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18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 18F-sodium fluoride (NaF) represent emerging PET tracers used to assess atherosclerosis-related inflammation and molecular calcification, respectively. By localizing to sites with high glucose utilization, FDG has been used to assess myocardial viability for decades, and its role in evaluating cardiac sarcoidosis has come to represent a major application. In addition to determining late-stage changes such as loss of perfusion or viability, by targeting mechanisms present in atherosclerosis, PET-based techniques have the ability to characterize atherogenesis in the early stages to guide intervention. Although it was once thought that FDG would be a reliable indicator of ongoing plaque formation, micro-calcification as portrayed by NaF-PET/CT appears to be a superior method of monitoring disease progression. PET imaging with NaF has the additional advantage of being able to determine abnormal uptake due to coronary artery disease, which is obscured by physiologic myocardial activity on FDG-PET/CT. In this review, we discuss the evolving roles of FDG, NaF, and other PET tracers in cardiac molecular imaging.
Cardiology and Therapy – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 1, 2023
Keywords: FDG; NaF; 18F-flurpiridaz; 18F-flubrobenguane; PET/CT; PET/MRI; Atherosclerosis; Perfusion; Sarcoidosis; Amyloidosis
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