Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Effect of dietary protein and lipid level on growth, feed utilization, and muscle composition in golden mandarin fish Siniperca scherzeri

Effect of dietary protein and lipid level on growth, feed utilization, and muscle composition in... A feeding trial was designed to assess the effects of dietary protein and lipid content on growth, feed utilization efficiency, and muscle proximate composition of juvenile mandarin fish, Siniperca scherzeri. Six experimental diets were formulated with a combination of three protein (35, 45, and 55%) and two dietary lipid levels (7 and 14%). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (8.3 ± 0.1 g) to apparent satiation for 8 weeks. The results showed that growth performance in terms of weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with increasing dietary protein level from 35 to 55% at the same dietary lipid level. At the same dietary lipid content, WG and SGR obtained with diets containing 55% protein was significantly higher than those obtained with diets containing 45 and 35% protein. No significant effect on growth rate was found when the dietary level of lipid was increased from 7 to 14%. While the levels of protein and lipid in the diets had no significant effect on feed intake, other nutrient utilization efficiency parameters including daily protein intake (DPI), feed efficiency (FE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) showed a similar trend to that of growth rates, with the highest values obtained with diets containing 55% protein. Muscle chemical composition was not significantly affected by the different dietary treatments for each dietary lipid or protein level tested. These findings may suggest that a practical diet containing 55% protein and 7% lipid provides sufficient nutrient and energy to support the acceptable growth rates and nutrient utilization of mandarin fish juveniles. Keywords: Growth performance, Feed utilization efficiency, Protein/lipid ratio, Mandarin, Siniperca scherzeri Background the diet, part of the dietary protein will be catabolized Since protein is often the most costly component of the to supply energy, which is wasteful. Thus, dietary formulated fish feeds, numerous studies have been supplementation of energy-yielding nutrients, mainly undertaken to define the optimum dietary protein re- lipids, has been suggested as a strategy to spare or quirement for developing more cost-effective, nutrition- improve the efficiency of protein utilization by fish, ally balanced practical diets for various fish species. thereby enhancing economic returns and reducing However, the optimum dietary protein requirements are water pollution. Conversely, supply of dietary lipid in known to be affected by several factors including the fish excess of requirement can limit feed consumption, species and size, the quality of the protein source, and the thereby reducing the intake of the necessary amount amount of non-protein energy in the diet (NRC 2011). of protein and other essential nutrients for maximal When insufficient non-protein energy is available in growth rates of fish while enhancing body fat deposition. Therefore, it is very important to determine the optimal dietary balance between protein and lipid for achieving maximum growth and efficient feed utilization of fish. * Correspondence: smlee@gwnu.ac.kr Department of Marine Biotechnology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 25457, South Korea Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © The Author(s). 2017 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Sankian et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017) 20:7 Page 2 of 6 Golden mandarin fish, Siniperca scherzeri,isone of crushedintosuitablesize(3mmindiameter),and the most commercially important freshwater species stored at −30 °C until used. endemic to East Asia, mainly distributed in China, Korea, and Northern Vietnam (Zhou et al. 1988). In- Fish and feeding trial creased market demands combined with the dramatic Juvenile mandarin fish were kindly provided by Dr. declineinwild stocks as aresultofover-catching and Yi Oh Kim (Inland Fisheries Research Institute, habitat destruction (Liang 1996; Wu et al. 1997) has Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea). A commercial created considerable interest in the development and feed (50% crude protein and 13% lipid; Woosung, improvement of culture practices for commercial pro- Daejeon, South Korea) was ground to a fine powder duction of this species. In fact, mandarin fish has be- andsievedthrough a2–3-mm mesh screen. Then it come one of the most promising target species with was pelletized into 1.5–1.8-mm long cylindrical high potential for aquaculture due to its excellent pellets having a diameter of 3 mm. Fish were fed the taste, high market value, rapidgrowth, andhighresist- repelleted commercial diet for 2 weeks to be ance against disease. However, despite the commercial acclimated to the experimental conditions and facil- importance of mandarin fish, no commercial formu- ities. Following the acclimation period, fish (initial lated feed is yet available for this species, and fish mean body weight, 8.3 ± 0.1 g) were distributed in a reared in commercial pens are usually fed live feed. closed recirculation system equipped with 18 square Since live feed production is not cost-effective, feeding glass aquaria of 65 L capacity at a density of 20 fish live prey to mandarin fish may hinder the prospective per aquarium. Each aquarium was supplied with −1 development of extensive commercial production of dechlorinated freshwater at a flow rate of 1.5 L min and this species. Therefore, it is necessary to develop for- continuous aeration. The photoperiod was maintained mulated feeds for mandarin fish culture to be far more on a 12:12-h (light/dark) schedule. The average water practical and efficient in terms of commercial oper- temperature during the feeding trial was 23 ± 0.7 °C. ation cost compared with the present practice of using Triplicate groups of fish were fed with one of the test live feed as the rearing diet. In fact, the present study diets to visual satiation twice a day (09:00 and is believed to be the first attempt to evaluate the ef- 17:00 h) for 8 weeks. The uneaten feed was collected, fects of dietary protein and lipid levels in practical dried, and weighted to determine the feed intake feeds on growth performance, feed utilization, and level. muscle composition of juvenile mandarin fish, S. scher- At the end of the feeding trial, all the fish in each zeri. The results of the current study could be helpful tank were counted and bulk-weighed for calculation in formulating a cost-effective and nutritionally sound of survival, growth, and feed utilization parameters in- practical diet for this species. cluding weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (EF), daily feed intake (DFI), daily pro- tein intake (DEI), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) Methods through the following