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New record of an economic marine alga, Ahnfeltiopsis concinna, in Korea

New record of an economic marine alga, Ahnfeltiopsis concinna, in Korea An economic marine alga, which is considered to be an important source of carrageenan, was collected from Jindo of the southern coast of Korea. This species shares the vegetative and female reproductive features of Ahnfeltiopsis and is characterized mostly by its small size (up to 8 cm), terete to subterete thalli at the lower portion, cartilaginous in texture, dichotomous branches, rarely produced proliferations, and an absence of hypha-like filaments in the medulla. It is distinguished from other Korean species within the genus by the thallus feature. In a phylogenetic tree based on the molecular data, this alga nests in the same clade with A. concinna from Japan but forms a sister clade to A. concinna from Mexico and Hawaii (type locality). However, the genetic distance among those sequences was calculated as 0.1–1. 3% for rbcL and 1.1% for COI sequences, considered to be intraspecific variation within the genus. Based on the morphology and molecular analysis, this alga is identified as A. concinna originally described from Hawaii. This is the first record of the species in the Korean marine algal flora. Keywords: Ahnfeltiopsis concinna, Korea, Economic marine alga, Molecular analysis, rbcL, COI, Morphology, First record Background Ahnfeltiopsis involves 33 species distributed from Ahnfeltiopsis P.C. Silva et DeCew belongs to Gigartinales temperate to tropical waters (Dawson 1954; Masuda F. Schmitz, which is considered to be one of the 1993; Silva et al. 1996; Guiry and Guiry 2017). Among economic marine algal taxa as an important source of these, three species, Ahnfeltiopsis catenata (Yendo) carrageenan (Craigie 1990; Donald et al. 1993). Particu- Masuda, A. paradoxa (Suringar) Masuda, and A. flabelli- larly, it has been known that this alga can be used as a formis (Harvey) Masuda, had been reported in Korea potential commercial material of antioxidant compounds (Kim et al. 2013). However, recently, the former two spe- in the medicine, food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic cies have been transferred to Besa Setchell based on mo- industries in Hawaii (Kelman et al. 2012). lecular and morphological examination (Calderon et al. This genus was first proposed by Silva and DeCew in 2016). Accordingly, only A. flabelliformis in this genus is Silva (1979), but was invalid. Later, the generic name, currently recorded in the Korean marine algal flora. A Ahnfeltiopsis, was validly published. It was character- gigartinalean species was collected from Jindo of the ized by internal cystocarps and a heteromorphic type of southern coast of Korea during a survey of marine algal life history in which upright unisexual gametophytes flora. Based on the morphology and molecular data, this alternate with a crustose tetrasporophyte (Silva and species was identified as Ahnfeltiopsis concinna, which DeCew 1992; Masuda 1993). However, it has been was established from Hawaii (Dawson 1961), and is reported that Ahnfeltiopsis is polyphyletic in molecular newly recorded in Korea in the present study. phylogeny (Fredericq and Lopez-Bautista 2002; Maggs et al. 2013; Calderon and Boo 2016; Calderon et al. 2016; Methods the present study). This suggests that the generic features Specimens for this study were collected from Jindo should be revised for delimitation of Ahnfeltiopsis. located in southern coast of Korea. Taxonomic data were obtained from fresh, liquid-preserved, and herbar- ium specimens. Liquid-preserved material was stored in * Correspondence: kwnam@pknu.ac.kr a 10% solution of formalin/seawater. For anatomical Department of Marine Biology, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, South Korea © The Author(s). 