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We found specimens of foliose Bangiales from the subtidal zone of Udo, Jeju Island, Korea. In molecular analyses of rbcL sequences, these Korean specimens were almost identical to Miuraea migitae from Osaka, Japan. In the morphological comparison, Korean specimens were consistent with habitat, color, and vegetative characteristics with the description of M. migitae. This is the first record of M. migitae outside the type locality and Nagasaki in Japan. This study confirms that new or unrecorded species of the order Bangiales may be discovered from subtidal habitats. Keywords: Bangiales, Korea, Miuraea migitae, New record, rbcL Background collected from Misaki town in Osaka Prefecture, Japan The order Bangiales (Nägeli 1874) is an order of distinctive (Kikuchi et al. 2010). M. migitae was distinguished from and morphologically simple red algae that represents an other foliose Bangiales species by growing on the subti- ancient lineage (Butterfield 2000). The foliose Bangiales in- dal habitat and having fire red to pink color (Kikuchi cludes the most highly valued seaweeds grown in aquacul- et al. 2010). The distribution of M. migitae was reported ture from Korea, Japan, China, and Southeast Asia for the only from Japan (Osaka and Nagasaki), attached to the past several hundred years (Mumford and Miura 1988). dead bivalve shell and rope (Sutherland et al. 2011). This order has been considered monophyletic with the sin- In Korea, the study of Porphyra has been carried out gle family Bangiaceae. Traditionally, Bangia Lyngbye and on morphology, physiology, flora, and culture by several Porphyra C. Agardh have been recognized on the basis of authors (Hwang and Lee 2001; Kim and Kim 2011). To gametophyte morphology: unbranched uni- to multiseriate date, seven species of Porphyra and 13 species of Pyro- filaments in the genus Bangia and blade in the genus pia J.Agardh (previously known Porphyra from Korea) Porphyra (Oliveira et al. 1995). Recently, the revision of the have been reported from Korea, mostly collected in the order Bangiales, based on the phylogeny using nrSSU and intertidal zone (Kim et al. 2013). Two species, Pyropia rbcL genes, has greatly improved the taxonomic under- koreana (M.S. Hwang & I.K. Lee) M.S. Hwang, H.G. standing of this group (Sutherland et al. 2011). According Choi, Y.S. Oh & I.K. Lee and Pyropia yezoensis (Ueda) to Sutherland et al. (2011), the order Bangiales was split M.S. Hwang & H.G. Choi, are known from subtidal hab- into eight of foliose (Boreophyllum, Clymene, Lysithea, itats (Hwang and Lee 2001; Kim and Kim 2011). How- Miuraea, Porphyra, Pyropia,and Wildemania)and seven ever, the specimens of the order Bangiales from subtidal of filamentous genera. habitats have been scarcely explored because of the diffi- The genus Miuraea was established by Sutherland culty of sampling in this environment, despite the possi- et al. (2011) based on molecular analyses and composed bility of discovering new or unrecorded species. of only one species, M. migitae (N.Kikuchi, S.Arai, In this study, we collected foliose Bangiales specimens G.Yoshida & J.A.Shin) N.Kikuchi, S.Arai, G.Yoshida, from a depth of 15 m in Udo, Jeju Island, Korea. We J.A.Shin & M.Miyata. This species was originally conducted morphological observations and rbcL se- described as Porphyra migitae, based on the specimen quence analysis in order to confirm the taxonomic pos- ition of these subtidal specimens. This is the first record * Correspondence: email@example.com Department of Biology, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, South Korea © The Author(s). 