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Enhancing the sustainability of high strength concrete in terms of embodied energy and carbon emission by incorporating sewage sludge and fly ash

Enhancing the sustainability of high strength concrete in terms of embodied energy and carbon... This paper discusses the properties of dried sewage sludge (SS) and its influence on the microstructure development of HVFA concrete when used as a partial replacement of binder material. A detailed characterization of dried sludge samples collected from a sewage treatment plant is carried out using XRF, XRD, TGA, and FTIR techniques. HVFA concrete mix is designed for 50 MPa with 50% fly ash of the total binder content. Sludge is ground to a particle size of 150 µ and 75 µ and replaced at levels of 5%, 10%, and 15% of the total binder content. The strength activity index of the dried sludge sample is acceptable as per standards. Taking concrete mixes with HVFA as a reference, the fresh properties of binder paste and concrete with sewage sludge have been studied. Mechanical properties that define the applicability to various infrastructure projects are reported for all the studied mixes. EI, CI, COST per unit compressive strength for all mixes are also determined to comment on the environmental impact of the use of SS in concrete. The compressive strength of concrete specimens decreases with the increase in replacement level of SS. However, in comparison with OPC concrete, 75 µm SS at 5% replacement level concrete mechanical strength is within the acceptable limit for M50 concrete mix. The addition of SS as a binder to the concrete has a lower environmental impact, embodied energy, CO emission, and cost per unit strength. But more than 10% replacement level resulted in reducing CS, FS, and STS by 11.17%, 6.23%, and 6.99%. * Shreelaxmi Prashant shreelaxmi.p@manipal.edu Mithesh Kumar kumar.mithesh@gmail.com Department of Civil Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India Vol.:(0123456789) 1 3 240 Page 2 of 19 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Graphical abstract Material Characterizations Binder Properties of Paste Concrete Properties Counts S LUDG E 1 00%_Theta_2-Thet a Quartz 4 .1 % Akermanite 3 4. 4 % 300 Ca3 Si O 5 3. 3 % Cristobalit e 8. 1 % IST& 200 Fluidity FST 100 Fresh Hardened Properties Properties 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Position [° 2θ] ( Copper ( Cu)) consiste SAI ncy Result Analysis Environment Impact and Cost Quality Aspect of Concrete Implication 7 Days 28 Days 56 Days 60 Y= 62.111-1.064*X; R2=93.42% 90 Days 50 Y= 59.385-1.313*X; R2=88.02% CO2 Embodied 40 Y= 56.054-1.307*X; R2=85.91% Energy Emission Y= 39.865-1.350*X; R2=83.81% Water 05 10 15 UPV Percentage replacement of 150µm down size sewage sludge Absorption Eco- efficiency Keywords Sewage sludge · High volume fly ash concrete · Mechanical properties · Carbon footprint · Embodied energy Abbreviations SCMs Supplementary cementitious materials CO Carbon dioxide SDG Sustainable development goals CE Carbon emissionTGA Thermo gravimetric analysis CI Carbon emission index UPV Ultrasonic pulse velocity CS Compressive strengthWA Water absorption EE Embodied energy XRD X-ray powder diffraction EI Embodied energy indexXRF X-ray fluorescence FESEM Field emission scanning electron microscope FST Final setting time FS Flexural strength Introduction FA Fly ash FTIR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy The sustainability of concrete depends on the amount GHG Greenhouse gas of CO2 and other GHGs emitted in the production and HVFA High-volume fly ash procurement of raw materials, mixing, casting, and curing. HVFAC High volume fly ash concrete Due to globalization and increased population, industrial IST Initial setting time waste disposal is one of the most significant challenges COST Material cost index humankind is facing. In this context, attempts are being MoE Modulus of elasticity made to reduce carbon emissions in concreting through the MSWA Municipal solid waste ash effective utilization of industrial by-products. Sustainable MWWTP Municipal waste water treatment plant development goals (SDG) and standards have suggested OPC Ordinary Portland cement using waste materials/by-products that reduce carbon PC Portland cement emission and embodied energy. SS Sewage sludge Cement production is an energy-intensive process. As SSA Sewage sludge ash of now, 4400 million tons of cement are manufactured STS Split tensile strength yearly worldwide. It is also anticipated that the number will SAI Strength activity index rise to over 5500 million tons by 2050. About 8% of the 1 3 Compressive Strength (MPa) Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Page 3 of 19 240 world's CO emission is attributed to cement production. HVFA against chloride ion penetration was enhanced with India stands at the second position in cement production an increase in the inter-grinding time of binder material [35]. and cement-related CO emissions. Cement production in SS is a by-product of the MWWTP. The estimated dry India is estimated to rise to 3000 MT, emitting nearly 1.3 sludge production quantities annually are 8910, 6510, billion tons of C O by 2050 [1]. The C O emissions are 3955, 2960, 650, 580, 550, and 370 thousand metric tons 2 2 found to reduce with SCMs in one of the binder phases. EU-27, USA, India, China, Iran, Turkey, Canada, and Approximately 13–22% of CO emissions were reduced Brazil, respectively [36–39]. Presently, in India, out of by SCMs depending on the level of replacement used [2]. the 62,000 MLD sewage generated, only 20,120 MLD O'Brien et al. (2009) reported that the primary source of goes into the treatment plant. The quantity of dry sludge GHG emissions is the concrete industry. Seven percent generated in India is expected to increase many times due of the global GHG emissions are from PC production. In to the extensive installation of municipal sewage treatment addition, the cement industry releases gases such as SO plants under the Swachh Bharat Mission [31–33]. Due to and NO that can cause environmental degradation and other large SS production, a proper disposal strategy is essential to associated effects [3 , 4]. manage dried sludge quantities. Various disposal strategies Many researchers have unanimously accepted that FA like agricultural manure, fillers in landscapes, gardening, reduces GHG emissions when replaced with Portland cement and all the unused SS get dumped into the landfills. With the [5]. The reduction in GHG emissions depends on the source lack of land spaces and new environmental regulations, it is and condition of raw materials, the type of supplementary essential to explore new applications of SS [40, 41]. There cementitious material used, the percentage of replacement is a need for efficient recycling, resource recalcination, and level, and the transportation distance. Industrial by-products, proper SS treatment [42]. Several researchers identified the such as FA and slag, are widely used and accepted as partial presence of calcium, silica, and alumina phases in SS on replacements to OPC [6]. The effective use of improperly analysis of its chemical composition. SS is found to possess disposed of municipal and industrial by-products/wastes properties similar to popular pozzolanic material used in can reduce pollution and result in the sustainable use of concrete [43, 44]. natural resources [7]. Many experimental investigations are Marisal et  al. (2004) investigated the mechanical performed on using other wastes in concrete, such as palm properties of concrete specimens containing treated plant oil fuel ash, rice hush ash, MSWA, incinerated bottom ash, sludge and recommended replacing levels up to 10% of agro-waste, and SSA, as a part of cementitious binder in binder content [45]. Baskar et al. (2006) have successfully concrete production [8–22]. replaced 9% of the binder with sludge obtained from the Due to the ever-increasing energy demand, many thermal residue of the textile industry and wastewater in clay bricks. power plants were set up across the globe, resulting in the At a 9% replacement level, the brick samples satisfied the large-scale production of FA as a by-product. Therefore, the requirement of the BIS for compressive strength, weight safe disposal of FA to prevent environmental pollution has loss, and shrinkage parameters [46]. Patel and Pandey become a global challenge. FA can be used as a valuable (2009) reported that the sludge from the textile industry resource in concrete, greenhouse gas emissions, and had a potential for reuse as construction materials [47]. embodied energy. HVFA is an approach to maximize the Jamshidi et al. (2010) replaced cement with dry sludge at FA content in concrete and minimize OPC use for a similar 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% in concrete. The sizing and level of mechanical properties. In contrast, Dunstan et al. milling of dry sludge to a finer particle size can improve the (1992) referred to any concrete containing more than 40% mechanical properties of concrete any unreacted particles of FA as HVFA concrete. Many experimental investigations are left to act as a filler in concrete [48]. have recommended 30–70% cement replacement by FA for The dried sludge organic content limited to 13% can be concrete having 28 days strength of 40–50 MPa [3, 23–33]. used as an additive to mix. The increase in sludge by more Sivasundaram et  al. (1990) observed the strength than 5% was adversely affected workability [45– 47]. Similar development of HVFA concrete over three years. Concrete results have been found for both wet and dry wastewater gained strength of 70  MPa and modulus of elasticity of sludge used in concrete. 47GPa with prolonged curing for two years [34]. Jiang and The current study investigates the physical and chemical Malhotra (2000) recommended the use of a large amount properties of FA and SS as a binder material. The fresh and of FA as binders (55%) in conjunction with the use of hardened properties of concrete mixes at different levels superplasticizers to achieve higher slumps of 100 mm and of replacement of SS are reported. The higher the energy above since HVFAC is associated with a low W/B [32]. required to produce raw material, the higher the energy Bouzoubaa et al. (2000) found improvement in resistance to cost, resulting in higher CO emissions to the atmosphere chloride ion penetration characteristics with HVFA blended and embodied energy. All these would result in higher CO cement. Further, it was also noticed that the performance of emission and embodied energy, creating a higher negative 1 3 240 Page 4 of 19 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 impact on the environment. This study performs CE and Table 1 Physical characteristics of raw materials EE of the binding material and concrete mixes at a different Physical Cement FA SS (150 µm) SS (75 µm) replacement level. characteristics Specific gravity 3.12 2.32 1.95 2.13 Specific surface 0.313 0.377 0.320 0.315 Experimental program area (m2/g) Particle size D10 3.68 2.17 5.27 4.85 Materials D50 14.85 8.72 35.13 24.34 D90 32.32 27.99 78.45 47.32 Binder material OPC Forty-three Grade confirming IS 8112-2013 [49] is used for the study. Low calcium FA (Class F) was procured and calcite. The same is noted by Valls et  al. (2004) [45]. Clay is absent in dry sludge, which signifies the absence of a from a Raichur, Karnataka, India. Dried SS was collected from the dry sludge bed at the MWWTP at End Point, stable binder phase on hydration. However, it can be used as a partial replacement for cement. The range in which vari- MAHE, Manipal, Karnataka, India, and dried for seven more days in sunlight to remove excess moisture. ous compounds are present in the sludge presented in previ- ous research articles is also listed in Table  2. The ternary After oven-drying at 105  °C for 24  h, the sludge was ground for 1 h in a ball mill. The ground residue was sieved representation of SiO -CaO-Al O -Fe O concerning that 2 2 3 2 3 of OPC, FA, and SS is presented in Fig. 2. through 150 and 75-micron meter IS standard sieves and col- lected separately. The particle size analysis of all the ingredi- X‑ray powder diffraction (XRD) of SS XRD spectra of SS are ents going into the binder system is illustrated in Fig. 1. The properties of various binder materials used in the present presented in Fig. 3. The crystalline phases of the SS mainly consist of quartz SiO 4.1%, Akermanito 34.4%, Ca SiO study are presented in Tables 1 and 2. 2 3 5 53.3%, and Cristobalite 8.1%. Chemical analysis with  X‑ray fluorescence Semi-chemical quantitative analysis of the oxides is performed, and the out- Thermogravimetric analysis of  sewage sludge The result of TGA is presented in Fig.  4. The SS sample tested was comes are tabulated in Table  2. Sewage sludge comprises SiO, Al O, Fe O , CaO, Na O, and P O , which is quite found to have undergone thermal degradation in two phases. 