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V Q Piacentini, A Aleixo, C E Agne, G N Maurício, J F Pacheco, G A Bravo, G R R Brito, L N Naka, F Olmos, S Posso, L F Silveira, G S Betini, E Carrano, I Franz, A C Lees, L M Lima, D Pioli, F Schunck, F R Amaral, G A Bencke, M Cohn-Haft, L F A Figueiredo, F C Straube, E Cesari (2015)Annotated checklist of the birds of Brazil by the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee
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(2008)Influência do play-back no comportamento de aves no Campus Urbanova na Universidade do Vale da Paraíba
V. Piacentini, A. Aleixo, Carlos Agne, G. Maurício, J. Pacheco, Gustavo Bravo, G. Brito, L. Naka, F. Olmos, S. Posso, L. Silveira, Gustavo Betini, Eduardo Carrano, I. Franz, A. Lees, Luciano Lima, D. Pioli, Fabio Schunck, Fábio Amaral, G. Bencke, M. Cohn‐Haft, Luiz Figueiredo, F. Straube, Evaldo Cesari (2015)Annotated checklist of the birds of Brazil by the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee / Lista comentada das aves do Brasil pelo Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos
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A. Møller (1990)Changes in the size of avian breeding territories in relation to the nesting cycle
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Vitor Araújo-Lima, Charles Duca (2014)Análise comparativa das abundâncias de Formicivora rufa e Thamnophilus ambiguus em uma área de restinga no sudeste do Brasil
D. Boscolo, J. Metzger, J. Vielliard (2006)Efficiency of playback for assessing the occurrence of five bird species in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments.
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(2007)SYSTAT 12.0. SYSTAT Software, Inc., San Jose
C. Bibby, Martin Jones, S. Marsden (1998)Bird surveys : expedition field techniques
K. Sieving, M. Willson, T. Santo (1996)Habitat Barriers to Movement of Understory Birds in Fragmented South-Temperate Rainforest
The Auk, 113
J. Mosher, M. Fuller, M. Kopeny (1990)Surveying woodland raptors by broadcast of conspecific vocalizations
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A P Møller (1990)Changes in size of breeding territories in relation to the nestling cycle
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Charles Duca, M. Marini (2014)Territorial system and adult dispersal in a cooperative-breeding tanager
(2016)Conservação do Sabiá da praia Mimus gilvus (Aves: Mimidae) em uma reserva de restinga na região sudeste do Brasil
(2003)Métodos para estudos com aves, p
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 24(4), 300–302 SHORT-COMMUNICATION December 2016 Effects of pairing Thamnophilus ambiguus males with females on the behavioral responses by males to playback 1,3 2 Ravel Rocon Zorzal and Charles Duca Programa de Pós-graduação em Ecologia de Ecossistemas, Universidade Vila Velha, Campus Boa Vista, CEP 29102-920, Vila Velha, ES, Brazil. Laboratório de Ecologia de Populações e Conservação, Universidade Vila Velha, Campus Boa Vista, CEP 29102-920, Vila Velha, ES, Brazil. Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org Received on 26 July 2016. Accepted on 21 October 2016. ABSTRACT: The behavioral responses of the Sooretama Slaty-antshrike (Thamnophilus ambiguus) to playback were tested in a Restinga (sand-coastal plain) area in southeastern Brazil. Field data were collected for seven mornings, from 5:30 h to 11:00 h. Frequency data and the time period between playing the species' song (playback) and the sighting of individuals were recorded by the observer. The following parameters related to behavioral responses to playback were recor ded: 1) the bird flew to a visible roost but not sang (sighting); 2) the bird sang as response to playback (vocalization) and; 3) the bird sang and approached to the observer (bird approaching). The time of response to playback of males paired with females was significantly shorter than that of unpaired males, albeit with no significant difference in the sighting and bird approaching frequency. In conclusion, males paired with females become more aggressive and show a faster territorial defense response than solitary males. KEY-WORDS: restinga, Sooretama Slaty-antshrike, territorial behavior, Thamnophilidae. Brazil has 1919 bird species recorded, which makes it efficiently, a lthough they are difficult to sight even a mega-diverse country regarding bird species richness when attracted to the playback location because they (Piacentini et al. 2015). Various methods, including have discrete habits. Conversely, other species show a linear transects, fixed listening stations, and even walks more pronounced behavioral response to playback and and direct sighting, are used for bird inventories (Develey are easier to sight. However, differences in behavioral 2003). Regardless