Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.
G. Rosenberg (2010)Field Guide to the Songbirds of South America
W. Lanyon (1988)A phylogeny of the thirty-two genera in the Elaenia assemblage of tyrant flycatchers. American Museum novitates ; ; no. 2914.
(2004)Genus Phylloscartes , p . 299 – 303
(1900)Descripção de ninhos e ovos das aves do Brazil
W E Lanyon (1988)A phylogeny of thirty-two genera in the Elaenia assemblage of tyrant flycatchers
American Museum Novitates, 2914
(2016)Espécies de aves com ninhos não descritos ou pouco conhecidos das famílias Tityridae , Platyrinchidae , Pipritidae , Pipromorphidae e Tyrannidae : um pedido de auxílio aos observadores de aves !
'. WESLEYE.LANYONA Phylogeny of the Kingbirds and Their Allies
D. Davis (1945)The Annual Cycle of Plants, Mosquitoes, Birds, and Mammals in Two Brazilian Forests
Ecological Monographs, 15
(2014)Parque Nacional del Manu, Cusco, Perú: anidación de aves en un gradiente altitudinal
(2015)The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2015
D. Russell, M. Hansell, Maggie Reilly (2013)Bird Nests in Museum Collections: A Rich Resource for Research
Avian Biology Research, 6
José Tello, R. Moyle, D. Marchese, J. Cracraft (2009)Phylogeny and phylogenetic classification of the tyrant flycatchers, cotingas, manakins, and their allies (Aves: Tyrannides)
J W Fitzpatrick, J del Hoyo, A Elliott, D A Christie (2004)Genus Phylloscartes
Handbook of the birds of the world, v. 1. Cotingas to pipits and wagtails
M Â Marini, R Durães (2001)Annual patterns of molt and reproductive activity of passerines in south-central Brazil
M. Marini, R. Durães (2001)Annual Patterns of Molt and Reproductive Activity of Passerines in South-Central Brazil
Vitor Lombardi, Raisa Faetti, Santos Neto, M. Vasconcelos, C. Gussoni (2010)Notas sobre a nidificação de aves brasileiras raras e/ou pouco conhecidas
F. Friedrich, Brian Farrell, R. Beutel (2009)The thoracic morphology of Archostemata and the relationships of the extant suborders of Coleoptera (Hexapoda)
J. Simon, S. Pacheco (2013)On the standardization of nest descriptions of neotropical birds
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia - Brazilian Journal of Ornithology, 13
G. Kirwan, A. Bodrati, Kristina Cockle (2010)THE NEST OF THE BAY-RINGED TYRANNULET ( PHYLLOSCARTES SYLVIOLUS ) , A LITTLE-KNOWN ATLANTIC FOREST ENDEMIC , SUPPORTS A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYLLOSCARTES AND POGONOTRICCUS
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 24(4), 349–353 SHORT-COMMUNICA ARTICLE TION December 2016 First description of the nest and notes on parental care of Oustalet's Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes oustaleti (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae) 1,4 1 2 3 Luiz Pedreira Gonzaga , Charles Ozanick , Vítor de Q. Piacentini and Carlos Eduardo Carvalho Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, Cidade Universitária, CEP 21941-902, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Ornithology Department, Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Avenida Meriti, 424, CEP 21220-203, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org Received on 01 September 2016. Accepted on 25 January 2017. ABSTRACT: A nest of Phylloscartes oustaleti (Sclater, 1887), collected in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, is described as an ovoid structure with a dome-shaped lateral entrance supported laterally by thin twigs of a shrub. Building material was slender plant fiber interwoven with strands of live moss, which was growing also on twigs around the nest, thus serving to camouflage it. E gg cup was lined by silky material, probably seed down. This nest was found on 13 December 2007 when an adult was spotted carrying food to the nest, located 2.3 m above ground on the edge of secondary forest. Only arthropods were identified in the provisioned food, including mainly insects, but also spiders. General features of this nest conform to those of the few other species of the genus whose nests are known. Available records of Oustalet's Tyrannulet nests are consistent with the previously postulated September to December breeding season for the species, although one record of a bird carrying nest material in early August suggests the breeding season may extend earlier. Detailed nest descriptions are needed from a larger number of species before intra- and interspecific variation in nesting can be adequately appreciated in evolutionary or purely taxonomic contexts in this genus. KEY-WORDS: Atlantic Forest, breeding, Pogonotriccus, systematics, taxonomy. Phylloscartes oustaleti (Sclater, 1887) is a small bird (12 virescens Todd, 