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 5 The first phase of primary degradation occurred at the tem- similar to FA. The proportions of SiO and Al O , which 2 2 3 are the main reactive components responsible for pozzo- perature range of 100–500  °C, wherein the sludge sample was found to experience a high rate of mass loss. In the lanic reactions in the binder system (ASTM C125, 2007), are lower than FA. Sludge is composed primarily of quartz second phase, continuous decomposition of SS occurs at a Table 2 Chemical composition of binder materials Cement Fly Ash Composition OPC FA SS (%) SS observed value in literature Natural Sand Coarse Aggregate Min Max SS (150) 70 SS(75) SiO 20.27 53.25 12.013 2.06 [50] 42.54 [51] Al O 8.98 25.62 4.424 2.06 [50] 14.79 [52] 2 3 Fe O 3.71 6.4 41.715 4.58 [50] 49.35 [53] 2 3 CaO 59.21 4.7 8.985 2.40 [52] 22.70 [45] MgO 1.85 1.04 0.014 0.01 [15] 5.78 [27] P O – – 23.302 5.00 [54] 22.55 [27] 2 5 Na O 0.15 2.22 6.247 0.31 [55] 1.11 [50] K O 0.98 0.87 2.122 0.53 [55] 6.19 [27] TiO 1.35 – 1.069 0.52 [52] 3.42 [50] SO 2.52 1.29 – 0.0 [48, 51, 52, 9.57 [27] 0.1 110 100 1000 10000 3 56] Sieve Size (µm) Cl – – – 0 [50, 53, 57] 0.5 [55] LOI 1.47 2.85 48.59 47.50 [50] 73.40 [50] Fig. 1 Particle size distribution of concrete ingredient 1 3 Cumulative percentage (%) Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Page 5 of 19 240 acids, amides, and amines are also noted. Multiple peaks −1 indicate the presence of C–H groups in the 1042–2925  cm region. The primary absorbance in FTIR spectra in the −1 region 450–1050  cm is due to the Si–O bond of silicate impurities and traces of clay minerals. Microstructure The FESEM images of OPC, FA, and SS are shown in Fig.  6. From the FESEM image of SS, it is observed that the particle sizes appear to be more prominent than FA. SS appears crystalline in nature. It consists of the random orientation of solids with irregular shapes and sizes. Therefore, to attain higher reactivity, it is essential to grind the SS to a finer level. Aggregates Fig. 2 Ternary 3D plot of binder materials Natural river sand and gravel as fine and coarse aggregate in accordance with IS 383-1970 1970 (Reaffirmed 2011) high temperature of 500–900 °C with a comparatively lower are used for the present study. Table  3 and Fig.  1 show mass-loss rate. aggregates physical properties and sieve analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of  sewage sludge FTIR analysis was carried out for SS using JASCO Superplasticizer −1 FTIR-6300 with a wavelength range of 400–4000  cm results which are shown in Fig.  5. Inorganic bonded O–H High range water reducing agent Rofluid H1 (PCE base), −1 groups with a wavenumber of 3250  cm are observed. The with a specific gravity of 1.15 and pH of 4.5, was used in all −1 broad peak at the 3600–4000  cm region signifies the pres- mixes to enhance the workability of concrete. The chloride ence of O–H and N–H functional groups. Hence, alcohols, ion and alkaline percentages are ≤ 0.1 and 0.4, respectively. Count s S LUDG E 100%_Thet a_2-Theta Quartz 4 .1 % Akermanite 34. 4 % 300 Ca3 Si O 53. 3 % Crist obalit e 8. 1 % 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Position [ °2θ] (C opper ( Cu)) Fig. 3 XRD pattern of sewage sludge 1 3 240 Page 6 of 19 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Sewage Sludge Fig. 4 The TGA of raw SS Fly ash OPC Fig. 5 FTIR spectra of sewage sludge Fig. 6 Microstructure of sewage sludge, fly ash, and OPC Preparation of the paste Table 3 Properties of natural aggregates The mix proportions of various combinations of binder Properties Coarse aggregate Fine aggregate blends used for the study are listed in Table 4. The blended Specific gravity 2.65 2.55 binder paste was carried out as per the norms stipulated in Bulk density (Loose state) (kg/ 1428 1454 EN 196-3 [58]. m ) Bulk density (compacted state) 1679 1645 Mix proportioning (kg/m ) Water absorption (%) 0.42 0.85 The mix proportions used for the current investigation are Silt content (%) – 1.50 presented in Table 5. Sewage sludge was replaced at 5%, Bulking of sand (%) – 25 10%, and 15% of the total binder content. Physical and mechanical properties of HVFA high strength concrete with three levels of sludge replacement were investigated through 0.3 is used for all the mixes. After casting, the specimens are experimental procedures. Using the Department of Environ- ment's Design (DOE) method, M50 concrete is designed de-molded after 24 h and then immersed in water for curing as per IS 10086-2008 [59]. with 50% cement and 50% FA as a binder. The w/b ratio of 1 3 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Page 7 of 19 240 Table 4 Mix designation for Blends Combination General designation Binder content blended mixes OPC (%) FA (%) SS (%) Control OPC C 100 – – Binary blends OPC + FA CF 50 50 – Ternary blends OPC + FA + SS (150 µm) CFS150-5 47.5 47.5 5 CFS150-10 45 45 10 CFS150-15 42.5 42.5 15 OPC + FA + SS (75 µm) CFS75-5 47.5 47.5 5 CFS75-10 45 45 10 CFS75-15 42.5 42.5 15 Table 5 Mix proportion of concrete used in present study 3 3 3 Mix desig- OPC (kg/m ) FA (kg/m ) SS-150 µm SS-75 µm Sand (kg/m ) Coarse aggregate Water W/B ratio SP 3 3 3 nation (kg/m ) (kg/m ) (kg/m ) (%) M1 577 – – – 899.94 798.06 191 0.33 1.0 M2 288 288.5 – – 899.94 798.06 191 0.33 2.1 M3 274.075 274.075 28.85 – 899.94 798.06 191 0.33 2.1 M4 259.65 259.65 57.7 – 899.94 798.06 191 0.33 2.1 M5 245.225 245.225 86.55 – 899.94 798.06 191 0.33 2.1 M6 274.075 274.075 – 28.85 899.94 798.06 191 0.33 2.1 M7 259.65 259.65 – 57.7 899.94 798.06 191 0.33 2.1 M8 245.225 245.225 – 86.55 899.94 798.06 191 0.33 2.1 Specimen casting and curing Tests on concrete OPC, FA, and SS were mixed thoroughly to obtain uniform "Compressive strength test has been performed at 7, 14, 28, binder mix. The aggregates are mixed with binders for 56, and 90 days of the curing period using 150 mm cubic 2 min to obtain a uniform dry mix. Uniform concrete mix size, as per the Indian Standard Specifications IS:516-1959 was obtained by continuing the mixing for 2–3 min after [60]. The loading rate of 14 N/mm /min was maintained water dispersion, and chemical admixture was poured. using CTM of capacity 3000 kN. The split tensile strength Later, concrete was cast into specific molds. The molded was determined as per IS 5816-1999 [67] using specimen samples were kept in laboratory conditions for 24 ± 0.5 h sizes of 150 mm diameter and 300 mm height at 7, 28,56, and de-molded, later stored in a curing tank in the conven- and 90 days. The rate of load application was within the tional method for the required durations [60–62]. range of 1.2–2.4 N/mm /min. The flexural strength test was performed using the prism of size 100 × 100 × 500 mm as per IS 516-1959 [60]. Modulus of elasticity (MoE) has Experimental procedure been conducted as per IS 516-1959 [60] on the cylinder specimen of size 150 mm diameter and 300 mm height after Test on binder material 28 days of curing. Deformation of the sample under com- pressive load was found using compressometer and linear The setting time of the binder was determined as per variable differential transformer (LVDT) equipment. The the procedure prescribed in ASTM C191 [63]. Standard ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test was performed as per consistency of binder pastes is performed as per ASTM IS 13311-1-1992 [68] using a TICO Ultrasonic instrument C187-16 [64]. SAI test was performed according to ASTM supplied by PROCEQ SA, Switzerland. A water absorp- C618-05 [65] to study the pozzolanic activity of the binder tion test has been conducted on 150 mm cube specimens mix. The fluidity of binder paste was measured (mini- following the specifications prescribed in BS 1881-122- slump flow) as per ASTM C1437 [66]. 1983 [69]. Details of the tests and the corresponding codes referred are mentioned in Table 6 [62]. 1 3 240 Page 8 of 19 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Table 6 Summary of Sl. no Tests Specimen Standards experimental tests conducted 1 Setting time Binder paste ASTM C191 [63] 2 Standard consistency Binder paste ASTM C187-16 [64] 3 Fluidity (Mini-Slump Flow) Binder paste ASTM C1437 [66] 4 Strength activity index test Binder mortar ASTM C618-05 [65] 5 Slump flow Concrete IS 1199-1959 [70] 6 Density Concrete BS 1881-114:1983 [71] 7 Compressive strength Concrete IS 516-1959 [60] 8 Splitting tensile strength Concrete IS 5816-1999 [67] 9 Flexural strength Concrete IS 516-1959 [60] 10 Modulus of elasticity Concrete IS 516-1959 [60] 11 Ultrasonic pulse velocity Concrete IS 13311-1-1992 [68] 12 Water absorption Concrete BS 1881-122-1983 [69] Table 7 Setting time, consistency, and slump flow of binder paste was 31%. A similar trend was observed by Marthong and Agrawal (2012) [74]. Replacement of SS resulted in an Binder mix Setting time Consistency Slump flow increase in the consistency values of the blended pastes due IST (min) FST (min) (%) (mm) to the higher powder volume and porous and crystalline nature of SS. It is also noted from Table  7 that the con- C 150 265 31 180 sistency value is higher for binder paste with 75 µm down- CF 185 305 34 195 size SS particle compared to 150 µm downsize at the same CFS150-5 220 335 38 162 replacement level. CFS150-10 235 350 40 157 CFS150-15 255 375 41 151 CFS75-5 200 315 41 172 Fluidity (mini‑slump flow) of binder CFS75-10 185 330 46 166 CFS75-15 175 360 53 161 The fluidity of various paste compositions studied with and without sludge replacement is presented in Table  7. The slump flow values of the paste mixes were found to Results and discussion range from 151 to 195 mm compared to the slump value of 180 mm for OPC. It is observed that the fluidity of the OPC Initial and final setting time paste was found to have increased on replacing OPC with 50% FA. However, with the incorporation of SS into the The IST and FST of pastes tested are presented in Table 7. binder, the fluidity is considerably reduced. The SS particles IST and FST vary from 155 to 255 and 265 to 375, are porous and irregular in shape, hence, more susceptible respectively. It is noticed that with an increase of SS, the to water absorption on particle surfaces [75]. Also, the size setting time also increases for the pastes containing both of SS was found to influence the fluidity. 150  µm and 75  µm downsized dried sludge. However, the paste samples containing 75  µm downsized SS Strength activity index have exhibited acceptable setting times at 5% and 10% replacement levels. Mirza et al. (2002), Duran-Herrera et al. The SAI test was conducted to evaluate the pozzolanic activ- (2011), and Huang et al. (201) reported an increase in IST ity of SS and presented in Fig. 7. According to ASTM C618- and FST of cement paste with the inclusion of SCMs [25, 05 [65], the substitutive material is designated a pozzolan 72, 73]. if it achieves a 75% of the strength gained by OPC mortar at 7 14, 28, 56, and 90 days, respectively, with 20% cement Standard consistency of binder replacement. According to the results of the SAI, SS (75 µm) exhibits moderate pozzolanic activity. It can also be seen The standard consistencies of binder pastes studied at die ff r - from the figure that the SAI of SS increased as the curing ent replacement levels are shown in Table 7. The consistency day advances. The presence and quantities of amorphous value of FA blended cement paste at 50% cement replace- phases in the pozzolan contribute to pozzolanic when used ment level is 34%, while the control sample consistency as partial replacement to cement. 1 3 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Page 9 of 19 240 replacement of SS resulted in a decrease in slump value for the concrete in both 75 and 150 µm size particles. Similar results are observed by Jamshidi et al. (2011) [48], Ghada FA Mourtada et al. (2016) [74], and Ehab et al. (2019) [77]. SS ( 150) SS (75) Concrete density The 28-day concrete density was determined according to BS 1881: Part 114:1983 [71] (Method of determination of density of hardened concrete) [71] and presented in Fig. 9. The density of specimens increased with curing age. Con- tinuous hydration and pozzolanic action from binder materi- als resulted in dense microstructure at a later age. Compared to the control sample, the concrete density began to drop in Days addition to 5% of SS. Based on the results obtained, it can be noted that the concrete density decreased with an increase in Fig. 7 Strength activity index of supplementary cementitious materi- SS particle size. The same trend was observed by Amminu- als din et al. (2020) [56]. It is important to note that the addition of FA to the mix lowers the fresh concrete density. The lower In comparison, SS has proven to possess lower SAI than specific gravity of FA and SS compared to OPC accounts for FA. Finer grinding may be used for improving pozzolanic a decrease in density. The same trend is observed in studies activity. In the present study, SS with a particle size of reported earlier [3, 23, 78]. The deadweight of the struc- 75 µm possesses moderate pozzolanic activity, suitable to tural element is reduced due to a reduction in the density be used as SCM's. of concrete. So, the use of SS in the binder system can be considered one of the advantages. Influence of sewage sludge on slump flow Compressive strength The slump flow values of freshly mixed concrete mix are illustrated in Fig. 8. A higher slump value is observed in The CS test was performed on concrete samples at 7, 14, mix M2 because of a higher proportion of FA compared 28, 56, and 90 curing days. The measurement