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New record of the brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis in continental waters of the Brazilian Eastern Amazon

New record of the brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis in continental waters of the Brazilian... Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(3), 351-353 ARTICLE September 2015 New record of the brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis in continental waters of the Brazilian Eastern Amazon 1,2,4 1,2 1,2,3 Danilo Augusto Almeida-Santos , Giulianne Sampaio Ferreira and Edson Varga Lopes Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Aquáticos Continentais Amazônicos – PPGRACAM, Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará (UFOPA), Rua Vera Paz, s/n, CEP 68035-110, Santarém, PA, Brazil. Laboratório de Ecologia e Comportamento Animal (LECAn), Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará (UFOPA), Rua Vera Paz, s/n, CEP 68035- 110, Santarém, PA, Brazil. Instituto de Biodiversidade e Florestas (IBEF), Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará (UFOPA), Rua Vera Paz, s/n, CEP 68035-110, Santarém, PA, Brazil. Corresponding author: daniloaugustosantos@yahoo.com.br Received on 17 March 2015. Accepted on 3 May 2015. ABSTRACT: A brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis s) individual was recorded and photographed in the urban area of Santarém, northern Brazil. The bird perched on the roof of a fish market (2°25'S, 54°43'W) located on the Tapa jos River bank in Santarém urban area, and stayed in the region for at least 45 days. This is the third record and the first photo graphic record of the brown pelican for inland Brazil. KE E EY Y Y-WORDS: Amazon; Brazil; sea bird; Western Pará. INTRODUCTION os Santos Bay, state of Bahia, in 1982. In 2005, Patrial and collaborators recorded an individual P. occidentalis Th e brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis s) is a marine bird flyin g over Ipióca Beach, Maceió, state of Alagoas with broad distribution in the Americas, mainly on the (Patrial et al. 2011). This individual was photo graphed coast. It occurs in the U.S., Central America, Caribbean, (Patrial 2010, WA88534). Patrial et al. (2011) also reported an individual pelican of the subspecies P. Galapagos, and northern South America (Enticott & Tipling 1997). Sometimes, this species goes further occidentalis thagus, which was photographed in 2008 south and reaches northern and southeastern Brazil, and flyin g over the sea, close to the city of Santos, state of sporadically Tierra del Fuego, the southernmost extreme São Paulo. These authors identified the pelican as P. of South America (Sick 1997, Elliott et al. 2014). thagus, but other researchers identified it as P. o. thagus, a subspecies of P. occidentalis (CBRO 2014, Elliott et In Brazil, the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee (CBRO 2014) classifies P. occidentalis s as an al. 2014). Following the nomenclature used by these occasional visitor from the Northern Hemisphere, and authors, this would be the fifth record of P. occidentalis Sick (1997) considers the species an occasional visitor in the Brazilian coast. from the northern region of Brazil. Some records of this In continental Brazil, there are only two records of P. occidentalis, both for the northern region. The first record species have already been made in Brazil. Th ere are fi ve documented records of P. occidentalis was made in the middle Tapajós River, in the city of for the Brazilian coast. The first was made by Mitchell Itaituba, state of Pará. In this locality, one individual was (1957 apud Sick 1997), who recorded a brown pelican collected and deposited in the Emílio Goeldi Museum in the Rio de Janeiro. The second record was made b y in Belém by Emilie Snethlage (MPEG 00433, Snethlage 1914). A second record was made in the Uraricoera River, Sick (1997), who reported the occurrence of a white pelican in Guanabara Bay, state of Rio de Janeiro, in state of Roraima (Pinto 1978, Sick 1997). Unfortunately, 1960. However, the author was not sure whether the there is no precise indication of the observation site for observed individual was an albino P. occidentalis s or a this latter record. We present here the first photo graphic P. erythrorhynchos, which could probably escaped from record of P. occidentalis s for continental Brazil. The record was made in Eastern Amazon, in the city of Santarém, captivity. The third record was made by Teixeira et al. (1993), who saw an individual brown pelican in Todos Pará, Northern Brazil. New record of the brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis s in continental waters of the Brazilian Eastern Amazon