of the species survey method adopted, responses between individuals of the same species are the acoustic identification of the species increases the unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the detection efficiency and may also reveal behavioral behavioral responses of the Sooretama Slaty-antshrike characteristics of the species. (Thamnophilus ambiguus) to playback. For this purpose, Vocalization is a form of bird communication the behavioral responses to playback of males paired with among individuals and may be used by researchers as a females and solitary males were analyzed. method for species identification. Vocalization recor ding The study was conducted at the Paulo César and playback the vocalization of the species is another Vinha State Park (PEPCV) located in the municipality method that is often used to increase the chances of of Guarapari, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A total of detecting rare species, and is highly effective at detecting 225 bird species were recorded at the PEPCV in a survey territorial species (Bibby et al. 1998). For example, given conducted by Venturini et al. (1996), accounting for the difficulty in sighting individuals in forest areas, only 22.1% of all bird species reported for the Atlantic Forest audio records of different species in these areas may (MMA 2000). allow the identification of 90% of the species (Mosher Fieldwork was conducted from 12 to 18 September et al. 1990, Sick 1997). Vocalization patterns may also 2014. This time period coincides with t he beginning be used to understand behavioral patterns (Boscolo et al. of the reproductive activities of several species in the 2006). Thus, the use of playback may be a tool that helps study area, for example, Formicivora rufa (Dutra 2014) determine the territories of some species and even tests and Mimus gilvus (Araújo 2016). Eighteen T. ambiguus some behavioral patterns, including the movement ability males who were previously captured and marked with of a species (Sieving et al. 1996). metal bands provided by the Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Some species respond to playback more easily than e Conservação de Aves Silvestres (CEMAVE) and unique others, and some do not respond at all. Some respond combinations of three colored plastic bands were selected. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 24(4), 2016 Effects of pairing Thamnophilus ambiguus males with females on the behavioral responses b y males to playback Ravel Rocon Zorzal and Charles Duca Nine individuals were paired with females, and the other the threat posed by playback vocalizations perceived as nine were solitary males. All individuals were previously another male invading their territory. Thus, the faster sighted defending their territory. response may be considered a territorial and mating Field data were always collected in the period defense strategy. Possibly, this is also a behavior to prevent from 5:30 h to 11:00 h in the morning. A Sony (ICD- extrapair copulation, as observed for other territorial PX312) recorder was used to playback T. ambiguus species (Møller 1990, Duca & Marini 2014). vocalizations for 120 s, and 10 × 42 binoculars were used Results showed that the responses of males of T. for sighting birds. The playback was used only once a day ambiguus to playback were faster when paired with a in each territory. Playback started together with a timer female, which corroborated previous studies on territorial when arriving at the territories of different individuals. behavior (Araújo-Lima & Duca 2015). Female presence Behaviors were recorded by ad libitum method (Altmann in territories also affected t he aggressive behavior to 1974) from the start of playback. The following observer approach by territorial males, by increasing parameters related to behavioral responses to playback the response to playback with an increased frequency. were recorded: 1) the bird flew to a visible roost but not Therefore, T. ambiguus can potentially be used in future sang (sighting); 2) the bird sang as response to playback studies to analyze various physiological, morphological, (vocalization) and; 3) the bird sang and approached to and behavioral parameters associated with territorial the observer (bird approaching). Bird approaching was behavior. defined as individuals approaching the observer within 5 m. For each behavioral response, we recorded the time ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS (latency) between the playback and bird response. Normal distribution was verified with Ko lmogorov– Smirnov tests. Differences in the mean times of sighting, We thank IEMA (Instituto Estadual do Meio Ambiente) vocalization response and approach response were for sampling permit. R. R. Zorzal received scholarships from FAPES. CNPq