of CS of to the OPC (M1) mix. Sahmaran and Yaman (2007) also the concrete sample with variable SS content is shown in reported that OPC replacement with 50% FA increased the Table 8. The replacement of 150 µm downsized SS at 5%, slump flow by 23.2% [76]. The increase in the percentage 10%, and 15% resulted in a decrease in 28 days strength by 24.12%, 25.54%, and 36.54%, respectively. Whereas 75 µm M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 Mix Design Mix Design Fig. 8 Slump flow of the concrete mix Fig. 9 Density of concrete mix at 28 days 1 3 SAI Slump flow (mm) Density (kg/m3) 240 Page 10 of 19 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Table 8 CS, STS, and FS of mixes at different curing ages Concrete mix Compressive strength (MPa) Split tensile Strength (MPa) Flexural strength (MPa) 7 day 14 day 28 day 56 day 90 day 7 day 28 day 56 day 90 day 7 day 28 day 56 day 90 day M1 46.04 53.93 61.11 63.56 65.18 3.36 3.99 4.09 4.16 4.53 5.14 5.25 5.32 M2 43.04 45.93 58.96 62.15 64.45 3.22 3.91 4.04 4.13 4.38 5.04 5.18 5.29 M3 27.81 36.72 44.70 48.72 54.28 2.48 3.30 3.48 3.71 3.52 4.33 4.54 4.81 M4 26.37 37.42 43.90 46.18 52.45 2.40 3.26 3.37 3.64 3.44 4.29 4.41 4.73 M5 42.43 44.62 58.12 61.25 63.25 2.12 2.96 3.14 3.37 3.09 3.94 4.14 4.42 M6 38.23 43.25 52.37 55.18 56.95 3.20 3.87 4.00 4.08 4.35 5.00 5.14 5.23 M7 35.30 38.95 48.35 50.11 51.31 3.00 3.63 3.75 3.82 4.11 4.72 4.86 4.94 M8 42.43 44.62 58.12 61.25 63.25 2.86 3.46 3.54 3.59 3.93 4.52 4.61 4.67 7 Days 28 Days 7 Days Y= 65.149-0.854*X; R =88.68% 56 Days 28 Days 90 Days 56 Days 60 2 Y= 62.111-1.064*X; R =93.42% 2 Y= 63.502-0.844*X; R =91.74% 90 Days Y= 60.093-0.753*X; R =90.97% 50 2 Y= 59.385-1.313*X; R =88.02% 40 2 Y= 56.054-1.307*X; R =85.91% Y= 44.295-0.626*X; R =90.68% 05 10 15 Y= 39.865-1.350*X; R =83.81% Percentage replacement of 75µm down size sewage sludge Fig. 11 Relationship between CS and percentage replacement level of 05 10 15 75 µm downsized SS Percentage replacement of 150µm down size sewage sludge Split tensile strength Fig. 10 Relationship between CS and percentage replacement level of 150 µm downsized SS The STS results of eight mixes are illustrated in Table  8. The 28 days lowest strength of 2.96 MPa is observed in mix 5 (M5). The replacement of 150 µm downsized SS at 5%, downsize contributed 1.4%, 11.17%, and 17.99% reduc- 10%, and 15% replacement levels resulted in a consider- tion for 5%, 10%, and 15% replacement levels, respec- able decrease in strength. Whereas 75 µm downsized, SS tively. Jamshidi et al. (2011, 2012) [48, 79] observed that concrete samples contributed reasonably good strength 5%, 10%, and 20% addition of dry sludge resulted in a than 150 µm. The relationship between STS and percentage decrease in strength by approximately 9%, 14.5%, and replacement level is plotted, and individual equations are 28% in 28 days and 3.5%, 8%, and 20% in 90 days cured presented in Figs. 12 and 13. A direct relationship equation samples. It is also noted that for both the sizes, 75 µm and is plotted considering 7, 28 56, and 90 days CS and STS and 150 µm sized SS, compressive strength at 90 days for 5% presented in Fig. 14. R , a value of 0.809, indicates a cor- and 10% replacement levels is within the acceptable limits relation between them. for M50 concrete. The relationship between CS and per- centage replacement level is plotted, individual equations Flexural strength are presented in Figs. 10 and 11, and a strong relationship between percentage replacement and CS with R lying The FS experiment results at 7, 14, 28, 56, and 90  days between 83.81 and 93.42%. are illustrated in Table  8. The 28 days lowest strength of 3.94 MPa is observed for the M5 mix. The replacement of 150 µm downsized SS at 5%, 10%, and 15% replacement 1 3 Compressive Strength (MPa) Compressive Strength (MPa) Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Page 11 of 19 240 Equation y = a + b*x 7 Days Plot Splitting Tensile Strength 28 Days Weight No Weighting Intercept1.44012 ± 0.17113 56 Days Slope 0.03844 ± 0.0034 Residual Sum of Squares1.42383 90 Days 4 4.0 Pearson's r0.89983 R-Square (COD) 0.80969 Adj. R-Square 0.80335 Y= 4.066-0.0473*X; R =93.24% 3.5 Y=3.926-0.0563*X; R =90.04% Y= 3.7897-0.0577*X; R =87.90% 3.0 Split Tensile Strength Linear Fit of Sheet1 B"ST" 95% Confidence Band of B"ST" Y= 3.063-0.0677*X; R =86.54% 95% Prediction Band of B"ST" 2.5 2.0 05 10 15 20 40 60 Percentage replacement of 150µm down size sewage sludge Compressive Strngth (MPa) Fig. 12 Relationship between STS and percentage replacement level Fig. 14 Relationship between CS and STS of 150 µm downsized SS 7 Days 28 Days 56 Days 90 Days 4.0 5.5 Y= 4.066-0.0473*X; R =93.24% 3.5 90 5.0 Y=3.926-0.0563*X; R =90.04% Y= 5.211-0.053*X; R =92.69% Y= 3.7897-0.0577*X; R =87.90% 3.0 4.5 Y= 5.057-0.065*X; R =89.96% Y= 3.063-0.0677*X; R =86.54% 2.5 4.0 Y= 4.903-0.067*X; R =86.99% 3.5 2.0 05 10 15 Y= 4.195-0.078*X; R =86.23% Percentage replacement of 75 µm down size sewage sludge 3.0 Fig. 13 Relationship between STS and percentage replacement level 05 10 15 of 75 µm downsized SS Percentage replacement of 150µm down size sewage sludge Fig. 15 Relationship between FS and percentage replacement level of levels resulted in a drastic decrease in strength. Whereas 150 µm downsized SS 75 µm downsized SS exhibited higher strength than 150 µm. The relationship between tensile strength and percentage replacement level is plotted, and individual equations are presented in Figs. 15 and 16. A direct relationship equation is plotted considering 7, 28, 56, and 90 days CS and STS and presented in Fig. 17. The R value of 0.873 is observed, presented in Fig. 18. The replacement of 150 µm downsizes indicating a good correlation between them. SS decreased the modulus of elasticity, whereas it is similar to the control mix in the samples containing 75 µm downsize SS. Modulus of elasticity (MoE) The incorporation of SS led to a decrease in MoE due to the de-densification of pore structure. A linear degradation in the The MoE affects reinforced concrete's safety, durability, den- value of modulus of elasticity with an increase in SS content sity, and life span. The 28 days MoE of concrete specimens is observed. A linear relationship between CS and MoE at is calculated by applying a series of compressive stress cycles 28 days is plotted in Fig. 19. A good correlation is observed up to about 40% of the measured compressive strength and is with the R value of 0.917. 1 3 Split Tensile Strength ( MPa) Split Tensile Strength ( MPa) Flexural Strength (MPa) Splitting Tensile Strength (MPa) 240 Page 12 of 19 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 5.4 5.2 2 30 Y= 5.352-0.042*X; R =93.72% 5.0 4.8 Y= 5.252-0.041*X; R =92.04% 2 20 Y= 5.096-0.036*X; R =93.37% 4.6 4.4 Y= 4.428-0.031*X; R =91.44% 4.2 4.0 3.8 0 05 10 15 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 Percentage replacement of 75µm down size sewage sludge Mix Fig. 16 Relationship between FS and percentage replacement level of Fig. 18 MoE of mixes at 28 days 75 µm downsized SS Equation y = a + b*x Plot B Equation y = a + b*x Plot Flexural Strength Weight No Weighting Weight No Weighting Intercept 11.38743 ± 2.77247 Intercept2.27091 ± 0.15398 40 0.44204 ± 0.05412 Slope 5 Slope 0.04401 ± 0.00306 8.76069 Residual Sum of Squares1.15279 Residual Sum of Squares Pearson's r0.93445 0.95785 Pearson's r R-Square (COD)0.87319 0.91748 38 R-Square (COD) Adj. R-Square 0.86897 0.90373 Adj. R-Square Flexural Strength Linear Fit of Sheet1 B"FS" Modulus of Elasticity 95% Confidence Band of B"FS" Linear Fit of Sheet1 B 95% Prediction Band of B"FS" 95% Confidence Band of B 95% Prediction Band of B 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 20 40 60 Compressive Strength (MPa) Compressive Strength (MPa) Fig. 19 Relationship between CS and MoE Fig. 17 Relationship between CS and FS Influence of sewage sludge on quality aspect UPV @ 28 Days CS @ 28 Days CS @ 90 Days 3800 UPV @ 90 Days of concrete Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) The UPV test results for the mix at 28 and 90  days and correlation between UPV and CS are presented in Fig.  20. The mixes result was between 3400 and 3500 3700  m/s, which falls under the decent to the excel- lent category as per IS 13111 (Part 1). The linear regression analysis has been plotted (Fig. 21) between M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 UPV and CS. A direct relationship was obtained as y Concrete Mix (UPV)=2917.24 + 12.49 X (CS), with an R value of 0.8954 showing a good correlation. Fig. 20 Comparison between CS and UPV of the mix at 28 and 90 days 1 3 Flexural Strength (MPa) Flexural Strength (MPa) Compressive Strength (MPa) Modulus of Elasticity (GPa) Modulus of Elasticity (GPa) UPV (m/S) Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Page 13 of 19 240 replacement of SS as binder material gives better results than Equation y = a + b*x Plot UPV 150 µm downsized SS particle. Weight No Weighting Intercept2917.2362 ± 33.76 Slope12.49415 ± 0.6927 Residual Sum of Square 87410.61508 Pearson's r0.94626 R-Square (COD) 0.8954 Adj. R-Square 0.89265 Assessment of environment impact and cost implication Using a higher dosage of supplementary cementitious material in concrete minimizes environmental impact and UPV Linear Fit of Sheet1 B"UPV" 95% Confidence Band of B"UPV" increases compressive strength. Cradle-to-gate EE, CE, and 95% Prediction Band of B"UPV" COST are quantified for different binder combinations. The energy consumption and CE can vary depending upon the manufacturing process, raw material, and distance from the 20 40 60 source. Therefore, representative data from the literature Compressive Strength (MPa) were used in this study. Fig. 21 Linear regression between CS and UPV Carbon dioxide emission Table 9 Water absorption in percentage at 28, 56, and 90 days Global warming is exacerbated by urbanization and industrialization, which leads to the depletion of natural 28 days 56 days 90 days resources, prompting scholars worldwide to consider M1 4.2 3.98 3.85 sustainable development. As a large user of natural resources M2 4.32 4.05 3.94 and energy, the concrete industry has significantly increased M3 4.48 4.26 3.99 GHG emissions. According to estimates, the global M4 4.72 4.54 4.36 population is expected to reach ten billion by 2050, resulting M5 4.87 4.63 4.4 in increased construction and development activities and a M6 4.33 4.09 3.92 negative impact on the environment [78, 80]. M7 4.39 4.12 3.96 The CO emission parameters were calculated in this M8 4.43 4.24 4.02 study by calculating carbon emissions during the preparation of SCMs. According to previous studies, the carbon footprint of FA is low because it is a waste by-product of Water absorption (WA) coal-burning power plants. Researchers in earlier studies state that carbon mission from FA is negligible because it WA of eight mixes investigated at 28, 56, and 90 days of cur- is a waste by-product arising from the coal-burning power ing is presented in Table 9. WA decreases with an increase in station. But in the current study, the value of 0.008 kg eq. curing ages in all mix specimens. An increase in SS percent- CO /kg is considered for FA, as per Hammond and Jones age increased water absorption. However, 75 µm downsized (2011) [80, 81]. Table 10 CO emission factors Material Energy requirement for 1000 kg SS Transport of 1000 kg SS Total emission for sewage sludge (kg CO /kg SS) d e Consumption (kWh) Emission DistanceEmission factor factors (kg CO / Oven drying Grinding kWh) and sieving SS (150 µm) 25 130.3 0.231 10 0.245 0.0383 SS (75 µm) 25 186.5 0.231 10 0.245 0.0513 "a Energy utilized by oven during 24 h of drying with a utilization rate of 1041.67 W/h." "b Energy utilized by sieving and grinding machines." "c Emission aspect due to electricity production (DECC 2021)." "d Distance from Municipal Treatment Plant to MIT, Manipal MAHE Campus." "e Emission aspect of the truck used to transport the materials (DECC 2021)." 