Danilo Augusto Almeida-Santos, Giulianne Sampaio Ferreira a and Edson Varga Lopes METHODS air or from the water, as its typical hunting strategy. The pelican was also observed swimming and foraging with cormorants (Phalacrocorax brasilianus s). In addition, it The brown pelican was observed and photographed in the urban area of Santarém (2°25'S, 54°43'W), on the frequently made circular fli ghts in the surroundings using right margin of the Tapajós River, in its confluence with air currents, together with black vultures. the Amazonas River. We made periodical checking of the permanence of the bird in the area and observations on its behavior for 38 days. RESULTS On 22 November 2013, E.V.L and D.A.A.S recorded a P. occidentalis individual perched on the roof of a local fish market (Figure 1). Based on its color we believe it was a juvenile or sub-adult. According to reports by local fi shermen, the bird was observed for the fi rst time at the site one week before our record. From November 22 on, we made periodic visits to document the presence of the bird at the site. Th e last observation was made on 28 December 2013, which totals at least 45 days of presence of the pelican at the observation site. We observed that, during its permanence in the region, the pelican spent most of its time perched on the fish market roof together with great egrets ( ( (Ardea alba) and black vultures (Coragyps atratus s), which are common at the site (Figure 2). Th ese birds consumed small fi sh and fi sh viscera discharged in the Tapajos River by fishermen and people of the fish market. In some occasions, the pelican was observed perched on boats and FIGURE 1. A juvenile Pelecanus occidentalis, perched on the roof of a actively foraging in the Tapajós River, diving from the fish market in Santarém, Pará, 22 November 2013 . FIGURE 2. Th e P. occidentalis s individual (red circle) perched on the roof of a fish market, together with individuals of Ardea alba a and Coragyps atratus. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(3), 2015 New record of the brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis s in continental waters of the Brazilian Eastern Amazon Danilo Augusto Almeida-Santos, Giulianne Sampaio Ferreira a and Edson Varga Lopes DISCUSSION ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Pelecanus occidentalis s is a typical marine bird (Elliott D. A. Almeida-Santos and G. S. Ferreira received CAPES et al. 2014), and hence its occurrence in continental grants during the development of this study. We thank waters very far from the sea would be unexpected. Some Alexander Lees for the information about the brown marine birds, such as species of the families Sternidae pelican skin collected by Emilie Snethlage. and Rynchopidae, also occur in continental waters (Sick 1997), but some species of the families Laridae and REFERENCES Pelecanidae are seldom seen inland. Santarém is located at approximately 600 km from the closest coast at the CBRO - Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos (2014). Marajó Island. This P. occidentalis s individual probably Listas das aves do Brasil. 11ª Edition. http://www.cbro.org.br followed the channel of the Amazonas River and arrived (access on 20 January 2014). at Santarém, in a supposedly erratic movement. This Cruz, L. P. (2013). [WA995713, Larus dominicanus s Lichtenstein, could also explain other inland records of this species 1823]. Wiki Aves - A Enciclopédia das Aves do Brasil. http://www. wikiaves.com/995713 (accessed 02 March 2015). (Snethlage 1914, Pinto 1978). As the bird we recorded Elliott, A.; Christie, D. A.; Jutglar, F.; de Juana, E. & Kirwan, G. was a juvenile (and probably naive) individual, this M. (2014). Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis s). In: del Hoyo, hypothesis is even more plausible. Another possibility is J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) that this individual arrived at Santarém perched on one of (2014). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Editions, the large ships that frequently arrive at Santarém harbor. Barcelona. http://www.hbw.com/node/52616 (accessed 24 April 2014). We can also speculate if large-scale climatic phenomena, Enticott, J. & Tipling, D. (1997). Seabirds of the world: the complete such as the El Niño, can sometimes aff ect the movements reference. New Holland: Stackpole Books. of marine birds in a way not fully understood as yet, and Lees, A. C.; Moura, N. G.; Andretti, C. B.; Davis, B. J. W.; Lopes, their migratory movements might be irregular. However, E. V.; Henriques, L. M. P.; Aleixo, A.; Barlow, J.; Ferreira, L. & Gardner, T. A. (2013). One hundred and thirty-fi ve years of this latter suggestion is diffi cult