1925, Alagoas (Long-tailed) Tyrannulet cm, 8 g) endemic to the Atlantic Forest in eastern Brazil, P. ceciliae Teixeira, 1987, Cinnamon-faced Tyrannulet ranging from southern Bahia to eastern Santa Catarina, P. parkeri Fitzpatrick & Stotz, 1997, Minas Gerais where it occurs in humid tropical and upper tropical Tyrannulet P. roquettei Snethlage, 1928, Oustalet's forests, usually foraging with mixed-species flocks in Tyrannulet P. oustaleti, and Serra do Mar Tyrannulet canopy and subcanopy (Fitzpatrick 2004). In the absence P. difficilis (I hering & Ihering, 1907), and Bay-ringed of a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis to allow a Tyrannulet P. sylviolus (Cabanis & Heine, 1859) (see proper delimitation of the genus Phylloscartes, it has been Kirwan et al. 2010, Lombardi et al. 2010, Londoño treated as consisting of 15–23 species, with different 2014, Crozariol 2016). authors including or not species of other related genera Here we provide the description and report (Fitzpatrick 2004, Ridgely & Tudor 2009, Clements observations of an Oustalet's Tyrannulet nest discovered et al. 2015). The nests of thirteen of these species are in a privately owned resort near Salto do Piraí, 18 km known, but only some of them have been described, in from Joinville, in the state of Santa Catarina, southern varying levels of detail (taxonomy following Clements Brazil. Geographic coordinates taken at nest location, et al. 2015): Marble-faced Bristle-tyrant P. ophthalmicus with a GPS receiver, were 26°17'20.8''S; 49°00'37.6''W (Taczanowski, 1874), Spectacled Bristle-tyrant P. (Datum WGS 84); elevation was 200 m a.s.l. orbitalis (Cabanis, 1873), Southern Bristle-tyrant P. Nest location and dates: The nest was discovered at eximius (Temminck, 1822), Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet 16:10 h (BRST) on 13 December 2007, when L.P.G. P. ventralis (Temminck, 1824), Restinga Tyrannulet P. spotted an adult carrying food to the nest. It was situated kronei Willis & Oniki, 1992, Bahia Tyrannulet P. beckeri at the edge of tall secondary forest, about 2.5 m from a Gonzaga & Pacheco, 1995, Olive-green Tyrannulet P. trail that is intensively used during sunny weekends by First description of the nest and notes on parental care of Oustalet's Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes oustaleti (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae) Luiz Pedreira Gonzaga, Charles Ozanick, Vítor de Q. Piacentini and Carlos Eduardo Carvalho people heading to waterfalls nearby (Figure 1A). At the bank) were 1.1 m and 0.5 m, respectively. The nest was nest location, this hiking path was cut into the ravine collected by V.Q.P. two weeks later, when it was empty, slope c. 50 m above the river. The nest was supported by and deposited at the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade thin twigs of a shrub growing on the bank by the trail de São Paulo (MZUSP 2282). Measurements were taken side. The nest was 2.3 m a bove ground (at the trail level), (with calipers) by L.P.G. on 12 February 2008, when and the vertical and horizontal distances from the bottom he noticed the nest was “slightly compressed antero- and left side of nest to the sloped ground (at the adjacent posteriorly, possibly due to storage position”. FIGURE 1. (A) Location (white circle) of the nest of Oustalet's Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes oustaleti) in the shade of Atlantic Forest trailside understory near Salto do Piraí, Joinville, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. (B) Entrance view of the enclosed nest camouflaged by green moss and dry leaves. (C) Adult Oustalet's Tyrannulet sitting on a favored perch (a dry leaf petiole of a tree fern) before delivering a male katydid to nestlings. Photo: C. Ozanick. Nest description: the nest was a closed structure, with like material, probably seed down. When the nest was a dome-shaped lateral entrance situated slightly above collected, this lining was swollen and fi lled the entire nest the vertical midpoint of the nest opening directly into cavity below its entrance, perhaps due to expansion after the nest chamber (Figure 2). The nest wall was thin, being soaked by recent rainfall. constructed mainly of very slender (c. 0.1 mm thick) The nest was supported laterally by three twigs light straw-colored plant fibers interwoven with strands stemming from two branches (Figure 2). Two of these of live moss. These moss strands were spread loosely twigs, forming a fork, were attached to the nest entrance. around the nest between supporting twigs and also hung The slenderer one (2 mm t hick; Figure 2 t3) was parallel below the nest together with some dry