2016 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Koh et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2016) 19:38 Page 2 of 5 of the occurrence of the order Bangiales species from microscope. Voucher specimens were deposited in the under 15 m depth of subtidal habitats in Korean coasts. herbarium of Jeju National University, Korea (JNUB). GenomicDNA wasextracted from thespecimens using Methods the DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) Four samples were collected by SCUBA diving from a following the manufacturer’s instruction. The primer pairs depth of 15 m of Udo (33° 30′ N, 126° 55′ E), Jeju Island, for rbcL gene were rbcLJNF1-rbcLJNR1 and rbcLJNF2- Korea, in 9 May 2015 (E15019) and 17 May 2016 (E16064, rbcLJNR2 (Kang and Kim 2013). Amplification condition E16065, E16066). Thalli were mounted on herbarium for rbcL consisted of 7 min at 97 °C for pre-denaturation, sheets as voucher specimens. Some parts of thallus were followed by 45 cycles of 1 min at 97 °C, 1 min 47 °C, and cutoff to stain with 1% aqueous aniline blue acidified with 2 min at 72 °C, with a final 7 min extension cycle at 72 °C, a drop of 1% HCL and to make permanent slide in a and a soak cycle at 4 °C. PCR products were purified using solution of 50% Karo syrup for microscopic observations. the AccuPrep® PCR Purification Kit (Bioneer, Daejeon, Photomicrographs were taken with a Canon EOS 600D Korea) following the manufacturer’s instructions. Nucleo- digital camera mounted on the Olympus BX43 tide sequences of rbcL were determined on strands of PCR Fig. 1 Maximum likelihood (ML) tree for the genus Miuraea derived from rbcL sequence data. Numbers indicate bootstrap values and asterisks denote full support. Scale bar indicates number of substitutions per site Koh et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2016) 19:38 Page 3 of 5 amplification products at the Macrogen sequencing facility (Macrogen Inc., Seoul, Korea). The sequences were edi- ted using Mega ver. 7.0.14 (Tamura et al. 2013), and multiple sequence alignments were constructed with 39 taxa of the order Bangiales from GenBank with two taxa of Hildenbrandiales as out-group. Maximum likelihood (ML) analysis was conducted using RAxML software (Stamatakis 2006) with the GTR + I + Γ evolutionary model to confirm the taxonomic position of Korean specimens. We used 1000 independent tree infer- ences using the “-#” option to generate bootstrap values for phylogenetic analysis with the algorithm “a” of “-f” option to search the best-scoring tree in one program run. The other options were used as a default set of the software. Results Molecular analyses In total, 1174 base pairs of rbcL were aligned with 444 variable positions (37.8%) and 353 phylogenetically informative positions (30.0%). The Korean specimens (GenBank accession number KX587462-KX587465) were almost identical with M. migitae from Japan (EU521643), Fig. 2 Miuraea migitae (N.Kikuchi, S.Arai, G.Yoshida & J.A.Shin) showed 0.2% sequence divergence (Fig. 1). In addition, M. N.Kikuchi, S.Arai, G.Yoshida, J.A.Shin & M.Miyata. a Vegetative thallus of migitae was clearly separated from other Korean M. migitae (E15019) collected from Udo, Jeju Island, Korea, 9 May 2015. b Surface view of thallus with entire margin. c Surface view of the specimens, Pyropia koreana (HQ728198), Py. kuniedae central portion of thallus. d Surface view of the basal portion with (HQ728200), Py. pseudolinearis (HQ718196), and Py. rhizoidal cells. e Sectional view of vegetative cells in the central yezoensis (AB366140 and GQ427218), by 10.2–10.5%, portion. f Sectional view of rhizoidal filaments toward both sides of 10.1–10.3%, 9.4–9.7% and 11–11.1% sequence diver- thallus (arrows). Scale bars represent a 4cm; b, d, f,50 μm; c, e,25 μm gences, respectively. The clade of the genus Miuraea formed a monophyletic group with strong support, whereas there was a sister genus Vegetative cells are oblong, triangular, polygonal with Lysithea without support. The monophyly of each genus rounded angles in the surface view, and 10–17 μm was supported by strong bootstrap values (100% for long × 7–10 μm broad in size (Fig. 2b, c). In the Bangia, Boreophyllum, Fuscifolium,and Miuraea;96% for sectional view, cells are oblong and 15–20 μm high × Wildemania;94% for Pyropia; and 92% for Porphyra). 