrates in an open area of the lagoon (S. Sanchez, min before it disappeared from sight among the marshes. pers. comm.). This new recor d fi lls another geographic We returned at SNL on 12 January 2015, at 10:40 h, to gap for Sora in south Peru, as Huaypo Lagoon is 317 km photograph and observe for 10 min an adult female Sora northward from the Arequipa record, and approximately (Fig. 1A), which was foraging on Potamotogeton sp. and 500 km southeast of the Lima and Junin record points. slowly walking back and forth near the marshes. Additionally, a Sora individual attributed to a protected The recor d from Piura province occurred in the area in the Titicaca Lake (Puno Region, on 24 November o o Santa Julia Lagoon (SJL; 5 12'12''S; 80 39'50''W; 23 m 2015), 260 km northeastern from the Arequipa record, a.s.l.), a wetland in the northern Peruvian coast, 340 km had three photographs deposited anonymously in northwest of SNL (Fig. 2). SJL is a geographical depression the Macaulay Library (ML21372251, ML21372301, of 43.1 ha, that drains seasonal rains and fi lter waters of ML21372311). Based on our records of Sora in Peru, the urban surroundings. Around this lagoon occur relicts in addition to bibliographic and part of the occurrence of dry shrub and forest (for details, see Mogollón et al. records of the species held in the online repository Global 2013). We recorded a single Sora at SJL on the morning of Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF 2017), we were 02 February 2016 and on 02 March 2016. Based on our able to outline two possible migratory routes of Sora in brief sightings and photography (Fig. 1B) we are unable to western South America: the Pacific Coast route, and a Figure 1. (A) Female Sora Porzana carolina in San Nicolas Lagoon, Cajamarca, Peru (Photo author: L.M. Vallejos). (B) Adult Sora Porzana carolina in Santa Julia Lagoon, Piura, Peru. Photo author: E. Nuñez. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Sora Porzana carolina in Peru Vallejos et al. Figure 2. New Peruvian records (present study) of Sora Porzana carolina from Santa Julia Lagoon, Piura province (1), San Nicolas Lagoon, Cajamarca province (2), and recent record from literature (3). Numbered triangles indicate historical records of the species in Peru. parallel Andean route from Central American incursions, habitats constitute unique ecosystems, worthy of effective both rarely extending southward below 5 S (Fig. 3). protection and management measures. The biodiversity Notably, there was a recent isolated record of this importance of the wetlands and associate ecosystems where species in the southeastern Brazilian coast, where a single we recorded Sora in Peru is evidenced by the presence of individual was photographed in January 2015 in Rio de several bird species of conservation concern, including Janeiro state (point “D” in Fig. 3, Camacho & Accorsi other migrant birds (Mogollón et al. 2013, Rabanal & 2016). This first confirmed re cord from Brazil expands Vázquez 2013, Venero 2015). In the montane dry scrubs the southern limit of distribution of this species in c. 900 surrounding the SNL, we recorded two terrestrial endemic km, in relation to the previous known limit in Arequipa, bird species, the Buff-bridled In ca-finch Incaspiza laeta and the Great Spinetail Synallaxis hypochondriaca, the southwestern Peru (Wust et al. 1994). However, this extreme occurrence point (and any other from the latter categorized as “Vulnerable” by IUCN (2017). At least four bird species nationally threatened in Peru occur Brazilian coast) probably refers to vagrants coming from the northern South American route (Fig. 3). at SJL (Mogollón et al. 2013), where we also recorded one Despite the fact that Sora is considered local and species globally categorized as “Endangered”, the Rufous uncommon in southern Ecuador (Ridgely & Greenfield Flycatcher Myiarchus semirufus. 2006), we suggest that its increasing frequency in the The sites of historical o ccurrence of Sora in Peru are nationally protected areas, but this is not the case Peruvian Andes may be a recent process, such as observed over the last years in Colombia (e.g. Abril-Pulido et al. of the lagoons of our new records, nor the Huaypo Lagoon. Also, none of these three lagoons is included in 2012) and elsewhere in Ecuador (e.g. Cisneros-Heredia 2006). For example, the Piura region has been surveyed Peruvian sites from the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (Wittmann et al. 2015), previously to our record of Sora (Ugaz & Saldaña 2014, Saldaña et al. 2016) and this species was apparently which makes their long term conservation uncertain. Establishing management policies and the continued absent even in wetlands of suitable habitat, such as in sites sampled in different seasons downstream of Rio Piura monitoring of these wetlands, as well as other potential wetlands in the Coast Pacific and Andean routes, is of (I.S.S., pers. obs.). great importance as they can be major seasonal habitats The Sora is not directly protected by red lists in Peru nor in any South American country, but its wintering for migrant species, which have a greater risk of extinction Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Sora Porzana carolina in Peru Vallejos et al. Figure 3. Probable migration routes from Central American and Antillean Incursions of Sora Porzana carolina in South America inferred from occurrence records from GBIF (2017), literature and the present study. Isolated records: A. anonymous record from Isla Esteves, Titicaca Lake, Puno region, Peru (GBIF 2017); B. Preserved specimen from Paraguay on Royal Ontario Museum - Collection Birds (ID urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34954), without locality data (GBIF 2017); C. Preserved specimen without collector label from Bonito – Pernambuco, Brazil, on United States National Museum (catalog number 99992), which locality data is considered doubtful (Isler 2000); D. Photographic record from Maricá municipality, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Camacho & Accorsi 2016). than resident species of similar population size and body REFERENCES size (Pimm et al. 1988). While most migrant species, Abril-Pulido E., Pachon C. & Barragán-Barrera D. 2012. 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Journal

Ornithology ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Sep 1, 2017

Keywords: Andean wetlands; Boreal migration; Nearctic migrant; north Peru; Rail; wintering

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