leaves, forming to ground and firmly tied with many fibers to the bottom an appendage-like structure c. 30 cm long and giving the edge of the entrance, forming its doorsill; the other (5 whole a general appearance of a natural, unkempt mass mm thick; Figure 2 t1) was attached to the left and upper of epiphytes (Figure 1B). Some light straw-colored dry margins of the entrance with only a few fibers, thus being plant material stands below the entrance and is the most almost entirely exposed. Another twig (2 mm thick; Figure exposed part of the nest. The incubatory chamber (below 2 t4), stemming from the same branch, was situated entrance level) was lined with soft, beige, silky cotton- several cm below the nest without touching it. The thir d Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 24(4), 2016 First description of the nest and notes on parental care of Oustalet's Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes oustaleti (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae) Luiz Pedreira Gonzaga, Charles Ozanick, Vítor de Q. Piacentini and Carlos Eduardo Carvalho supporting twig (2 mm thick; Figure 2 t2) originated was evident during our observations. The adult usually from an independent branch and intersected the nest wall vocalized only after leaving the nest (17 times, vs. 5 times at two points 5 cm apart, passing horizontally through upon arrival), while flying away across or along the trail the nest near the top of the chamber. toward the stream valley, but sometimes it stayed foraging Parental behavior: we observed the nest with and eventually vocalized on the canopy of treelets situated binoculars and a spotting scope for about 6 h from 16:35 on the nest vicinity. The only occasion when the adult h to 19:10 h on the day of discovery and from 05:30 vocalized more continuously, for c. 2 min., was during h to 08:43 h on the following day. During this period, the early morning of the second day after mobbing a we recorded (1) the frequency of adult visits to the nest, female White-shouldered Fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera (2) the types and relative size of food items delivered to (Vieillot, 1818; Thamnophilidae) c. 1 m from the nest, nestlings, and (3) adult behavior. We did not use a blind having apparently remained alarmed with the continued to observe activity at the nest, and despite our presence presence of this antbird nearby. only c. 6 m (occasionally less) from the nest, the adult Feeding visits to the nest occurred at an average continued to regularly attend it. To avoid disturbing the rate of 9.3/h, and were about 2.3 times more frequent nestlings or damaging the nest, we did not attempt to see during the morning (12.4/h) than during the previous or count nestlings or inspect the nest more closely. afternoon (5.4/h; n = 54). At no time did we hear Only one adult at a time was ever observed at the begging calls. All of the large and conspicuous prey nest. Because sexes are alike in this species, we were items we were able to identify in the provisioned food unable to know the sex of the bird attending the nest or (n = 18) were arthropods (Figure 1C). These included to verify the presence of a second adult. An adult usually three adult lepidopterans, two lepidopteran larvae arrived silently with a food item and spent some time at (caterpillars) (Lepidoptera), three adult flies (Diptera) one of a few favored perches within c. 2 m of the nest (including one horsefly: Tabanidae), two cockroaches (always facing its entrance side) before flying straight into (Blattaria), two katydids (Ensifera: Tettigoniidae), one the nest. Most often (69%), time spent waiting at the praying mantis (Mantodea), one cicada (Hemiptera: perch was < 30 s (range 5–270, mean = 37.4, n = 29), Cicadidae), one stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), and only on four occasions 60 s or more. Adult remained one longhorn beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and inside the nest very briefly, apparently only long enough two spiders (Araneae). Fecal sacs were removed at an to feed young and collect fecal sacs. We never observed average rate of 2.1/h, almost four times more often in the adult perching on the outside of the nest, either for the morning (3.1/h) than in the previous afternoon delivering food or to collect fecal sacs. No brooding (0.8/h; n = 12). FIGURE 2. (A) Attachment to substrate and (B–C) External measurements (cm) of the nest of Oustalet's Tyrannulet. A, B – entrance view; C – top view; t1–t4 – twigs. Drawing: Juliana Machado. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 24(4), 2016 First description of the nest and notes on parental care of Oustalet's Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes oustaleti (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae) Luiz Pedreira Gonzaga, Charles Ozanick, Vítor de Q. Piacentini and Carlos Eduardo Carvalho In addition to the detailed nest description and adherence to the classification scheme proposed by Simon associated observations presented above (among them & Pacheco (2005) in this case leaves no doubt that it is what seem to be the first specific data on the diet of this better to include the nest described here in their variant species, which has been recorded only as “arthropods”: “ovoid”, in which “the length is up to twice the width”, Fitzpatrick 2004), a limited amount of information on and not with external diameters approximately identical the nesting of Oustalet's Tyrannulet is available from as in their “globular” type. Since the vast majority of other sources. Another nest of Oustalet's Tyrannulet available descriptions lack any measurements, we predict was discovered by C.E.C. on 7 December 1986 in forest that other species in this genus may also be found to edge habitat at Augusto Ruschi (then Nova Lombardia) build ovoid nests as more information becomes available Biological Reserve (c. 19°50'S; 40°33'W; 900 m a.s.l.) or when existing information is reviewed. We concur in Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. It was also with Kirwan et al. (2010) in their encouragement of a closed structure, placed c. 4 m above ground amidst a nest finders and describers to use the system proposed by clump of dead leaves wrapped around twigs of a small Simon & Pacheco (2005), as a way to render comparisons tree. The nest appeared to be made mostly of green more objective across taxonomic levels. However, some material (possibly live moss), which contrasted with the features of nests that are required for such standardized surrounding brown dry leaves. Two adults were foraging descriptions cannot be assessed by photographs only, so in the foliage around nest site when one of them, without we recommend that in addition to clear photographs and carrying any food or building material, entered the nest, detailed field notes, nests be collected and deposited into thus leading to its discovery. The nest location precluded a museum collections whenever possible, in which we also closer inspection at the occasion, and a big treefall at nest concur with Russel et al. (2013). site precluded its collection when C.E.C. returned one The potential i mportance of nest architecture month later, so that no further details on its shape and and other features related to breeding behavior in the attachment became available. A third nest of the species, understanding of phylogenetic relations among tyrant discovered in Espírito Santo by F. Costa in October 2010 flycatchers (and other bird families) has been claimed (image available at http://www.wikiaves.com/223181), by many authors along time (e.g., Lanyon 1984, 1988, was also a closed structure with a lateral entrance, made Kirwan et al. 2010, Crozariol 2016). Unfortunately, of straw-colored fibers interwoven with live moss. current knowledge is still unsatisfactory to be of any All these three nest records of Oustalet's Tyrannulet help in solving the puzzle of relationships among the are consistent with the previously postulated September members of Phylloscartes and related genera. Clearly, to December breeding season for the species (Fitzpatrick nest descriptions are needed in greater detail from a 2004). However, a bird photographed by F. Costa (image larger number of species before any intra- or interspecific available at http://www.wikiaves.com/178584) carrying variation can be adequately appreciated in evolutionary nest material in early August in Espírito Santo state or even purely taxonomic contexts, because homoplastic suggests the breeding season may extend earlier. Two and symplesiomorphic features may be a considerable additional records of birds of this species carrying nest source of noise. But not only data on nesting are scarce: material are from November, in Espírito Santo and Paraná existing DNA-based phylogenies of tyrant flycatchers states (images available at http://www.wikiaves.com. have included barely a few species of this group (e.g., br/1519229 and http://www.wikiaves.com.br/1154692). Tello et al. 2009). Consequently, not even a preliminary This timing follows the general pattern of bree ding bird understanding of the possible phylogenetic signal in the activity occurring mostly during spring and early summer few known nesting features is possible at this systematic in southeastern Brazil (Euler 1900, Davis 1945, Marini