1 3 UPV (m/s) 240 Page 14 of 19 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Table 11 Carbon emissions factors of raw materials Materials Emission factors (kg C O /kg) References Cement 0.951 [83] Fly ash (FA) 0.008 [83, 84] SS (150) 0.0383 Table 8 SS (75) 0.0513 Table 8 Coarse aggregate 0.0043 [85] Sand 0.0026 [85] Water 0.000196 [86] Super plasticiser 0.944 [83, 86] Cement M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 Fly Ash Mix SS 150 µm Ss 75 µm Fig. 23 CO emission of total cementitious material per mix (per m ) Raw Material Production Transport M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 Mix Fig. 22 CO emission of total cementitious material per mix (per m ) M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 Similarly, SS raw material contributes zero C O emis- 2 Concrete Mix sion, as it is also a by-product in municipal wastewater treat- ment plants [5, 82]. However, the energy utilized to improve 3 Fig. 24 Total CO emission during concrete production (kg CO /m ) 2 2 reactivity by drying, grinding, sieving, and transport is considered for calculating carbon emission for SS and FA. According to the UK Government, conversion factors for CO emission factor was considered 0.008 kg C O /kg for 2 2 GHG report 2021 are considered while calculating carbon concrete production as Kin et al. (2016) [86]. The pur- emissions. Table  10 represents the calculated CO emis- pose of the CO emission analysis is not to achieve a mix sion factors for SS (150 µm) and (75 µm). The final carbon with the lowest C O . Achieving a mix with less C O emis- 2 2 emission factors of ingredients used in concrete mixes are sions is also important, which shows acceptable mechani- presented in Table 11. cal properties. The results show that Mix M1 with 100% The CO emission of individual and total cementi- 2 3 OPC has the highest emission rate of 601.24 kg C O /m , tious material per mix is illustrated in Figs.  22 and 23. while the lowest value of 293.95 kg CO /m and 295.17 kg Replacing OPC by increasing the amount of SCMs per CO /m is observed in mix M5 and M8. When SCMs were unit volume of concrete resulted in reducing CO emis- incorporated, a reduction in CO emissions was observed. sion of cementitious material in mixes up to 57%. The According to the current study result, the binder was the amounts of C O released by each concrete mix depend major contributor to C O emissions at rates ranging from upon the proportions of materials, concrete production, 80 to 90% of the total emission of 1 m , depending upon and raw material transport, as presented in Fig. 24. The the replacement ratio of SCMs. 1 3 Carbon Emission ( kg CO / m Binder) kg CO /m3 kg CO /m 2 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Page 15 of 19 240 OPC M8 Fly Ash Compressive Strength SS (150 µm) Flexural Strength M7 SS (75 µm) Split Tensile Strength M6 M5 M4 M3 M2 M1 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 -3 Efficiency (MPa/kg CO .m ) M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 Mix Fig. 25 Concrete eco-efficiency (compressive, flexural, and tensile) strength/CO emissions Fig. 26 Embodied energy of binder material in each mix Eco‑efficiency that a decrease in cement content and an increase in sup- plementary cementitious material can significantly reduce Eco-efficiency is the ratio between 28-day mechanical the EE and CE. strength and C O equivalent emissions of the concrete mixes. Figure  25 represents the concrete eco-efficiency Environmental impact and binder cost per unit CS of eight mixes and illustrates that the mix with alternative of concrete binder materials shows better efficiency than the OPC mix. The efficiency value observed (CS) at 28 days was 0.101 The environmental impact quantification and binder cost per MPa/kg. CO m was in line with findings of Alnahhal et al. unit CS for different binder materials are calculated. The [86] and Stark et al. [87]. EI, CI, and binder cost index (COST) are calculated based Concrete mixes with alternative binder material have on Eqs. 1, 2, and 3 derived with the help of an earlier study shown better eco-efficiency than the control mix. The carried out by Jing Yu et al. (2021) [81]. maximum eco-efficiency of 0.185 (CS), 00,158 (FS), and 0.0123 (STS) is noticed with 75 µm downsized SS at 5% Mj EI ∕MPa replacement. Embodied Energy of binder material required for1m of concrete Embodied energy and cost of blended binder i − day compressive strength of standard concrete specimen (1) The EE of each binder material is presented in Table 12. In kg CO the current study, while comparing, the only binder mate- CI ∕MPa rial is considered since fine, and coarse aggregate content Carbon Emission of binder material required for1m of concrete is constant for all the mix. Figure 26 shows the embodied i − day compressive strength of standard concrete specimen energy of binder material of different mixes. The embodied (2) energy of SS at 150 µm and 75 µm is calculated using avail- Rs able data from the literature [10, 80, 88]. It can be observed COST ∕MPa Embodied Energy of binder material required for1m of concrete i − day compressive strength of standard concrete specimen Table 12 EE and material cost of ingredients (3) Material EE (MJ/kg) Material cost where i denotes the curing time in days. (IND Rs/kg) The calculation results on EI , CI , and COST for binder i i i Portland cement 5.5 [10, 80] 8.00 material per meter cube are shown in Figs. 27, 28, and 29 at Fly ash (FA) 0.1 [81] 4.75 28, 56, and 90 days. EI value of 51.93, 49.2, and 48.69 (MJ/ Sewage sludge (150 µm) 0.014 [80, 88] 1.20 kg)/MPa is observed for OPC mix at 28, 56, and 90 days. Sewage sludge (75 µm) 0.0188 [80, 88] 1.60 There is a drastic reduction in the embodied energy for the 1 3 Concrete Mix Embodied Energy (MJ/m Binder) 240 Page 16 of 19 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 55 10 90 2, which has a 50% cement replacement with FA. A similar trend is observed for 56 and 90 days. 50 85 The Carbon Emission Index value of mixes 2–8 is lesser than the control mix (M1) observed for 28, 56, and 90 days. 45 80 The addition of SS resulted in the reduction of carbon emis- sions. At 90 days age, the trend of COST is similar to 40 75 COST and COST . The COST values of cement with 28 56 90 35 70 different replacement levels of SCM are very close to each other due to significant strength development at a later stage. 30 65 The mix with SS 150 µm at 5, 10, 15, and 75 µm at 10 and 15 replacement levels exhibited slightly lower CS than the 25 60 control mix. But it has superior environmental and economic Mix M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 benefits by considering the environmental impact and mate- rial cost per unit strength. Fig. 27 Comparison of EI, CI, and COST per unit CS of the mix at 28 days 55 10 90 Conclusion The present study investigated the characteristics of SS, mechanical properties of concrete with different replacement levels along with carbon emissions, and embodied energy to develop sustainable and environmentally efficient concrete. 7 70 A total of eight mixes with different levels of SS replacement as a binder material were cast and tested. The following main conclusions were drawn based on laboratory observations and findings. 4 50 Mix M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 The main mineral components of SS are silicon dioxide, calcium, iron, and aluminum compounds. Based on the Fig. 28 Comparison of EI, CI, and COST per unit CS of the mix at oxide content in SS, it is suitable to replace the Portland 56 days cement content in standard concrete. Mechanical characterizations such as CS, FS, and STP 55 10 90 with 150 µm were observed with a reduction in strength, whereas the strength obtained at a 5% replacement level of 75  µm is on par with the control mix. There is no significant reduction in mechanical strength for 75 µm 75 SS at 5% and 10% level at 90 days. 40 All of the mixes tested for UPV reported between 3400 7 70 and 3700 m/s, which falls into the decent to excellent range. A direct relationship between compressive strength and UPV was obtained as y (UPV) = 2917.24 + 12.49 X (CS), with an R value of 0.8954 showing a good correlation. 4 50 Partial replacement of SS as a binder material generally Mix M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 affects eco-efficiency, with values similar to or higher than the control mix. The advantages of utilizing SS as Fig. 29 Comparison of EI, CI, and COST per unit CS of the mix at a partial substitute binder material lie in reducing C O 90 days emissions in making concrete and significantly reducing environmental problems caused by SS disposal. other mixes with OPC replacement. The least embodied Incorporating SS as a binder to the concrete has a energy index value of 26.42, 25.07, and 24.27 (MJ/kg)/MPa lower environmental impact, embodied energy, CO is observed at mix 06. The mix 7 value is on par with mix emission, and cost per unit strength. But more than 10% 1 3 3 3 3 EI- ( MJ/m Binder / MPa) EI- ( MJ/m Binder / MPa) EI- ( MJ/m Binder / MPa) 90 56 28 CI- (kg CO / m Binder / MPa) CI- (kg CO / m Binder / MPa) CI- (kg CO / m Binder / MPa) 2 3 2 3 90 56 2 3 28 3 3 3 COST- ( Rs. /m Binder / MPa) COST- ( Rs. /m Binder / MPa) COST- ( Rs. /m Binder / MPa) 90 56 28 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Page 17 of 19 240 2. Flower DJM, Sanjayan JG (2007) Green house gas emissions due replacement level resulted in reducing CS, FS, and STS to concrete manufacture. Int J Life Cycle Assess 12(5):282–288. by 11.17%, 6.23%, and 6.99%. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1065/ lca20 07. 05. 327 3. Rashad AM (2015) A brief on high-volume class F fly ash as In the context of sustainable development, using SS as a cement replacement: a guide for civil engineer. Int J Sustain Built Environ 4(2):278–306. https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. i jsbe.2015. 10. 002 binder material in concrete and these findings can help the 4. (Atmospheric chemist) Solomon S (2007) Intergovernmental efforts to reduce the carbon footprint and embodied energy panel on climate change., and intergovernmental panel on climate in the construction industry. It can also reduce the burden change. Working Group I. In: Climate change 2007: the physi- and environmental effects of disposal of SS. cal science basis: contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press Acknowledgment First of all, the authors are thankful to the Depart- 5. O'Brien KR, Ménaché J, O'moore LM (2009) Impact of fly ash ment of Civil Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal content and fly ash transportation distance on embodied green- Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India, for providing the neces- house gas emissions and water consumption in concrete sary facilities to conduct experiments. The authors would like to thank 6. Chen Z, Li JS, Poon CS (2018) Combined use of sewage sludge Government Engineering College Karwar, Karnataka, Department of ash and recycled glass cullet for the production of concrete blocks. Collegiate and Technical Education, Palace Road, Bangalore, Karna- J Clean Prod 171:1447–1459. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jclep ro. taka, and AICTE-New Delhi for supporting our research program. The 2017. 10. 140 authors also thank Dr. Murari M S, Scientific Officer, DST-PURSE 7. Meyer C (2009) The greening of the concrete industry. Cem Concr Program Mangalore University, for performing FE-SEM and EDS Compos 31(8):601–605. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. cemco ncomp. equipment. The authors would also like to acknowledge XRD and 2008. 12. 010 FT-IR to the central institute facility, Manipal Institute of Technol- 8. Zhang Y (2014) Assessment of C O emissions and cost of fly ash ogy, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India, and the concrete. [Online]. 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Cem Concr Compos 32(9):708–717. https://doi. or g/10. peting financial interests or personal relationships that could have ap- 1016/j. cemco ncomp. 2010. 07. 006 peared to influence the work reported in this paper. 12. Safiuddin M, Jumaat MZ, Salam MA, Islam MS, Hashim R (2010) Utilization of solid wastes in construction materials. Int J Ethical statement The authors declare that they have not submitted the Phys Sci 5(13):1952–1963. https://d oi.o rg/1 0.3 844/a jessp.2 013. manuscript to any other journal for simultaneous consideration. The 14. 24 work is original and not published elsewhere. 13. Karim MR, Zain MFM, Jamil M, Lai FC (2015) Development of a zero-cement binder using slag, fly ash, and rice husk ash with chemical activator. Adv Mater Sci Eng. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1155/ Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons 2015/ 247065 Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, 14. Gursel AP, Maryman H, Ostertag C (2016) A life-cycle approach adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, to environmental, mechanical, and durability properties of “green” as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the concrete mixes with rice husk ash. J Clean Prod 112:823–836. source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jclep ro. 2015. 06. 029 if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this 15. Dyer TD, Halliday JE, Dhir KR (2011) Hydration chemistry of article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless sewage sludge ash used as a cement component. J Mater Civ Eng indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. 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Enhancing the sustainability of high strength concrete in terms of embodied energy and carbon emission by incorporating sewage sludge and fly ash

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Abstract

