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T. Davis (2008)THE DISPLAYS AND NESTS OF THREE FOREST HUMMINGBIRDS OF BRITISH GUIANA
H Ginés, R Aveledo, G Yépez, G Linares, J Poján (1951)Contribuci�n al conocimiento de la regi�n de Baruta ? El Hatillo: Avifauna
Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle, 30
(1999)Family Trochilidae (hummingbirds), p
Carol Ramjohn, F. Lucas, F. Hayes, S. Ballah, N. Johnson, Keisha Garcia (2003)Lek mating behavior of the Sooty-capped Hermit (Phaethornis augusti) in the Paria Peninsula of Venezuela
Registros de actividad reproductora y muda en algunas aves del norte de Venezuela
E. Gilliard, W. Phelps (1959)Notes on some birds of northern Venezuela. American Museum novitates ; no. 1927
B. Snow (2002)THE BEHAVIOR AND ECOLOGY OF HERMIT HUMMINGBIRDS IN THE KANAKU MOUNTAINS , GUYANA
A. Skutch (1964)Life Histories of Hermit Hummingbirds
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(2009)a.; antón, F.; navas, o.; ruíz
S. Hilty (2002)Birds of Venezuela
C. Verea, M. Araujo, Luz Parra, A. Solórzano (2009)Estructura de la comunidad de aves de un monocultivo frutícola (naranjo) y su valor de conservación para la avifauna: estudio comparativo con un cultivo agroforestal (cacao)
E T Gilliard (1959)Notes on some birds of northern Venezuela
American Museum Novitates, 1927
(1954)Las aves del Parque Nacional “ Henri Pittier ” ( Rancho Grande ) y sus funciones ecológicas
(2013)Avifauna asociada a un duraznero de la Colonia Tovar: estudio comparativo con un bosque nublado natural del Monumento Natural Pico Codazzi
S. Hilty, W. Brown (1986)A guide to the birds of Colombia
Rodolphe Schauensee, W. Phelps (1977)A guide to the birds of Venezuela
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 24(4), 338–343 SHORT-COMMUNICATION December 2016 Nest and nestling development of the Sooty-capped Hermit (Phaethornis augusti) from Venezuela 1,2 Carlos Verea Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Agronomía, Instituto de Zoología Agrícola, Apartado Postal 4579, Maracay 2101–A, Aragua, Venezuela. Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org Received on 29 March 2016. Accepted on 22 October 2016. ABSTRACT: In order to improve the previous knowledge about the nest and nestling development of the Sooty-capped Hermit (Phaethornis augusti) from Venezuela, a nest was followed from February to July 2015. Details of nest structure (shape, materials, dimensions), nest usage, intervals between breeding attempts, hatch time, fledgling period, as well as nestling development data such as body mass, measures, nestling condition on hatching, pterilia development, and when eyes opened were all recorded in detail. The nest had t he typical cup-shape structure that hung by a single stout cable of spiders' silk from a single iron nail 1.90 m above the floor, built with moss and spider webbing, inside a shadowy, fresh, and quiet storehouse. Despite appearing to be bulky and heavy, the nest had a mass of only 9.4 g. After four consecutive breedings by a single female, several hitherto unknown parameters were determined, including intervals between breeding attempts (10–21 days), incubation period (20 ± 0 days), fledgling period (26 ± 0 days), egg mass (0.6 ± 0 g); egg lengths (14.0 ± 0.05 mm), nestling mass at hatching (0.65 ± 0.07 g), and nestling mass at fledging (6.1 g). Breeding season of Sooty-capped Her mit was better understood: December–July, with scant records between September–November. Sooty-capped Hermit reproductive success (87.5%) was higher than that of other related species which nest in more natural conditions (16.7%). This is probably due to the breeding strategy of nesting within man-made constructions that offer protection from most natural predators. KEY-WORDS: avian development, clutch size, incubation, Trochilidae. Sooty-capped Hermit Phaethornis augusti, like most several agricultural lands, from shade plantation (coffee, members of its genus, is characterized by an olivaceous cocoa) to others sunny cultures such as banana, orange, plumage, strong white facial-lines, and a long, typically and peach (Ginés et al. 1951, Meyer de Schauensee & white tipped tail. The orange-rufous-colored ru mp and Phelps-Jr. 1978, Hilty 2003, Verea et al. 2009a, 2013). upper-tail coverts are a distinctive species character It is regularly recorded