level. However, as molecular techniques have recently & Durães 2001). advanced many times faster than even the rapidly The general form and attachment of the nest of P. growing number of field ornithologists in the Neotropics, oustaleti agree with those found in the few other species we expect this gap can be filled as soon as the attention of Phylloscartes whose nests are known. All these species of molecular phylogeneticists is focused on this particular construct closed structures with lateral entrances, and group of birds, so that we can speed up learning on the most of them include live moss as building material and evolution of their nesting habits. have nests firmly attached to substrate instead of pensile (see Kirwan et al. 2010, Londoño 2014). Given its ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS architecture, measurements and way of attachment, the Oustalet's Tyrannulet nest described here conforms to the closed/ovoid/lateral type of Simon & Pacheco (2005). We thank two anonymous referees for their useful Although the form of nests in this genus has usually been comments on a previous version of the manuscript. Nelson Ferreira Junior assisted with arthropod identification. identified as “globular” (e.g., Kirwan et al. 2010), strict Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 24(4), 2016 First description of the nest and notes on parental care of Oustalet's Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes oustaleti (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae) Luiz Pedreira Gonzaga, Charles Ozanick, Vítor de Q. Piacentini and Carlos Eduardo Carvalho Lanyon, W. E. 1988. A phylogeny of thirty-two genera in the Elaenia REFERENCES assemblage of tyrant flycatchers. American Museum Novitates, 2914: 1–57. Clements, J. F.; Schulenberg, T. S.; Iliff, M. J.; Roberson, D.; Lombardi, V. T.; Faetti, R. G.; D'Angelo-Neto, S.; Vasconcelos, M. Fredericks, T. A.; Sullivan, B. L. & Wood, C. L. 2015. The F. & Gussoni, C. O. A. 2010. Notas sobre a nidificação de aves eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2015. http:// brasileiras raras e/ou pouco conhecidas. Cotinga, 32: 131–136. www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/ (access on Londoño, G. A. 2014. Parque Nacional del Manu, Cusco, Perú: 10 June 2016). anidación de aves en un gradiente altitudinal. Field Museum Crozariol, M. A. 2016. Espécies de aves com ninhos não descritos Rapid Color Guide 514. http://fieldguides.fieldmuseum.org/ ou pouco conhecidos das famílias Tityridae, Platyrinchidae, guides/guide/514 (access on 10 June 2016). Pipritidae, Pipromorphidae e Tyrannidae: um pedido de auxílio Marini, M. Â. & Durães, R. 2001. Annual patterns of molt and aos observadores de aves! Atualidades Ornitológicas, 189: 18–24. reproductive activity of passerines in south-central Brazil. Condor, Davis, D. E. 1945. The annual cycle of plants, mosquitoes, birds 103: 767–775. and mammals in two Brazilian forests. Ecological Monographs, 15: Ridgely, R. S. & Tudor, G. 2009. Field guide to the songbirds of South 243–295. America: the passerines. Austin: University of Texas. Euler, C. 1900. Descripção de ninhos e ovos das aves do Brazil. Revista Russel, D. G. D.; Hansell, M. & Reilly, M. 2013. Bird nests in do Museu Paulista, 4: 9–148. museum collections: a rich resource for research. Avian Biology Fitzpatrick, J. W. 2004. Genus Phylloscartes, p. 299–303. In: del Research, 6: 178–182. Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A. & Christie, D. A. (eds.). Handbook of the Simon, J. E. & Pacheco, S. 2005. On the standardization of nest birds of the world, v. 1. Cotingas to pipits and wagtails. Barcelona: descriptions of Neotropical birds. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, Lynx Edicions. 13: 143–154. Kirwan, G. M.; Bodrati, A. & Cockle, K. 2010. The nest of the Bay- Tello, J. G.; Moyle, R. G.; Marchese, D. J. & Cracraft, J. 2009. ringed Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes sylviolus), a little-known Atlantic Phylogeny and phylogenetic classification of the tyrant flycatchers, Forest endemic, supports a close relationship between Phylloscartes cotingas, manakins, and their allies (Aves: Tyrannidae). Cladistics, and Pogonotriccus. Ornitología Neotropical, 21: 397–408. 25: 1–39. Lanyon, W. E. 1984. A phylogeny of the kingbirds and their allies. American Museum Novitates, 2797: 1–28. Associate Editor: Luis F. Silveira. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 24(4), 2016
Ornithology Research – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 1, 2016
Keywords: Atlantic Forest; breeding; Pogonotriccus; systematics; taxonomy
Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.