This paper discusses the properties of dried sewage sludge (SS) and its influence on the microstructure development of HVFA concrete when used as a partial replacement of binder material. A detailed characterization of dried sludge samples collected from a sewage treatment plant is carried out using XRF, XRD, TGA, and FTIR techniques. HVFA concrete mix is designed for 50 MPa with 50% fly ash of the total binder content. Sludge is ground to a particle size of 150 µ and 75 µ and replaced at levels of 5%, 10%, and 15% of the total binder content. The strength activity index of the dried sludge sample is acceptable as per standards. Taking concrete mixes with HVFA as a reference, the fresh properties of binder paste and concrete with sewage sludge have been studied. Mechanical properties that define the applicability to various infrastructure projects are reported for all the studied mixes. EI, CI, COST per unit compressive strength for all mixes are also determined to comment on the environmental impact of the use of SS in concrete. The compressive strength of concrete specimens decreases with the increase in replacement level of SS. However, in comparison with OPC concrete, 75 µm SS at 5% replacement level concrete mechanical strength is within the acceptable limit for M50 concrete mix. The addition of SS as a binder to the concrete has a lower environmental impact, embodied energy, CO emission, and cost per unit strength. But more than 10% replacement level resulted in reducing CS, FS, and STS by 11.17%, 6.23%, and 6.99%. * Shreelaxmi Prashant shreelaxmi.p@manipal.edu Mithesh Kumar kumar.mithesh@gmail.com Department of Civil Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India Vol.:(0123456789) 1 3 240 Page 2 of 19 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Graphical abstract Material Characterizations Binder Properties of Paste Concrete Properties Counts S LUDG E 1 00%_Theta_2-Thet a Quartz 4 .1 % Akermanite 3 4. 4 % 300 Ca3 Si O 5 3. 3 % Cristobalit e 8. 1 % IST& 200 Fluidity FST 100 Fresh Hardened Properties Properties 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Position [° 2θ] ( Copper ( Cu)) consiste SAI ncy Result Analysis Environment Impact and Cost Quality Aspect of Concrete Implication 7 Days 28 Days 56 Days 60 Y= 62.111-1.064*X; R2=93.42% 90 Days 50 Y= 59.385-1.313*X; R2=88.02% CO2 Embodied 40 Y= 56.054-1.307*X; R2=85.91% Energy Emission Y= 39.865-1.350*X; R2=83.81% Water 05 10 15 UPV Percentage replacement of 150µm down size sewage sludge Absorption Eco- efficiency Keywords Sewage sludge · High volume fly ash concrete · Mechanical properties · Carbon footprint · Embodied energy Abbreviations SCMs Supplementary cementitious materials CO Carbon dioxide SDG Sustainable development goals CE Carbon emissionTGA Thermo gravimetric analysis CI Carbon emission index UPV Ultrasonic pulse velocity CS Compressive strengthWA Water absorption EE Embodied energy XRD X-ray powder diffraction EI Embodied energy indexXRF X-ray fluorescence FESEM Field emission scanning electron microscope FST Final setting time FS Flexural strength Introduction FA Fly ash FTIR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy The sustainability of concrete depends on the amount GHG Greenhouse gas of CO2 and other GHGs emitted in the production and HVFA High-volume fly ash procurement of raw materials, mixing, casting, and curing. HVFAC High volume fly ash concrete Due to globalization and increased population, industrial IST Initial setting time waste disposal is one of the most significant challenges COST Material cost index humankind is facing. In this context, attempts are being MoE Modulus of elasticity made to reduce carbon emissions in concreting through the MSWA Municipal solid waste ash effective utilization of industrial by-products. Sustainable MWWTP Municipal waste water treatment plant development goals (SDG) and standards have suggested OPC Ordinary Portland cement using waste materials/by-products that reduce carbon PC Portland cement emission and embodied energy. SS Sewage sludge Cement production is an energy-intensive process. As SSA Sewage sludge ash of now, 4400 million tons of cement are manufactured STS Split tensile strength yearly worldwide. It is also anticipated that the number will SAI Strength activity index rise to over 5500 million tons by 2050. About 8% of the 1 3 Compressive Strength (MPa) Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Page 3 of 19 240 world's CO emission is attributed to cement production. HVFA against chloride ion penetration was enhanced with India stands at the second position in cement production an increase in the inter-grinding time of binder material [35]. and cement-related CO emissions. Cement production in SS is a by-product of the MWWTP. The estimated dry India is estimated to rise to 3000 MT, emitting nearly 1.3 sludge production quantities annually are 8910, 6510, billion tons of C O by 2050 [1]. The C O emissions are 3955, 2960, 650, 580, 550, and 370 thousand metric tons 2 2 found to reduce with SCMs in one of the binder phases. EU-27, USA, India, China, Iran, Turkey, Canada, and Approximately 13–22% of CO emissions were reduced Brazil, respectively [36–39]. Presently, in India, out of by SCMs depending on the level of replacement used [2]. the 62,000 MLD sewage generated, only 20,120 MLD O'Brien et al. (2009) reported that the primary source of goes into the treatment plant. The quantity of dry sludge GHG emissions is the concrete industry. Seven percent generated in India is expected to increase many times due of the global GHG emissions are from PC production. In to the extensive installation of municipal sewage treatment addition, the cement industry releases gases such as SO plants under the Swachh Bharat Mission [31–33]. Due to and NO that can cause environmental degradation and other large SS production, a proper disposal strategy is essential to associated effects [3 , 4]. manage dried sludge quantities. Various disposal strategies Many researchers have unanimously accepted that FA like agricultural manure, fillers in landscapes, gardening, reduces GHG emissions when replaced with Portland cement and all the unused SS get dumped into the landfills. With the [5]. The reduction in GHG emissions depends on the source lack of land spaces and new environmental regulations, it is and condition of raw materials, the type of supplementary essential to explore new applications of SS [40, 41]. There cementitious material used, the percentage of replacement is a need for efficient recycling, resource recalcination, and level, and the transportation distance. Industrial by-products, proper SS treatment [42]. Several researchers identified the such as FA and slag, are widely used and accepted as partial presence of calcium, silica, and alumina phases in SS on replacements to OPC [6]. The effective use of improperly analysis of its chemical composition. SS is found to possess disposed of municipal and industrial by-products/wastes properties similar to popular pozzolanic material used in can reduce pollution and result in the sustainable use of concrete [43, 44]. natural resources [7]. Many experimental investigations are Marisal et  al. (2004) investigated the mechanical performed on using other wastes in concrete, such as palm properties of concrete specimens containing treated plant oil fuel ash, rice hush ash, MSWA, incinerated bottom ash, sludge and recommended replacing levels up to 10% of agro-waste, and SSA, as a part of cementitious binder in binder content [45]. Baskar et al. (2006) have successfully concrete production [8–22]. replaced 9% of the binder with sludge obtained from the Due to the ever-increasing energy demand, many thermal residue of the textile industry and wastewater in clay bricks. power plants were set up across the globe, resulting in the At a 9% replacement level, the brick samples satisfied the large-scale production of FA as a by-product. Therefore, the requirement of the BIS for compressive strength, weight safe disposal of FA to prevent environmental pollution has loss, and shrinkage parameters [46]. Patel and Pandey become a global challenge. FA can be used as a valuable (2009) reported that the sludge from the textile industry resource in concrete, greenhouse gas emissions, and had a potential for reuse as construction materials [47]. embodied energy. HVFA is an approach to maximize the Jamshidi et al. (2010) replaced cement with dry sludge at FA content in concrete and minimize OPC use for a similar 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% in concrete. The sizing and level of mechanical properties. In contrast, Dunstan et al. milling of dry sludge to a finer particle size can improve the (1992) referred to any concrete containing more than 40% mechanical properties of concrete any unreacted particles of FA as HVFA concrete. Many experimental investigations are left to act as a filler in concrete [48]. have recommended 30–70% cement replacement by FA for The dried sludge organic content limited to 13% can be concrete having 28 days strength of 40–50 MPa [3, 23–33]. used as an additive to mix. The increase in sludge by more Sivasundaram et  al. (1990) observed the strength than 5% was adversely affected workability [45– 47]. Similar development of HVFA concrete over three years. Concrete results have been found for both wet and dry wastewater gained strength of 70  MPa and modulus of elasticity of sludge used in concrete. 47GPa with prolonged curing for two years [34]. Jiang and The current study investigates the physical and chemical Malhotra (2000) recommended the use of a large amount properties of FA and SS as a binder material. The fresh and of FA as binders (55%) in conjunction with the use of hardened properties of concrete mixes at different levels superplasticizers to achieve higher slumps of 100 mm and of replacement of SS are reported. The higher the energy above since HVFAC is associated with a low W/B [32]. required to produce raw material, the higher the energy Bouzoubaa et al. (2000) found improvement in resistance to cost, resulting in higher CO emissions to the atmosphere chloride ion penetration characteristics with HVFA blended and embodied energy. All these would result in higher CO cement. Further, it was also noticed that the performance of emission and embodied energy, creating a higher negative 1 3 240 Page 4 of 19 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 impact on the environment. This study performs CE and Table 1 Physical characteristics of raw materials EE of the binding material and concrete mixes at a different Physical Cement FA SS (150 µm) SS (75 µm) replacement level. characteristics Specific gravity 3.12 2.32 1.95 2.13 Specific surface 0.313 0.377 0.320 0.315 Experimental program area (m2/g) Particle size D10 3.68 2.17 5.27 4.85 Materials D50 14.85 8.72 35.13 24.34 D90 32.32 27.99 78.45 47.32 Binder material OPC Forty-three Grade confirming IS 8112-2013 [49] is used for the study. Low calcium FA (Class F) was procured and calcite. The same is noted by Valls et  al. (2004) [45]. Clay is absent in dry sludge, which signifies the absence of a from a Raichur, Karnataka, India. Dried SS was collected from the dry sludge bed at the MWWTP at End Point, stable binder phase on hydration. However, it can be used as a partial replacement for cement. The range in which vari- MAHE, Manipal, Karnataka, India, and dried for seven more days in sunlight to remove excess moisture. ous compounds are present in the sludge presented in previ- ous research articles is also listed in Table  2. The ternary After oven-drying at 105  °C for 24  h, the sludge was ground for 1 h in a ball mill. The ground residue was sieved representation of SiO -CaO-Al O -Fe O concerning that 2 2 3 2 3 of OPC, FA, and SS is presented in Fig. 2. through 150 and 75-micron meter IS standard sieves and col- lected separately. The particle size analysis of all the ingredi- X‑ray powder diffraction (XRD) of SS XRD spectra of SS are ents going into the binder system is illustrated in Fig. 1. The properties of various binder materials used in the present presented in Fig. 3. The crystalline phases of the SS mainly consist of quartz SiO 4.1%, Akermanito 34.4%, Ca SiO study are presented in Tables 1 and 2. 2 3 5 53.3%, and Cristobalite 8.1%. Chemical analysis with  X‑ray fluorescence Semi-chemical quantitative analysis of the oxides is performed, and the out- Thermogravimetric analysis of  sewage sludge The result of TGA is presented in Fig.  4. The SS sample tested was comes are tabulated in Table  2. Sewage sludge comprises SiO, Al O, Fe O , CaO, Na O, and P O , which is quite found to have undergone thermal degradation in two phases. 