funded this study. assessed using unpaired t test. All analyses were performed according to Zar (2010) using the Systat Software, version 12.0 (Wilkinson 2007) considering < 0.05 as the significance level. REFERENCES At least two of the three types of behavioral responses Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior, sampling (sighting and vocalization) analyzed were observed methods. Behaviour, 49: 227–267. every time the species song was played back. Paired Araújo, L. C. 2016. Conservação do Sabiá da praia Mimus gilvus males showed the three types of behaviors with a 100% (Aves: Mimidae) em uma reserva de restinga na região sudeste do frequency. Solitary males showed a 55.5% response to Brasil. Ph.D. Thesis. Vila Velha: Universidade Vila Velha. Araújo-Lima, V. & Duca, C. 2015. Análise comparativa das bird approaching. Females were sighted before males in abundâncias de Formicivora rufa e Thamnophilus ambiguus em 33.3% of the responses of the paired males. uma área de restinga no sudeste do Brasil. Ornithologia, 7: 29–33. No significant differences between mean values of Barreiros, M. H. M.; Souza, R. C.; Santos, R. A. S. & Priant, A. sighting (t = -1.50, df = 16, P = 0.15) and bird approaching C. G. 2008. Influência do play-back no comportamento de aves no (t = 0.95, df = 16, P = 0.36) were found when comparing Campus Urbanova na Universidade do Vale da Paraíba. Abstracts of the VIII Encontro Latino Americano de Pós-Graduação. paired and solitary males. However, paired males Bibby, C.; Jones, M. & Marsden, S. 1998. Expedition field techniques: responded to vocalizations faster than solitary males (t = bird surveys. London: Royal Geographical Society. -2.80, df = 16, P = 0.01). Boscolo, D.; Metzger, J. P. & Vielliard, J. E. 2006. Efficiency of Pyriglena leucoptera (Thamnophilidae) individuals playback for assessing the occurrence of five bir d species in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments. Anais da Academia Brasileira responded to playback 75% of the time in the study de Ciências, 78: 629–644. conducted by Barreiros et al. (2008) also testing reaction. Develey, P. F. 2003. Métodos para estudos com aves, p. 153–168. In: This result was similar to the 85% response rate of Cullen, L.; Rudran, R. & Pádua, C. V. (eds.). Métodos de estudos this species found by Boscolo et al. (2006). Response em biologia de conservação da vida silvestre. Curitiba: Fundação O to playback was observed 56% of the time in a study Boticário. Duca, C. & Marini, M. Â. 2014. Territorial system and adult dispersal conducted in an urban area, wherein a bird approaching in a cooperative-breeding tanager. Auk, 131: 32–40. response was observed in only 30% and the birds were Dutra, W. B. 2014. Demografia e territorialidade de Formicivora rufa sighted in 25% of the attempts (Barreiros et al. 2008). (Wied, 1831) (Aves, Thamnophilidae) em áre a de restinga no sudeste The response rate to playback by T. ambiguus was 100% in do Brasil. M.Sc. Dissertation. Vila Velha: Universidade Vila Velha. MMA (Ministério do Meio Ambiente). 2000. Avaliação e ações the present study. However, this rate most likely resulted prioritárias para a conservação da biodiversidade da Mata Atlântica from exclusively testing the playback in territories known e Campos Sulinos. Brasília: Secretaria de Biodiversidade e Florestas. to be occupied by individuals of the species. Møller, A. P. 1990. Changes in size of breeding territories in relation The faster response of paired males may result from to the nestling cycle. Animal Behaviour, 40: 1070–1079. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 24(4), 2016 Effects of pairing Thamnophilus ambiguus males with females on the behavioral responses b y males to playback Ravel Rocon Zorzal and Charles Duca Mosher, J. A.; Fuller, M. R. & Kopeny, M. 1990. Surveying woodland Sieving, K. E.; Willson, M. F. & Santo, T. L. 1996. Habitats barriers raptors by broadcast of conspecific vocalizations. Journal of Field to movement of understory birds in fragmented south-temperate Ornithology, 61: 453–461. rainforest. Auk, 133: 944–949. Piacentini, V. Q.; Aleixo, A.; Agne, C. E.; Maurício, G. N.; Pacheco, Venturini, A. C.; Ofranti, A. M. S.; Varejão, J. B. M. & Paz, R. J. F.; Bravo, G. A.; Brito, G. R. R.; Naka, L. N.; Olmos, F.; 1996. Aves e mamíferos da restinga: Parque Estadual Paulo César Posso, S.; Silveira, L. F.; Betini, G. S.; Carrano, E.; Franz, I.; Vinha - Setiba, Guarapari - ES. Vitória: Secretaria de Estado de Lees, A. C.; Lima, L. M.; Pioli, D.; Schunck, F.; Amaral, F. 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Ornithology Research – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 1, 2016
Keywords: restinga; Sooretama Slaty-antshrike; territorial behavior; Thamnophilidae
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