to demonstrate. avifaunal surveys around Santarém, central Brazilian Amazon. Regardless of why and how this typical marine bird Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 21(1): 16-57. reached far inland, it is important to record the presence Patrial, L. W. (2010). [WA88534, Pelecanus occidentalis and the period of permanence of bird species at sites where L innaeus,1766]. h ttp://www .wi k iav es.com. their occurrence is unexpected or occasional. Th is kind of br/88534&p=1&t=c&c=2704302&s=10135 (accessed 20 January 2014). information is important to plan for bird conservation. It Patrial, L. W.; Pessoa, A. S. P. & Pereira, G. A. (2011). Primeiro is also important to stress that P. occidentalis s is not on the registro do pelicano-peruano Pelecanus thagus no Brasil e registro recent list of bird species recorded in the past 135 years in documentado do pelicano-pardo P. occidentalis na costa leste Santarém (Lees et al. 2013), and this is the fi rst record of brasileira. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia a 19 (4): 539-540. Pinto, O. M. O. (1978). Novo Catálogo das aves do Brasil, 1º parte. Sao the brown pelican for the Santarém city. We believe that Paulo: Empresa Gráfi ca da Revista dos Tribunais. some species considered atypical in this region perhaps Sick, H. (1997). Ornitologia brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira. are not so uncommon, but rather poorly documented, Snethlage, E. (1914). Catálogo das aves amazônicas. Bol. Mus. due to the lack of bird watchers able to identify them. Paraense Emílio Goeldi, 8:1-465. Teixeira, D. M.; Otoch, R.; Luigi, G.; Raposo, M. A. & Almeida, However, with the help of online photo archives such C. C. (1993). Notes on some birds of northeastern Brazil (5). as the websites www.wikiaves.com.br, www.xeno-canto. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 113:48-52. org, and http://ibc.lynxeds.com, and a greater exchange of information among scientists, unexpected occurrences such as the one reported here became more common. A record of the kelp gull (Larus dominicanus s) also in the Tapajós River on Santarém city, on 2 June 2013 (Cruz 2013) is another example of the usefulness of these new tools of bird documentation in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(3), 2015 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ornithology Research Springer Journals

New record of the brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis in continental waters of the Brazilian Eastern Amazon

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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(3), 351-353 ARTICLE September 2015 New record of the brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis in continental waters of the Brazilian Eastern Amazon 1,2,4 1,2 1,2,3 Danilo Augusto Almeida-Santos , Giulianne Sampaio Ferreira and Edson Varga Lopes Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Aquáticos Continentais Amazônicos – PPGRACAM, Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará (UFOPA), Rua Vera Paz, s/n, CEP 68035-110, Santarém, PA, Brazil. Laboratório de Ecologia e Comportamento Animal (LECAn), Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará (UFOPA), Rua Vera Paz, s/n, CEP 68035- 110, Santarém, PA, Brazil. Instituto de Biodiversidade e Florestas (IBEF), Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará (UFOPA), Rua Vera Paz, s/n, CEP 68035-110, Santarém, PA, Brazil. Corresponding author: daniloaugustosantos@yahoo.com.br Received on 17 March 2015. Accepted on 3 May 2015. ABSTRACT: A brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis s) individual was recorded and photographed in the urban area of Santarém, northern Brazil. The bird perched on the roof of a fish market (2°25'S, 54°43'W) located on the Tapa jos River bank in Santarém urban area, and stayed in the region for at least 45 days. This is the third record and the first photo graphic record of the brown pelican for inland Brazil. KE E EY Y Y-WORDS: Amazon; Brazil; sea bird; Western Pará. INTRODUCTION os Santos Bay, state of Bahia, in 1982. In 2005, Patrial and collaborators recorded an individual P. occidentalis Th e brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis s) is a marine bird flyin g over Ipióca Beach, Maceió, state of Alagoas with broad distribution in the Americas, mainly on the (Patrial et al. 2011). This individual was photo graphed coast. It occurs in the U.S., Central America, Caribbean, (Patrial 2010, WA88534). Patrial et al. (2011) also reported an individual pelican of the subspecies P. Galapagos, and northern South America (Enticott & Tipling 1997). Sometimes, this species goes further occidentalis thagus, which was photographed