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 5 The first phase of primary degradation occurred at the tem- similar to FA. The proportions of SiO and Al O , which 2 2 3 are the main reactive components responsible for pozzo- perature range of 100–500  °C, wherein the sludge sample was found to experience a high rate of mass loss. In the lanic reactions in the binder system (ASTM C125, 2007), are lower than FA. Sludge is composed primarily of quartz second phase, continuous decomposition of SS occurs at a Table 2 Chemical composition of binder materials Cement Fly Ash Composition OPC FA SS (%) SS observed value in literature Natural Sand Coarse Aggregate Min Max SS (150) 70 SS(75) SiO 20.27 53.25 12.013 2.06 [50] 42.54 [51] Al O 8.98 25.62 4.424 2.06 [50] 14.79 [52] 2 3 Fe O 3.71 6.4 41.715 4.58 [50] 49.35 [53] 2 3 CaO 59.21 4.7 8.985 2.40 [52] 22.70 [45] MgO 1.85 1.04 0.014 0.01 [15] 5.78 [27] P O – – 23.302 5.00 [54] 22.55 [27] 2 5 Na O 0.15 2.22 6.247 0.31 [55] 1.11 [50] K O 0.98 0.87 2.122 0.53 [55] 6.19 [27] TiO 1.35 – 1.069 0.52 [52] 3.42 [50] SO 2.52 1.29 – 0.0 [48, 51, 52, 9.57 [27] 0.1 110 100 1000 10000 3 56] Sieve Size (µm) Cl – – – 0 [50, 53, 57] 0.5 [55] LOI 1.47 2.85 48.59 47.50 [50] 73.40 [50] Fig. 1 Particle size distribution of concrete ingredient 1 3 Cumulative percentage (%) Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Page 5 of 19 240 acids, amides, and amines are also noted. Multiple peaks −1 indicate the presence of C–H groups in the 1042–2925  cm region. The primary absorbance in FTIR spectra in the −1 region 450–1050  cm is due to the Si–O bond of silicate impurities and traces of clay minerals. Microstructure The FESEM images of OPC, FA, and SS are shown in Fig.  6. From the FESEM image of SS, it is observed that the particle sizes appear to be more prominent than FA. SS appears crystalline in nature. It consists of the random orientation of solids with irregular shapes and sizes. Therefore, to attain higher reactivity, it is essential to grind the SS to a finer level. Aggregates Fig. 2 Ternary 3D plot of binder materials Natural river sand and gravel as fine and coarse aggregate in accordance with IS 383-1970 1970 (Reaffirmed 2011) high temperature of 500–900 °C with a comparatively lower are used for the present study. Table  3 and Fig.  1 show mass-loss rate. aggregates physical properties and sieve analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of  sewage sludge FTIR analysis was carried out for SS using JASCO Superplasticizer −1 FTIR-6300 with a wavelength range of 400–4000  cm results which are shown in Fig.  5. Inorganic bonded O–H High range water reducing agent Rofluid H1 (PCE base), −1 groups with a wavenumber of 3250  cm are observed. The with a specific gravity of 1.15 and pH of 4.5, was used in all −1 broad peak at the 3600–4000  cm region signifies the pres- mixes to enhance the workability of concrete. The chloride ence of O–H and N–H functional groups. Hence, alcohols, ion and alkaline percentages are ≤ 0.1 and 0.4, respectively. Count s S LUDG E 100%_Thet a_2-Theta Quartz 4 .1 % Akermanite 34. 4 % 300 Ca3 Si O 53. 3 % Crist obalit e 8. 1 % 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Position [ °2θ] (C opper ( Cu)) Fig. 3 XRD pattern of sewage sludge 1 3 240 Page 6 of 19 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Sewage Sludge Fig. 4 The TGA of raw SS Fly ash OPC Fig. 5 FTIR spectra of sewage sludge Fig. 6 Microstructure of sewage sludge, fly ash, and OPC Preparation of the paste Table 3 Properties of natural aggregates The mix proportions of various combinations of binder Properties Coarse aggregate Fine aggregate blends used for the study are listed in Table 4. The blended Specific gravity 2.65 2.55 binder paste was carried out as per the norms stipulated in Bulk density (Loose state) (kg/ 1428 1454 EN 196-3 [58]. m ) Bulk density (compacted state) 1679 1645 Mix proportioning (kg/m ) Water absorption (%) 0.42 0.85 The mix proportions used for the current investigation are Silt content (%) – 1.50 presented in Table 5. Sewage sludge was replaced at 5%, Bulking of sand (%) – 25 10%, and 15% of the total binder content. Physical and mechanical properties of HVFA high strength concrete with three levels of sludge replacement were investigated through 0.3 is used for all the mixes. After casting, the specimens are experimental procedures. Using the Department of Environ- ment's Design (DOE) method, M50 concrete is designed de-molded after 24 h and then immersed in water for curing as per IS 10086-2008 [59]. with 50% cement and 50% FA as a binder. The w/b ratio of 1 3 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Page 7 of 19 240 Table 4 Mix designation for Blends Combination General designation Binder content blended mixes OPC (%) FA (%) SS (%) Control OPC C 100 – – Binary blends OPC + FA CF 50 50 – Ternary blends OPC + FA + SS (150 µm) CFS150-5 47.5 47.5 5 CFS150-10 45 45 10 CFS150-15 42.5 42.5 15 OPC + FA + SS (75 µm) CFS75-5 47.5 47.5 5 CFS75-10 45 45 10 CFS75-15 42.5 42.5 15 Table 5 Mix proportion of concrete used in present study 3 3 3 Mix desig- OPC (kg/m ) FA (kg/m ) SS-150 µm SS-75 µm Sand (kg/m ) Coarse aggregate Water W/B ratio SP 3 3 3 nation (kg/m ) (kg/m ) (kg/m ) (%) M1 577 – – – 899.94 798.06 191 0.33 1.0 M2 288 288.5 – – 899.94 798.06 191 0.33 2.1 M3 274.075 274.075 28.85 – 899.94 798.06 191 0.33 2.1 M4 259.65 259.65 57.7 – 899.94 798.06 191 0.33 2.1 M5 245.225 245.225 86.55 – 899.94 798.06 191 0.33 2.1 M6 274.075 274.075 – 28.85 899.94 798.06 191 0.33 2.1 M7 259.65 259.65 – 57.7 899.94 798.06 191 0.33 2.1 M8 245.225 245.225 – 86.55 899.94 798.06 191 0.33 2.1 Specimen casting and curing Tests on concrete OPC, FA, and SS were mixed thoroughly to obtain uniform "Compressive strength test has been performed at 7, 14, 28, binder mix. The aggregates are mixed with binders for 56, and 90 days of the curing period using 150 mm cubic 2 min to obtain a uniform dry mix. Uniform concrete mix size, as per the Indian Standard Specifications IS:516-1959 was obtained by continuing the mixing for 2–3 min after [60]. The loading rate of 14 N/mm /min was maintained water dispersion, and chemical admixture was poured. using CTM of capacity 3000 kN. The split tensile strength Later, concrete was cast into specific molds. The molded was determined as per IS 5816-1999 [67] using specimen samples were kept in laboratory conditions for 24 ± 0.5 h sizes of 150 mm diameter and 300 mm height at 7, 28,56, and de-molded, later stored in a curing tank in the conven- and 90 days. The rate of load application was within the tional method for the required durations [60–62]. range of 1.2–2.4 N/mm /min. The flexural strength test was performed using the prism of size 100 × 100 × 500 mm as per IS 516-1959 [60]. Modulus of elasticity (MoE) has Experimental procedure been conducted as per IS 516-1959 [60] on the cylinder specimen of size 150 mm diameter and 300 mm height after Test on binder material 28 days of curing. Deformation of the sample under com- pressive load was found using compressometer and linear The setting time of the binder was determined as per variable differential transformer (LVDT) equipment. The the procedure prescribed in ASTM C191 [63]. Standard ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test was performed as per consistency of binder pastes is performed as per ASTM IS 13311-1-1992 [68] using a TICO Ultrasonic instrument C187-16 [64]. SAI test was performed according to ASTM supplied by PROCEQ SA, Switzerland. A water absorp- C618-05 [65] to study the pozzolanic activity of the binder tion test has been conducted on 150 mm cube specimens mix. The fluidity of binder paste was measured (mini- following the specifications prescribed in BS 1881-122- slump flow) as per ASTM C1437 [66]. 1983 [69]. Details of the tests and the corresponding codes referred are mentioned in Table 6 [62]. 1 3 240 Page 8 of 19 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Table 6 Summary of Sl. no Tests Specimen Standards experimental tests conducted 1 Setting time Binder paste ASTM C191 [63] 2 Standard consistency Binder paste ASTM C187-16 [64] 3 Fluidity (Mini-Slump Flow) Binder paste ASTM C1437 [66] 4 Strength activity index test Binder mortar ASTM C618-05 [65] 5 Slump flow Concrete IS 1199-1959 [70] 6 Density Concrete BS 1881-114:1983 [71] 7 Compressive strength Concrete IS 516-1959 [60] 8 Splitting tensile strength Concrete IS 5816-1999 [67] 9 Flexural strength Concrete IS 516-1959 [60] 10 Modulus of elasticity Concrete IS 516-1959 [60] 11 Ultrasonic pulse velocity Concrete IS 13311-1-1992 [68] 12 Water absorption Concrete BS 1881-122-1983 [69] Table 7 Setting time, consistency, and slump flow of binder paste was 31%. A similar trend was observed by Marthong and Agrawal (2012) [74]. Replacement of SS resulted in an Binder mix Setting time Consistency Slump flow increase in the consistency values of the blended pastes due IST (min) FST (min) (%) (mm) to the higher powder volume and porous and crystalline nature of SS. It is also noted from Table  7 that the con- C 150 265 31 180 sistency value is higher for binder paste with 75 µm down- CF 185 305 34 195 size SS particle compared to 150 µm downsize at the same CFS150-5 220 335 38 162 replacement level. CFS150-10 235 350 40 157 CFS150-15 255 375 41 151 CFS75-5 200 315 41 172 Fluidity (mini‑slump flow) of binder CFS75-10 185 330 46 166 CFS75-15 175 360 53 161 The fluidity of various paste compositions studied with and without sludge replacement is presented in Table  7. The slump flow values of the paste mixes were found to Results and discussion range from 151 to 195 mm compared to the slump value of 180 mm for OPC. It is observed that the fluidity of the OPC Initial and final setting time paste was found to have increased on replacing OPC with 50% FA. However, with the incorporation of SS into the The IST and FST of pastes tested are presented in Table 7. binder, the fluidity is considerably reduced. The SS particles IST and FST vary from 155 to 255 and 265 to 375, are porous and irregular in shape, hence, more susceptible respectively. It is noticed that with an increase of SS, the to water absorption on particle surfaces [75]. Also, the size setting time also increases for the pastes containing both of SS was found to influence the fluidity. 150  µm and 75  µm downsized dried sludge. However, the paste samples containing 75  µm downsized SS Strength activity index have exhibited acceptable setting times at 5% and 10% replacement levels. Mirza et al. (2002), Duran-Herrera et al. The SAI test was conducted to evaluate the pozzolanic activ- (2011), and Huang et al. (201) reported an increase in IST ity of SS and presented in Fig. 7. According to ASTM C618- and FST of cement paste with the inclusion of SCMs [25, 05 [65], the substitutive material is designated a pozzolan 72, 73]. if it achieves a 75% of the strength gained by OPC mortar at 7 14, 28, 56, and 90 days, respectively, with 20% cement Standard consistency of binder replacement. According to the results of the SAI, SS (75 µm) exhibits moderate pozzolanic activity. It can also be seen The standard consistencies of binder pastes studied at die ff r - from the figure that the SAI of SS increased as the curing ent replacement levels are shown in Table 7. The consistency day advances. The presence and quantities of amorphous value of FA blended cement paste at 50% cement replace- phases in the pozzolan contribute to pozzolanic when used ment level is 34%, while the control sample consistency as partial replacement to cement. 1 3 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Page 9 of 19 240 replacement of SS resulted in a decrease in slump value for the concrete in both 75 and 150 µm size particles. Similar results are observed by Jamshidi et al. (2011) [48], Ghada FA Mourtada et al. (2016) [74], and Ehab et al. (2019) [77]. SS ( 150) SS (75) Concrete density The 28-day concrete density was determined according to BS 1881: Part 114:1983 [71] (Method of determination of density of hardened concrete) [71] and presented in Fig. 9. The density of specimens increased with curing age. Con- tinuous hydration and pozzolanic action from binder materi- als resulted in dense microstructure at a later age. Compared to the control sample, the concrete density began to drop in Days addition to 5% of SS. Based on the results obtained, it can be noted that the concrete density decreased with an increase in Fig. 7 Strength activity index of supplementary cementitious materi- SS particle size. The same trend was observed by Amminu- als din et al. (2020) [56]. It is important to note that the addition of FA to the mix lowers the fresh concrete density. The lower In comparison, SS has proven to possess lower SAI than specific gravity of FA and SS compared to OPC accounts for FA. Finer grinding may be used for improving pozzolanic a decrease in density. The same trend is observed in studies activity. In the present study, SS with a particle size of reported earlier [3, 23, 78]. The deadweight of the struc- 75 µm possesses moderate pozzolanic activity, suitable to tural element is reduced due to a reduction in the density be used as SCM's. of concrete. So, the use of SS in the binder system can be considered one of the advantages. Influence of sewage sludge on slump flow Compressive strength The slump flow values of freshly mixed concrete mix are illustrated in Fig. 8. A higher slump value is observed in The CS test was performed on concrete samples at 7, 14, mix M2 because of a higher proportion of FA compared 28, 56, and 90 curing days. The measurement of CS of to the OPC (M1) mix. Sahmaran and Yaman (2007) also the concrete sample with variable SS content is shown in reported that OPC replacement with 50% FA increased the Table 8. The replacement of 150 µm downsized SS at 5%, slump flow by 23.2% [76]. The increase in the percentage 10%, and 15% resulted in a decrease in 28 days strength by 24.12%, 25.54%, and 36.54%, respectively. Whereas 75 µm M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 Mix Design Mix Design Fig. 8 Slump flow of the concrete mix Fig. 9 Density of concrete mix at 28 days 1 3 SAI Slump flow (mm) Density (kg/m3) 240 Page 10 of 19 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Table 8 CS, STS, and FS of mixes at different curing ages Concrete mix Compressive strength (MPa) Split tensile Strength (MPa) Flexural strength (MPa) 7 day 14 day 28 day 56 day 90 day 7 day 28 day 56 day 90 day 7 day 28 day 56 day 90 day M1 46.04 53.93 61.11 63.56 65.18 3.36 3.99 4.09 4.16 4.53 5.14 5.25 5.32 M2 43.04 45.93 58.96 62.15 64.45 3.22 3.91 4.04 4.13 4.38 5.04 5.18 