2017 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Kang and Nam Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017) 20:25 Page 2 of 5 observations, the material was cleared in 5–10% NaOH in distilled water for 2–7 days and then rinsed in distilled water. Blades dissected from the cleared mate- rials were hand sectioned, transferred to a slide with a drop of distilled water, and mounted in pure glycerin. In some instances, a smearing method for microscopic examination was employed. Measurements are given as width and length. For photographs, the sections were stained with 0.5–1.0% aqueous methylene blue, aniline blue, or hematoxylin. For permanent slides, the glycerin was exchanged with 10–20% corn syrup. Total genomic DNA was extracted from silica-gel- preserved sample using the DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Before extraction, dried material was crushed Fig. 1 Ahnfeltiopsis concinna (J. Agardh) P.C. Silva & DeCew. Habit of with liquid nitrogen using a mortar and pestle. Concen- vegetative plant. Bar 1cm trations of extracted DNA were assessed by using gel electrophoresis on a 1% agarose gel. Extracted DNA was used for amplification of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate branches at short intervals; branches divided dichotom- carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) regions and ously to subdichotomously, with rounded or blunt apex, cytochrome oxidase I (COI). PCR amplifications were 1–2 mm wide, 200–300 μm thick; proliferations rare, performed in a TaKaRa PCR Thermal Cycler Dice arranged pinnately to irregularly; multiaxial; cortex (TaKaRa Bio Inc., Otsu, Japan). The PCR products were consisted with small and pigmented cells (Fig. 2c, d), five moved to Macrogen Sequencing Service for sequencing to eight round cell layers thick, 2–3×4–5 μm; pseudo- (Macrogen, Seoul, Korea). The sequences of PCR primers parenchymatous medulla compact (Fig. 2a), ellipsoid in for amplification are as follows: rbcL (forward: 5′ GGAG transverse section (Fig. 2b), without hypha-like filaments, GATTAGGGTCCGATTCC 3′, reverse: 5′ CTTCCGTCA 200–300 × 80–100 μm; gonimoblast filaments developing ATTCCTTTAAG 3′), COI (forward: 5′ GCTGCGTTCT inwardly (Fig. 3a, b), carposporophytes producing masses TCATCGATGC 3′, reverse: 5′ TCCTCCGCTTATTGA of carposporangia; carposporangia round (Fig. 3c), 10– TATGC 3′) (Lin et al. 2001). 12 μm in diam.; cystocarps formed at middle portion of Sequences for the rbcL region were aligned using branches, internally immersed in medulla, surrounded by BioEdit (Hall 1999). Phylogenetic analyses were per- some layers of secondary medullary cells, with carpos- formed using neighbor joining, maximum-likelihood, tomes (Fig. 3c, d). Male and tetrasporangial plants were and maximum parsimony methods with Mega 6 not collected during the present study. program (Tamura et al. 2013). Bootstrap values were Ahnfeltiopsis was established to accommodate several calculated with 1000 replications. RbcLand COI species, which had been previously assigned to Ahnfeltia sequences of other species were obtained from GenBank. E.M. Fries and Gymnogongrus C. Martius (Silva and Ahnfeltia plicata was used as an outgroup. DeCew 1992) and which have common internal cystocarps with specialized pores (carpostomes) and crustose tetra- Results and discussion sporic life history (Silva and DeCew 1992; Masuda 1993). Ahnfeltiopsis concinna (J. Agardh) P.C. Silva & DeCew However, since the genus is known to be polyphyletic 1992: 577 based on molecular data (Fredericq and Lopez-Bautista Type locality: Hawaii (Dawson 1961) 2002; Maggs et al. 2013; Calderon and Boo 2016; Calderon Korean name: Go-un-bu-chaet-sal nom. nov. (신칭: 고 et al. 2016; the present study), the generic delimitation 운부챗살) cannot be used for Ahnfeltiopsis. Recently, some combined Specimens examined: NIRBAL0000146348, PKNU features of female structures have been adopted for this 0000127011 - 0000127015, PKNU 0000127025 (Jindo: genus (Calderon and Boo 2016; Calderon et al. 2016). The 13.ii.2014) vegetative feature of multiaxial thalli with a compact Habitat: Growing on rock near upper to lower intertidal and pseudoparenchymatous medulla is also common Morphology: Thalli 5–8 cm high, terete to subterete at in the genus (Masuda 1993). Even though male and the lower portion, somewhat compressed at the upper tetrasporangial plants were not observed, our gigarti- portion, fan-shaped, brown to yellow in color, cartilagin- nalean species collected from Jindo, Korea, during ous in texture, attached to substratum by discoid hold- this study can be referred to Ahnfeltiopsis based on fast (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2a); main axes issuing dichotomous these vegetative and female features in addition to the Kang and Nam Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017) 20:25 Page 3 of 5 Fig. 2 Ahnfeltiopsis concinna (J. Agardh) P.C. Silva & DeCew. a Compact and pseudoparenchymatous medulla in transverse section of branches. b Ellipsoid medullary cells in longitudinal section. c Cortical cell layers. d Round inner cortical cells. Bars in a 200 μm; b 70 μm; c 50 μm; d 30 μm Fig. 3 Ahnfeltiopsis concinna (J. Agardh) P.C. Silva & DeCew. a Large auxiliary cell (arrow). b Initials (arrows) of gonimoblast filaments developing inwardly. c Cystocarp internally immersed in medulla of middle portion of branch. d Fully developed cystocarp with a carpostome (arrow). Bars in a, b 20 μm; c 300 μm; d 800 μm Kang and Nam Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017) 20:25 Page 4 of 5 Fig. 4 Phylogenetic tree of Ahnfeltiopsis species obtained from maximum likelihood method based on rbcL sequences. Bootstrap proportion values (1000 replicates samples) are shown above branches. Bar indicates 0.02 substitutions/site gross morphology. According to the original and et al. 2013), by the thallus feature. It has terete to other publications (Silva and DeCew 1992; Masuda subterete thalli particularly at the lower portion, et al. 1994; Braune and Guiry 2011), Ahnfeltiopsis while A. flabelliformis shows compressed thalli concinna is distinct from similar species within the (Masuda 1987, 1993; Masuda et al. 1994; Yoshida genus by its small size (up to 8 cm) thalli, terete to 1998; Lee 2008). subterete thalli, cartilaginous in texture, dichotomous In a phylogenetic tree based on rbcL sequence data branches, rarely produced proliferations, and an (Fig. 4), the Korean alga nests in the same clade with A. absence of hypha-like filament in the medulla. This concinna from Japan but forms a sister clade to A. Korean alga shares these characteristics and is distin- concinna from Mexico and Hawaii (type locality). How- guished from A. flabelliformis which is currently ever, the genetic distance among those sequences was recorded in Korea (Kang 1966, 1968; Lee and Kang calculated as 0.1–1.3%, considered to be intraspecific 1986; Lee and Kang 2002; Boo and Ko 2012; Kim variation within the genus. In general, the value of Fig. 5 Phylogenetic tree of Ahnfeltiopsis species obtained from maximum likelihood method based on COI sequences. Bootstrap proportion values (1000 replicates samples) are shown above branches. Bar indicates 0.05 substitutions/site Kang and Nam Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017) 20:25 Page 5 of 5 interspecific divergence in the Gigartinaceae and Peys- Calderon MS, Boo SM. Phylogeny of Phyllophoraceae (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) reveals Asterfilopsis gen. nov. from the Southern Hemisphere. Phycologia. sonneliaceae within the Gigartinales varies from 2.8 to 2016;55(5):543–54. 16.5% (Hommersand et al. 1994; Kato et al. 2009). More- Calderon MS, Miller KA, Seo TH, Boo SM. Transfer of selected Ahnfeltiopsis over, the Korean alga also nests in the same clade with (Phyllophoraceae, Rhodophyta) species to the genus Besa and description of Schottera koreana sp. nov. Eur J Phycol. 2016;51(4):431–43. A. concinna from the type locality based on the COI Craigie JS. Cell walls. In: Cole KM, Sheath RG, editors. Biology of the red algae. sequence data (Fig. 5), with the genetic distance of 1.1% New York: Cambridge University Press; 1990. p. 221–58. between the two sequences. Dawson EY. Marine plants in the vicinity of the Institute Oc’eanographique de Nha Trang. Vietnam Pac Sci. 1954;8:372–469. This morphological and molecular evidence leads to Dawson EY. Marine red algae of Pacific Mexico. Part 4. Gigartinales Pac Nat. the conclusion that our specimens from Jindo, Korea, 1961;2:191–343. should be identified as Ahnfeltiopsis concinna originally Donald FK, Dutcher JA, Bird KT, Capecchi MF. Nuclear genome characterization and carrageenan analysis of Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Rhodophyta) from described from Hawaii. This species is newly recorded in North Carolina. J Appl Phycol. 1993;5:99–107. Korea in the present study. Fredericq S, Lopez-Bautista JM. Characterization and phylogenetic position of the red alga Besa papillaeformis Setchell: An example of progenetic heterochrony? Constancea. 2002;83(9):1–12. Conclusions Guiry MD, Guiry GM. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National A gigartinalean species was collected from Jindo, Korea, University of Ireland, Galway. 2017. http://www.algaebase.org. Accessed 6 Mar 2017. during a survey of marine algal flora. This species was Hall TA. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis identified as Ahnfeltiopsis concinna, which was originally program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser. 1999;41:95–8. described from Hawaii, based on morphological and Hommersand MH, Fredericq S, Freshwater DW. Phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of the Gigartinaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) based on molecular data. This is the first record of the species in sequence analysis of rbcL. Bot Mar. 1994;37:193–203. the Korean marine algal flora. Kang JW. On the geographical distribution of marine algae in Korea. Bull Pusan Fish Coll. 1966;7:1–125. Abbreviations Kang JW. Illustrated encyclopedia of fauna and flora of Korea, Vol.8. Marine algae. COI: Cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1; rbcL: ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate Seoul: Samhwapress; 1968. carboxylase large subunit Kato A, Guimarães SMPB, Kawai H, Masuda M. Characterization of the crustose red alga Peyssonnelia japonica (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) and its taxonomic relationship with Peyssonnelia boudouresquei based on morphological and Funding molecular data. Phycol Res. 2009;57:74–86. This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Kelman D, Posner EK, McDermid KJ, Tabandera NK, Wright PR, Wright AD. Resources funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Antioxidant activity of Hawaiian marine algae. Mar Drugs. 2012;10:403–16. Korea (NIBR201701204), and by a grant from Marine Biotechnology Program Kim HS, Boo SM, Lee IK, Sohn CH. National List of Species of Korea 「Marine (20170431) funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of the Korean Algae」. Seoul: Jeonghaengsa; 2013. Government. Lee Y. Marine algae of Jeju. Seoul: Academy Publication; 2008. Lee IK, Kang JW. A check list of marine algae in Korea. Kor J Phycol. 1986;1:311–25. Availability of data and materials Lee Y, Kang SY. A catalogue of the seaweeds in Korea. Jeju: Jeju National All datasets analyzed during the current study are available from the University Press; 2002. corresponding author on reasonable request. Lin S-M, Frederucq S, Hommersand MH. Systematics of the Delesseriaceae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) based on large subunit rDNA and rbcL sequences, Authors’ contributions including the Phycodryoideae, subfam. nov. J Phycol. 2001;37:881–99. PJK conducted the research, analyzed the materials, and prepared the draft Maggs CA, Le Gall L, Mineur F, Provan J, Saunders GW. Fredericqia deveauniensis, manuscript. KWN designed and directed the study and finalized the manuscript. gen. et sp. nov. (Phyllophoraceae, Rhodophyta), a new cryptogenic species. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Cryptogam Algol. 2013;34:273–96. Masuda M. Taxonomic notes on the Japanese species of Gymnogongrus Ethics approval and consent to participate (Phyllophoraceae, Rhodophyta). J Fac Sci Hokkaido Univ, Series V (Botany). Not applicable. 1987;14:39–72. Masuda M. Ahnfeltiopsis (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) in the western Pacific. Jap J Phycol. 1993;41:1–6. Consent for publication Masuda M, Zhang JF, Xia BM. Ahnfeltiopsis from the western Pacific: key, Not applicable. description and distribution of the species. In: Abbott IA, editor. Taxonomy of economic seaweeds, vol. 4. California: A Publication of the California Sea Competing interests Grant College; 1994. p. 159–83. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Silva PC. The benthic algal flora of central San Francisco Bay. In: Conomos TJ, editor. San Francisco Bay: The urbanized estuary. San Francisco: Pac Div Amer Ass Adv Sci; 1979. p. 287–345. Publisher’sNote Silva PC, Basson PW, Moe RL. Catalogue of the benthic marine algae of the Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in Indian Ocean. Univ Calif Publ Bot. 1996;79:1–1259. published maps and institutional affiliations. Silva PC, DeCew TC. Ahnfeltiopsis, a new genus in the Phyllophoraceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyceae). Phycologia. 1992;31:576–80. Received: 17 May 2017 Accepted: 26 September 2017 Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S. MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:2725–9. Yoshida T. Marine algae of Japan. Tokyo: Uchida Rokakuho Publishing; 1998. References Boo SM, Ko YD. Marine plants from Korea. Seoul: Marine & Extreme Genome Research Centre Program; 2012. Braune W, Guiry MD. Seaweeds. A color guide to common benthic green, brown and red algae of the world’s oceans. Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G; 2011. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Springer Journals

New record of an economic marine alga, Ahnfeltiopsis concinna, in Korea

Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , Volume 20 (1) – Oct 13, 2017