in urban and suburban areas (Meyer de Schauensee & Phelps-Jr. 1978). This hermit frequently entering houses and other buildings searching could be considered an almost endemic species from for small insects, spiders and their silk, which accounts Venezuela, as its distribution area consist mostly of the for the common name of Limpacasa (House-cleaner). montane areas both north and south of the country (0– Shadowy, fresh, and quiet locations of these houses or 2500 m a.s.l), with additional records in neighboring NE other man-made constructions are often selected for a Colombia, N Brazil, and W Guyana (Snow 1973, Meyer nesting site. A couple nests on these conditions have been de Schauensee & Phelps-Jr. 1978, Hilty & Brown 1986, previously described in Venezuela (Gilliard 1959). One Schuchmann 1999, Hilty 2003, Restall et al. 2006). It nest was described suspended from a strand of woven has three recognized races: P. a. augusti, typical of the spider webs in a dark culvert, located under the bridge northern mountains of Venezuela, and E Colombia; P. a. of a roadway. It hung from a pipe-like structure in the curiosus of the Santa Marta Mountains, Colombia; and ceiling, where small bats roosted some of them even P. a. incanescens of the southern mountains of Venezuela, very close to the nest. A second nest was suspended by a north Brazil, and western Guyana (Meyer de Schauensee spider silk support, from the ceiling of a concrete pump & Phelps-Jr. 1978, Schuchmann 1999, Restall et al. house with a corrugated asbestos sheet roof. In natural 2006). There, Sooty-capped Her mit is found in a wide conditions, Phaethornis nests have been found attached variety of habitats, including undergrowth, edges of to the underside of Heliconia bihai leaves with strands of dry to moist natural forests, second growth habitats, spider web, hidden from an observer's view (C. Verea, pasturelands (Megathyrsus maximus, Poaceae), and pers. obs.). Beside spiders' webs, typical materials found Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 24(4), 2016 Nest and nestling development of the Sooty-capped Hermit (Phaethornis augusti) from Venezuela Carlos Verea in hermit nests have been moss, rootlets, little stones, and bulky and heavy, it only had body mass of 9.4 g. No lumps of dry mud (Gilliard 1959, Skutch 1964). The records of Sooty-capped Hermit nest mass are previously stones and mud are located in the outside walls of the known. nest, and play an important role as a counterbalance, in At this time, I thought that Sooty-capped Hermit order to keep the nest evenly balanced (Gilliard 1959, work had finished. Including Sooty-capped Her mit, other Hansell 2000). member of the genera has been reported as communal Some general information about the Sooty-capped display (lek) birds (Davis 1958, Höglund & Alatalo 1995, Hermit nest structure (shape, dimensions), materials Ramjohn et al. 2003). Thus, the entire reproduction involved, and clutch size is known (Gilliard 1959, effort rests on the female: nest construction, eggs laying, Schuchmann 1999). However, information about incubation, nestling care and feeding. Nonetheless, on 15 the nest usage, intervals between breeding attempts, March two white eggs were discovered inside the nest. hatch time, fledgling period, nestling development and Two nestlings hatched on 20 March and left the nest important data associated to reproductive success are still 26 days later, on 14 April. During the entire period, the unknown. This study aims to provide information about female was left strictly undisturbed and only notes about these parameters, taken from a Sooty-capped Hermit nest egg laying and nestling departing times were made. Seven followed from February to July 2015, as well as improve days after nestlings left the nest, on 21 April, the female the knowledge on its nest. was observed carrying new material to the nest. A single Sooty-capped Hermit nest was discovered on 12 white egg was found in the early morning of 5 May. February 2015. It held two well developed nestlings that The next day, a second egg was laid at afternoon time left the nest three days later. The nest was a cup-shape about 36 h later. Skutch (1964) indicated an interval of structure build with the most typical materials of moss, A B spider webbing, and lumps of dry mud. It was hanging by a