5.29 M3 27.81 36.72 44.70 48.72 54.28 2.48 3.30 3.48 3.71 3.52 4.33 4.54 4.81 M4 26.37 37.42 43.90 46.18 52.45 2.40 3.26 3.37 3.64 3.44 4.29 4.41 4.73 M5 42.43 44.62 58.12 61.25 63.25 2.12 2.96 3.14 3.37 3.09 3.94 4.14 4.42 M6 38.23 43.25 52.37 55.18 56.95 3.20 3.87 4.00 4.08 4.35 5.00 5.14 5.23 M7 35.30 38.95 48.35 50.11 51.31 3.00 3.63 3.75 3.82 4.11 4.72 4.86 4.94 M8 42.43 44.62 58.12 61.25 63.25 2.86 3.46 3.54 3.59 3.93 4.52 4.61 4.67 7 Days 28 Days 7 Days Y= 65.149-0.854*X; R =88.68% 56 Days 28 Days 90 Days 56 Days 60 2 Y= 62.111-1.064*X; R =93.42% 2 Y= 63.502-0.844*X; R =91.74% 90 Days Y= 60.093-0.753*X; R =90.97% 50 2 Y= 59.385-1.313*X; R =88.02% 40 2 Y= 56.054-1.307*X; R =85.91% Y= 44.295-0.626*X; R =90.68% 05 10 15 Y= 39.865-1.350*X; R =83.81% Percentage replacement of 75µm down size sewage sludge Fig. 11 Relationship between CS and percentage replacement level of 05 10 15 75 µm downsized SS Percentage replacement of 150µm down size sewage sludge Split tensile strength Fig. 10 Relationship between CS and percentage replacement level of 150 µm downsized SS The STS results of eight mixes are illustrated in Table  8. The 28 days lowest strength of 2.96 MPa is observed in mix 5 (M5). The replacement of 150 µm downsized SS at 5%, downsize contributed 1.4%, 11.17%, and 17.99% reduc- 10%, and 15% replacement levels resulted in a consider- tion for 5%, 10%, and 15% replacement levels, respec- able decrease in strength. Whereas 75 µm downsized, SS tively. Jamshidi et al. (2011, 2012) [48, 79] observed that concrete samples contributed reasonably good strength 5%, 10%, and 20% addition of dry sludge resulted in a than 150 µm. The relationship between STS and percentage decrease in strength by approximately 9%, 14.5%, and replacement level is plotted, and individual equations are 28% in 28 days and 3.5%, 8%, and 20% in 90 days cured presented in Figs. 12 and 13. A direct relationship equation samples. It is also noted that for both the sizes, 75 µm and is plotted considering 7, 28 56, and 90 days CS and STS and 150 µm sized SS, compressive strength at 90 days for 5% presented in Fig. 14. R , a value of 0.809, indicates a cor- and 10% replacement levels is within the acceptable limits relation between them. for M50 concrete. The relationship between CS and per- centage replacement level is plotted, individual equations Flexural strength are presented in Figs. 10 and 11, and a strong relationship between percentage replacement and CS with R lying The FS experiment results at 7, 14, 28, 56, and 90  days between 83.81 and 93.42%. are illustrated in Table  8. The 28 days lowest strength of 3.94 MPa is observed for the M5 mix. The replacement of 150 µm downsized SS at 5%, 10%, and 15% replacement 1 3 Compressive Strength (MPa) Compressive Strength (MPa) Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Page 11 of 19 240 Equation y = a + b*x 7 Days Plot Splitting Tensile Strength 28 Days Weight No Weighting Intercept1.44012 ± 0.17113 56 Days Slope 0.03844 ± 0.0034 Residual Sum of Squares1.42383 90 Days 4 4.0 Pearson's r0.89983 R-Square (COD) 0.80969 Adj. R-Square 0.80335 Y= 4.066-0.0473*X; R =93.24% 3.5 Y=3.926-0.0563*X; R =90.04% Y= 3.7897-0.0577*X; R =87.90% 3.0 Split Tensile Strength Linear Fit of Sheet1 B"ST" 95% Confidence Band of B"ST" Y= 3.063-0.0677*X; R =86.54% 95% Prediction Band of B"ST" 2.5 2.0 05 10 15 20 40 60 Percentage replacement of 150µm down size sewage sludge Compressive Strngth (MPa) Fig. 12 Relationship between STS and percentage replacement level Fig. 14 Relationship between CS and STS of 150 µm downsized SS 7 Days 28 Days 56 Days 90 Days 4.0 5.5 Y= 4.066-0.0473*X; R =93.24% 3.5 90 5.0 Y=3.926-0.0563*X; R =90.04% Y= 5.211-0.053*X; R =92.69% Y= 3.7897-0.0577*X; R =87.90% 3.0 4.5 Y= 5.057-0.065*X; R =89.96% Y= 3.063-0.0677*X; R =86.54% 2.5 4.0 Y= 4.903-0.067*X; R =86.99% 3.5 2.0 05 10 15 Y= 4.195-0.078*X; R =86.23% Percentage replacement of 75 µm down size sewage sludge 3.0 Fig. 13 Relationship between STS and percentage replacement level 05 10 15 of 75 µm downsized SS Percentage replacement of 150µm down size sewage sludge Fig. 15 Relationship between FS and percentage replacement level of levels resulted in a drastic decrease in strength. Whereas 150 µm downsized SS 75 µm downsized SS exhibited higher strength than 150 µm. The relationship between tensile strength and percentage replacement level is plotted, and individual equations are presented in Figs. 15 and 16. A direct relationship equation is plotted considering 7, 28, 56, and 90 days CS and STS and presented in Fig. 17. The R value of 0.873 is observed, presented in Fig. 18. The replacement of 150 µm downsizes indicating a good correlation between them. SS decreased the modulus of elasticity, whereas it is similar to the control mix in the samples containing 75 µm downsize SS. Modulus of elasticity (MoE) The incorporation of SS led to a decrease in MoE due to the de-densification of pore structure. A linear degradation in the The MoE affects reinforced concrete's safety, durability, den- value of modulus of elasticity with an increase in SS content sity, and life span. The 28 days MoE of concrete specimens is observed. A linear relationship between CS and MoE at is calculated by applying a series of compressive stress cycles 28 days is plotted in Fig. 19. A good correlation is observed up to about 40% of the measured compressive strength and is with the R value of 0.917. 1 3 Split Tensile Strength ( MPa) Split Tensile Strength ( MPa) Flexural Strength (MPa) Splitting Tensile Strength (MPa) 240 Page 12 of 19 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 5.4 5.2 2 30 Y= 5.352-0.042*X; R =93.72% 5.0 4.8 Y= 5.252-0.041*X; R =92.04% 2 20 Y= 5.096-0.036*X; R =93.37% 4.6 4.4 Y= 4.428-0.031*X; R =91.44% 4.2 4.0 3.8 0 05 10 15 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 Percentage replacement of 75µm down size sewage sludge Mix Fig. 16 Relationship between FS and percentage replacement level of Fig. 18 MoE of mixes at 28 days 75 µm downsized SS Equation y = a + b*x Plot B Equation y = a + b*x Plot Flexural Strength Weight No Weighting Weight No Weighting Intercept 11.38743 ± 2.77247 Intercept2.27091 ± 0.15398 40 0.44204 ± 0.05412 Slope 5 Slope 0.04401 ± 0.00306 8.76069 Residual Sum of Squares1.15279 Residual Sum of Squares Pearson's r0.93445 0.95785 Pearson's r R-Square (COD)0.87319 0.91748 38 R-Square (COD) Adj. R-Square 0.86897 0.90373 Adj. R-Square Flexural Strength Linear Fit of Sheet1 B"FS" Modulus of Elasticity 95% Confidence Band of B"FS" Linear Fit of Sheet1 B 95% Prediction Band of B"FS" 95% Confidence Band of B 95% Prediction Band of B 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 20 40 60 Compressive Strength (MPa) Compressive Strength (MPa) Fig. 19 Relationship between CS and MoE Fig. 17 Relationship between CS and FS Influence of sewage sludge on quality aspect UPV @ 28 Days CS @ 28 Days CS @ 90 Days 3800 UPV @ 90 Days of concrete Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) The UPV test results for the mix at 28 and 90  days and correlation between UPV and CS are presented in Fig.  20. The mixes result was between 3400 and 3500 3700  m/s, which falls under the decent to the excel- lent category as per IS 13111 (Part 1). The linear regression analysis has been plotted (Fig. 21) between M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 UPV and CS. A direct relationship was obtained as y Concrete Mix (UPV)=2917.24 + 12.49 X (CS), with an R value of 0.8954 showing a good correlation. Fig. 20 Comparison between CS and UPV of the mix at 28 and 90 days 1 3 Flexural Strength (MPa) Flexural Strength (MPa) Compressive Strength (MPa) Modulus of Elasticity (GPa) Modulus of Elasticity (GPa) UPV (m/S) Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Page 13 of 19 240 replacement of SS as binder material gives better results than Equation y = a + b*x Plot UPV 150 µm downsized SS particle. Weight No Weighting Intercept2917.2362 ± 33.76 Slope12.49415 ± 0.6927 Residual Sum of Square 87410.61508 Pearson's r0.94626 R-Square (COD) 0.8954 Adj. R-Square 0.89265 Assessment of environment impact and cost implication Using a higher dosage of supplementary cementitious material in concrete minimizes environmental impact and UPV Linear Fit of Sheet1 B"UPV" 95% Confidence Band of B"UPV" increases compressive strength. Cradle-to-gate EE, CE, and 95% Prediction Band of B"UPV" COST are quantified for different binder combinations. The energy consumption and CE can vary depending upon the manufacturing process, raw material, and distance from the 20 40 60 source. Therefore, representative data from the literature Compressive Strength (MPa) were used in this study. Fig. 21 Linear regression between CS and UPV Carbon dioxide emission Table 9 Water absorption in percentage at 28, 56, and 90 days Global warming is exacerbated by urbanization and industrialization, which leads to the depletion of natural 28 days 56 days 90 days resources, prompting scholars worldwide to consider M1 4.2 3.98 3.85 sustainable development. As a large user of natural resources M2 4.32 4.05 3.94 and energy, the concrete industry has significantly increased M3 4.48 4.26 3.99 GHG emissions. According to estimates, the global M4 4.72 4.54 4.36 population is expected to reach ten billion by 2050, resulting M5 4.87 4.63 4.4 in increased construction and development activities and a M6 4.33 4.09 3.92 negative impact on the environment [78, 80]. M7 4.39 4.12 3.96 The CO emission parameters were calculated in this M8 4.43 4.24 4.02 study by calculating carbon emissions during the preparation of SCMs. According to previous studies, the carbon footprint of FA is low because it is a waste by-product of Water absorption (WA) coal-burning power plants. Researchers in earlier studies state that carbon mission from FA is negligible because it WA of eight mixes investigated at 28, 56, and 90 days of cur- is a waste by-product arising from the coal-burning power ing is presented in Table 9. WA decreases with an increase in station. But in the current study, the value of 0.008 kg eq. curing ages in all mix specimens. An increase in SS percent- CO /kg is considered for FA, as per Hammond and Jones age increased water absorption. However, 75 µm downsized (2011) [80, 81]. Table 10 CO emission factors Material Energy requirement for 1000 kg SS Transport of 1000 kg SS Total emission for sewage sludge (kg CO /kg SS) d e Consumption (kWh) Emission DistanceEmission factor factors (kg CO / Oven drying Grinding kWh) and sieving SS (150 µm) 25 130.3 0.231 10 0.245 0.0383 SS (75 µm) 25 186.5 0.231 10 0.245 0.0513 "a Energy utilized by oven during 24 h of drying with a utilization rate of 1041.67 W/h." "b Energy utilized by sieving and grinding machines." "c Emission aspect due to electricity production (DECC 2021)." "d Distance from Municipal Treatment Plant to MIT, Manipal MAHE Campus." "e Emission aspect of the truck used to transport the materials (DECC 2021)." 1 3 UPV (m/s) 240 Page 14 of 19 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Table 11 Carbon emissions factors of raw materials Materials Emission factors (kg C O /kg) References Cement 0.951 [83] Fly ash (FA) 0.008 [83, 84] SS (150) 0.0383 Table 8 SS (75) 0.0513 Table 8 Coarse aggregate 0.0043 [85] Sand 0.0026 [85] Water 0.000196 [86] Super plasticiser 0.944 [83, 86] Cement M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 Fly Ash Mix SS 150 µm Ss 75 µm Fig. 23 CO emission of total cementitious material per mix (per m ) Raw Material Production Transport M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 Mix Fig. 22 CO emission of total cementitious material per mix (per m ) M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 Similarly, SS raw material contributes zero C O emis- 2 Concrete Mix sion, as it is also a by-product in municipal wastewater treat- ment plants [5, 82]. However, the energy utilized to improve 3 Fig. 24 Total CO emission during concrete production (kg CO /m ) 2 2 reactivity by drying, grinding, sieving, and transport is considered for calculating carbon emission for SS and FA. According to the UK Government, conversion factors for CO emission factor was considered 0.008 kg C O /kg for 2 2 GHG report 2021 are considered while calculating carbon concrete production as Kin et al. (2016) [86]. The pur- emissions. Table  10 represents the calculated CO emis- pose of the CO emission analysis is not to achieve a mix sion factors for SS (150 µm) and (75 µm). The final carbon with the lowest C O . Achieving a mix with less C O emis- 2 2 emission factors of ingredients used in concrete mixes are sions is also important, which shows acceptable mechani- presented in Table 11. cal properties. The results show that Mix M1 with 100% The CO emission of individual and total cementi- 2 3 OPC has the highest emission rate of 601.24 kg C O /m , tious material per mix is illustrated in Figs.  22 and 23. while the lowest value of 293.95 kg CO /m and 295.17 kg Replacing OPC by increasing the amount of SCMs per CO /m is observed in mix M5 and M8. When SCMs were unit volume of concrete resulted in reducing CO emis- incorporated, a reduction in CO emissions was observed. sion of cementitious material in mixes up to 57%. The According to the current study result, the binder was the amounts of C O released by each concrete