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First experimental evidence of hop fibres in historical textiles

First experimental evidence of hop fibres in historical textiles Hop (Humulus lupulus) has been used in Scandinavia since at least the ninth century AD, as documented through archaeological findings and written, historical records. The written records are mainly focused on the use of cone-shaped flowers for beer brewing and medical purposes, but there are also records, for example, from the famous Swedish botanist Carl von Linne, who mentions the use of hop fibres for textile production. However, until now no experimental investigations have been published on the use of hop fibres in cultural heritage objects. A major reason for this has been the lack of a suitable characterization method. Hop is a bast fibre, just as flax and hemp and bast fibres cannot be distinguished from each other by simple optical inspection. Recently a new identification method for hop fibres was published by the authors of this article. Here we apply the new method in an investigation of two Swedish cultural heritage objects: (i) a woman’s garment from the nineteenth century, which was labelled as having an upper section made from coarse linen and a bottom section made of hemp and hop and (ii) a textile fragment from an eighteenth-century textile sample book, which was labelled as being made from hop. We show that the woman’s garment is made with hop and hemp fibres and the textile fragment from the textile sample book is made with hop. Our work provides the first direct proof that hop fibres were used for textiles in the past. . . . . . Keywords Fibre identification Hop Humulus lupulus Historical textiles Herzog test Cuoxam Introduction One of the oldest parts of the Frostathing law (Frostatingsloven), coming from the twelfth century, men- Hop (Humulus lupulus) is an ancient perennial crop plant, tions cultivation of hop Book XIII, no. 11 (Hagland and native to the Northern hemisphere. The oldest cultivated ar- Sandnes 1994, 93). In the Middle Ages in Norway, it was a chaeological findings from Scandinavia, where it is clear that duty for all farm owners to cultivate a certain amount of hop the findings are hop, are macrofossils from Birka, dating back plants (Høeg 1976, 385). The same was the case in Sweden, to the ninth century AD (Hansson 1996, 129). Hop is fre- where hop growing was obligatory from 1414 until 1860 quently mentioned in historical, written records. The main (Karlsson Strese et al. 2014). On the other hand, records of emphasis is on the use of hop flowers for beer brewing, but cases of restrictions, where hop production was forbidden other applications are also mentioned: hop flowers were ap- within certain areas and time periods, can also be found plied for medical purposes (i.e. sleeping draughts) and for (Lankester 1840,68). embalming and placed in burial coffins, for example, as filling It is documented through written records that hop fibres in pillow cases (Strese and Tollin 2015,263–273). extracted from the plant stem were used for textile production in Scandinavia from around 1600 up to the nineteenth century (Bromelio 1687,66–67; Schissler 1750,214–216; Hald 1980, Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article 130; Strese and Tollin 2015,255–256). Carl von Linne men- (https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-020-01171-6) contains supplementary tions in his Flora oeconomica the use of hop for textile pro- material, which is available to authorized users. duction. He writes that if the hop stalks are retted, they can be used for yarn similar to hemp (Linné and Aspelin 1749,60– * Hana Lukešová 61). In 1773, the Norwegian topographer Gerald Shoning de- Hana.Lukesova@uib.no scribes a travel to Surnadal (Norway). He mentions that in University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway 1758, hemp, hop and also linen goods were imported to Trondheim (Schøning 1778, 10). He also states that flax, Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway wool, hemp and hop were used to make fabrics (Schøning 214 Page 2 of 7 Archaeol Anthropol Sci (2020) 12:214 1778, 20). In 1781, Fischerström (1781)comments that hop in 1917. According to the museum accession record, the donor stalks are normally thrown away but that one ought to do as in stated that the upper section is made of coarse linen fabric and Jamtland and Medelpad, where they are used to make a the bottom section of hemp and hop (Redogörelse för weave, which is stronger than flax and hemp. (Fischerström Nordiska museets utveckling och förvaltning år 1919,p.11). 1781, 486). A fairly recent source mentions that hop fibre The garment was probably produced in the middle of the quality can vary a lot (Tobler 1938,84–87). Experiments with nineteenth century. It is written in accession record that it substitute materials for textiles were also referred by Freund was around 65 years old when it was donated to the Nordic (1972,7). Museum (https://digitaltmuseum.se/011023635901/ The most widely used textile plants in Scandinavia until the overdelssark, downloaded 28.4.2020). beginning of the twentieth century were flax (Linum The upper section is made of twill fabric, which is rather usitatissimum) and hemp (Cannabis sativa). Hemp was used greyish and soft in its appearance compared with the bottom for cordage and coarse textiles, but there are also examples of section which is made of coarse tabby with a yellow tinge. The the use of hemp for finer fabrics (Skoglund et al. 2013; object is described in Skoglund (2016). It is stated here that a Skoglund 2016). A few cases are documented, where stinging Herzog test fibre analysis suggests an upper section made with nettle (Urtica dioica) has been used for textile production a mixture of flax and hemp and/or hop and a bottom section (Hald 1942,29–49; Bergfjord et al. 2012). Hop fibres were made with hemp and/or hop. No further details to the analysis most likely not a very commonly used material compared with are presented (i.e. regarding thickness of the fibres other textile materials. investigated). Flax, nettle, hemp and