single stout cable of spider silk from an overhead Sl=80 support (a single iron nail, 1.90 m above the floor), inside a shadowy, fresh, and quiet storehouse located under a X1 Rl=30 stairway, with an open access door toward the exterior garden of a residential house (Figure 1). The opening of Tl=240 the nest faced away from the door and the nest had to Cd=75 Cl=160 be carefully turned around for its contents to be seen. The house is located in the SE suburbs of Caracas, at X2 Los Naranjos farm, El Hatillo County, Miranda state, Be=85 north Venezuela (10°26'14''N; 66°47'27''W), about 900 m a.s.l. This area used to be an old poultry farm, but is being developed as a residential area. Most of area around the house was covered by pasture (M. maximus) and a few fruit trees such as citrus and avocado. A little creek C D (Quebrada Santa Rosa) runs close the house and nest site (less than 20 m), with a small riparian forest along its edges. Tall trees such as Erythrina poeppigiana (Fabaceae), Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae), Hura crepitans (Euphorbiacea), and Cecropia peltata (Cecropiaceae) emerge above the forest canopy. Shrubbery plants such Rt=11.5 as Oyedaea verbesinoides (Asteraceae), Carica papaya Rw=20 (Caricaceae), and few Heliconia (Heliconiaceae) were Rt=15 present. Although the nest resembles that described by Gilliard (1959) the counterbalance section was extended from behind the incubation area of the cup, downward as a long beard (Figure 1A). Thus, counterbalance FIGURE 1. Sooty-capped Hermit (Phaethornis augusti) nest structure section had 160 mm long, including 85 mm of “beard” (A–C): total length (Tl); support length (Sl); counterbalance-section length (Cl); “Beard” section (Be); outer-cup depth (Cd); cup-rims (Figure 1B). Nest dimensions were (mm): total length: thickness (Rt); cup-rim length (Rl); cup-rim wide (Rw). Inner-cup 240; support length: 80; counterbalance section length: depth (20 mm) no represented. Section X –X : lower cup margin: 1 2 160; inner-cup depth: 20; outer-cup depth: 75; cup-rim all arrangement below dotted lines represents the counterbalance- thickness: 11.5–15.0; cup-rim length: 30; cup-rim wide: section. All measures in mm. Female Sooty-capped Hermit resting on 20 (Figure 1A–C). While the studied nest aspect was an avocado twig (D). Photos: C. Verea. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 24(4), 2016 Nest and nestling development of the Sooty-capped Hermit (Phaethornis augusti) from Venezuela Carlos Verea two days between egg laying in Phaethornis superciliosus. The nestlings were completely naked for the first After the two previous and successful clutches, detailed nine days but the female brooded them for the initial five notes on the nestlings' development were now taken on days only, and only during the afternoon and night time. a daily basis. An electronic precision balance Acculab On day five, nestling pterilia became noticeable (Table 1), EC-211 model, with 0.1 g readability; and a plastic dial so it probably had a thermal protective effect on nestlings, caliper Spi 31-415-3 model, with 0.1 mm readability, and female care was no longer necessary. In contrast, were used. Notes were taken at 08:00 h every morning Davis (1958) reported no brooding activities on first two recording masses, dimensions and total lengths of bill or three days in P. superciliosus. Skutch (1964) also reports and tail of both nestlings. Total length was the distance dark skin, sparse down, and tightly closed eyes at hatch between the bill tip and tail, feathered or not; bill length time for that species. In the present study of P. augusti, between the base and the bill tip (culmen); and tail the nestlings were naked at time of hatching, had ruddy- length between the base and tail tip of the two central colored skin, and the eyes were completely closed until feathers. Eggs and naked nestling were removed from the day 10 (Table 1). On day 15, the rump and upper-tail nest with a metal spoon, previously sterilized with 100% coverts began to turns orange-rufous color (Figure 2E). ethylic alcohol. Once the nestlings were feathered, with A B eyes open, they were removed by hand. During the last days in the nest, the nestlings became aggressive, and had to be weighed together whilst still inside the nest. To achieve this, the nest