formulas: Experimental diets Formulation and proximate composition of the experi- Weight gain ¼½ðÞ final body weight ‐ initial body weight mental diets are provided in Table 1. Six experimental initial body weight 100 diets were formulated to contain three protein levels (35, 45, and 55% crude protein) each at two lipid levels (7 and 14% crude lipid). Anchovy fish meal served as Specific growth rate ¼ the main protein source and equal proportions of ½ðÞ ln final body weight ‐ ln initial body weight squid liver oil and soybean oil as lipid sources in the days 100 experimental diets. All dried ingredients were well- mixed and, after addition of oil and double-distilled Feed efficiency ¼ðÞ fish wet weight gain=feed intake water, pelleted through a meat chopper machine. The pellets were dried overnight at room temperature, Daily feed intake ¼ffeed intake=½ðÞ initial fish weight þ final fish weight þ dead fish weight days fed=2g  100 Sankian et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017) 20:7 Page 3 of 6 Daily protein intake ¼fprotein intake=½ðÞ initial fish weight þ final fish weight þ dead fish weight days fed=2g  100 Protein efficiency ratio ¼ fish wet weight gain=protein intake Percentage data were arcsine transformed before stat- istical analysis. Five fish per tank were randomly sampled and stored at −45 °C for muscle proximate composition analyses. Results The proximate composition of the experimental diets The increase of dietary protein level from 35 to 55% in- and muscle samples of fish were analyzed according to duced a significant increase in fish growth performance standard methods (AOAC 1997). The crude protein in terms of WG and SGR (Table 2). Fish fed diets with content was determined using the Auto Kjeldahl System 55% protein had significantly higher growth rate than (Buchi, Flawil, Switzerland), the crude lipid content by those fed the 35 and 45% protein, regardless of dietary the ether-extraction method, using a Soxhlet extractor lipid level. Although fish growth performance was not (VELP Scientifica, Milano, Italy), the moisture content significantly affected by dietary lipid content, numeric- by oven drying (105 °C for 6 h), and the ash content ally higher values were observed in fish offered the diet using a muffler furnace (600 °C for 4 h). with the highest lipid content (14%). While DFI was not affected by the dietary treatment, significantly higher Statistical analysis DPI was found in fish fed the diets containing 55% pro- The data were subjected to two-way ANOVA to test tein compared to those fed the 45% protein or less. Fish for differences in the mean effects of dietary protein fed the 55% protein diet showed significantly higher feed and lipid levels, using SPSS version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., efficiency than those given lower protein at both dietary Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical significance was deter- lipid levels. PER was significantly increased with in- mined at P < 0.05. Data were presented as mean ± SE. creasing dietary protein from 35 to 55%, and the Table 1 Formulation and nutrient contents (%) of the six experimental diets Diets Ingredients (%) P35L7 P45L7 P55L7 P35L14 P45L14 P55L14 Anchovy fish meal 42.0 59.0 76.0 42.0 59.0 76.0 Wheat flour 40.1 25.1 10.1 30.0 15.0 0.0 Corn gluten meal 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.8 2.8 2.8 Potato starch 3.5 7.0 10.5 3.5 7.0 10.5 Squid liver oil + soybean oil 2.2 1.5 0.8 9.5 8.8 8.1 Cellulose 9.6 4.8 00 9.6 4.8 0.0 Vitamin premix 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 Mineral premix 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 Vitamin C 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 Vitamin E 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 Choline salt 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Proximate composition (% dry matter) Moisture 7.45 8.92 7.58 7.74 8.46 7.99 Crude protein 36.8 45.7 54.6 36.0 45.3 55.8 Crude lipid 6.5 6.7 6.8 13.7 13.9 14.5 Ash 9.7 12.2 14.2 10.0 11.7 11.8 Pesquera Bahia Caldera, Caldera, Chile. Fishmeal composition (% dry matter): crude protein, 67.3; crude lipid, 8.6 CJ CheilJedang Corporation, Seoul, South Korea. Wheat flour composition (% dry matter): crude protein, 16.4; crude lipid, 3.9 WooSung Feed Corporation, Daejeon, South Korea. Corn gluten meal composition (% dry matter): crude protein, 66.1; crude lipid, 2.8 Vitamin premix contained the following ingredients (g/kg premix), which were diluted in cellulose: thiamin hydrochloride, 2.7; riboflavin, 9.1; pyridoxine hydrochloride, 1.8; niacin, 36.4; Ca-D-pantothenate, 12.7; myo-inositol, 181.8; D-biotin, 0.27; folic acid, 0.68; p-aminobenzoic acid, 18.2; menadione, 1.8; retinyl acetate, 0.73; cholecalciferol, 0.003; cyanocobalamin, 0.003 Mineral premix contained the following ingredients (g/kg premix): MgSO ·7H O, 80.0; NaH PO ·2H O, 370.0; KCl, 130.0; Ferric citrate, 40.0; ZnSO ·7H O, 20.0; 4 2 2 4 2 4 2 Ca-lactate, 356.5; CuCl, 0.2; AlCl ·6H O, 0.15; KI, 0.15; Na Se O , 0.01; MnSO ·H O, 2.0; CoCl ·6H O, 1.0 3 2 2 2 3 4 2 2 2 Sankian et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017) 20:7 Page 4 of 6 Table 2 Growth performance and feed utilization of mandarin fish fed the six experimental diets for 8 weeks 1 2 3 4 5 6 Diets WG SGR DFI DPI FE PER Survival a a a a a P35L7 51.4 ± 7.3 0.74 ± 0.08 2.30 ± 0.03 0.81 ± 0.01 31.5 ± 3.6 0.90 ± 0.10 99.0 ± 1.1 b b b ab ab P45L7 79.3 ± 11.6 1.04 ± 0.11 2.49 ± 0.05 1.01 ± 0.02 39.9 ± 3.8 0.98 ± 0.09 96.7 ± 1.9 c c c c b P55L7 117.7 ± 4.7 1.39 ± 0.04 2.41 ± 0.12 1.11 ± 0.04 55.0 ± 3.4 1.19 ± 0.05 97.0 ± 0.0 ab ab a ab ab P35L14 62.4 ± 1.8 0.87 ± 0.02 2.38 ± 0.06 0.83 ± 0.02 35.3 ± 0.4 1.01 ± 0.01 97.7 ± 2.2 b b b b ab P45L14 83.2 ± 10.9 1.08 ± 0.10 2.33 ± 0.08 0.94 ± 0.03 44.7 ± 2.9 1.11 ± 0.07 96.7 ± 1.9 c c c c b P55L14 133.9 ± 17.7 1.51 ± 0.13 2.53 ± 0.03 1.16 ± 0.03 56.1 ± 3.3 1.23 ± 0.07 95.7 ± 1.3 Two-way ANOVA (P value) Protein <0.001 <0.001 0.163 <0.001 <0.001 0.019 0.619 Lipid 0.216 0.199 0.890 0.912 0.196 0.160 0.983 Protein × lipid 0.860 0.819 0.094 0.103 0.788 0.775 0.262 Values are mean of triplicate groups and presented as mean ± SE. Values with different superscripts in the same column are significantly different (P < 0.05). The lack of superscript letter indicates no significant differences among treatments Weight gain (%) = [(final body weight − initial body weight)/initial body weight] × 100 2 −1 Specific growth rate (% day ) = [(ln final body weight − ln initial body weight)/days] × 100 Daily feed intake (%) = {feed intake/[(initial body weight + final body weight + dead fish weight) × days fed/2]} × 100 Daily protein intake (%) = {protein intake/[(initial body weight + final body weight + dead fish weight) × days fed/2]} × 100 Feed efficiency (%) = (wet weight gain/feed intake) × 100 Protein efficiency ratio = wet weight gain/protein intake highest value was recorded in fish fed the P55L14 level of 55% (Table 3). This value fits within the range of diet. However, dietary lipid contents had no