hop are all bast fibres and it is not The second object is a textile fragment glued onto a sheet of possible to distinguish them by simple optical inspection paper in a Swedish textile sample book (NM.0405398+) from (Bergfjord and Holst 2010; Bergfjord et al. 2010; Haugan 1766 (Fig. 1, right). The book presents a sample collection of and Holst 2014). This may well have led to some textiles textiles produced in the eighteenth century. The purpose of being incorrectly labelled as made of flax in various museum assembling the collection was to inspire an increase in collections. It should also be noted that during the eighteenth Swedish textile production. century in Scandinavia, the term linne (Swedish) and lin (Norwegian) became common as a term to describe a plain weave textile irrespective of what it was made of. Earlier, a Methods, including sample preparation plain weave textile was often referred to as lærred or lärft in Swedish (Geijer 1979, 17). The terms linne and lin are how- Samples of both objects—the woman’s garment from ever also used specifically for textiles made from flax. The Jamtland and the textile fragment from the textile sample modern word for flax is lin in both Swedish and Norwegian. book—were carefully extracted and investigated by white The difficulties in terminology concerning linen also apply to light transmission and polarized light microscopy. In addition, the German Leinwand (Küster-Heise and Mitschke 2011, microchemical tests using cuoxam-tetraamminediaquacopper 159). dihydroxide [Cu(NH ) (H O) ](OH) were performed at the 3 4 2 2 2 In order to find out what plants have been used to produce end of investigation, in order to investigate the swelling be- historical textiles, systematic investigations of objects in cul- haviour (Luniak 1953, 80; Wülfert 1999,281–282, 320; tural heritage collections using the appropriate identification Stratmann 1973,58–62). The investigations were performed methods are necessary (see, e.g. Lukešová et al. 2017). Precise following the recently developed identification method for knowledge of material use in cultural heritage collections is hop fibres (Lukešová et al. 2019). See also Fig. 2. important because it will enable better understanding of re- For the Jamtland garment, four core samples were extract- source management in the past. ed since it was made of two different fabrics: two samples of In this article, we present the first investigation on cultural the weft and warp system from the upper section (samples 1 heritage objects performed with the specific aim of finding out and 2) and two samples of the weft and warp system from the if they are made of hop; we use a very recently developed bottom section (samples 3 and 4). For the textile fragment identification method (Lukešová et al. 2019). from the textile sample book, we only sampled the thread system of the shorter side (sample 5); it is so small. Both thread systems (warp and weft) show similar thread thickness, The samples investigated spin direction and colour when observed by stereomicroscope. We carefully evaluated ethical issues when sampling and con- We investigate two historical objects in this article: the first cluded we perform the tests on one thread system only. object is a woman’s garment from Jamtland County in Five sub-samples (consisting of single fibres) were made Sweden (NM.0131474, left), belonging to the Nordic fromeachcoresample. Twoofthemweremountedin Museum in Stockholm (Fig. 1). It was donated to the museum Meltmount (n = 1662) (labelled samples 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, D Archaeol Anthropol Sci (2020) 12:214 Page 3 of 7 214 Fig.1 (Left) The female upper garment from Jamtland county in Sweden (NM.0131474), 89 × 130 cm; (right) the fabric sample in a Swedish fabric sample book from 1766 (NM.0405398+), the lower sample was investigated (© The Nordic Museum in Stockholm) 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1 and 5.2). The three remaining sub- needles were used when manipulating single fibres; for a de- samples from each core sample were mounted in distilled tailed description of fibre sample handling and mounting, see water according to an established protocol (Wülfert 1999, Lukešová (2018). 325). These sub-samples (labelled sample 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 2.3, The samples were investigated using a polarized light mi- 2.4, 2.5, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 5.3, 5.4 and 5.5) were croscope Leica DM750 P. A full wave compensator (λ =530 subsequently used for microchemical tests in cuoxam. nm) was used for the modified Herzog test (Herzog 1922, Sample preparation was done using a stereomicroscope to be 1943; Haugan and Holst 2013). Photographs were taken using able to separate fibre bundles. Very fine tweezers and tungsten the camera Leica MC170 HD and software LAS V4,9. Fibres Fig. 2 Diagram for identification of hop fibres, reproduced from Lukešová et al. (2019), Herzog test, modified Herzog test; PLM, polarized light microscopy; TLM, transmission light microscopy 214 Page 4 of 7 Archaeol Anthropol Sci (2020) 12:214 were first observed in transmitted white light. Polarized light when swelled in cuoxam (Fig. 4, upper left and right) which was used for performing the modified Herzog test. Fibres together with the Herzog test result indicates hop. Samples thinner than 20 μm were not used for the Herzog test since 3.5; 4.3 and 4.4 show in addition harmonica-like folding of an experience with reference samples has shown that they may the middle lamella on some fibres, which indicates hemp (Fig. give misleading results. A demonstration video on how to 4, lower left and right). perform the Herzog test can be found on https://youtu.be/ All sub-samples except 3.5 show clearly visible remains of sC9GlUKjBDE. protoplasm in the lumen. Sub-samples 1.3; 1.5; 2.4; 3.4; 4.3 and 5.4 showed a typical rounded edge of a fibre with a plas- ma thread sticking out (Fig. 4, upper right). Results White light microscopy We followed the diagram elaborated for the identification of hop fibres shown in Fig. 2. All samples show strong, irregular thickness