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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(4): 238–241. ARTICLE December 2019 Nest, eggs and nestling description of the Silvery-flanked Antwren Myrmotherula luctuosa (Pelzeln, 1868) in the Atlantic Forest of northeast Brazil 1,5 2 3 Cleverton da Silva , Cristiano Schetini de Azevedo , Juan Ruiz-Esparza & Adauto de Souza Ribeiro Programa de Pós-Graduação em Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Universitário Prof. José Aloísio de Campos, Av. Marechal Rondon, s/n, 49100-000, São Cristóvão, SE, Brazil. Departamento de Biodiversidade, Evolução e Meio Ambiente, Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Campus Morro do Cruzeiro, s/n, Bauxita, 35400-000, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil. Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus do Sertão, Rod. Engenheiro Jorge Neto, km 3, Silos, 49680-000, Nossa Senhora da Glória, SE, Brazil. Departamento de Ecologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Universitário Prof. José Aloísio de Campos, Av. Marechal Rondon, s/n, 49100-000, São Cristóvão, SE, Brazil. Corresponding author: email@example.com Received on 08 March 2019. Accepted on 10 December 2019. ABSTRACT: In the present study, we describe the nest, eggs, and nestlings of the Silvery-flanked Antwren, Myrmotherula luctuosa. One nest was found on 08 May 2017 on the edge of one of the forest fragments of the Serra de Itabaiana National Park, in the state of Sergipe, northeast Brazil, and was monitored until 21 May 2017. The nest, presented t he following dimensions: external height: 7.6 cm; outside diameter: 21 × 19 cm; internal diameter: 13.3 × 11 cm; depth of the oologic chamber: 4.7 cm; and height in relation to the ground: 84 cm. The two eggs found in the nest were white with re ddish-brown dots, patches and stripes and weighed 1.7 and 1.5 g. Incubation was performed by both the male and female, as well as feeding of the nestlings. A single egg hatched, giving rise to a 3.9 cm, 3.7 g nestling. According to our estimates, the young fledged with a bout 11 days. This is the first study to present information about the reproductive biology of the Silvery-flanked Antwren. KEY-WORDS: Itabaiana National Park, parental care, reproduction, Thamnophilidae. INTRODUCTION days and parental care provided by both parents (Zimmer et al. 2019). Most species of the Thamnophilidae family are considered The Silvery-flanked Antwren (Myrmotherula socially monogamous and form permanent breeding lucutosa) inhabits the understory of primary and secondary pairs who defend their territories with considerable vigor Atlantic Forest areas from Brazil (Sick 1997, del Hoyo et throughout the year (Zimmer & Isler 2003). Within this al. 2019). It presents a marked sexual dimorphism, with family, the genus Myrmotherula is the most numerous. males paler than females, presenting a blackish belly and a Chaparro-Herrero & Ruiz-Ovalle (2014) pointed out pale grey flank; females are more olive-tinged grey with an that information on the reproductive biology of this genus ochraceous belly (Grantsau 2010). It is insectivorous and is limited to nest descriptions and parental care in a few little is known about its reproduction, only mentioned species. Of the 20 species within this genus in Brazil, there that its nest is similar in shape, size and materials to that is enough information about reproduction only for seven of the White-flanked Antwren M. axillaris (Zimmer & species (M. surinamensis, M. pacifica, M. multostriata, M. Isler 2003, del Hoyo et al. 2019). In this way, this study axillaris, M. longipennis, M. unicolor and M. menetriesii); aimed to provide information on the reproductive biology for other six species there is no information about of the Silvery-flanked Antwren, presenting for the first reproduction or, only anecdotal information is available time information about nest, eggs, and parental care. (Zimmer et al. 2019). Nests are described as a ball of dead leaves with a mean diameter of 8 cm, suspended in forks varying from METHODS 2 to 10 m above the ground; normal clutch size of 2 white eggs with reddish spots; incubation varying from 16 to 19 The study was carried out in May 2017 in the Serra Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(4): 2019 Nesting of the Silvery-flanked Antwren Myrmotherula luctuosa Silva et al. de Itabaiana National Park (PARNASI), Sergipe state, RESULTS o o northeastern Brazil (10 40'S; 37 25'W). PARNASI is formed by a complex of three mountain ranges: Cajueiro, On 08 May 2017, a nest of M. luctuosa was found on the Comprida and Itabaiana. The three mountain ranges edge of one of the fragments of Atlantic