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Life Sciences; Fish & Wildlife Biology & Management; Marine & Freshwater Sciences; Zoology; Animal Ecology
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Abstract

An economic marine alga, which is considered to be an important source of carrageenan, was collected from Jindo of the southern coast of Korea. This species shares the vegetative and female reproductive features of Ahnfeltiopsis and is characterized mostly by its small size (up to 8 cm), terete to subterete thalli at the lower portion, cartilaginous in texture, dichotomous branches, rarely produced proliferations, and an absence of hypha-like filaments in the medulla. It is distinguished from other Korean species within the genus by the thallus feature. In a phylogenetic tree based on the molecular data, this alga nests in the same clade with A. concinna from Japan but forms a sister clade to A. concinna from Mexico and Hawaii (type locality). However, the genetic distance among those sequences was calculated as 0.1–1. 3% for rbcL and 1.1% for COI sequences, considered to be intraspecific variation within the genus. Based on the morphology and molecular analysis, this alga is identified as A. concinna originally described from Hawaii. This is the first record of the species in the Korean marine algal flora. Keywords: Ahnfeltiopsis concinna, Korea, Economic marine alga, Molecular analysis, rbcL, COI, Morphology, First record Background Ahnfeltiopsis involves 33 species distributed from Ahnfeltiopsis P.C. Silva et DeCew belongs to Gigartinales temperate to tropical waters (Dawson 1954; Masuda F. Schmitz, which is considered to be one of the 1993; Silva et al. 1996; Guiry and Guiry 2017). Among economic marine algal taxa as an important source of these, three species, Ahnfeltiopsis catenata (Yendo) carrageenan (Craigie 1990; Donald et al. 1993). Particu- Masuda, A. paradoxa (Suringar) Masuda, and A. flabelli- larly, it has been known that this alga can be used as a formis (Harvey) Masuda, had been reported in Korea potential commercial material of antioxidant compounds (Kim et al. 2013). However, recently, the former two spe- in the medicine, food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic cies have been transferred to Besa Setchell based on mo- industries in Hawaii (Kelman et al. 2012). lecular and morphological examination (Calderon et al. This genus was first proposed by Silva and DeCew in 2016). Accordingly, only A. flabelliformis in this genus is Silva (1979), but was invalid. Later, the generic name, currently recorded in the Korean marine algal flora. A Ahnfeltiopsis, was validly published. It was character- gigartinalean species was collected from Jindo of the ized by internal cystocarps and a heteromorphic type of southern coast of Korea during a survey of marine algal life history in which upright unisexual gametophytes flora. Based on the morphology and molecular data, this alternate with a crustose tetrasporophyte (Silva and species was identified as Ahnfeltiopsis concinna, which DeCew 1992; Masuda 1993). However, it has been was established from Hawaii (Dawson 1961), and is reported that Ahnfeltiopsis is polyphyletic in molecular newly recorded in Korea in the present study. phylogeny (Fredericq and Lopez-Bautista 2002; Maggs et al. 2013; Calderon and Boo 2016; Calderon et al. 2016; Methods the present study). This suggests that the generic features Specimens for this study were collected from Jindo should be revised for delimitation of Ahnfeltiopsis. located in southern coast of Korea. Taxonomic data were obtained from fresh, liquid-preserved, and herbar- ium specimens. Liquid-preserved material was stored in * Correspondence: kwnam@pknu.ac.kr a 10% solution of formalin/seawater. For anatomical Department of Marine Biology, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, South Korea © The Author(s). 