variations along the fibre lengths. This is one of the most characteristic features Polarization microscopy and the modified Herzog test for hop (Fig. 5, lower left). There are wide flattened regions without cross marks that are even and smooth (Fig. 5,upper All samples except sample 1.5, which had no suitable region left and right). These often alternate with regions containing for testing, show Orange I in 0° and Indigo II in 90° position frequent cross marks and dislocations. All original samples according to Michel-Levy birefringence chart when show frequent flexions (Fig. 5, lower right). Undulated fibres performing the modified Herzog test (Fig. 3). (many twist flexion after each other) that might remind one of Numerous crystals, probably calcium oxalates or other cotton fibres are also common. phytoliths, were clearly visible in all sub-samples except sam- We conclude that the upper section of the woman’sgar- ple 1.4 (this is not used as an identification criterion). ment NM.0131474 is made with hop (Humulus lupulus)and the bottom part is made with a fibre blend of hop and hemp Microchemical tests using cuoxam (Humulus lupulus and Cannabis sativa). The textile fragment from the textile sample book (NM.0405398+) is made with Cuoxam, also called Schweizer’s reagent, is an established hop (Humulus lupulus)—only one of the thread systems was tool for fibre identification since it causes swelling typical investigated, because of the limited amount of original for species. All tested sub-samples show irregular undulation material. Fig. 3 (Upper left and upper right) Sample 1.2 showing Orange I in 0° and Indigo II in 90° position; (lower left and lower right) sample 3.1 showing numerous small crystals, probably calcium oxalates or other phytoliths, which are visible as small areas with pronounced, strongly varying interference colours (the objective HI PLAN POL × 40/0,65 used for all four figures) Archaeol Anthropol Sci (2020) 12:214 Page 5 of 7 214 Fig. 4 (Upper left) Sample 4.3 in cuoxam showing ribbon-like pat- tern typical for hop fibres; (upper right) sample 1.3 showing plasma thread sticking out of rounded edge of a fibre, which is typical for hop fibres (the objective HI PLAN POL × 40/0,65 used for both figures). (Lower left) Sample 4.3 showing harmonica-like fold- ing of cell wall in cuoxam typical for hemp (the objective HI PLAN POL × 10/0,25 used); (lower right) hemp reference fibre: typi- cal harmonica-like folding in cuoxam (the objective HI PLAN POL × 20/0,40 used) Discussion Based on the behaviour of fibre samples from the two objects in polarized light, characteristic swelling in cuoxam and dis- We have conducted a fibre identification analysis of two his- tinctive fibre morphology using the identification method torical objects: a woman’s garment (NM.0131474) and a tex- (Lukešová et al. 2019), we conclude that for the garment tile fragment from a textile sample book (NM.0405398+). NM.0131474, the upper part is made with hop fibres and the Fig. 5 Sample 1.1. (Upper left) Wide, flattened regions without cross marks are typical for hop fibres; (upper right) the same micrograph in crossed polars, with full wave compensator inserted. These flattened regions often show strong interference colours (the objective HI PLAN POL × 40/0,65 used for both figures). (Lower left) Thickness variations along the fibre’slength in an irregular way; (lower right) twists typical for hop fibres (the objective HI PLAN POL × 20/ 0,40 used for both figures) 214 Page 6 of 7 Archaeol Anthropol Sci (2020) 12:214 Funding Information Open Access funding provided by University of bottom section is made with a fibre blend of hop and hemp Bergen. fibres. The quality of the upper section is rather soft and fine compared with the bottom section. This shows that the textile Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, quality is a result of fibre processing and selection and is not adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as an inherent quality of the plant fibre species used. long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the Our fibre analysis result for the upper section differs source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if from that of Skoglund (2016, p. 88), who claims that flax changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated is also present. Of course, we cannot exclude that sam- otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the pling on two different sections of the garment may con- article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not tain different fibres. Alternatively, if very thin fibres (less permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will than 20 μm diameter) were investigated, a false result is need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. possible as investigation on reference samples have shown. It is important to take into consideration that methods in microscopy, such as fibre analysis and References microchemical tests, are comparative studies that build upon each other. Note also that the identification method Bergfjord C, Holst B (2010) A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres used here (Lukešová et al. 2019) is for cultivated hop using microscopy: flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. (Humulus lupulus). Wild hop has not been investigated. Ultramicroscopy 110:1192–1197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. It is very probable that the objects investigated here are ultramic.2010.04.014 Bergfjord C et al (2010) Comment on “30.000-Year-Old Wild Flax made of cultivated hop, but we cannot exclude wild hop Fibers”. Science 328:1634 completely. Bergfjord C et al (2012) Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant. We note that the original museum accession record states Scientific Reports 2:664. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep00664 that the upper section is made of coarse linen and the bottom Bromelio O (1687) Lupulogia, eller en liten Tractat den gemene section of hemp and hop. Strictly spoken this is not wrong, Ländtmannen fast nyttyg och nödig since linen just refers to the weave, but as mentioned in the Fischerström J (1781) Nya swenska economiska dictionnairen. Eller försök til et almänt och fullständigt lexicon, i swenska introduction, linen is often taken to mean flax, and when other hushållningen och naturläran. 