Forest located together comprise an area of 7966 ha, and the highest in the PARNASI. The nest was found hidden beneath point is in the Itabaiana mountain range, 660 m a.s.l. a leaf of Heliconia sp. (Heliconiaceae) and was strongly (Carvalho & Vilar 2005). The park area is in a transition attached to a horizontal fork of a sapling, 84 cm above the between the Atlantic Forest and Caatinga Biomes. The ground. At that time, the female was incubating two eggs. climate of the region is tropical with dry summer and The nest was a deep cup made up mainly of fragments of moderate wet winter, with temperatures varying between dry leaves of different plant species, and t he incubatory 17 and 23 C (Vicente 1999). chamber was lined with a large amount of light brown Nest monitoring started at the time of its discovery; flexible rootlets. The whole structure was contained it was visited at intervals of 3 to 4 days. The nest, eggs within a flimsy basket of black rootlets filaments that also and the nestling were described, weighed and measured provided attachment to the horizontal fork (Fig. 1). Nest using a caliper, accurate to 0.01 mm, and a spring scale, measurements were: height of the external part of the accurate to 0.1 g. During critical phases, such as hatching nest (7.6 cm), external diameter (21 × 19 cm), internal and fledging, the nest was monitored at shorter intervals diameter (13.3 × 11 cm), depth of the oological chamber of 1 to 2 days, always trying to minimize the impacts (4.7 cm), and height of the nest in relation to the ground caused by human presence. The measurements of the nest (84 cm). were obtained on the day of its discovery, to avoid natural Eggs were white with reddish-brown dots and stripes deformations due to its use. Nest characteristics measured on the terminal portion of the rhombus pole (Fig. 1A). were: height of the external part of the nest, external and On 12 May 2017, it was observed that only one chick internal diameter, depth of the oological chamber (edge had hatched. The mass, diameter and length of the eggs of the nest until the deepest area of its center) and height are presented in Table 1. of the nest in relation to the ground (the latter with the The nestling registered on 12 May 2017 measured aid of a measuring tape). In the case of the nestling, its 3.9 cm and weighed 3.7 g. It had no feathers, had closed developmental stage was described based on its mass (g), eyes, pale skin and tarsi, and yellow-orange beak, labial size (cm), shape and color of feathers, beak and tarsi, and commissure, tongue and mouth lining (Fig. 1B). On on the presence of closed or open eyes. 14 May 2017, there were already open eyes and clear Figure 1. Nest (A), eggs (A, B) and nestling (B, C, D) of Myrmotherula luctuosa. Photo author: Cleverton da Silva. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(4): 2019 Nesting of the Silvery-flanked Antwren Myrmotherula luctuosa Silva et al. presence of black feather cannons, mainly on the wings, The height at which the nest of M. luctuosa was built back and head (Fig. 1C). The presence of the first feathers (84 cm) is similar to that found in nests of other species of was recorded on 18 May 2017. On that day, the nestling the Thamnophilidae family, su ch as Cercomacra melanaria measured 7.2 cm, weighed 7.2 g, had greyish feet and (98 cm; Pinho et al. 2006), Hypocnemoides maculicauda tarsi and black beak, contrasting with the yellow labial (113 cm; Evangelista 2008), Taraba major (128 cm; Lara commissure and mouth lining (Fig. 1D). et al. 2012) and Thamnophilus pelze lni (102 cm; Silva On 21 May 2017, the nestling was seen outside the & Carmo 2015). In addition, it was similar to the nest nest with very short wings and tail, moving between the height of other Myrmotherula species: M. assimilis (380 medium forest extract through short and weak flights. A cm; Leite et al. 2016), M. surinamensis (50–100 cm; plumage of color similar to that of the adult female was Chaparro-Herrera & Ruiz-Ovalle 2014), M. multostriata already observed. (300–400 cm; Chaparro-Herrera & Ruiz-Ovalle 2014), M. axillaris (20–400 m; Chaparro-Herrera & Ruiz- Ovalle 2014) and M. unicolor (80–200 cm; Zimmer et al. DISCUSSION 2019). M. brachyura, M. ignota, M. cherriei, M. minor, M. longipennis and M. menestrierii build nests high above the The nest form, position and materials of the Myrmotherula ground (more than 300 cm high) (Zimmer et al. 2019). species are diverse (Chaparro-Herrera & Ruiz-Ovalle In general, the species of the Thamnophilidae 2014), which makes comparison difficult if there are present a clutch of two eggs, with rare cases of three eggs no clear descriptions (see Simon & Pacheco 2005). The (Skutch 