2017 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Kang and Nam Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017) 20:25 Page 2 of 5 observations, the material was cleared in 5–10% NaOH in distilled water for 2–7 days and then rinsed in distilled water. Blades dissected from the cleared mate- rials were hand sectioned, transferred to a slide with a drop of distilled water, and mounted in pure glycerin. In some instances, a smearing method for microscopic examination was employed. Measurements are given as width and length. For photographs, the sections were stained with 0.5–1.0% aqueous methylene blue, aniline blue, or hematoxylin. For permanent slides, the glycerin was exchanged with 10–20% corn syrup. Total genomic DNA was extracted from silica-gel- preserved sample using the DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Before extraction, dried material was crushed Fig. 1 Ahnfeltiopsis concinna (J. Agardh) P.C. Silva & DeCew. Habit of with liquid nitrogen using a mortar and pestle. Concen- vegetative plant. Bar 1cm trations of extracted DNA were assessed by using gel electrophoresis on a 1% agarose gel. Extracted DNA was used for amplification of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate branches at short intervals; branches divided dichotom- carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) regions and ously to subdichotomously, with rounded or blunt apex, cytochrome oxidase I (COI). PCR amplifications were 1–2 mm wide, 200–300 μm thick; proliferations rare, performed in a TaKaRa PCR Thermal Cycler Dice arranged pinnately to irregularly; multiaxial; cortex (TaKaRa Bio Inc., Otsu, Japan). The PCR products were consisted with small and pigmented cells (Fig. 2c, d), five moved to Macrogen Sequencing Service for sequencing to eight round cell layers thick, 2–3×4–5 μm; pseudo- (Macrogen, Seoul, Korea). The sequences of PCR primers parenchymatous medulla compact (Fig. 2a), ellipsoid in for amplification are as follows: rbcL (forward: 5′ GGAG transverse section (Fig. 2b), without hypha-like filaments, GATTAGGGTCCGATTCC 3′, reverse: 5′ CTTCCGTCA 200–300 × 80–100 μm; gonimoblast filaments developing ATTCCTTTAAG 3′), COI (forward: 5′ GCTGCGTTCT inwardly (Fig. 3a, b), carposporophytes producing masses TCATCGATGC 3′, reverse: 5′ TCCTCCGCTTATTGA of carposporangia; carposporangia round (Fig. 3c), 10– TATGC 3′) (Lin et al. 2001). 12 μm in diam.; cystocarps formed at middle portion of Sequences for the rbcL region were aligned using branches, internally immersed in medulla, surrounded by BioEdit (Hall 1999). Phylogenetic analyses were per- some layers of secondary medullary cells, with carpos- formed using neighbor joining, maximum-likelihood, tomes (Fig. 3c, d). Male and tetrasporangial plants were and maximum parsimony methods with Mega 6 not collected during the present study. program (Tamura et al. 2013). Bootstrap values were Ahnfeltiopsis was established to accommodate several calculated with 1000 replications. RbcLand COI species, which had been previously assigned to Ahnfeltia sequences of other species were obtained from GenBank. E.M. Fries and Gymnogongrus C. Martius (Silva and Ahnfeltia plicata was used as an outgroup. DeCew 1992) and which have common internal cystocarps with specialized pores (carpostomes) and crustose tetra- Results and discussion sporic life history (Silva and DeCew 1992; Masuda 1993). Ahnfeltiopsis concinna (J. Agardh) P.C. Silva & DeCew However, since the genus is known to be polyphyletic 1992: 577 based on molecular data (Fredericq and Lopez-Bautista Type locality: Hawaii (Dawson 1961) 2002; Maggs et al. 2013; Calderon and Boo 2016; Calderon Korean name: Go-un-bu-chaet-sal nom. nov. (신칭: 고 et al. 2016; the present study), the generic delimitation 운부챗살) cannot be used for Ahnfeltiopsis. Recently, some combined Specimens examined: NIRBAL0000146348, PKNU features of female structures have been adopted for this 0000127011 - 0000127015, PKNU 0000127025 (Jindo: genus (Calderon and Boo 2016; Calderon et al. 2016). The 13.ii.2014) vegetative feature of multiaxial thalli with a compact Habitat: Growing on rock near upper to lower intertidal and pseudoparenchymatous medulla is also common Morphology: Thalli 5–8 cm high, terete to subterete at in the genus (Masuda 1993). Even though male and the lower portion, somewhat compressed at the upper tetrasporangial plants were not observed, our gigarti- portion, fan-shaped, brown to yellow in color, cartilagin- nalean species collected from Jindo, Korea, during ous in texture, attached to substratum by discoid hold- this study can be referred to Ahnfeltiopsis based on fast (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2a); main axes issuing dichotomous these vegetative and female features in addition to the Kang and Nam Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017) 20:25 Page 3 of 5 Fig. 2 Ahnfeltiopsis concinna (J. Agardh) P.C. Silva & DeCew. a Compact and pseudoparenchymatous medulla in transverse section of branches. b Ellipsoid medullary cells in longitudinal section. c Cortical cell layers. d Round inner cortical cells. Bars in a 200 μm; b 70 μm; c 50 μm; d 30 μm