1-4. 1779-92. Del 3. Tredje delen. types of fibres are explicitly mentioned, flax is the natural Tryckt i Kumblinska tryckeriet. Stockholm association. Another recent report states that the upper section Frankow I (1992) Hampa eller inte? Nordiska Museet och forfattarna, is made of hemp (Frankow 1992, p.75), which is incorrect. Bohusläningens Boktryckeri AB, Uddevalla Freund H (1972) Geschichte der Mikroskopie der technisch verwendeten The fabric sample from the textile sample book natürlichen und synthetischen Faserstoffe, Handbuch der (NM.0405398+) is made with hop fibres. This agrees with Mikroskopie in der Technik, VI(1). Frankfurt the information in the textile sample book. Geijer A (1979) A history of textile art. London Hagland JR, Sandnes J (1994) Frostatingslova. Norrøne bokverk. Det norske Samlaget. Oslo Hald M (1942) The nettle as a culture plant. In: Folkliv : tidskrift för nordisk etnologi. Journal for Nordic and European ethnological Conclusion researc. Bokförlags A.-B. Thule. Copenhagen Hald M (1980) Ancient Danish textiles from bogs and burials: a compar- In this paper, we present the first experimental evidence of ative study of costume and Iron Age textiles. Olddanske tekstiler. hop fibres in historical textiles. The fibre identification is Copenhagen. Serie: Nationalmuseets skrifter. Arkæologisk- based on the behaviour of fibres in polarized light, character- historisk række. Copenhagen Hansson A-M (1996) Finds of hops, Humulus lupulus L., in the black istic swelling in cuoxam and fibre morphology following earth of Birka, Sweden, in Arkeologiske Rapporter 1,Esbjerg (Lukešová et al. 2019). Both objects are investigated: the Museum, 129–137 woman’s garment (NM.0131474) and the textile fragment Haugan E, Holst B (2013) Determining the fibrillar orientation of bast from the textile sample book (NM.0405398+) confirm the fibres with polarized light microscopy: the modified Herzog test (red use of hop fibres. Our results highlight the importance of plate test) explained. Journal of Microscopy 252(2):159–168. https://doi.org/10.1111/jmi.12079 careful material analysis of cultural objects. Precise knowl- Haugan E, Holst B (2014) Flax look-alikes: pitfalls of ancient plant fibre edge of material use in cultural heritage collections is crucial identification. Archaeometry 56(6):951. https://doi.org/10.1111/ because it is necessary for understanding resource manage- arcm.12054 ment in the past. Herzog A (1922) Zur Unterscheidung von Flachs und Hanf auf optischem Wege. Textile Forschung 4:58–61 Herzog A (1943) Polarisationsbilder der Faserstoffe in Natürlichen Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the Institute of Farben. Klepzigs Textil-Zeitschrift 13(14):171–177 Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, and the University Museum of Bergen for supporting this project. We also thank the Høeg OA (1976) Planter og tradisjon. Floraen i levende tale og tradisjon Nordic Museum in Stockholm for sampling original objects. I Norge 1925-1973. Universitetsforlaget, Oslo Archaeol Anthropol Sci (2020) 12:214 Page 7 of 7 214 Karlsson Strese EM et al (2014) Genetic diversity in remnant Swedish Redogörelse för Nordiska Museets utveckling och förvaltning år 1917. hop (Humulus lupulus L.) Yards from the 15th to 18th Century. Stockholm. Kungl. Boktryckeriet. P.A. Norstedt & Sönder. (1919) Economic Botany 68(3):231–245 http://runeberg.org/fataburen/1917r/0003.html Schissler PH (1750) Försök, huru man af Humble-tågor kan få linbast. In: Küster-Heise K, Mitschke S (2011), Textilterminologie in der Kungl. Svenska vetenskapsacademiens handlingar, Stockholm, Museumsarbeit unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der 214-216. http://hosting.devo.se/kvah/catview.html?method= Textilterminologie, Information. Wissenschaft & Praxis, 60: 159 start&bookId=714&articleId=19803&skipSearchCriteria=false. Lankester E (1840) Vegetable substances used for the food of man - Accessed 22 Jan 2020 materials of manufacture. London Schøning G (1778) Reise som giennem en deel af Norge i de aar 1773. Bd Linné C, Aspelin E (1749) Flora oeconomica, eller Hushållsnyttan af de i 1. Trondhjem. https://www.nb.no/items/URN:NBN:no-nb_ Swerige wildt wäxande örter = Flora oeconomica or Household digibok_2010031212001?page=23. Accessed 22 Jan 2020 uses of wild plants in Sweden 18, Suecica rediviva. Facsimile Skoglund G (2016) Hampa: det vita guldet - textilväxten Cannabis 1971. Stockholm Sativa, Gidlunds förlag Lukešová H (2018) Application of the Herzog test to archaeological plant Skoglund G, Nockert M, Holst B (2013) Viking and Early Middle Ages fibre textiles. The possibilities and limits of polarised light micros- northern Scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp. copy, In: Archaeological Textiles – Links Between Past and Present, Nature Scientific Reports 3:2686. https://doi.org/10.1038/ (eds. Bravermanová, M., Březinová, H. Malcolm-Davies, J.), con- srep02686 ference proceedings NESAT XIII, Liberec - Praha Stratmann M (1973) Erkennen und Identifizieren der Faserstoffe,Dr.- Lukešová H, Palau AS, Holst B (2017) Identifying plant fibre textiles Ing. Oskar Spohr-Verlag, Stuttgart from Norwegian Merovingian Period and Viking Age graves: the Strese EM, Tollin C (2015) Humle. Det gröna guldet. Nordiska Museets Late Iron Age collection of the University Museum of Bergen. Förlag Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 13:281–285. https:// Tobler F (1938) Deutsche Faserpflanzen und Pflanzenfasern. Lehmann, doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.03.051 München Lukešová H, Andersen HL, Kolínová M, Holst B (2019) Is it hop? Wülfert S (1999) Der Blick ins Bild. Lichtmikroskopische Methoden zur Identifying hop fibres in a European historical context. Untersuchung von Bildaufbau, Fasern und Pigmenten. Archaeometry 61(2):494–505. https://doi.org/10.1111/arcm.12437 Ravensburger Buchverlag, Ravensburg Luniak B (1953) The identification of textile fibres: qualitative and quan- titative analysis of fibre blends. Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, Ltd., Publisher’snote Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdic- London tional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences Springer Journals

