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Investigation of compaction, specific gravity, unconfined compressive strength and cbr of a composite having copper slag and rice husk ash mixed using an alkali activator

Investigation of compaction, specific gravity, unconfined compressive strength and cbr of a... This experimental study investigates the compaction and strength properties of a Composite having Copper Slag (CS) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) mixed using an alkali activator (AA). In total 48 different combinations were investigated for their compaction, specific gravity and strength properties of the respective materials with varying percentages of CS, RHA, and AA. The RHA and AA were mixed in different percentages in the range of (5–35%) and (3–9%), respectively, along with the remaining percentage of CS. The alkali activator (AA) is prepared using Sodium Hydroxide (SH) of 10 M (Molarity) and Sodium Silicate (SS) in the ratio of 1:2.5. The maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) are determined using Modified Proctor Compaction (MPC) test and the Pycnometer test was used to determine the specific gravity. The strength parameters have been determined by using the Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) test and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test. It is observed that at constant AA the increase in RHA content reduces the MDD and increases the OMC of all the mixes. An increase in AA content resulted in a decrease in OMC for all the mixes. The values of MDD increase initially up to 6% of AA content and further addition of AA resulted in a decrease in the MDD. Thus, 6% of AA proves to be optimum. The specific gravity values are inversely proportional to the RHA and AA content. Among all the mixes with varying AA content of 3%, 6% and 9% the mixes with a constant 5% of RHA exhibits maximum MDD of about 2.279 g/cc, 2.385 g/cc, and 2.313 g/cc, respectively. The minimum and maximum values for specific gravity were found to be 1.57 and 3.41, respectively. Keeping the AA content constant, an increase in the RHA content up to 25–30% increases the value of UCS. Further addition of RHA resulted in a decrease in the value of UCS. A maximum value of 13.32 MPa of UCS is observed after 28 days of curing at 30% RHA with a constant ratio of AA/base material (B) at 0.20. The strain at the maximum value of UCS is 3.16%. In the CBR tests, a decrease in the addition of AA increased the value of CBR, whereas an increase in the curing period decreased the CBR value. The results of CBR tests have been found in accordance with the MORT&H (Ministry of Road Transport and Highways) specifications. Thus, the developed composite material can be utilized for sub-grade and sub-base layers with different traffic loading conditions. Experimental results are validated using Multi-Linear Regression Analysis (MLRA). Results of the study show that the CS and RHA along with AA can be effectively used in the construction industry at the same time solving the problem of waste disposal and prove to be ecofriendly with low CO2 emission and lesser carbon footprint. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Innovative Infrastructure Solutions Springer Journals

Investigation of compaction, specific gravity, unconfined compressive strength and cbr of a composite having copper slag and rice husk ash mixed using an alkali activator

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022
ISSN
2364-4176
eISSN
2364-4184
DOI
10.1007/s41062-022-00783-2
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

This experimental study investigates the compaction and strength properties of a Composite having Copper Slag (CS) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) mixed using an alkali activator (AA). In total 48 different combinations were investigated for their compaction, specific gravity and strength properties of the respective materials with varying percentages of CS, RHA, and AA. The RHA and AA were mixed in different percentages in the range of (5–35%) and (3–9%), respectively, along with the remaining percentage of CS. The alkali activator (AA) is prepared using Sodium Hydroxide (SH) of 10 M (Molarity) and Sodium Silicate (SS) in the ratio of 1:2.5. The maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) are determined using Modified Proctor Compaction (MPC) test and the Pycnometer test was used to determine the specific gravity. The strength parameters have been determined by using the Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) test and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test. It is observed that at constant AA the increase in RHA content reduces the MDD and increases the OMC of all the mixes. An increase in AA content resulted in a decrease in OMC for all the mixes. The values of MDD increase initially up to 6% of AA content and further addition of AA resulted in a decrease in the MDD. Thus, 6% of AA proves to be optimum. The specific gravity values are inversely proportional to the RHA and AA content. Among all the mixes with varying AA content of 3%, 6% and 9% the mixes with a constant 5% of RHA exhibits maximum MDD of about 2.279 g/cc, 2.385 g/cc, and 2.313 g/cc, respectively. The minimum and maximum values for specific gravity were found to be 1.57 and 3.41, respectively. Keeping the AA content constant, an increase in the RHA content up to 25–30% increases the value of UCS. Further addition of RHA resulted in a decrease in the value of UCS. A maximum value of 13.32 MPa of UCS is observed after 28 days of curing at 30% RHA with a constant ratio of AA/base material (B) at 0.20. The strain at the maximum value of UCS is 3.16%. In the CBR tests, a decrease in the addition of AA increased the value of CBR, whereas an increase in the curing period decreased the CBR value. The results of CBR tests have been found in accordance with the MORT&H (Ministry of Road Transport and Highways) specifications. Thus, the developed composite material can be utilized for sub-grade and sub-base layers with different traffic loading conditions. Experimental results are validated using Multi-Linear Regression Analysis (MLRA). Results of the study show that the CS and RHA along with AA can be effectively used in the construction industry at the same time solving the problem of waste disposal and prove to be ecofriendly with low CO2 emission and lesser carbon footprint.

Journal

Innovative Infrastructure SolutionsSpringer Journals

Published: Apr 1, 2022

Keywords: Compaction; Specific gravity; UCS; Copper slag; Rice husk ash; Alkali activator

References