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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(3): 169–171. SHORT-COMMUNIC ARTICLE ATION September 2019 Nest and nestling description of Automolus rufipil eatus from Brazil 1,4 2 2 3 Tiago Guimarães Junqueira , Kelrene Moreira Lara , João Batista Pinho , Mônica Aragona , 1 1 Pablo Vinícius Clemente Mathias & Claudio Veloso Mendonça Biota Projetos e Consultoria Ambiental LTDA., Goiânia, GO, Brazil. Laboratório de Ornitologia, Núcleo de Estudos Ecológicos do Pantanal, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. Faculdade de Engenharia (CUVG), Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. Corresponding author: email@example.com Received on 13 May 2019. Accepted on 02 September 2019. ABSTRACT: We describe here the first documented nest and nestling of the Chestnut-crowned Fo liage-gleaner (Automolus rufipileatus) in Brazil. They were recor ded in the municipality of Vitória do Xingu, state of Pará, at Amazonian domains. As other members of the genus Automolus, the nest of A. rufipileatus was in a steep clay bank on the edge of a small stream, comprising an inclined entrance tunnel to access two distinct chambers. The nest can be classified as a cavity with inclined tunnel. When discovered, the nest housed a nestling in advanced stage of development; therefore, it was not possible to describe the eggs, incubation period and nestling's initial development. We encourage additional studies on Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner reproductive biology. KEY-WORDS: Amazonian Forest, Furnariidae, life history, reproductive biology, Xingu River. Nowadays, there are 35 genera and 105 species of considered that this species' nest was not described. From Furnariidae birds recognized in Brazil (Piacentini et al. Londoño (2014) it is possible to check (through the 2015). The family presents a great diversity of ar chitectural investigation of photographs) that the nest follows the nests with more than 20 distinct forms of construction, same pattern described in the present study, occurring in ranging from tangles of sticks, as in genera Synallaxis and burrows in soil, and the eggs are white and ovoid. Phacellodomus, to constructions in steep banks, as in the Automolus rufipileatus is a resident species and it genus Automolus (Zyskowski & Prum 1999). Nine species is distributed across South America, including Bolivia, of Automolus are known to Brazil (Piacentini et al. 2015), Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Guyana, French Guiana, A. rufipileatus, A. melanopezus, A. cervicalis, A. subulatus, Suriname, Venezuela, and Brazil (Birdlife International A. ochrholaemus, A. infuscatus, A. paraensis, A. lammi and 2017, Remsen-Jr. 2018). Records in Brazil are exclusive A. leucophthalmus. However, there is a lack of information to the Amazonian domain, where two subspecies are about the behavior, territory, and, specially, reproductive recognized: A. r. consobrinus and A. r. rufipileatus. The biology of these species, except for A. ochrolaemus (Van latter occurs south of the Amazon River (Remsen-Jr. Tyne 1926, Skutch 1952), A. leucophthalmus (Marini et 2018) and in the Volta Grande do Xingu, Pará state. al. 2007) and A. paraensis (del Hoyo et al. 2018). Life history of the species is virtually unknown, Based on previous studies, the nests found for all with little information regarding its habitat and species of Automolus genus exhibit the same pattern: they food. According to Remsen-Jr. (2018), the species is are cavities in the soil, usually in steep banks bordering insectivorous and forages by turning over dried leaves and small streams (Van Tyne 1926, Marini et al. 2007). litter; they can be seen in pairs and eventually in mixed Because of this reproductive behavior, Automolus species flocks. They inhabit wetlands, alluvial forests and terra are commonly known as “barranqueiros” in Brazil, which firme environments with presence of bamboo (Sick 1997, means, in a free translation, those who use steep banks Remsen-Jr. 2018). This work aims to present information for nesting. Specifically, Londoño (2014) reported concerning the reproductive biology of A. rufipileatus, photographs of A. rufipileatus eggs and nests. However, through description of a nest and a nestling observed in Londoño (2014) did not describe the dimensions of the municipality of Vitória do Xingu (Volta Grande do the nest and eggs, or the environment surrounding the Xingu), state of Pará. nest and, probably for this reason, Remsen-Jr. (2018) On 17 February 2015, during the rainy season, a nest Nest and nestling of Automolus rufipileatus Junqueira et al. of Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner was found 80 cm was wider and flattened (9 × 15 × 10 cm approximately above the ground inside the soil walls of a steep bank of a – chamber 1), and the second chamber was smaller and basket-shape (6 × 9 × 8 cm approximately – chamber small stream “igarapé” in terra firme forest (Fig. 1A), with Açai Palm Trees (Euterpe oleracea) bordering the stream 2; Fig. 1C). Because of the difficulty in measuring the o o (3 19'54''S; 52 16'29''W, 213 m a.s.l). The nest was cavities due to the format and dimensions of the access housing a single nestling, which was in a pinfeather stage. tunnel, the measures of the chambers were estimated. Both The nest was composed of an inclined-up access tunnel, chambers were lined with rootlets, but chamber 2, which was housing the nestling, had a thicker layer suggesting it with dimensions 7 cm height, 6 cm width and 20 cm depth, measured with a ruler (Fig. 1B & C), conducting was the place where eggs were incubated. We found fecal to two chambers in a line sequence. The first chamber bags excreted by the chick in chamber 1 (Fig. 2A) and it Figure 1. Terra firme forest where the nest of Automolus rufipileatus was found (A). Entrance of the access tunnel of A. rufipileatus nest (B). Sketch of A. rufipileatus nest, in a longitudinal cut (C), showing a) access tunnel; b) chamber one; c) chamber two; d) soil texture surrounding the nest; and e) rootlets thicker layer in basket-shape inside chamber two. Figure 2. The interior of an Automolus rufipileatus nest: in the foreground the chamber one with nest garbage (A). Nestling inside the chamber two in the first visit (B). Nestling in the thir d visit (C). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(3): 2019 Nest and nestling of Automolus rufipileatus Junqueira et al. is plausible to assume that these fecal bags were moved ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS from chamber 2 to chamber 1 by adults. Unfortunately, the fecal bag removal event was not observed over 10 h of observations. However, three fecal bags were removed We thank the companies Biota Projetos e Consultoria between our first (17 February) and second (18 February) Ambiental LTDA. and Norte Energia S.A. responsible for visits to the nest. providing financial resour ces that allowed us to conduct The single nestling found in the nest during the this study in Volta Grande do Xingu, Pará, Brazil. first visit presented few down feathers and re ddish-brown emerged pinfeathers of developing wings and tail feathers REFERENCES (Fig. 2B). In the third visit (24 February), we observed that the nestling had already developed the uniform BirdLife International. 2017. The IUCN red list of threatened species reddish-brown plumage, coating practically the whole [Automolus rufipileatus]. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN. body (Fig. 2C), and it was ready to leave the nest. During UK.2017-1.RLTS.T22702946A110876695.en (Access on 05 this visit, we collected biometrical data (wing = 6.1 cm, November 2018). tail = 4.2 cm, tarsus = 2.2 cm, beak length = 1.7 cm, total del Hoyo J., Collar N. & Kirwan G.M. 2018. Foliage-gleaner (Automolus paraensis). In: del Hoyo J., Elliott A., Sargatal J., length = 14.2 cm) and banded the nestling, which had a Christie D.A. & de Juana E. (eds.). Handbook of the birds of the darkish rufescent-brown plumage. In the fourth visit (27 world alive. Barcelona: Lynx Editions. https://www.hbw.com/ February), the nestling was not found inside the nest and species/para-foliage-gleaner-automolus-paraensis (Access on 04 it was not observed again. In two visits, we saw an adult November 2018). in the vicinity of the nest a few times, and on all occasions Londoño G.A. 2014. Parque Nacional del Manu, Cusco, Perú: anidación de aves en un gradiente altitudinal. Chicago: The Field Museum. only one adult was seen at a time, always in a silent and Marini M.A., Aguilar T.M., Andrade R.D., Leite L.O., Anciães M., discreet approach. Carvalho C.E.A., Duca C., Maldonado-Coelho M., Sebaio F. The nest of the Chestnut-crowned Fo liage-gleaner & Gonçalves J. 2007. Biologia da nidiﬁcação de aves do sudeste follows the same pattern observed for other species of the de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 15: genus, in which nests are built in steep bank, with cavity- 367–376. Piacentini V.Q, Aleixo A., Agne C.E., Maurício G.N., Pacheco shaped tunnels, bordering water bodies (Van Tyne 1926, J.F., Bravo G.A., Brito G.R.R., Naka L.N., Olmos F., Posso Skutch 1952, Marini et al. 2007). The classification of S., Silveira L.F., Betini G.S., Carrano E., Franz I., Lees A.C., the nest of A. rufipileatus, based on Simon & Pacheco Lima L.M., Pioli D., Schunck F., do Amaral F.R., Bencke G.A, (2005), is cavity/with-tunnel/simple/platform, although Cohn-Haft M., Figueiredo L.F.A., Straube F.C. & Cesari E. 2015. Annotated checklist of the birds of Brazil by the Brazilian the nest described here is not effectively contemplated by Ornithological Records. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 23: this classification because it presents two chambers after 91–298. the access tunnel. Remsen-Jr. (2018) reported two males Remsen-Jr. J.V. 2018. Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner (Automolus in breeding condition in February in Venezuela, the same rufipileatus). In: del Hoyo J., E lliott A., Sargatal J., Christie period of reproduction confirmed in this study. Both D.A. & de Juana E. (eds.). Handbook of the birds of the world alive. Barcelona: Lynx Editions. https://www.hbw.com/species/ studies registered the same reproductive period for the chestnut-crowned-foliage-gleaner-automolus-rufipileatus (Access species. on 03 March 2018). Our study reports some new information on the Sick H. 1997. Ornitologia brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Nova life history of the Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner Fronteira. and the first documented nest of the species in Brazil. Simon J.E. & Pacheco S. 2005. On the standardization of nest descriptions of Neotropical birds. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia We believe that the records presented here may help 13: 143–154. other ornithologists with the discovery of other nests of Skutch A.F. 1952. Life history of the Chestnut-tailed Automolus. Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner, in earlier stages of Condor 54: 93–100. development (building the nest, posture and hatching Van Tyne J. 1926. The nest of Automolus ochrolaemus pallidigularis Lawrence. Auk 43: 546. eggs), therefore, leading to an increase in our knowledge Zyskowski K. & Prum R.O. 1999. Phylogenetic analysis of the nest on the natural history and reproductive biology of this architecture of Neotropical ovenbirds (Furnariidae). Auk 116: species. Such information may be key for conservation 891–911. actions, especially for Amazonian species, which are constantly threatened by increasing deforestation. Associate Editor: Eduardo S. Santos. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(3): 2019
Ornithology Research – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 1, 2019
Keywords: Amazonian Forest; Furnariidae; life history; reproductive biology; Xingu River
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