First experimental evidence of hop fibres in historical textiles

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Abstract

Hop (Humulus lupulus) has been used in Scandinavia since at least the ninth century AD, as documented through archaeological findings and written, historical records. The written records are mainly focused on the use of cone-shaped flowers for beer brewing and medical purposes, but there are also records, for example, from the famous Swedish botanist Carl von Linne, who mentions the use of hop fibres for textile production. However, until now no experimental investigations have been published on the use of hop fibres in cultural heritage objects. A major reason for this has been the lack of a suitable characterization method. Hop is a bast fibre, just as flax and hemp and bast fibres cannot be distinguished from each other by simple optical inspection. Recently a new identification method for hop fibres was published by the authors of this article. Here we apply the new method in an investigation of two Swedish cultural heritage objects: (i) a woman’s garment from the nineteenth century, which was labelled as having an upper section made from coarse linen and a bottom section made of hemp and hop and (ii) a textile fragment from an eighteenth-century textile sample book, which was labelled as being made from hop. We show that the woman’s garment is made with hop and hemp fibres and the textile fragment from the textile sample book is made with hop. Our work provides the first direct proof that hop fibres were used for textiles in the past. . . . . . Keywords Fibre identification Hop Humulus lupulus Historical textiles Herzog test Cuoxam Introduction One of the oldest parts of the Frostathing law (Frostatingsloven), coming from the twelfth century, men- Hop (Humulus lupulus) is an ancient perennial crop plant, tions cultivation of hop Book XIII, no. 11 (Hagland and native to the Northern hemisphere. The oldest cultivated ar- Sandnes 1994, 93). In the Middle Ages in Norway, it was a chaeological findings from Scandinavia, where it is clear that duty for all farm owners to cultivate a certain amount of hop the findings are hop, are macrofossils from Birka, dating back plants (Høeg 1976, 385). The same was the case in Sweden, to the ninth century AD (Hansson 1996, 129). Hop is fre- where hop growing was obligatory from 1414 until 1860 quently mentioned in historical, written records. The main (Karlsson Strese et al. 2014). On the other hand, records of emphasis is on the use of hop flowers for beer brewing, but cases of restrictions, where hop production was forbidden other applications are also mentioned: hop flowers were ap- within certain areas and time periods, can also be found plied for medical purposes (i.e. sleeping draughts) and for (Lankester 1840,68). embalming and placed in burial coffins, for example, as filling It is documented through written records that hop fibres in pillow cases (Strese and Tollin 2015,263–273). extracted from the plant stem were used for textile production in Scandinavia from around 1600 up to the nineteenth century (Bromelio 1687,66–67; Schissler 1750,214–216; Hald 1980, Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article 130; Strese and Tollin 2015,255–256). Carl von Linne men- (https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-020-01171-6) contains supplementary tions in his Flora oeconomica the use of hop for textile pro- material, which is available to authorized users. duction. He writes that if the hop stalks are retted, they can be used for yarn similar to hemp (Linné and Aspelin 1749,60– * Hana Lukešová 61). In 1773, the Norwegian topographer Gerald Shoning de- Hana.Lukesova@uib.no scribes a travel to Surnadal (Norway). He mentions that in University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway 1758, hemp, hop and also linen goods were imported to Trondheim (Schøning 1778, 10). He also states that flax, Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway wool, hemp and hop were used to make fabrics (Schøning 214 Page 2 of 7 Archaeol Anthropol Sci (2020) 12:214 1778, 20). In 1781, Fischerström (1781)comments that hop in 1917. According to the museum accession record, the donor stalks are normally thrown away but that one ought to do as in stated that the upper section is made of coarse linen fabric and Jamtland and Medelpad, where they are used to make a the bottom section of hemp and hop (Redogörelse för weave, which is stronger than flax and hemp. (Fischerström Nordiska museets utveckling och förvaltning år 1919,p.11). 1781, 486). A fairly recent source mentions that hop fibre The garment was probably produced in the middle of the quality can vary a lot (Tobler 1938,84–87). Experiments with nineteenth century. It is written in accession record that it substitute materials for textiles were also referred by Freund was around 65 years old when it was donated to the Nordic (1972,7). Museum (https://digitaltmuseum.se/011023635901/ The most widely used textile plants in Scandinavia until the overdelssark, downloaded 28.4.2020). beginning of the twentieth century were flax (Linum The upper section is made of twill fabric, which is rather usitatissimum) and hemp (Cannabis sativa). Hemp was used greyish and soft in its appearance compared with the bottom for cordage and coarse textiles, but there are also examples of section which is made of coarse tabby with a yellow tinge. The the use of hemp for finer fabrics (Skoglund et al. 2013; object is described in Skoglund (2016). It is stated here that a Skoglund 2016). A few cases are documented, where stinging Herzog test fibre analysis suggests an upper section made with nettle (Urtica dioica) has been used for textile production a mixture of flax and hemp and/or hop and a bottom section (Hald 1942,29–49; Bergfjord