signifi- those reported in previous studies for other strictly car- cant effect on feed utilization efficiency of juvenile nivorous fish species, such as yellow snapper, Lutjanus mandarin fish at all the dietary protein levels. argentiventris (Peters 1869) (Maldonado-García et al. Two-way ANOVA revealed that neither dietary 2012), Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis (Rema et al. protein and lipid levels alone nor their interactions 2008), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus, L.) had significant effect (P > 0.05) on muscle composi- (Hamre et al. 2003), common dentex, Dentex dentex tion of juvenile mandarin fish after 8 weeks of feeding (Espinos et al. 2003), Murray cod, Maccullochella peelii (Table 2). peelii (De Silva et al. 2002), and Mediterranean yellow- tail, Seriola dumerilii (Jover et al. 1999) that generally Discussion have high dietary requirements for protein (Wilson In the present study, growth performance of juvenile 2002; NRC 2011). Since growth performance did not mandarin fish, in terms of weight gain (WG) and specific reach a plateau over the tested protein levels in the growth rate (SGR), was significantly increased with the present study and fish fed the diets containing 55% pro- increase in dietary protein level and the highest values tein exhibited higher growth rates than those fed the diet were observed in those fed the highest dietary protein containing dietary protein of 35 and 45%, it could be Table 3 Muscle proximate composition (%, wt basis) of mandarin fish fed the six experimental diets for 8 weeks Diets Moisture Protein Lipid Ash P35L7 76.6 ± 0.4 19.2 ± 0.3 0.8 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.1 P45L7 77.9 ± 0.6 19.3 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.4 1.1 ± 0.1 P55L7 76.5 ± 0.2 20.1 ± 0.5 1.1 ± 0.5 1.2 ± 0.2 P35L14 76.5 ± 0.3 20.0 ± 0.4 0.6 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.1 P45L14 77.2 ± 0.3 19.8 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.5 1.1 ± 0.0 P55L14 76.4 ± 0.7 19.7 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.1 Two-way ANOVA (P value) Protein 0.197 0.249 0.324 0.956 Lipid 0.512 0.114 0.561 0.724 Protein × lipid 0.584 0.538 0.670 0.617 Values are mean of triplicate groups and presented as mean ± SE. Values with different superscripts in the same column are significantly different (P < 0.05). The lack of superscript letter indicates no significant differences among treatments Sankian et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017) 20:7 Page 5 of 6 suggested that mandarin fish juveniles require dietary Basilewsky (Zhang et al. 2015), and red porgy, Pagrus protein of at least 55% to sustain their fast growth. pagrus, (Schuchardt et al. 2008) where fish muscle Nevertheless, further research is needed to precisely composition was significantly affected by dietary pro- define the optimal dietary protein requirement for desir- tein/lipid ratios. This discrepancy may be attributed able rate of growth using diets containing higher levels to the fish species variation or a difference in experi- of protein than 55%. mental condition particularly dietary protein/energy In addition, although increased dietary protein levels ratios. had no significant effect on DFI in the present study, it resulted in significantly higher FE and PER values. This Conclusion meant that fish fed the high-protein diets (45 to 55% Despite the growing importance of the mandarin fish dietary protein) used dietary protein more efficiently as a promising target species with high potential for than fish fed the low-protein diet (35%). A similar trend aquaculture, there is no information concerning the has also been found by different authors for other fresh- nutritional requirement of this freshwater finfish spe- water carnivorous fish species including pikeperch, cies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first at- Sander lucioperca (Nyina-wamwiza et al. 2005), and tempt to evaluate the protein and lipid requirements snakehead (Aliyu-Paiko et al. 2010). Higher pressure on of this fish indicating that diets for juvenile mandarin body protein in order to satisfy the dietary needs for fish should include at least 55% protein and 7% lipid tissue building, repair, and metabolism has been sug- to maintain a good performance. These findings may gested as the reason for poor growth and dietary provide useful context for developing a more cost- utilization observed in fish fed sub-optimal dietary pro- effective and nutritionally balanced feed for the cul- tein levels (Mohanta et al. 2013). ture of mandarin fish. Dietary energy has a major impact on the dietary pro- tein requirements of fish, and by proper use of non- Abbreviations WG: Weight gain; SGR: Specific growth rate; DPI: Daily protein intake; protein energy sources, particularly lipid, dietary protein FE: Feed utilization; PER: Protein efficiency ratio in fish feed can be spared (Mohanta et al. 2013). Never- theless, a protein-sparing effect, where supplementation Acknowledgements of dietary lipid improves fish performance and feed This study was supported by a grant from the Fishery Commercialization utilization efficiency, was not evident in this study at all Technology Development Program (D11524615H480000120) funded by Korea Institute of Marine Science & Technology Promotion. protein levels. Although numerically higher values were observed in those of fish fed 14% dietary lipid, there was Funding no significant difference in weight gain and PER of fish This study was funded by a grant from the Fishery Commercialization fed diets containing 7 to 14% lipid. These results may Technology Development Program (D11524615H480000120). The funding organization played an active role in the manufacturing of the experimental suggest that 7% dietary lipid is probably sufficient to diets and analyses. meet the minimal requirement of this fish while the amount of dietary lipid needed to achieve maximum Availability of data and materials growth seems to be at or close to 14%. Limited or no ob- All datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. vious protein-sparing effect was also observed in various other fish species including murray cod, Maccullochella Authors’ contributions peelii peelii (De Silva et al. 2002), grass carp, Cteno- ZS and SKH manufactured the experimental feed and drafted the pharyngodon idella (Du et al. 2005), white seabream, manuscript. YOK conducted the feeding trial and performed the analyses. SML conceived and designed the study and experimental facility, and also Diplodus sargus (Ozorio et al. 2006), and tiger puffer, revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Takifugu rubripes (Kikuchi et al. 2009), where increasing levels of dietary lipid had no beneficial effects on growth Competing interests and feed utilization efficiency. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. In the present study, muscle chemical composition was not affected by dietary treatment. Similar results Consent for publication Not applicable. were recorded for Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis Kaup, (Valente et al. 2011) Mediterranean yellowtail, Ethics approval and consent to participate Seriola dumerili (Vidal et al. 2008), Atlantic cod, Experimental protocols followed the guidelines of the Animal Care and Use Gadus morhua L. (Morais et al. 2001), and red drum, Committee of Gangneung-Wonju National University. Sciaenops ocellatus L. (McGoogan and Gatlin 1999). This finding is in contrast to those reported in other Publisher’sNote studies for Totoaba, Totoaba macdonaldi (Rueda- Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in López et al. 2011), topmouth culter, Culter alburnus published maps and institutional affiliations. Sankian et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017) 20:7 Page 6 of 6 Author details Vidal AT, Garcia FDG, Gomez AG, Cerda MJ. Effect of the protein/energy ratio on Department of Marine Biotechnology, Gangneung-Wonju National the growth of Mediterranean yellowtail (Seriola dumerili). Aquac Res. 2008;39: University, Gangneung 25457, South Korea. Department of Inland Fisheries 1141–8. Research Institute, Chungju 27329, South Korea. Wilson RP. Amino acid and proteins. In: Halver JE, Hardy RW, editors. Fish nutrition. New York: Academic Press; 2002. p. 143–79. Received: 1 January 2017 Accepted: 4 May 2017 Wu LX, Jiang ZQ, Qin KJ. Feeding habit and fishery utilization of Siniperca scherzeri in Biliuhe reservoir. J Fish Sci Chin. 1997;44:25–9 (in Chinese with English abstract). Zhang YL, Song L, Liu RP, Zhao ZB, He H, Fan QX, Shen ZG. Effects of dietary References protein and lipid levels on growth, body composition and flesh quality of Aliyu-Paiko M, Hashim R, Shu-Chien AC. Influence of dietary lipid/protein ratio on juvenile topmouth culter, Culter alburnus Basilewsky. Aquac Res. 2015;47: survival, growth, body indices and digestive lipase activity in snakehead 2633–41. (Channa striatus, Bloch 1793) fry reared in re-circulating water system. Zhou CW, Yang Q, Cai DL. On the classification and distribution of the Aquacult Nutr. 2010;16:466–74. Sinipercinae fishes (Family Serranidae). Zool Res. 1988;9:113–26 (in Chinese AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). Official Methods of Analysis. with English abstract). 16th ed. Arlington: Association of Official analytical chemists; 1997. De Silva SS, Gunasekera RM, Collins RA, Ingram BA. Performance of juvenile Murray cod, Maccullochella peelii peelii (Mitchell), fed with diets of different protein to energy ratio. Aquacult Nutr. 2002;8:79–85. Du ZY, Liu YJ, Tian LX, Wang JT, Wang Y, Liang GY. Effects of dietary lipid level on growth, feed utilization and body composition by juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Aquacult Nutr. 2005;11:139–46. Espinos FJ, Tomas A, Perez LM, Balasch S, Jover M. Growth of dentex fingerlings (Dentex dentex) fed diets containing different levels of protein and lipid. Aquaculture. 2003; 218: 479–490. Hamre K, Øfsti A, Næss T, Nortvedt R, Holm JC. Macronutrient composition of formulated diets for Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus, L.) juveniles. Aquaculture. 2003;227:233–44. Jover M, Garcıa-Gomez A, Tomas A, De la Gandara F, Perez L. Growth of mediterranean yellowtail (Seriola dumerilii) fed extruded diets containing different levels of protein and lipid. Aquaculture. 1999; 179: 25–33. Kikuchi K, Furuta T, Iwata N, Onuki K, Noguchi T. Effect of dietary lipid levels on the growth, feed utilization, body composition and blood characteristics of tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes. Aquaculture. 2009;298:111–7. Liang XF. Study on mandarin fish and its culture home and abroad. Fisheries Sci Tech Inform. 1996;23:13–7 (in Chinese). Maldonado-García M, Rodríguez-Romero J, Reyes-Becerril M, Álvarez-González CA, Civera-Cerecedo R, Spanopoulos M. Effect of varying dietary protein levels on growth, feeding efficiency, and proximate composition of yellow snapper Lutjanus argentiventris (Peters, 1869). Lat Am J Aquat Res. 2012;40:1017–25. McGoogan BB, Gatlin DM. Dietary manipulations affecting growth and nitrogenous waste production of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus I Effects of dietary protein and energy levels. Aquaculture. 1999;178:333–48. Mohanta KN, Subramanian S, Korikanthimath VS. Effect of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth, nutrient utilization and whole-body composition of blue gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus fingerlings. J Anim Physiol An N. 2013;97:126–36. Morais S, Bell JG, Robertson DA, Roy WJ, Morris PC. Protein/lipid ratios in extruded diets for Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L.: effects on growth, feed utilisation, muscle composition and liver histology. Aquaculture. 2001;203:101–19. NRC (National Research Council). Nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2011. 392 pp. Nyina-wamwiza L, Xu XL, Blanchard G, Kestemont P. Effect of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate ratio on growth, feed efficiency and body composition of pikeperch Sander lucioperca fingerlings. Aquac Res. 2005;36:486–62. Ozorio ROA, Valente LMP, Pousao-Ferreira P, Oliva-Teles A. Growth performance and body composition of white seabream (Diplodus sargus) juveniles fed diets with different protein and lipid levels. Aquac Res. 2006;37:255–63. Rema P, Conceicao LEC, Evers F, Castro-Cunha M, Dinis MT, Dias J. Optimal Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central dietary protein levels in juvenile Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Aquacult Nutr. 2008;14:263–9. and we will help you at every step: Rueda-López S, Lazo JP, Reyes GC, Viana MT. Effect of dietary protein and energy • We accept pre-submission inquiries levels on growth, survival and body composition of juvenile Totoaba macdonaldi. Aquaculture. 2011;319:385–90. � Our selector tool helps you to find the most relevant journal Schuchardt D, Vergara JM, Fernandez-Palacios H, Kalinowski CT, Hernandez- Cruz � We provide round the clock customer support CM, Izquierdo MS, Robaina L. Effects of different dietary protein and lipid � Convenient online submission levels on growth, feed utilization and body composition of red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) fingerlings. Aquacult Nutr. 2008;14:1–9. � Thorough peer review Valente LMP, Linares F, Villanueva JLR, Silva JMG, Espe M, Escórcio C, Pires MA, � Inclusion in PubMed and all major indexing services Saavedra MJ, Borges P, Medale F, Alvárez-Blázquez B, Peleteiro JB. Dietary � Maximum visibility for your research protein source or energy levels have no major impact on growth performance, nutrient utilization or flesh fatty acids composition of market- Submit your manuscript at sized Senegalese sole. Aquaculture. 2011;318:128–37. www.biomedcentral.com/submit http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Springer Journals

Effect of dietary protein and lipid level on growth, feed utilization, and muscle composition in golden mandarin fish Siniperca scherzeri