Fig. 3 Ahnfeltiopsis concinna (J. Agardh) P.C. Silva & DeCew. a Large auxiliary cell (arrow). b Initials (arrows) of gonimoblast filaments developing inwardly. c Cystocarp internally immersed in medulla of middle portion of branch. d Fully developed cystocarp with a carpostome (arrow). Bars in a, b 20 μm; c 300 μm; d 800 μm Kang and Nam Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017) 20:25 Page 4 of 5 Fig. 4 Phylogenetic tree of Ahnfeltiopsis species obtained from maximum likelihood method based on rbcL sequences. Bootstrap proportion values (1000 replicates samples) are shown above branches. Bar indicates 0.02 substitutions/site gross morphology. According to the original and et al. 2013), by the thallus feature. It has terete to other publications (Silva and DeCew 1992; Masuda subterete thalli particularly at the lower portion, et al. 1994; Braune and Guiry 2011), Ahnfeltiopsis while A. flabelliformis shows compressed thalli concinna is distinct from similar species within the (Masuda 1987, 1993; Masuda et al. 1994; Yoshida genus by its small size (up to 8 cm) thalli, terete to 1998; Lee 2008). subterete thalli, cartilaginous in texture, dichotomous In a phylogenetic tree based on rbcL sequence data branches, rarely produced proliferations, and an (Fig. 4), the Korean alga nests in the same clade with A. absence of hypha-like filament in the medulla. This concinna from Japan but forms a sister clade to A. Korean alga shares these characteristics and is distin- concinna from Mexico and Hawaii (type locality). How- guished from A. flabelliformis which is currently ever, the genetic distance among those sequences was recorded in Korea (Kang 1966, 1968; Lee and Kang calculated as 0.1–1.3%, considered to be intraspecific 1986; Lee and Kang 2002; Boo and Ko 2012; Kim variation within the genus. In general, the value of Fig. 5 Phylogenetic tree of Ahnfeltiopsis species obtained from maximum likelihood method based on COI sequences. Bootstrap proportion values (1000 replicates samples) are shown above branches. Bar indicates 0.05 substitutions/site Kang and Nam Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017) 20:25 Page 5 of 5 interspecific divergence in the Gigartinaceae and Peys- Calderon MS, Boo SM. Phylogeny of Phyllophoraceae (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) reveals Asterfilopsis gen. nov. from the Southern Hemisphere. Phycologia. sonneliaceae within the Gigartinales varies from 2.8 to 2016;55(5):543–54. 16.5% (Hommersand et al. 1994; Kato et al. 2009). More- Calderon MS, Miller KA, Seo TH, Boo SM. Transfer of selected Ahnfeltiopsis over, the Korean alga also nests in the same clade with (Phyllophoraceae, Rhodophyta) species to the genus Besa and description of Schottera koreana sp. nov. Eur J Phycol. 2016;51(4):431–43. A. concinna from the type locality based on the COI Craigie JS. Cell walls. In: Cole KM, Sheath RG, editors. Biology of the red algae. sequence data (Fig. 5), with the genetic distance of 1.1% New York: Cambridge University Press; 1990. p. 221–58. between the two sequences. Dawson EY. Marine plants in the vicinity of the Institute Oc’eanographique de Nha Trang. Vietnam Pac Sci. 1954;8:372–469. This morphological and molecular evidence leads to Dawson EY. Marine red algae of Pacific Mexico. Part 4. Gigartinales Pac Nat. the conclusion that our specimens from Jindo, Korea, 1961;2:191–343. should be identified as Ahnfeltiopsis concinna originally Donald FK, Dutcher JA, Bird KT, Capecchi MF. Nuclear genome characterization and carrageenan analysis of Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Rhodophyta) from described from Hawaii. This species is newly recorded in North Carolina. J Appl Phycol. 1993;5:99–107. Korea in the present study. Fredericq S, Lopez-Bautista JM. Characterization and phylogenetic position of the red alga Besa papillaeformis Setchell: An example of progenetic heterochrony? Constancea. 2002;83(9):1–12. Conclusions Guiry MD, Guiry GM. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National A gigartinalean species was collected from Jindo, Korea, University of Ireland, Galway. 2017. http://www.algaebase.org. Accessed 6 Mar 2017. during a survey of marine algal flora. This species was Hall TA. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis identified as Ahnfeltiopsis concinna, which was originally program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser. 1999;41:95–8. described from Hawaii, based on morphological and Hommersand MH, Fredericq S, Freshwater DW. Phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of the Gigartinaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) based on molecular data. This is the first record of the species in sequence analysis of rbcL. Bot Mar. 1994;37:193–203. the Korean marine algal flora. Kang JW. On the geographical distribution of marine algae in Korea. Bull Pusan Fish Coll. 1966;7:1–125. Abbreviations Kang JW. Illustrated encyclopedia of fauna and flora of Korea, Vol.8. Marine algae. COI: Cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1; rbcL: ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate Seoul: Samhwapress; 1968. carboxylase large subunit Kato A, Guimarães SMPB, Kawai H, Masuda M. Characterization of the crustose red alga Peyssonnelia japonica (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) and its taxonomic relationship with Peyssonnelia boudouresquei based on morphological and Funding molecular data. Phycol Res. 2009;57:74–86. This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Kelman D, Posner EK, McDermid KJ, Tabandera NK, Wright PR, Wright AD. Resources funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Antioxidant activity of Hawaiian marine algae. Mar Drugs. 2012;10:403–16. Korea (NIBR201701204), and by a grant from Marine Biotechnology Program Kim HS, Boo SM, Lee IK, Sohn CH. National List of Species of Korea 「Marine (20170431) funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of the Korean Algae」. Seoul: Jeonghaengsa; 2013. Government. Lee Y. Marine algae of Jeju. Seoul: Academy Publication; 2008. Lee IK, Kang JW. A check list of marine algae in Korea. Kor J Phycol. 1986;1:311–25. Availability of data and materials Lee Y, Kang SY. A catalogue of the seaweeds in Korea. Jeju: Jeju National All datasets analyzed during the current study are available from the University Press; 2002. corresponding author on reasonable request. Lin S-M, Frederucq S, Hommersand MH. Systematics of the Delesseriaceae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) based on large subunit rDNA and rbcL sequences, Authors’ contributions including the Phycodryoideae, subfam. nov. J Phycol. 2001;37:881–99. PJK conducted the research, analyzed the materials, and prepared the draft Maggs CA, Le Gall L, Mineur F, Provan J, Saunders GW. Fredericqia deveauniensis, manuscript. KWN designed and directed the study and finalized the manuscript. gen. et sp. nov. (Phyllophoraceae, Rhodophyta), a new cryptogenic species. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Cryptogam Algol. 2013;34:273–96. Masuda M. Taxonomic notes on the Japanese species of Gymnogongrus Ethics approval and consent to participate (Phyllophoraceae, Rhodophyta). J Fac Sci Hokkaido Univ, Series V (Botany). Not applicable. 1987;14:39–72. Masuda M. Ahnfeltiopsis (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) in the western Pacific. Jap J Phycol. 1993;41:1–6. Consent for publication Masuda M, Zhang JF, Xia BM. Ahnfeltiopsis from the western Pacific: key, Not applicable. description and distribution of the species. In: Abbott IA, editor. Taxonomy of economic seaweeds, vol. 4. California: A Publication of the California Sea Competing interests Grant College; 1994. p. 159–83. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Silva PC. The benthic algal flora of central San Francisco Bay. In: Conomos TJ, editor. San Francisco Bay: The urbanized estuary. San Francisco: Pac Div Amer Ass Adv Sci; 1979. p. 287–345. Publisher’sNote Silva PC, Basson PW, Moe RL. Catalogue of the benthic marine algae of the Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in Indian Ocean. Univ Calif Publ Bot. 1996;79:1–1259. published maps and institutional affiliations. Silva PC, DeCew TC. Ahnfeltiopsis, a new genus in the Phyllophoraceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyceae). Phycologia. 1992;31:576–80. Received: 17 May 2017 Accepted: 26 September 2017 Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S. MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:2725–9. Yoshida T. Marine algae of Japan. Tokyo: Uchida Rokakuho Publishing; 1998. References Boo SM, Ko YD. Marine plants from Korea. Seoul: Marine & Extreme Genome Research Centre Program; 2012. Braune W, Guiry MD. Seaweeds. A color guide to common benthic green, brown and red algae of the world’s oceans. Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G; 2011.

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Fisheries and Aquatic SciencesSpringer Journals

Published: Oct 13, 2017

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