et al. 2012). Hop fibres were made with hemp and/or hop. No further details to the analysis most likely not a very commonly used material compared with are presented (i.e. regarding thickness of the fibres other textile materials. investigated). Flax, nettle, hemp and hop are all bast fibres and it is not The second object is a textile fragment glued onto a sheet of possible to distinguish them by simple optical inspection paper in a Swedish textile sample book (NM.0405398+) from (Bergfjord and Holst 2010; Bergfjord et al. 2010; Haugan 1766 (Fig. 1, right). The book presents a sample collection of and Holst 2014). This may well have led to some textiles textiles produced in the eighteenth century. The purpose of being incorrectly labelled as made of flax in various museum assembling the collection was to inspire an increase in collections. It should also be noted that during the eighteenth Swedish textile production. century in Scandinavia, the term linne (Swedish) and lin (Norwegian) became common as a term to describe a plain weave textile irrespective of what it was made of. Earlier, a Methods, including sample preparation plain weave textile was often referred to as lærred or lärft in Swedish (Geijer 1979, 17). The terms linne and lin are how- Samples of both objects—the woman’s garment from ever also used specifically for textiles made from flax. The Jamtland and the textile fragment from the textile sample modern word for flax is lin in both Swedish and Norwegian. book—were carefully extracted and investigated by white The difficulties in terminology concerning linen also apply to light transmission and polarized light microscopy. In addition, the German Leinwand (Küster-Heise and Mitschke 2011, microchemical tests using cuoxam-tetraamminediaquacopper 159). dihydroxide [Cu(NH ) (H O) ](OH) were performed at the 3 4 2 2 2 In order to find out what plants have been used to produce end of investigation, in order to investigate the swelling be- historical textiles, systematic investigations of objects in cul- haviour (Luniak 1953, 80; Wülfert 1999,281–282, 320; tural heritage collections using the appropriate identification Stratmann 1973,58–62). The investigations were performed methods are necessary (see, e.g. Lukešová et al. 2017). Precise following the recently developed identification method for knowledge of material use in cultural heritage collections is hop fibres (Lukešová et al. 2019). See also Fig. 2. important because it will enable better understanding of re- For the Jamtland garment, four core samples were extract- source management in the past. ed since it was made of two different fabrics: two samples of In this article, we present the first investigation on cultural the weft and warp system from the upper section (samples 1 heritage objects performed with the specific aim of finding out and 2) and two samples of the weft and warp system from the if they are made of hop; we use a very recently developed bottom section (samples 3 and 4). For the textile fragment identification method (Lukešová et al. 2019). from the textile sample book, we only sampled the thread system of the shorter side (sample 5); it is so small. Both thread systems (warp and weft) show similar thread thickness, The samples investigated spin direction and colour when observed by stereomicroscope. We carefully evaluated ethical issues when sampling and con- We investigate two historical objects in this article: the first cluded we perform the tests on one thread system only. object is a woman’s garment from Jamtland County in Five sub-samples (consisting of single fibres) were made Sweden (NM.0131474, left), belonging to the Nordic fromeachcoresample. Twoofthemweremountedin Museum in Stockholm (Fig. 1). It was donated to the museum Meltmount (n = 1662) (labelled samples 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, D Archaeol Anthropol Sci (2020) 12:214 Page 3 of 7 214 Fig.1 (Left) The female upper garment from Jamtland county in Sweden (NM.0131474), 89 × 130 cm; (right) the fabric sample in a Swedish fabric sample book from 1766 (NM.0405398+), the lower sample was investigated (© The Nordic Museum in Stockholm) 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1 and 5.2). The three remaining sub- needles were used when manipulating single fibres; for a de- samples from each core sample were mounted in distilled tailed description of fibre sample handling and mounting, see water according to an established protocol (Wülfert 1999, Lukešová (2018). 325). These sub-samples (labelled sample 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 2.3, The samples were investigated using a polarized light mi- 2.4, 2.5, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 5.3, 5.4 and 5.5) were croscope Leica DM750 P. A full wave compensator (λ =530 subsequently used for microchemical tests in cuoxam. nm) was used for the modified Herzog test (Herzog 1922, Sample preparation was done using a stereomicroscope to be 1943; Haugan and Holst 2013). Photographs were taken using able to separate fibre bundles. Very fine tweezers and tungsten the camera Leica MC170 HD and software LAS V4,9. Fibres Fig. 2 Diagram for identification of hop fibres, reproduced from Lukešová et al. (2019), Herzog test, modified Herzog test; PLM, polarized light microscopy; TLM, transmission light microscopy 214 Page 4 of 7 Archaeol Anthropol Sci (2020) 12:214 were first observed in transmitted white light. Polarized light when swelled in cuoxam (Fig. 4, upper left and right) which was used for performing the modified Herzog test. Fibres together with the Herzog test result indicates hop. Samples thinner than 20 μm were not used for the Herzog test since 3.5; 4.3 and 4.4 show in addition harmonica-like folding of an experience with reference samples has shown that they may the middle lamella on some fibres, which indicates hemp (Fig. give misleading results. A demonstration video on how to 4, lower left and right). perform the Herzog test can be found on https://youtu.be/ All sub-samples except 3.5 show clearly visible remains of sC9GlUKjBDE. protoplasm in the lumen. Sub-samples 1.3; 1.5; 2.4; 3.4; 4.3 and 5.4 