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer-journals/effect-of-dietary-protein-and-lipid-level-on-growth-feed-utilization-adBj0qCrUD
Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s)
Subject
Life Sciences; Fish & Wildlife Biology & Management; Marine & Freshwater Sciences; Zoology; Animal Ecology
eISSN
2234-1757
DOI
10.1186/s41240-017-0053-0
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

A feeding trial was designed to assess the effects of dietary protein and lipid content on growth, feed utilization efficiency, and muscle proximate composition of juvenile mandarin fish, Siniperca scherzeri. Six experimental diets were formulated with a combination of three protein (35, 45, and 55%) and two dietary lipid levels (7 and 14%). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (8.3 ± 0.1 g) to apparent satiation for 8 weeks. The results showed that growth performance in terms of weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with increasing dietary protein level from 35 to 55% at the same dietary lipid level. At the same dietary lipid content, WG and SGR obtained with diets containing 55% protein was significantly higher than those obtained with diets containing 45 and 35% protein. No significant effect on growth rate was found when the dietary level of lipid was increased from 7 to 14%. While the levels of protein and lipid in the diets had no significant effect on feed intake, other nutrient utilization efficiency parameters including daily protein intake (DPI), feed efficiency (FE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) showed a similar trend to that of growth rates, with the highest values obtained with diets containing 55% protein. Muscle chemical composition was not significantly affected by the different dietary treatments for each dietary lipid or protein level tested. These findings may suggest that a practical diet containing 55% protein and 7% lipid provides sufficient nutrient and energy to support the acceptable growth rates and nutrient utilization of mandarin fish juveniles. Keywords: Growth performance, Feed utilization efficiency, Protein/lipid ratio, Mandarin, Siniperca scherzeri Background the diet, part of the dietary protein will be catabolized Since protein is often the most costly component of the to supply energy, which is wasteful. Thus, dietary formulated fish feeds, numerous studies have been supplementation of energy-yielding nutrients, mainly undertaken to define the optimum dietary protein re- lipids, has been suggested as a strategy to spare or quirement for developing more cost-effective, nutrition- improve the efficiency of protein utilization by fish, ally balanced practical diets for various fish species. thereby enhancing economic returns and reducing However, the optimum dietary protein requirements are water pollution. Conversely, supply of dietary lipid in known to be affected by several factors including the fish excess of requirement can limit feed consumption, species and size, the quality of the protein source, and the thereby reducing the intake of the necessary amount amount of non-protein energy in the diet (NRC 2011). of protein and other essential nutrients for maximal When insufficient non-protein energy is available in growth rates of fish while enhancing body fat deposition. Therefore, it is very important to determine the optimal dietary balance between protein and lipid for achieving maximum growth and efficient feed utilization of fish. * Correspondence: smlee@gwnu.ac.kr Department of Marine Biotechnology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 25457, South Korea Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © The Author(s). 2017 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Sankian et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017) 20:7 Page 2 of 6 Golden mandarin fish, Siniperca scherzeri,isone of crushedintosuitablesize(3mmindiameter),and the most commercially important freshwater species stored at −30 °C until used. endemic to East Asia, mainly distributed in China, Korea, and Northern Vietnam (Zhou et al. 1988). In- Fish and feeding trial creased market demands combined with the dramatic Juvenile mandarin fish were kindly provided by Dr. declineinwild stocks as aresultofover-catching and Yi Oh Kim (Inland Fisheries Research Institute, habitat destruction (Liang 1996; Wu et al. 1997) has Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea). A commercial created considerable interest in the development and feed (50% crude protein and 13% lipid; Woosung, improvement of culture practices for commercial pro- Daejeon, South Korea) was ground to a fine powder duction of this species. In fact, mandarin fish has be- andsievedthrough a2–3-mm mesh screen. Then it come one of the most promising target species with was pelletized into 1.5–1.8-mm long cylindrical high potential for aquaculture due to its excellent pellets having a diameter of 3 mm. Fish were fed the taste, high market value, rapidgrowth, andhighresist- repelleted commercial diet for 2 weeks to be ance against disease. However, despite the commercial acclimated to the experimental conditions and facil- importance of mandarin fish, no commercial formu- ities. Following the acclimation period, fish (initial lated feed is yet available for this species, and fish mean body weight, 8.3 ± 0.1 g) were distributed in a reared in commercial pens are usually fed live feed. closed recirculation system equipped with 18 square Since live feed production is not cost-effective, feeding glass aquaria of 65 L capacity at a density of 20 fish live prey to mandarin fish may hinder the prospective per aquarium. Each aquarium was supplied with −1 development of extensive commercial production of dechlorinated freshwater at a flow rate of 1.5 L min and this species. Therefore, it is necessary to develop for- continuous aeration. The photoperiod was maintained mulated feeds for mandarin fish culture to be far more on a 12:12-h (light/dark) schedule. The average water practical and efficient in terms of commercial oper- temperature during the feeding trial was 23 ± 0.7 °C. ation cost compared with the present practice of using Triplicate groups of fish were fed with one of the test live feed as the rearing diet. In fact, the present study diets to visual satiation twice a day (09:00 and is believed to be the first attempt to evaluate the ef- 17:00 h) for 8 weeks. The uneaten feed was collected, fects of dietary protein and lipid levels in practical dried, and weighted to determine the feed intake feeds on growth performance, feed utilization, and level. muscle composition of juvenile mandarin fish, S. scher- At the end of the feeding trial, all the fish in each zeri. The results of the current study could be helpful tank were counted and bulk-weighed for calculation in formulating a cost-effective and nutritionally sound of survival, growth, and feed utilization parameters in- practical diet for this species. cluding weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (EF), daily feed