7–15 μm broad in size (Fig. 2e). Basal cells are 15–35 Pyropia formed a clade with Wildemania and Boreophyl- μm long × 6–20 μm broad in the surface view (Fig. 2d) lum,but not supported. Porphyra was related to Clymene and having rhizoidal filaments in both sides of thallus in (a bladed species) and Bangia with filamentous morphology the sectional view (Fig. 2f). by moderate support values. To date, M. migitae has been only collected from the subtidal zone in Udo, Jeju Island, Korea. The habitat is Miuraea migitae (N.Kikuchi, S.Arai, G.Yoshida & an area in a strong current and is covered with sand and J.A.Shin) N.Kikuchi, S.Arai, G.Yoshida, J.A.Shin & a rhodolith bed. M.Miyata Basionym: Porphyra migitae N.Kikuchi, S.Arai, Discussion G.Yoshida & J.A. Shin Miuraea migitae has been known as an endemic species Type locality: Misaki town, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. in the subtidal zone of Japan. It is characterized by Holotype: SAP105477 (Kikuchi et al. 2010). monostromatic thallus elliptic and obovate in shape, Korean name: Chambunhonggim (참분홍김). with fire red to pink color and 25 cm length × 13 cm width in size (Kikuchi et al. 2010). According to the cul- Thalli are membranaceous, monostromatic, elliptic, ture study by Kikuchi et al. (2010), M. migitae can be obovate, and circular shape with cordate and rotund distinguished from other subtidal species of Bangiales in base, fire red to pink in color, and undulated entire mar- Japan by the presence of asexual reproductive subcycles gin (Fig. 2a, b). Thalli are up to 13 cm long, 6 cm wide, involving archeospores and neutral spores on the foliose and 25–40 μm thick in the central portion (Fig. 2a, e). thallus. Although our specimens were not observed any Koh et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2016) 19:38 Page 4 of 5 archeospores and neutral spores on thallus, Korean M. migiate and intertidal zone in P. oligospermatangia, Py. specimens were consistent with habitat, color, and vege- katadae,and Py. tenera), andthe color(fire redtopinkin tative characteristics in the description of M. migitae. M. migitae, yellowish to greenish in P. oligospermatangia, In recognizing the species of Pyropia, the vegetative Py. tenera,and Py. yezoensis, and purple in Py. katadae) features are viewed as important diagnostic characters, (Hwang and Lee 1994; Kim and Kim 2011). such as color, length, thickness, and projection of rhi- The molecular analyses demonstrated that the rbcL se- zoidal filaments including habitat (Table 1). M. migitae quences from Korean specimens and M. migitae from was found in the subtidal habitat like Py. koreana and Japan (EU521643) were almost identical with 0.2% gen- Py. yezoensis with monostromatic thallus, but they can etic distances. Lindstrom and Fredericq (2003) men- be distinguished from M. migitae by color, basal cell size, tioned that the sequence divergences of rbcL within and the projection of rhizoidal filaments (both sides in species of Porphyra from different populations differed M. migitae and one side in Py. koreana) (Table 1). by 0.1% in Porphyra fallax from British Columbia, Porphyra oligospermatangia, Pyropia katadae, and Py. Canada, to 0.9% in Porphyra pseudolanceolata and P. tenera are having elliptic to obovate thallus with cordate pseudolinearis from Alaska, USA. The sequence diver- base (Kim and Kim 2011), but they are different from M. gence between Korean and Japanese specimens fell into migitae in length (24–47 cm in M. migitae and 30–56 cm the intraspecific variation, showing the specimens to be in P. oligospermatangia), the thickness of thallus conspecific. In the phylogenetic tree, Miuraea formed a (25–40 μmin M. migitae,40–50 μmin Py. katadae and clade with four genera, Pyropia, Wildemania, Boreophyl- 35–60 μmin Py. yezoensis), the habitats (subtidal zone in lum, and Lysithea, without supporting value. These Table 1 Morphological features of Miuraea migitae and five foliose Bangiales species having similar morphology or habitat from Korea Miuraea migitae Porphyra oligospermatangia Pyropia kuniedae