mix depend major contributor to C O emissions at rates ranging from upon the proportions of materials, concrete production, 80 to 90% of the total emission of 1 m , depending upon and raw material transport, as presented in Fig. 24. The the replacement ratio of SCMs. 1 3 Carbon Emission ( kg CO / m Binder) kg CO /m3 kg CO /m 2 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Page 15 of 19 240 OPC M8 Fly Ash Compressive Strength SS (150 µm) Flexural Strength M7 SS (75 µm) Split Tensile Strength M6 M5 M4 M3 M2 M1 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 -3 Efficiency (MPa/kg CO .m ) M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 Mix Fig. 25 Concrete eco-efficiency (compressive, flexural, and tensile) strength/CO emissions Fig. 26 Embodied energy of binder material in each mix Eco‑efficiency that a decrease in cement content and an increase in sup- plementary cementitious material can significantly reduce Eco-efficiency is the ratio between 28-day mechanical the EE and CE. strength and C O equivalent emissions of the concrete mixes. Figure  25 represents the concrete eco-efficiency Environmental impact and binder cost per unit CS of eight mixes and illustrates that the mix with alternative of concrete binder materials shows better efficiency than the OPC mix. The efficiency value observed (CS) at 28 days was 0.101 The environmental impact quantification and binder cost per MPa/kg. CO m was in line with findings of Alnahhal et al. unit CS for different binder materials are calculated. The [86] and Stark et al. [87]. EI, CI, and binder cost index (COST) are calculated based Concrete mixes with alternative binder material have on Eqs. 1, 2, and 3 derived with the help of an earlier study shown better eco-efficiency than the control mix. The carried out by Jing Yu et al. (2021) [81]. maximum eco-efficiency of 0.185 (CS), 00,158 (FS), and 0.0123 (STS) is noticed with 75 µm downsized SS at 5% Mj EI ∕MPa replacement. Embodied Energy of binder material required for1m of concrete Embodied energy and cost of blended binder i − day compressive strength of standard concrete specimen (1) The EE of each binder material is presented in Table 12. In kg CO the current study, while comparing, the only binder mate- CI ∕MPa rial is considered since fine, and coarse aggregate content Carbon Emission of binder material required for1m of concrete is constant for all the mix. Figure 26 shows the embodied i − day compressive strength of standard concrete specimen energy of binder material of different mixes. The embodied (2) energy of SS at 150 µm and 75 µm is calculated using avail- Rs able data from the literature [10, 80, 88]. It can be observed COST ∕MPa Embodied Energy of binder material required for1m of concrete i − day compressive strength of standard concrete specimen Table 12 EE and material cost of ingredients (3) Material EE (MJ/kg) Material cost where i denotes the curing time in days. (IND Rs/kg) The calculation results on EI , CI , and COST for binder i i i Portland cement 5.5 [10, 80] 8.00 material per meter cube are shown in Figs. 27, 28, and 29 at Fly ash (FA) 0.1 [81] 4.75 28, 56, and 90 days. EI value of 51.93, 49.2, and 48.69 (MJ/ Sewage sludge (150 µm) 0.014 [80, 88] 1.20 kg)/MPa is observed for OPC mix at 28, 56, and 90 days. Sewage sludge (75 µm) 0.0188 [80, 88] 1.60 There is a drastic reduction in the embodied energy for the 1 3 Concrete Mix Embodied Energy (MJ/m Binder) 240 Page 16 of 19 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 55 10 90 2, which has a 50% cement replacement with FA. A similar trend is observed for 56 and 90 days. 50 85 The Carbon Emission Index value of mixes 2–8 is lesser than the control mix (M1) observed for 28, 56, and 90 days. 45 80 The addition of SS resulted in the reduction of carbon emis- sions. At 90 days age, the trend of COST is similar to 40 75 COST and COST . The COST values of cement with 28 56 90 35 70 different replacement levels of SCM are very close to each other due to significant strength development at a later stage. 30 65 The mix with SS 150 µm at 5, 10, 15, and 75 µm at 10 and 15 replacement levels exhibited slightly lower CS than the 25 60 control mix. But it has superior environmental and economic Mix M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 benefits by considering the environmental impact and mate- rial cost per unit strength. Fig. 27 Comparison of EI, CI, and COST per unit CS of the mix at 28 days 55 10 90 Conclusion The present study investigated the characteristics of SS, mechanical properties of concrete with different replacement levels along with carbon emissions, and embodied energy to develop sustainable and environmentally efficient concrete. 7 70 A total of eight mixes with different levels of SS replacement as a binder material were cast and tested. The following main conclusions were drawn based on laboratory observations and findings. 4 50 Mix M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 The main mineral components of SS are silicon dioxide, calcium, iron, and aluminum compounds. Based on the Fig. 28 Comparison of EI, CI, and COST per unit CS of the mix at oxide content in SS, it is suitable to replace the Portland 56 days cement content in standard concrete. Mechanical characterizations such as CS, FS, and STP 55 10 90 with 150 µm were observed with a reduction in strength, whereas the strength obtained at a 5% replacement level of 75  µm is on par with the control mix. There is no significant reduction in mechanical strength for 75 µm 75 SS at 5% and 10% level at 90 days. 40 All of the mixes tested for UPV reported between 3400 7 70 and 3700 m/s, which falls into the decent to excellent range. A direct relationship between compressive strength and UPV was obtained as y (UPV) = 2917.24 + 12.49 X (CS), with an R value of 0.8954 showing a good correlation. 4 50 Partial replacement of SS as a binder material generally Mix M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 affects eco-efficiency, with values similar to or higher than the control mix. The advantages of utilizing SS as Fig. 29 Comparison of EI, CI, and COST per unit CS of the mix at a partial substitute binder material lie in reducing C O 90 days emissions in making concrete and significantly reducing environmental problems caused by SS disposal. other mixes with OPC replacement. The least embodied Incorporating SS as a binder to the concrete has a energy index value of 26.42, 25.07, and 24.27 (MJ/kg)/MPa lower environmental impact, embodied energy, CO is observed at mix 06. The mix 7 value is on par with mix emission, and cost per unit strength. But more than 10% 1 3 3 3 3 EI- ( MJ/m Binder / MPa) EI- ( MJ/m Binder / MPa) EI- ( MJ/m Binder / MPa) 90 56 28 CI- (kg CO / m Binder / MPa) CI- (kg CO / m Binder / MPa) CI- (kg CO / m Binder / MPa) 2 3 2 3 90 56 2 3 28 3 3 3 COST- ( Rs. /m Binder / MPa) COST- ( Rs. /m Binder / MPa) COST- ( Rs. /m Binder / MPa) 90 56 28 Innovative Infrastructure Solutions (2022) 7:240 Page 17 of 19 240 2. Flower DJM, Sanjayan JG (2007) Green house gas emissions due replacement level resulted in reducing CS, FS, and STS to concrete manufacture. Int J Life Cycle Assess 12(5):282–288. by 11.17%, 6.23%, and 6.99%. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1065/ lca20 07. 05. 327 3. Rashad AM (2015) A brief on high-volume class F fly ash as In the context of sustainable development, using SS as a cement replacement: a guide for civil engineer. Int J Sustain Built Environ 4(2):278–306. https://doi. or g/10. 1016/j. i jsbe.2015. 10. 002 binder material in concrete and these findings can help the 4. (Atmospheric chemist) Solomon S (2007) Intergovernmental efforts to reduce the carbon footprint and embodied energy panel on climate change., and intergovernmental panel on climate in the construction industry. It can also reduce the burden change. Working Group I. In: Climate change 2007: the physi- and environmental effects of disposal of SS. cal science basis: contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press Acknowledgment First of all, the authors are thankful to the Depart- 5. O'Brien KR, Ménaché J, O'moore LM (2009) Impact of fly ash ment of Civil Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal content and fly ash transportation distance on embodied green- Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India, for providing the neces- house gas emissions and water consumption in concrete sary facilities to conduct experiments. The authors would like to thank 6. Chen Z, Li JS, Poon CS (2018) Combined use of sewage sludge Government Engineering College Karwar, Karnataka, Department of ash and recycled glass cullet for the production of concrete blocks. Collegiate and Technical Education, Palace Road, Bangalore, Karna- J Clean Prod 171:1447–1459. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jclep ro. taka, and AICTE-New Delhi for supporting our research program. The 2017. 10. 140 authors also thank Dr. Murari M S, Scientific Officer, DST-PURSE 7. Meyer C (2009) The greening of the concrete industry. Cem Concr Program Mangalore University, for performing FE-SEM and EDS Compos 31(8):601–605. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. cemco ncomp. equipment. The authors would also like to acknowledge XRD and 2008. 12. 010 FT-IR to the central institute facility, Manipal Institute of Technol- 8. Zhang Y (2014) Assessment of C O emissions and cost of fly ash ogy, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India, and the concrete. [Online]. Available: https://www .r esear chgate. ne t/publi DST-FIST program, Department of Atomic and Molecular Physics, cation/ 28043 0859 Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Educa- 9. Joseph AM, Snellings R, van den Heede P, Matthys S, de Belie N tion, Manipal, India. (2018) The use of municipal solidwaste incineration ash in various building materials: a Belgian point of view. Materials 11(1):141. Funding Open access funding provided by Manipal Academy of https:// doi. org/ 10. 3390/ ma110 10141 Higher Education, Manipal. 10. Henry CS, Lynam JG (2020) Embodied energy of rice husk ash for sustainable cement production. Case Stud Chem Environ Eng Declarations 2:100004. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. cscee. 2020. 100004 11. Safiuddin M, West JS, Soudki KA (2010) Hardened properties of self-consolidating high performance concrete including rice Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no known com- husk ash. Cem Concr Compos 32(9):708–717. https://doi. or g/10. peting financial interests or personal relationships that could have ap- 1016/j. cemco ncomp. 2010. 07. 006 peared to influence the work reported in this paper. 12. Safiuddin M, Jumaat MZ, Salam MA, Islam MS, Hashim R (2010) Utilization of solid wastes in construction materials. Int J Ethical statement The authors declare that they have not submitted the Phys Sci 5(13):1952–1963. https://d oi.o rg/1 0.3 844/a jessp.2 013. manuscript to any other journal for simultaneous consideration. The 14. 24 work is original and not published elsewhere. 13. Karim MR, Zain MFM, Jamil M, Lai FC (2015) Development of a zero-cement binder using slag, fly ash, and rice husk ash with chemical activator. Adv Mater Sci Eng. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1155/ Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons 2015/ 247065 Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, 14. Gursel AP, Maryman H, Ostertag C (2016) A life-cycle approach adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, to environmental, mechanical, and durability properties of “green” as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the concrete mixes with rice husk ash. J Clean Prod 112:823–836. source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/j. jclep ro. 2015. 06. 029 if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this 15. Dyer TD, Halliday JE, Dhir KR (2011) Hydration chemistry of article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless sewage sludge ash used as a cement component. J Mater Civ Eng indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not 23(5):648–655. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1061/ (ASCE) MT. 1943- 5533. included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended 00002 21 use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted 16. Xuan D, Tang P, Poon CS (2018) Effect of casting methods and use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright SCMs on properties of mortars prepared with fine MSW incinera- holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http:// creat iveco mmons. tion bottom ash. Constr Build Mater 167:890–898. https://doi. or g/ org/ licen ses/ by/4. 0/. 10. 1016/j. conbu ildmat. 2018. 02. 077 17. Hu Y, Tang Z, Li W, Li Y, Tam VWY (2019) Physical-mechanical properties of fly ash/GGBFS geopolymer composites with recy - cled aggregates. Constr Build Mater 226:139–151. https://doi. or g/ References 10. 1016/j. conbu ildmat. 2019. 07. 211 18. 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Innovative Infrastructure SolutionsSpringer Journals

Published: Aug 1, 2022

Keywords: Sewage sludge; High volume fly ash concrete; Mechanical properties; Carbon footprint; Embodied energy

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