intake (DFI), daily pro- tein intake (DEI), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) Methods through the following formulas: Experimental diets Formulation and proximate composition of the experi- Weight gain ¼½ðÞ final body weight ‐ initial body weight mental diets are provided in Table 1. Six experimental initial body weight 100 diets were formulated to contain three protein levels (35, 45, and 55% crude protein) each at two lipid levels (7 and 14% crude lipid). Anchovy fish meal served as Specific growth rate ¼ the main protein source and equal proportions of ½ðÞ ln final body weight ‐ ln initial body weight squid liver oil and soybean oil as lipid sources in the days 100 experimental diets. All dried ingredients were well- mixed and, after addition of oil and double-distilled Feed efficiency ¼ðÞ fish wet weight gain=feed intake water, pelleted through a meat chopper machine. The pellets were dried overnight at room temperature, Daily feed intake ¼ffeed intake=½ðÞ initial fish weight þ final fish weight þ dead fish weight days fed=2g  100 Sankian et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017) 20:7 Page 3 of 6 Daily protein intake ¼fprotein intake=½ðÞ initial fish weight þ final fish weight þ dead fish weight days fed=2g  100 Protein efficiency ratio ¼ fish wet weight gain=protein intake Percentage data were arcsine transformed before stat- istical analysis. Five fish per tank were randomly sampled and stored at −45 °C for muscle proximate composition analyses. Results The proximate composition of the experimental diets The increase of dietary protein level from 35 to 55% in- and muscle samples of fish were analyzed according to duced a significant increase in fish growth performance standard methods (AOAC 1997). The crude protein in terms of WG and SGR (Table 2). Fish fed diets with content was determined using the Auto Kjeldahl System 55% protein had significantly higher growth rate than (Buchi, Flawil, Switzerland), the crude lipid content by those fed the 35 and 45% protein, regardless of dietary the ether-extraction method, using a Soxhlet extractor lipid level. Although fish growth performance was not (VELP Scientifica, Milano, Italy), the moisture content significantly affected by dietary lipid content, numeric- by oven drying (105 °C for 6 h), and the ash content ally higher values were observed in fish offered the diet using a muffler furnace (600 °C for 4 h). with the highest lipid content (14%). While DFI was not affected by the dietary treatment, significantly higher Statistical analysis DPI was found in fish fed the diets containing 55% pro- The data were subjected to two-way ANOVA to test tein compared to those fed the 45% protein or less. Fish for differences in the mean effects of dietary protein fed the 55% protein diet showed significantly higher feed and lipid levels, using SPSS version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., efficiency than those given lower protein at both dietary Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical significance was deter- lipid levels. PER was significantly increased with in- mined at P < 0.05. Data were presented as mean ± SE. creasing dietary protein from 35 to 55%, and the Table 1 Formulation and nutrient contents (%) of the six experimental diets Diets Ingredients (%) P35L7 P45L7 P55L7 P35L14 P45L14 P55L14 Anchovy fish meal 42.0 59.0 76.0 42.0 59.0 76.0 Wheat flour 40.1 25.1 10.1 30.0 15.0 0.0 Corn gluten meal 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.8 2.8 2.8 Potato starch 3.5 7.0 10.5 3.5 7.0 10.5 Squid liver oil + soybean oil 2.2 1.5 0.8 9.5 8.8 8.1 Cellulose 9.6 4.8 00 9.6 4.8 0.0 Vitamin premix 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 Mineral premix 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 Vitamin C 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 Vitamin E 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 Choline salt 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Proximate composition (% dry matter) Moisture 7.45 8.92 7.58 7.74 8.46 7.99 Crude protein 36.8 45.7 54.6 36.0 45.3 55.8 Crude lipid 6.5 6.7 6.8 13.7 13.9 14.5 Ash 9.7 12.2 14.2 10.0 11.7 11.8 Pesquera Bahia Caldera, Caldera, Chile. Fishmeal composition (% dry matter): crude protein, 67.3; crude lipid, 8.6 CJ CheilJedang Corporation, Seoul, South Korea. Wheat flour composition (% dry matter): crude protein, 16.4; crude lipid, 3.9 WooSung Feed Corporation, Daejeon, South Korea. Corn gluten meal composition (% dry matter): crude protein, 66.1; crude lipid, 2.8 Vitamin premix contained the following ingredients (g/kg premix), which were diluted in cellulose: thiamin hydrochloride, 2.7; riboflavin, 9.1; pyridoxine hydrochloride, 1.8; niacin, 36.4; Ca-D-pantothenate, 12.7; myo-inositol, 181.8; D-biotin, 0.27; folic acid, 0.68; p-aminobenzoic acid, 18.2; menadione, 1.8; retinyl acetate, 0.73; cholecalciferol, 0.003; cyanocobalamin, 0.003 Mineral premix contained the following ingredients (g/kg premix): MgSO ·7H O, 80.0; NaH PO ·2H O, 370.0; KCl, 130.0; Ferric citrate, 40.0; ZnSO ·7H O, 20.0; 4 2 2 4 2 4 2 Ca-lactate, 356.5; CuCl, 0.2; AlCl ·6H O, 0.15; KI, 0.15; Na Se O , 0.01; MnSO ·H O, 2.0; CoCl ·6H O, 1.0 3 2 2 2 3 4 2 2 2 Sankian et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017) 20:7 Page 4 of 6 Table 2 Growth performance and feed utilization of mandarin fish fed the six experimental diets for 8 weeks 1 2 3 4 5 6 Diets WG SGR DFI DPI FE PER Survival a a a a a P35L7 51.4 ± 7.3 0.74 ± 0.08 2.30 ± 0.03 0.81 ± 0.01 31.5 ± 3.6 0.90 ± 0.10 99.0 ± 1.1 b b b ab ab P45L7 79.3 ± 11.6 1.04 ± 0.11 2.49 ± 0.05 1.01 ± 0.02 39.9 ± 3.8 0.98 ± 0.09 96.7 ± 1.9 c c c c b P55L7 117.7 ± 4.7 1.39 ± 0.04 2.41 ± 0.12 1.11 ± 0.04 55.0 ± 3.4 1.19 ± 0.05 97.0 ± 0.0 ab ab a ab ab P35L14 62.4 ± 1.8 0.87 ± 0.02 2.38 ± 0.06 0.83 ± 0.02 35.3 ± 0.4 1.01 ± 0.01 97.7 ± 2.2 b b b b ab P45L14 83.2 ± 10.9 1.08 ± 0.10 2.33 ± 0.08 0.94 ± 0.03 44.7 ± 2.9 1.11 ± 0.07 96.7 ± 1.9 c c c c b P55L14 133.9 ± 17.7 1.51 ± 0.13 2.53 ± 0.03 1.16 ± 0.03 56.1 ± 3.3 1.23 ± 0.07 95.7 ± 1.3 Two-way ANOVA (P value) Protein <0.001 <0.001 0.163 <0.001 <0.001 0.019 0.619 Lipid 0.216 0.199 0.890 0.912 0.196 0.160 0.983 Protein × lipid 0.860 0.819 0.094 0.103 0.788 0.775 0.262 Values are mean of triplicate groups and presented as mean ± SE. Values with different superscripts in the same column are significantly different (P < 0.05). The lack of superscript letter indicates no significant differences among treatments Weight gain (%) = [(final body weight − initial body weight)/initial body weight] × 100 2 −1 Specific growth rate (% day ) = [(ln final body weight − ln initial body weight)/days] × 100 Daily feed intake (%) = {feed intake/[(initial body weight + final body weight + dead fish weight) × days fed/2]} × 100 Daily protein intake (%) = {protein intake/[(initial body weight + final body weight + dead fish weight) × days fed/2]} × 100 Feed efficiency (%) = (wet weight gain/feed intake) × 100 Protein efficiency ratio = wet weight gain/protein intake highest value was recorded in fish