Py. koreana Py. tenera Py. yezoensis Habitat 6–15-m depth of Intertidal zone Low intertidal Low intertidal to Upper to middle Middle intertidal to subtidal zone zone 5-m depth of intertidal zone 5-m depth of subtidal zone subtidal zone Color Fire red, pink Yellowish brown, Purple, greenish Bright red, brownish Yellowish red, Brownish red, pale-green toward red, brownish red red brownish red, greenish red the base greenish red Shape Narrow elliptic, Elliptical, linear, Round, ovate Elliptical, obovate Elliptical, round, Round, ovate, elliptic, obovate, lanceolate ovate, obovate obovate, circular oblanceolate, reniform Basal shape Cordate, rotund, Round, cordate Cordate Cuneate, round Cuneate, round, Cuneate, round, navel cordate cordate, umbilicate Dentation Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Undulation Present Present Present Present Present Present Length (cm) 13–25 20–40 (−55) 7–9.5 6–10 4.5–20 (−40) 3.5–13 Width (cm) 6–13 5–15 6.5–94–8 1.5–91–9 Thickness (μm) 24–47 30–56 40–50 20–27 20–40 35–60 Vegetative cell shape Oblong, triangular, Circle, rectangle Circle, rectangle, Rectangle Rectangle Rectangle polygonal triangle Vegetative cell 8–17 × 6–10 7–11 × 6–912–15 × 7–10 13–17 × 9–10 15–21 × 9–12 13–19 × 7–14 size (μm) Basal cell shape Capitate Elliptic Elliptic, capitate Elliptical Circle, elliptic Circle, elliptical Basal cell size (μm) 15–35 × 6–20 18–42 × 13–21 22–27 × 13–16 22–25 × 9–12 22–33 × 13–21 22–33 × 10–23 Projection of rhizoidal Both sides Both sides Both sides One side Both sides Both sides filaments Division formula 4 × 4×8 4 × 2 ×8 4× 2–4×4–84×2–4× 4 4× 2–4×4–84×2–4× 8–16 of spermatangia Division formula of 2× 2 × 4 2 ×2 × 2–4 2 × 2 ×4 2× 1×2 2–4× 1–2× 2–42×2×4 zygotosporangia Reference This study, Kikuchi Kim and Kim 2011 Hwang and Lee Hwang and Lee Hwang and Lee Hwang and Lee et al. 2010 2001, Kim and 2001, Kim and 2001, Kim and 2001, Kim and Kim 2011 Kim 2011 Kim 2011 Kim 2011 Koh et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2016) 19:38 Page 5 of 5 phylogenetic relationships were different from two previ- and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. ous studies: one is that the genus Miuraea formed a basal node of the order Bangiales except for two fila- Competing interests mentous genera Dione and Minerva (Sutherland et al. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. 2011), in the other is that the genus Miuraea formed a Consent for publication sister clade composed of Boreophyllum, Fuscifolium, Not applicable Pyropia, Wildemenia, and an undescribed filamentous Ethics approval genus (Sánchez et al. 2014). In addition, the taxonomic Not applicable confusion still remained on the phylogenetic relation- ships of three genera, Porphyra, Bangia, and Clymene, Received: 10 August 2016 Accepted: 5 November 2016 even though they had moderate support value in the rbcL tree (Sutherland et al. 2011; Sánchez et al. 2014). 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This work was supported http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btl446. by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), funded by Sutherland JE, Lindstrom S, Nelson WA, Brodie J, Lynch MDJ, Hwang MS, et al. A the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of Korea (NIBR201624202 for the Graduate new look at an ancient order: generic revision of the Bangiales (Rhodophyta). Program of the Undiscovered Taxa from Korea). J Phycol. 2011;47:1131–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.01052.x. Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S. MEGA6: Molecular Availability of data and materials Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Molec Biol Evol. 2013;30:2725–9. The sequences are available in the GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst197. Authors’ contributions YHK carried out the research and drafted the manuscript. HWL collected the samples from the subtidal zone by SCUBA diving. MSK designed this study
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