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Human Effects Assessment of 40-mm Nonlethal Impact Munitions

Human Effects Assessment of 40-mm Nonlethal Impact Munitions An extensive human effects study was conducted on 40-mm nonlethal impact munitions having two different projectile nose configurations: a compliant sponge nose and a frangible foam nose carrying a powder payload. The study included an initial characterization of the rounds using the blunt criterion (BC). Injury risk assessment was done using two previously validated surrogates; thoracic blunt impact assessment utilized the 3-rib ballistic impact dummy (3RBID), and penetrating trauma assessment utilized a biomechanical surrogate consisting of ordnance gelatin and a specific combination of layers to simulate skin and underlying soft tissue. Production impact munitions were manufactured to produce a range of energy levels on impact by adjusting the propellant charge in the smokeless propulsion system, resulting in different projectile muzzle velocities. Twenty-three impacts were performed on the 3RBID biomechanical surrogate at kinetic energy levels in the range of 148–257 J to generate viscous criterion (VCmax) levels for injury assessment. The production configurations of the sponge and frangible-nose munitions were compared to the acceptable values for blunt trauma (VCmax ≤ 0.8). Thirty-nine impacts were done on a skin penetration surrogate at kinetic energy levels in the range of 170–305 J and the impact energies corresponding to penetrations were identified and compared with the production configurations for these munitions and with the expected energy density values for a 50% risk of penetration for specific areas of the body. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Human Factors and Mechanical Engineering for Defense and Safety Springer Journals

Human Effects Assessment of 40-mm Nonlethal Impact Munitions

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 by Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.
Subject
Engineering; Mechanical Engineering; Structural Materials; Textile Engineering; Security Science and Technology
ISSN
2509-8004
eISSN
2367-2544
DOI
10.1007/s41314-019-0017-5
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

An extensive human effects study was conducted on 40-mm nonlethal impact munitions having two different projectile nose configurations: a compliant sponge nose and a frangible foam nose carrying a powder payload. The study included an initial characterization of the rounds using the blunt criterion (BC). Injury risk assessment was done using two previously validated surrogates; thoracic blunt impact assessment utilized the 3-rib ballistic impact dummy (3RBID), and penetrating trauma assessment utilized a biomechanical surrogate consisting of ordnance gelatin and a specific combination of layers to simulate skin and underlying soft tissue. Production impact munitions were manufactured to produce a range of energy levels on impact by adjusting the propellant charge in the smokeless propulsion system, resulting in different projectile muzzle velocities. Twenty-three impacts were performed on the 3RBID biomechanical surrogate at kinetic energy levels in the range of 148–257 J to generate viscous criterion (VCmax) levels for injury assessment. The production configurations of the sponge and frangible-nose munitions were compared to the acceptable values for blunt trauma (VCmax ≤ 0.8). Thirty-nine impacts were done on a skin penetration surrogate at kinetic energy levels in the range of 170–305 J and the impact energies corresponding to penetrations were identified and compared with the production configurations for these munitions and with the expected energy density values for a 50% risk of penetration for specific areas of the body.

Journal

Human Factors and Mechanical Engineering for Defense and SafetySpringer Journals

Published: Apr 26, 2019

References