with the nestlings still inside was carefully placed on the electronic balance. Once a constant value was recorded, the nest mass (9.4 g) was deducted and the average nestling mass was estimated. Before measurements started, crop condition (empty, C D occupied) was recorded as it could affect mass accuracy. Notes on particular events of the nestlings' development were recorded, including days when the pteriliae were noticeable, the papillae opened, the eyes opened, and days of mass increase and decrease (Table 1). A photographic sequence of nestling development is shown in Figure 2, including naked, eyes-closed days (Figure 2A–B), pteriliae E F and papillae development (Figure 2B–E), facial lines and rump color development (Figure 2E–F), and the well- developed nestlings with adult appearance (Figure 2G– H). Previously, the eggs were weighed and measured on the day of laying. Both eggs has mass of 0.6 g each, and were 13.9 and 14.0 mm long respectively (mean = 13.95 mm). Despite P. augusti individuals being slightly bigger than P. superciliosus (Restall et al. 2006), their eggs are shorter. According to Skutch (1964), P. superciliosus eggs are 15.9 mm length. No previous data on egg mass of Phaethornis are known. Both eggs hatched on 25 May, after 20 days of incubation; the newly-hatched nestlings had body mass of 0.6 and 0.7 g, respectively. This incu bation period was longer than the 17–18 days recorded for P. superciliosus FIGURE 2. Sooty-capped Hermit (Phaethornis augusti) nestling development. Naked, eyes-closed days (A–B); pteriliae become dark (Skutch 1964). When one day old, each nestling oriented (deep lead gray) with feather papillae (contour, wings) acuminate itself with its beaks toward the support cable. This position (B); eyes open day (C) and contour papillae just open, showing a allows them to be located side-by-side in the nest. They brush-like aspect (C–D); white facial-lines and white papillae on tail have a natural reflex t hat strongly keeps their toes curled, appears, wing papillae open, brush-like aspect (E); upper jaw still yellow, but base and tip become fuscous colored (E–F); white papillae securing the nestlings to the delicate threads of the nest on tail open, and wing papillae get a rowing-like aspect; tail exceeds bottom. They also are able to move backwards toward the nest edge and nestlings resemble the adult except by short tail and edge of the nest to strongly eject excreta. This behavior is lower jaw base pale-orange colored (G–H). Days 3, 8, 11, 12, 13, known for nestlings of other Phaethornis species (Davis 16, 20 and 23, from A to H, respectively. Photos: A, G (E. Pescador), 1958, Skutch 1964). others (C. Verea). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 24(4), 2016 Nest and nestling development of the Sooty-capped Hermit (Phaethornis augusti) from Venezuela Carlos Verea TABLE 1. Mass, length measurements (total, bill and tail length), and growth observations on a couple Sooty-capped Hermit (Phaethornis augusti) nestlings from Venezuela. Day 1: 25 May 2015; Day 26: 19 June 2015. Particular events on nestling development underlined. Crop condition: E: empty; O: occupied. Individual dashes (-) indicate data not collected. Mass Total length Bill length Tail length Day Observations Mean Mean Mean Mean Crop (g) (mm) (mm) (mm) 1 Naked; eyes closed, bill yellow. 0.7–0.6 0.65 28.9–29.0 28.95 2.0–2.1 2.05 - - E 2 As above. 1.1–1.1 1.10 29.5–29.8 29.65 2.2–2.4 2.30 - - O 3 As above. 1.1–1.2 1.15 30.5–31.0 30.75 3.0–3.1 3.05 - - E 4 As above. 1.6–1.6 1.60 35.0–35.1 35.05 5.3–5.5 5.40 - - O 5 Pteriliae slightly dark. 2.1–2.3 2.20 37.4–37.8 37.60 5.3–5.5 5.40 - - O 6 Pteriliae dark. 2.3–2.5 2.40 38.7–39.1 38.90 5.8–6.0 5.90 - - E 7 Pteriliae dark (lead gray) and bump. 2.6–2.9 2.75 39.9–40.2 40.05 6.1–6.2 6.15 - - O 8 Pteriliae dark (deep lead gray) with 2.8–3.1 2.95 43.0–44.2 43.6 6.3–6.7 6.50 - - O feather papillae (contour, wings) acuminate. 9Well-developed contour feather papillae: 3.7–3.8 3.75 45.0–47.1 46.05 7.0–7.2 7.10 - - O imminent opening. 10 Eyes half-closed; contour papillae open. 3.8–3.9 3.85 45.4–47.5 46.45 7.2–7.6 7.40 - - E 11 Eyes open; contour papillae open, 4.0–4.2 4.10 46.3–48.0 47.15 7.4–7.7 7.55 - - O brush-like aspect. 12 Wing papillae enlarged: imminent 4.3–4.4 4.35 48.5–49.0 48.75 7.8–7.9 7.85 - - E opening; white facial-lines and white papillae on tail appears. 