showed a typical rounded edge of a fibre with a plas- ma thread sticking out (Fig. 4, upper right). Results White light microscopy We followed the diagram elaborated for the identification of hop fibres shown in Fig. 2. All samples show strong, irregular thickness variations along the fibre lengths. This is one of the most characteristic features Polarization microscopy and the modified Herzog test for hop (Fig. 5, lower left). There are wide flattened regions without cross marks that are even and smooth (Fig. 5,upper All samples except sample 1.5, which had no suitable region left and right). These often alternate with regions containing for testing, show Orange I in 0° and Indigo II in 90° position frequent cross marks and dislocations. All original samples according to Michel-Levy birefringence chart when show frequent flexions (Fig. 5, lower right). Undulated fibres performing the modified Herzog test (Fig. 3). (many twist flexion after each other) that might remind one of Numerous crystals, probably calcium oxalates or other cotton fibres are also common. phytoliths, were clearly visible in all sub-samples except sam- We conclude that the upper section of the woman’sgar- ple 1.4 (this is not used as an identification criterion). ment NM.0131474 is made with hop (Humulus lupulus)and the bottom part is made with a fibre blend of hop and hemp Microchemical tests using cuoxam (Humulus lupulus and Cannabis sativa). The textile fragment from the textile sample book (NM.0405398+) is made with Cuoxam, also called Schweizer’s reagent, is an established hop (Humulus lupulus)—only one of the thread systems was tool for fibre identification since it causes swelling typical investigated, because of the limited amount of original for species. All tested sub-samples show irregular undulation material. Fig. 3 (Upper left and upper right) Sample 1.2 showing Orange I in 0° and Indigo II in 90° position; (lower left and lower right) sample 3.1 showing numerous small crystals, probably calcium oxalates or other phytoliths, which are visible as small areas with pronounced, strongly varying interference colours (the objective HI PLAN POL × 40/0,65 used for all four figures) Archaeol Anthropol Sci (2020) 12:214 Page 5 of 7 214 Fig. 4 (Upper left) Sample 4.3 in cuoxam showing ribbon-like pat- tern typical for hop fibres; (upper right) sample 1.3 showing plasma thread sticking out of rounded edge of a fibre, which is typical for hop fibres (the objective HI PLAN POL × 40/0,65 used for both figures). (Lower left) Sample 4.3 showing harmonica-like fold- ing of cell wall in cuoxam typical for hemp (the objective HI PLAN POL × 10/0,25 used); (lower right) hemp reference fibre: typi- cal harmonica-like folding in cuoxam (the objective HI PLAN POL × 20/0,40 used) Discussion Based on the behaviour of fibre samples from the two objects in polarized light, characteristic swelling in cuoxam and dis- We have conducted a fibre identification analysis of two his- tinctive fibre morphology using the identification method torical objects: a woman’s garment (NM.0131474) and a tex- (Lukešová et al. 2019), we conclude that for the garment tile fragment from a textile sample book (NM.0405398+). NM.0131474, the upper part is made with hop fibres and the Fig. 5 Sample 1.1. (Upper left) Wide, flattened regions without cross marks are typical for hop fibres; (upper right) the same micrograph in crossed polars, with full wave compensator inserted. These flattened regions often show strong interference colours (the objective HI PLAN POL × 40/0,65 used for both figures). (Lower left) Thickness variations along the fibre’slength in an irregular way; (lower right) twists typical for hop fibres (the objective HI PLAN POL × 20/ 0,40 used for both figures) 214 Page 6 of 7 Archaeol Anthropol Sci (2020) 12:214 Funding Information Open Access funding provided by University of bottom section is made with a fibre blend of hop and hemp Bergen. fibres. The quality of the upper section is rather soft and fine compared with the bottom section. This shows that the textile Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, quality is a result of fibre processing and selection and is not adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as an inherent quality of the plant fibre species used. long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the Our fibre analysis result for the upper section differs source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if from that of Skoglund (2016, p. 88), who claims that flax changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated is also present. Of course, we cannot exclude that sam- otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the pling on two different sections of the garment may con- article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not tain different fibres. Alternatively, if very thin fibres (less permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will than 20 μm diameter) were investigated, a false result is need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. possible as investigation on reference samples have shown. It is important to take into consideration that methods in microscopy, such as fibre analysis and References microchemical tests, are comparative studies that build upon each other. Note also that the identification method Bergfjord C, Holst B (2010) A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres used here (Lukešová et al. 2019) is for cultivated hop using microscopy: flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. (Humulus lupulus). Wild hop has not been investigated. Ultramicroscopy 110:1192–1197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. It is very probable that the objects investigated here are ultramic.2010.04.014 Bergfjord C et al (2010) Comment on “30.000-Year-Old Wild Flax made of cultivated hop, but we cannot exclude wild hop Fibers”. Science 328:1634 completely. Bergfjord C et al (2012) Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant. We note that the original museum accession record states Scientific Reports 2:664. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep00664 that the upper section is made of coarse linen and the bottom Bromelio O (1687) Lupulogia, eller en liten Tractat den gemene section of hemp and hop. Strictly spoken this is not wrong, Ländtmannen fast nyttyg och nödig since linen just refers to the weave, but as mentioned in the Fischerström J (1781) Nya swenska economiska dictionnairen. Eller försök til et almänt och fullständigt lexicon, i swenska introduction, linen is often taken to mean flax, and when other hushållningen och naturläran. 1-4. 1779-92. Del 3. Tredje delen. types of fibres are explicitly mentioned, flax is the natural Tryckt i Kumblinska tryckeriet. Stockholm association. Another recent report states that the upper section Frankow I (1992) Hampa eller inte? Nordiska Museet och forfattarna, is made of hemp (Frankow 1992, p.75), which is incorrect. Bohusläningens Boktryckeri AB, Uddevalla Freund H (1972) Geschichte der Mikroskopie der technisch verwendeten The fabric sample from the textile sample book natürlichen und synthetischen Faserstoffe, Handbuch der (NM.0405398+) is made with hop fibres. This agrees with Mikroskopie in der Technik, VI(1). Frankfurt the information in the textile sample book. Geijer A (1979) A history of textile art. London Hagland JR, Sandnes J (1994) Frostatingslova. Norrøne bokverk. Det norske Samlaget. 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Both objects are investigated: the Museum, 129–137 woman’s garment (NM.0131474) and the textile fragment Haugan E, Holst B (2013) Determining the fibrillar orientation of bast from the textile sample book (NM.0405398+) confirm the fibres with polarized light microscopy: the modified Herzog test (red use of hop fibres. Our results highlight the importance of plate test) explained. Journal of Microscopy 252(2):159–168. https://doi.org/10.1111/jmi.12079 careful material analysis of cultural objects. Precise knowl- Haugan E, Holst B (2014) Flax look-alikes: pitfalls of ancient plant fibre edge of material use in cultural heritage collections is crucial identification. Archaeometry 56(6):951. https://doi.org/10.1111/ because it is necessary for understanding resource manage- arcm.12054 ment in the past. Herzog A (1922) Zur Unterscheidung von Flachs und Hanf auf optischem Wege. Textile Forschung 4:58–61 Herzog A (1943) Polarisationsbilder der Faserstoffe in Natürlichen Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the Institute of Farben. Klepzigs Textil-Zeitschrift 13(14):171–177 Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, and the University Museum of Bergen for supporting this project. We also thank the Høeg OA (1976) Planter og tradisjon. Floraen i levende tale og tradisjon Nordic Museum in Stockholm for sampling original objects. I Norge 1925-1973. Universitetsforlaget, Oslo Archaeol Anthropol Sci (2020) 12:214 Page 7 of 7 214 Karlsson Strese EM et al (2014) Genetic diversity in remnant Swedish Redogörelse för Nordiska Museets utveckling och förvaltning år 1917. hop (Humulus lupulus L.) Yards from the 15th to 18th Century. Stockholm. Kungl. Boktryckeriet. P.A. Norstedt & Sönder. (1919) Economic Botany 68(3):231–245 http://runeberg.org/fataburen/1917r/0003.html Schissler PH (1750) Försök, huru man af Humble-tågor kan få linbast. In: Küster-Heise K, Mitschke S (2011), Textilterminologie in der Kungl. Svenska vetenskapsacademiens handlingar, Stockholm, Museumsarbeit unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der 214-216. http://hosting.devo.se/kvah/catview.html?method= Textilterminologie, Information. Wissenschaft & Praxis, 60: 159 start&bookId=714&articleId=19803&skipSearchCriteria=false. Lankester E (1840) Vegetable substances used for the food of man - Accessed 22 Jan 2020 materials of manufacture. London Schøning G (1778) Reise som giennem en deel af Norge i de aar 1773. Bd Linné C, Aspelin E (1749) Flora oeconomica, eller Hushållsnyttan af de i 1. Trondhjem. https://www.nb.no/items/URN:NBN:no-nb_ Swerige wildt wäxande örter = Flora oeconomica or Household digibok_2010031212001?page=23. Accessed 22 Jan 2020 uses of wild plants in Sweden 18, Suecica rediviva. Facsimile Skoglund G (2016) Hampa: det vita guldet - textilväxten Cannabis 1971. Stockholm Sativa, Gidlunds förlag Lukešová H (2018) Application of the Herzog test to archaeological plant Skoglund G, Nockert M, Holst B (2013) Viking and Early Middle Ages fibre textiles. The possibilities and limits of polarised light micros- northern Scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp. copy, In: Archaeological Textiles – Links Between Past and Present, Nature Scientific Reports 3:2686. https://doi.org/10.1038/ (eds. Bravermanová, M., Březinová, H. Malcolm-Davies, J.), con- srep02686 ference proceedings NESAT XIII, Liberec - Praha Stratmann M (1973) Erkennen und Identifizieren der Faserstoffe,Dr.- Lukešová H, Palau AS, Holst B (2017) Identifying plant fibre textiles Ing. Oskar Spohr-Verlag, Stuttgart from Norwegian Merovingian Period and Viking Age graves: the Strese EM, Tollin C (2015) Humle. Det gröna guldet. Nordiska Museets Late Iron Age collection of the University Museum of Bergen. Förlag Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 13:281–285. https:// Tobler F (1938) Deutsche Faserpflanzen und Pflanzenfasern. Lehmann, doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.03.051 München Lukešová H, Andersen HL, Kolínová M, Holst B (2019) Is it hop? Wülfert S (1999) Der Blick ins Bild. Lichtmikroskopische Methoden zur Identifying hop fibres in a European historical context. Untersuchung von Bildaufbau, Fasern und Pigmenten. Archaeometry 61(2):494–505. https://doi.org/10.1111/arcm.12437 Ravensburger Buchverlag, Ravensburg Luniak B (1953) The identification of textile fibres: qualitative and quan- titative analysis of fibre blends. Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, Ltd., Publisher’snote Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdic- London tional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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Archaeological and Anthropological SciencesSpringer Journals

Published: Aug 17, 2020

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