fed the P55L14 level of 55% (Table 3). This value fits within the range of diet. However, dietary lipid contents had no signifi- those reported in previous studies for other strictly car- cant effect on feed utilization efficiency of juvenile nivorous fish species, such as yellow snapper, Lutjanus mandarin fish at all the dietary protein levels. argentiventris (Peters 1869) (Maldonado-García et al. Two-way ANOVA revealed that neither dietary 2012), Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis (Rema et al. protein and lipid levels alone nor their interactions 2008), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus, L.) had significant effect (P > 0.05) on muscle composi- (Hamre et al. 2003), common dentex, Dentex dentex tion of juvenile mandarin fish after 8 weeks of feeding (Espinos et al. 2003), Murray cod, Maccullochella peelii (Table 2). peelii (De Silva et al. 2002), and Mediterranean yellow- tail, Seriola dumerilii (Jover et al. 1999) that generally Discussion have high dietary requirements for protein (Wilson In the present study, growth performance of juvenile 2002; NRC 2011). Since growth performance did not mandarin fish, in terms of weight gain (WG) and specific reach a plateau over the tested protein levels in the growth rate (SGR), was significantly increased with the present study and fish fed the diets containing 55% pro- increase in dietary protein level and the highest values tein exhibited higher growth rates than those fed the diet were observed in those fed the highest dietary protein containing dietary protein of 35 and 45%, it could be Table 3 Muscle proximate composition (%, wt basis) of mandarin fish fed the six experimental diets for 8 weeks Diets Moisture Protein Lipid Ash P35L7 76.6 ± 0.4 19.2 ± 0.3 0.8 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.1 P45L7 77.9 ± 0.6 19.3 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.4 1.1 ± 0.1 P55L7 76.5 ± 0.2 20.1 ± 0.5 1.1 ± 0.5 1.2 ± 0.2 P35L14 76.5 ± 0.3 20.0 ± 0.4 0.6 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.1 P45L14 77.2 ± 0.3 19.8 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.5 1.1 ± 0.0 P55L14 76.4 ± 0.7 19.7 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.1 Two-way ANOVA (P value) Protein 0.197 0.249 0.324 0.956 Lipid 0.512 0.114 0.561 0.724 Protein × lipid 0.584 0.538 0.670 0.617 Values are mean of triplicate groups and presented as mean ± SE. Values with different superscripts in the same column are significantly different (P < 0.05). The lack of superscript letter indicates no significant differences among treatments Sankian et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017) 20:7 Page 5 of 6 suggested that mandarin fish juveniles require dietary Basilewsky (Zhang et al. 2015), and red porgy, Pagrus protein of at least 55% to sustain their fast growth. pagrus, (Schuchardt et al. 2008) where fish muscle Nevertheless, further research is needed to precisely composition was significantly affected by dietary pro- define the optimal dietary protein requirement for desir- tein/lipid ratios. This discrepancy may be attributed able rate of growth using diets containing higher levels to the fish species variation or a difference in experi- of protein than 55%. mental condition particularly dietary protein/energy In addition, although increased dietary protein levels ratios. had no significant effect on DFI in the present study, it resulted in significantly higher FE and PER values. This Conclusion meant that fish fed the high-protein diets (45 to 55% Despite the growing importance of the mandarin fish dietary protein) used dietary protein more efficiently as a promising target species with high potential for than fish fed the low-protein diet (35%). A similar trend aquaculture, there is no information concerning the has also been found by different authors for other fresh- nutritional requirement of this freshwater finfish spe- water carnivorous fish species including pikeperch, cies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first at- Sander lucioperca (Nyina-wamwiza et al. 2005), and tempt to evaluate the protein and lipid requirements snakehead (Aliyu-Paiko et al. 2010). Higher pressure on of this fish indicating that diets for juvenile mandarin body protein in order to satisfy the dietary needs for fish should include at least 55% protein and 7% lipid tissue building, repair, and metabolism has been sug- to maintain a good performance. These findings may gested as the reason for poor growth and dietary provide useful context for developing a more cost- utilization observed in fish fed sub-optimal dietary pro- effective and nutritionally balanced feed for the cul- tein levels (Mohanta et al. 2013). ture of mandarin fish. Dietary energy has a major impact on the dietary pro- tein requirements of fish, and by proper use of non- Abbreviations WG: Weight gain; SGR: Specific growth rate; DPI: Daily protein intake; protein energy sources, particularly lipid, dietary protein FE: Feed utilization; PER: Protein efficiency ratio in fish feed can be spared (Mohanta et al. 2013). Never- theless, a protein-sparing effect, where supplementation Acknowledgements of dietary lipid improves fish performance and feed This study was supported by a grant from the Fishery Commercialization utilization efficiency, was not evident in this study at all Technology Development Program (D11524615H480000120) funded by Korea Institute of Marine Science & Technology Promotion. protein levels. Although numerically higher values were observed in those of fish fed 14% dietary lipid, there was Funding no significant difference in weight gain and PER of fish This study was funded by a grant from the Fishery Commercialization fed diets containing 7 to 14% lipid. These results may Technology Development Program (D11524615H480000120). The funding organization played an active role in the manufacturing of the experimental suggest that 7% dietary lipid is probably sufficient to diets and analyses. meet the minimal requirement of this fish while the amount of dietary lipid needed to achieve maximum Availability of data and materials growth seems to be at or close to 14%. Limited or no ob- All datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. vious protein-sparing effect was also observed in various other fish species including murray cod, Maccullochella Authors’ contributions peelii peelii (De Silva et al. 2002), grass carp, Cteno- ZS and SKH manufactured the experimental feed and drafted the pharyngodon idella (Du et al. 2005), white seabream, manuscript. YOK conducted the feeding trial and performed the analyses. SML conceived and designed the study and experimental facility, and also Diplodus sargus (Ozorio et al. 2006), and tiger puffer, revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Takifugu rubripes (Kikuchi et al. 2009), where increasing levels of dietary lipid had no beneficial effects on growth Competing interests and feed utilization efficiency. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. In the present study, muscle chemical composition was not affected by dietary treatment. Similar results Consent for publication Not applicable. were recorded for Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis Kaup, (Valente et al. 2011) Mediterranean yellowtail, Ethics approval and consent to participate Seriola dumerili (Vidal et al. 2008), Atlantic cod, Experimental protocols followed the guidelines of the Animal Care and Use Gadus morhua L. (Morais et al. 2001), and red drum, Committee of Gangneung-Wonju National University. Sciaenops ocellatus L. (McGoogan and Gatlin 1999). This finding is in contrast to those reported in other Publisher’sNote studies for Totoaba, Totoaba macdonaldi (Rueda- Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in López et al. 2011), topmouth culter, Culter alburnus published maps and institutional affiliations. Sankian et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017) 20:7 Page 6 of 6 Author details Vidal AT, Garcia FDG, Gomez AG, Cerda MJ. Effect of the protein/energy ratio on Department of Marine Biotechnology, Gangneung-Wonju National the growth of Mediterranean yellowtail (Seriola dumerili). Aquac Res. 2008;39: University, Gangneung 25457, South Korea. Department of Inland Fisheries 1141–8. Research Institute, Chungju 27329, South Korea. Wilson RP. Amino acid and proteins. In: Halver JE, Hardy RW, editors. Fish nutrition. New York: Academic Press; 2002. p. 143–79. Received: 1 January 2017 Accepted: 4 May 2017 Wu LX, Jiang ZQ, Qin KJ. Feeding habit and fishery utilization of Siniperca scherzeri in Biliuhe reservoir. J Fish Sci Chin. 1997;44:25–9 (in Chinese with English abstract). Zhang YL, Song L, Liu RP, Zhao ZB, He H, Fan QX, Shen ZG. Effects of dietary References protein and lipid levels on growth, body composition and flesh quality of Aliyu-Paiko M, Hashim R, Shu-Chien AC. Influence of dietary lipid/protein ratio on juvenile topmouth culter, Culter alburnus Basilewsky. Aquac Res. 2015;47: survival, growth, body indices and digestive lipase activity in snakehead 2633–41. (Channa striatus, Bloch 1793) fry reared in re-circulating water system. Zhou CW, Yang Q, Cai DL. On the classification and distribution of the Aquacult Nutr. 2010;16:466–74. Sinipercinae fishes (Family Serranidae). Zool Res. 1988;9:113–26 (in Chinese AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). Official Methods of Analysis. with English abstract). 16th ed. Arlington: Association of Official analytical chemists; 1997. De Silva SS, Gunasekera RM, Collins RA, Ingram BA. Performance of juvenile Murray cod, Maccullochella peelii peelii (Mitchell), fed with diets of different protein to energy ratio. Aquacult Nutr. 2002;8:79–85. Du ZY, Liu YJ, Tian LX, Wang JT, Wang Y, Liang GY. Effects of dietary lipid level on growth, feed utilization and body composition by juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Aquacult Nutr. 2005;11:139–46. Espinos FJ, Tomas A, Perez LM, Balasch S, Jover M. Growth of dentex fingerlings (Dentex dentex) fed diets containing different levels of protein and lipid. Aquaculture. 2003; 218: 479–490. Hamre K, Øfsti A, Næss T, Nortvedt R, Holm JC. Macronutrient composition of formulated diets for Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus, L.) juveniles. Aquaculture. 2003;227:233–44. Jover M, Garcıa-Gomez A, Tomas A, De la Gandara F, Perez L. Growth of mediterranean yellowtail (Seriola dumerilii) fed extruded diets containing different levels of protein and lipid. Aquaculture. 1999; 179: 25–33. Kikuchi K, Furuta T, Iwata N, Onuki K, Noguchi T. Effect of dietary lipid levels on the growth, feed utilization, body composition and blood characteristics of tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes. Aquaculture. 2009;298:111–7. Liang XF. Study on mandarin fish and its culture home and abroad. Fisheries Sci Tech Inform. 1996;23:13–7 (in Chinese). Maldonado-García M, Rodríguez-Romero J, Reyes-Becerril M, Álvarez-González CA, Civera-Cerecedo R, Spanopoulos M. Effect of varying dietary protein levels on growth, feeding efficiency, and proximate composition of yellow snapper Lutjanus argentiventris (Peters, 1869). Lat Am J Aquat Res. 2012;40:1017–25. McGoogan BB, Gatlin DM. Dietary manipulations affecting growth and nitrogenous waste production of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus I Effects of dietary protein and energy levels. Aquaculture. 1999;178:333–48. Mohanta KN, Subramanian S, Korikanthimath VS. Effect of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth, nutrient utilization and whole-body composition of blue gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus fingerlings. J Anim Physiol An N. 2013;97:126–36. Morais S, Bell JG, Robertson DA, Roy WJ, Morris PC. Protein/lipid ratios in extruded diets for Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L.: effects on growth, feed utilisation, muscle composition and liver histology. Aquaculture. 2001;203:101–19. NRC (National Research Council). Nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2011. 392 pp. Nyina-wamwiza L, Xu XL, Blanchard G, Kestemont P. Effect of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate ratio on growth, feed efficiency and body composition of pikeperch Sander lucioperca fingerlings. Aquac Res. 2005;36:486–62. Ozorio ROA, Valente LMP, Pousao-Ferreira P, Oliva-Teles A. Growth performance and body composition of white seabream (Diplodus sargus) juveniles fed diets with different protein and lipid levels. Aquac Res. 2006;37:255–63. Rema P, Conceicao LEC, Evers F, Castro-Cunha M, Dinis MT, Dias J. Optimal Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central dietary protein levels in juvenile Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Aquacult Nutr. 2008;14:263–9. and we will help you at every step: Rueda-López S, Lazo JP, Reyes GC, Viana MT. Effect of dietary protein and energy • We accept pre-submission inquiries levels on growth, survival and body composition of juvenile Totoaba macdonaldi. Aquaculture. 2011;319:385–90. � Our selector tool helps you to find the most relevant journal Schuchardt D, Vergara JM, Fernandez-Palacios H, Kalinowski CT, Hernandez- Cruz � We provide round the clock customer support CM, Izquierdo MS, Robaina L. Effects of different dietary protein and lipid � Convenient online submission levels on growth, feed utilization and body composition of red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) fingerlings. Aquacult Nutr. 2008;14:1–9. � Thorough peer review Valente LMP, Linares F, Villanueva JLR, Silva JMG, Espe M, Escórcio C, Pires MA, � Inclusion in PubMed and all major indexing services Saavedra MJ, Borges P, Medale F, Alvárez-Blázquez B, Peleteiro JB. Dietary � Maximum visibility for your research protein source or energy levels have no major impact on growth performance, nutrient utilization or flesh fatty acids composition of market- Submit your manuscript at sized Senegalese sole. Aquaculture. 2011;318:128–37. www.biomedcentral.com/submit

Journal

Fisheries and Aquatic SciencesSpringer Journals

Published: May 12, 2017

References