in 2008 south and reaches northern and southeastern Brazil, and flyin g over the sea, close to the city of Santos, state of sporadically Tierra del Fuego, the southernmost extreme São Paulo. These authors identified the pelican as P. of South America (Sick 1997, Elliott et al. 2014). thagus, but other researchers identified it as P. o. thagus, a subspecies of P. occidentalis (CBRO 2014, Elliott et In Brazil, the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee (CBRO 2014) classifies P. occidentalis s as an al. 2014). Following the nomenclature used by these occasional visitor from the Northern Hemisphere, and authors, this would be the fifth record of P. occidentalis Sick (1997) considers the species an occasional visitor in the Brazilian coast. from the northern region of Brazil. Some records of this In continental Brazil, there are only two records of P. occidentalis, both for the northern region. The first record species have already been made in Brazil. Th ere are fi ve documented records of P. occidentalis was made in the middle Tapajós River, in the city of for the Brazilian coast. The first was made by Mitchell Itaituba, state of Pará. In this locality, one individual was (1957 apud Sick 1997), who recorded a brown pelican collected and deposited in the Emílio Goeldi Museum in the Rio de Janeiro. The second record was made b y in Belém by Emilie Snethlage (MPEG 00433, Snethlage 1914). A second record was made in the Uraricoera River, Sick (1997), who reported the occurrence of a white pelican in Guanabara Bay, state of Rio de Janeiro, in state of Roraima (Pinto 1978, Sick 1997). Unfortunately, 1960. However, the author was not sure whether the there is no precise indication of the observation site for observed individual was an albino P. occidentalis s or a this latter record. We present here the first photo graphic P. erythrorhynchos, which could probably escaped from record of P. occidentalis s for continental Brazil. The record was made in Eastern Amazon, in the city of Santarém, captivity. The third record was made by Teixeira et al. (1993), who saw an individual brown pelican in Todos Pará, Northern Brazil. New record of the brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis s in continental waters of the Brazilian Eastern Amazon Danilo Augusto Almeida-Santos, Giulianne Sampaio Ferreira a and Edson Varga Lopes METHODS air or from the water, as its typical hunting strategy. The pelican was also observed swimming and foraging with cormorants (Phalacrocorax brasilianus s). In addition, it The brown pelican was observed and photographed in the urban area of Santarém (2°25'S, 54°43'W), on the frequently made circular fli ghts in the surroundings using right margin of the Tapajós River, in its confluence with air currents, together with black vultures. the Amazonas River. We made periodical checking of the permanence of the bird in the area and observations on its behavior for 38 days. RESULTS On 22 November 2013, E.V.L and D.A.A.S recorded a P. occidentalis individual perched on the roof of a local fish market (Figure 1). Based on its color we believe it was a juvenile or sub-adult. According to reports by local fi shermen, the bird was observed for the fi rst time at the site one week before our record. From November 22 on, we made periodic visits to document the presence of the bird at the site. Th e last observation was made on 28 December 2013, which totals at least 45 days of presence of the pelican at the observation site. We observed that, during its permanence in the region, the pelican spent most of its time perched on the fish market roof together with great egrets ( ( (Ardea alba) and black vultures (Coragyps atratus s), which are common at the site (Figure 2). Th ese birds consumed small fi sh and fi sh viscera discharged in the Tapajos River by fishermen and people of the fish market. In some occasions, the pelican was observed perched on boats and FIGURE 1. A juvenile Pelecanus occidentalis, perched on the roof of a actively foraging in the Tapajós River, diving from the fish market in Santarém, Pará, 22 November 2013 . FIGURE 2. Th e P. occidentalis s individual (red circle) perched on the roof of a fish market, together with individuals of Ardea alba a and Coragyps atratus. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(3), 2015 New record of the brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis s in continental waters of the Brazilian Eastern Amazon Danilo Augusto Almeida-Santos, Giulianne Sampaio Ferreira a and Edson Varga Lopes DISCUSSION ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Pelecanus occidentalis s is a typical marine bird (Elliott D. A. Almeida-Santos and G. S. Ferreira received CAPES et al. 2014), and hence its occurrence in continental grants during the development of this study. We thank waters very far from the sea would be unexpected. Some Alexander Lees for the information about the brown marine birds, such as species of the families Sternidae pelican skin collected by Emilie Snethlage. and Rynchopidae, also occur in continental waters (Sick 1997), but some species of the families Laridae and REFERENCES Pelecanidae are seldom seen inland. Santarém is located at approximately 600 km from the closest coast at the CBRO - Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos (2014). Marajó Island. This P. occidentalis s individual probably Listas das aves do Brasil. 11ª Edition. http://www.cbro.org.br followed the channel of the Amazonas River and arrived (access on 20 January 2014). at Santarém, in a supposedly erratic movement. This Cruz, L. P. (2013). [WA995713, Larus dominicanus s Lichtenstein, could also explain other inland records of this species 1823]. Wiki Aves - A Enciclopédia das Aves do Brasil. http://www. wikiaves.com/995713 (accessed 02 March 2015). (Snethlage 1914, Pinto 1978). As the bird we recorded Elliott, A.; Christie, D. A.; Jutglar, F.; de Juana, E. & Kirwan, G. was a juvenile (and probably naive) individual, this M. (2014). Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis s). In: del Hoyo, hypothesis is even more plausible. Another possibility is J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) that this individual arrived at Santarém perched on one of (2014). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Editions, the large ships that frequently arrive at Santarém harbor. Barcelona. http://www.hbw.com/node/52616 (accessed 24 April 2014). We can also speculate if large-scale climatic phenomena, Enticott, J. & Tipling, D. (1997). Seabirds of the world: the complete such as the El Niño, can sometimes aff ect the movements reference. New Holland: Stackpole Books. of marine birds in a way not fully understood as yet, and Lees, A. C.; Moura, N. G.; Andretti, C. B.; Davis, B. J. W.; Lopes, their migratory movements might be irregular. However, E. V.; Henriques, L. M. P.; Aleixo, A.; Barlow, J.; Ferreira, L. & Gardner, T. A. (2013). One hundred and thirty-fi ve years of this latter suggestion is diffi cult to demonstrate. avifaunal surveys around Santarém, central Brazilian Amazon. Regardless of why and how this typical marine bird Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 21(1): 16-57. reached far inland, it is important to record the presence Patrial, L. W. (2010). [WA88534, Pelecanus occidentalis and the period of permanence of bird species at sites where L innaeus,1766]. h ttp://www .wi k iav es.com. their occurrence is unexpected or occasional. Th is kind of br/88534&p=1&t=c&c=2704302&s=10135 (accessed 20 January 2014). information is important to plan for bird conservation. It Patrial, L. W.; Pessoa, A. S. P. & Pereira, G. A. (2011). Primeiro is also important to stress that P. occidentalis s is not on the registro do pelicano-peruano Pelecanus thagus no Brasil e registro recent list of bird species recorded in the past 135 years in documentado do pelicano-pardo P. occidentalis na costa leste Santarém (Lees et al. 2013), and this is the fi rst record of brasileira. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia a 19 (4): 539-540. Pinto, O. M. O. (1978). Novo Catálogo das aves do Brasil, 1º parte. Sao the brown pelican for the Santarém city. We believe that Paulo: Empresa Gráfi ca da Revista dos Tribunais. some species considered atypical in this region perhaps Sick, H. (1997). Ornitologia brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira. are not so uncommon, but rather poorly documented, Snethlage, E. (1914). Catálogo das aves amazônicas. Bol. Mus. due to the lack of bird watchers able to identify them. Paraense Emílio Goeldi, 8:1-465. Teixeira, D. M.; Otoch, R.; Luigi, G.; Raposo, M. A. & Almeida, However, with the help of online photo archives such C. C. (1993). Notes on some birds of northeastern Brazil (5). as the websites www.wikiaves.com.br, www.xeno-canto. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 113:48-52. org, and http://ibc.lynxeds.com, and a greater exchange of information among scientists, unexpected occurrences such as the one reported here became more common. A record of the kelp gull (Larus dominicanus s) also in the Tapajós River on Santarém city, on 2 June 2013 (Cruz 2013) is another example of the usefulness of these new tools of bird documentation in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(3), 2015

Journal

Ornithology ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Sep 1, 2015

Keywords: Amazon; Brazil; sea bird; Western Pará

References