13 Wing papillae open, brush-like aspect; 4.7–4.9 4.80 52.0–54.8 53.40 8.0–8.4 8.20 - - E white facial-lines and white papillae on tail conspicuous; upper jaw yellow, base and tip fuscous. 14 Conspicuous white facial-lines; large 5.0–5.0 5.00 53.7–55.0 54.35 8.4–8.5 8.45 - - E white papillae on tail. 15 Conspicuous white facial-lines; white 5.5–5.7 5.60 54.5–55.5 55.00 8.9–9.6 9.25 - - E papillae on tail enlarged: imminent opening; rump feathers turned orange fuscous colored. 16 Conspicuous white facial-lines; white 5.8–6.1 5.95 60.2–61.5 60.85 9.0–10.0 9.50 7.4–9.1 8.25 O papillae on tail open; wing papillae rowing-like aspect; upper jaw yellow, fuscous colored. 17 As above. 5.9–6.2 6.05 60.3–63.1 61.70 10.0–11.1 10.55 8.2–10.5 9.35 E 18 Nestling large barely fit in nest; tail 5.9–6.2 6.05 67.0–68.2 67.60 11.5–11.7 11.60 10.0–12.2 11.10 E reaches the nest edge, resembles adult. 19 Nestling larges resembles adult; open 5.8–6.0 5.90 68.9–69.7 69.3 11.6–12.0 11.80 12.5–13.7 13.20 E bills when handled; upper jaw totally black; mass decreased. 20 Nestling larges, adult aspect; tail exceeds 5.5–5.7 5.60 70.5–71.7 71.10 12.2–13.0 12.55 13.9–15.1 14.50 E nest edge; difficult nestling re-entry on nest; mass decreased. 21 Nestlings too large. Weighed in nest - 5.20 72.5–73.2 72.85 13.7–15.0 14.35 17.8–18.4 18.10 - together; mass decreased. 22 Mass decreased. - 5.15 72.9–73.4 73.15 13.7–15.1 14.40 18.3–20.7 19.50 - 23 Mass increased again. - 5.30 76.7–78.4 77.55 15.3–16.9 16.10 20.9–21.5 21.20 - 24 After weighing, one nestling flew away - 6.10 - - - - - - - during handling it to take measures. 25 One nestling remain in nest late -- - - - - - - - afternoon (17:30 h). 26 Nest empty (08:00 h). - - - - - - - - - Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 24(4), 2016 Nest and nestling development of the Sooty-capped Hermit (Phaethornis augusti) from Venezuela Carlos Verea This important detail means that field ornithologists December–May period (Schäfer & Phelps 1954, Hilty can then identify the nestlings and fledglings to species 2003, Verea et al. 2009b), is extended up to July, with with no confusion with other similar species. When the sparse additional records between September–November nestlings reached 19 days old, they showed a decrease in (Verea et al. 2009b). Sooty-capped Hermit studied here mass gain. This coincided with an accelerated rate of tail had a higher reproductive success rate (87.5%) than other growth. It could be interpreted as an energy limitation related species (P. superciliosus) which nest in more natural due to the spurt in tail feather growth that necessarily conditions (16.7%) (Skutch 1964). It is probable that must be completed at fledging as it is an important man-made constructions provide protection from natural element in Sooty-capped Hermit flight. On the same predators. day nestlings became aggressive, and opened their beaks when handled. Mass and measurements were then taken with the two birds inside the nest together. Nonetheless, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS one nestling flew away on day 24 while being measured. The second nestling left the nest two days later, 26 days I would like to thanks Enma Pescador for the photographs. after hatching. This fledgling period was exactly the same Also, Robin Restall and two anonymous reviewers, who recorded previously. Skutch (1964) indicated a shorter make important comments to improve the note. A time (22–23 days) for fledgling period of P. superciliosus. special acknowledgement to Travis Rosenberry (Peregrine Nonetheless, from two P. superciliosus nests followed by Foundation Library), who kindly provided some Davis (1958), one matched with Skutch (1964) data; the references. other was an estimate of at least 18 and possibly as much as 27 days. The last body mass recorded was 6.1 g, similar to the adult mass (mean = 6.0 ± 0.8 g; n = 10) reported REFERENCES by Dunning-Jr. (2008). At time of fledging, the juvenile resembles the adult plumage almost exactly, except for a Davis, T. A. W. 1958. 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Ornithology Research – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 1, 2016
Keywords: avian development; clutch size; incubation; Trochilidae
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