1996, Sick 1997, Robinson et al. 2000, Zimmer nest of M. luctuosa in this study is similar to that of M. & Isler 2003, Pinho et al. 2006, Perrella et al. 2015). axillaris, which is described as a deep bowl made of dried Thamnophilidae species present eggs different in colors, leaves and rhizomorphic black filaments on the outside and in the genus Myrmotherula important differences can and light filaments on the inside (Zimmer & Isler 2003). be observed in the color patterns of their eggs (Zimmer & Other Myrmotherula species, such as M. multostriata, M. Isler 2003, Chaparro-Herrera & Ruiz-Ovalle 2014). The pacifica, M. cherriei, M. longipennsis and M. unicolor, also M. luctuosa eggs observed in this study are similar to the use plant fibers, roots and dry leaves to build their nests color pattern found in M. axillaris eggs (Zimmer & Isler (Zimmer & Isler 2003, Chaparro-Herrera & Ruiz-Ovalle 2003, Chaparro-Herrera & Ruiz-Ovalle 2014). 2014), being similar in shape but not in type or color of The young fledged with 11 days, but it could have materials used if compared to the nest of M. luctuosa. occurred early due to the manipulation to obtain its measurements. Other species of Thamnophilidae showe d Table 1. Morphometry of the Myrmotherula luctuosa eggs similar nestling periods, such as C. melanaria (10 days; found in the Serra de Itabaiana National Park, Sergipe, Pinho et al. 2006), H. maculicauda (11 days; Evangelista Brazil, on 08 May 2017. 2008), Rhopias gularis (11 days; Perrella et al. 2017) and Characteristics Egg 1 Egg 2 Taraba major (13 days; Lara et al. 2012). During the reproductive activity, it was observed Mass (g) 1.7 1.5 that both the female and the male participated in the Diameter (mm) 12.55 12.53 incubation of the eggs (Fig. 2), and fed the nestling, like Length (mm) 17.15 17.16 observed in other Thamnophilidae, such as C. melanaria Figure 2. Female (A) and male (B) of Myrmotherula luctuosa inside the nest during the incubation and parental care periods. Photo author: Cleverton da Silva. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(4): 2019 Nesting of the Silvery-flanked Antwren Myrmotherula luctuosa Silva et al. Grantsau R.K.H. 2010. Guia completo para a identificação das aves do (Pinho et al. 2006), H. maculicauda (Pinho et al. 2006), Brasil. São Carlos: Editora Vento Verde. T. pelzelni (Silva & Carmo 2015) and R. gularis (Perrella Lara K.M., Pinho J.B. & Silveira R.M.L. 2012. Biologia reprodutiva et al. 2017). de Taraba major (Aves, Thamnophilidae) na região do Pirizal, This is the first study to present information about porção norte do Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 52: 349–359. the reproductive biology of the Silvery-flank Antwren M. Leite G.A., Barreiros M.H.M., Farias I.P. & Peres C.A. 2016. luctuosa. The description of its nest, eggs and parental Description of the nest two Thamnophil idae species in Brazilian care add valuable information about the reproductive Amazon. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 24: 83–85. biology of the genus Myrmotherula, thus contributing to Perrella D.F., Biagoloni-Jr. C.H., Ribeiro-Silva L., Zima P.V.Q., the understanding of the life history pattern of this group Galetti P.M. & Francisco M.R. 2015. Nest, eggs and nestlings of the Atlantic Forest endemic Star-throated Antwren (Rhopias of Neotropical passerines. gularis). Wilson Journal of Ornithology 127: 319–323. Perrella D.F., Biagoloni-Junior C.H., Ribeiro-Silva L., Zima P.V.Q. & Francisco M.R. 2017. Reproduction of the Atlantic Forest endemic ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Star-throated Antwren, Rhopias gularis (Aves: Thamnophilidae). Brazilian Journal of Biology 77: 356–360. Pinho J.B., Lopes L.E., Morais D.H. & Fernandes A.M. 2006. Life Authors thank Professor Dr. Eduardo J.R. Dias, history of the Mato Grosso Antbird Cercomacra melanaria in the Laboratory of Biology and Ecology of Vertebrates Brazilian Pantanal. Ibis 148: 321–329. (LABEV), Universidade Federal de Sergipe, for making Robinson T.R., Robinson W.D. & Edwards E.C. 2000. Breeding available all the necessary materials for the monitoring of ecology and nest site selection of Songs Wrens in central Panama. Auk 117: 345–354. the nest, eggs and nestlings. Thanks also to Jefferson O. Sick H. 1997. Ornitologia brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Nova Lima for help in the monitoring. Fronteira. Silva C. & Carmo R.S. 2015. 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Ornithology Research – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 1, 2019
Keywords: Itabaiana National Park; parental care; reproduction; Thamnophilidae
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