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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(4), 368-376 ARTICLE December 2015 Distribution and natural history of the mangrove- dwelling Gray-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides cajaneus avicenniae Stotz, 1992, in southeastern Brazil ,3 Robson Silva e Silva¹ and Fábio Olmos² ¹ Rua Amaral Gurgel, 63/51, CEP 11035-120, Santos, SP, Brazil. ² Largo do Paissandú, 100/4C, CEP 01034-010, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Corresponding author: email@example.com Received on 6 October 2014. Accepted on 24 March 2015. ABSTRACT: We revise the distribution and habitat associations of Aramides cajaneus avicenniae, a localised Brazilian form of the widespread Gray-necked Wood-Rail, and provide data on its foraging and breeding behaviors. This rail is a mangrove specialist endemic to the coastal belt from São Paulo to Santa Catarina, with some insular populations off the northern coast of São Paulo. Crabs, especially Uca spp., are the main prey in mangroves while island birds feed on large ground-dwelling arthropods and scavenge fish dropped by seabirds. Breeding is tied to the rainy season and nests found in mangrove sites were built with twigs and leaves on trees overhanging rivers and tidal channels and had 1-6 eggs. KEY-WORDS: Gray-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides cajaneus avicenniae, breeding biology, distribution, eggs, foraging, São Paulo state, Brazil. INTRODUCTION (NMW.38454 and 38455; Pelzeln 1871, E. Bauernfeind pers. comm.). Also in the Amazon, near Belém, Stone The Gray-necked Woo d-Rail Aramides cajaneus occurs in (1928) mentions “three nests found, two containing three many different habitats, usually near water, from sea-level eggs each and the other an addled egg” between February to 2,000m, from southeastern Mexico through Central and May 1926 (Stone 1928). On Santa Catarina Island, Naka & Rodrigues (2000) recorded one adult followed America and into South America, from southwestern Ecuador and eastern Peru, to the east across Brazil and by two young on 10 November 1997. south to northern Argentina and Uruguay, with nine Two subspecies occur in Brazil, the nominate form recognized subspecies (Taylor 1998). Aramides cajaneus cajaneus, found throughout the country Although it is considered the commonest large rail in habitats as different as the Pantanal, the Caatinga and the Amazon, and A. c. avicenniae, described only recently in Brazil, with a wide distribution in swamps with dense vegetation, mangroves, river margins, lakes, tall swampy and apparently restricted to the mangrove swamps of the forests, rice fields, and sugarcane plantations throughout southern coast of São Paulo, Paraná and, possibly, Santa the country (Sick 1997), its biology remains poorly Catarina states (Stotz 1992, Bornschein & Reinert 1996, known (Taylor 1998). As Rallidae are usually secretive and Taylor 1998). Aramides cajaneus avicenniae is distinguished by its gray occiput with a reduced or absent brown wash rarely seen, few detailed studies have been made on most Neotropical species, and even the nest and eggs of some (blackish to brownish in nominate), plumbeous color taxa remain undescribed (Ripley 1977, Taylor 1998). from nape to back (olive in the nominate) and cinnamon The same is true for the Gray-necked Woo d-Rail, underparts (richer rufous in the nominate; Figure 1). with most of the available data coming from captive birds Along the coast of São Paulo state, the Gray-necked Wood-Rail is found in some of the islands dotting the (Ripley 1977), from semi-tamed individuals living around a house (Skutch 1994) and from birds in an urban park coast from 0.88 to 38 km from shore, including Búzios, in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro (Teixeira 1981). Vitória, Alcatrazes (specimens in MZUSP, sight records In Brazil, the only additional information was gathered at Búzios and Alcatrazes by FO), Palmas, Comprida, by Johann Natterer, who collected two downy young at Rapada, Pesca, and Couves (Vieitas 1995). Specimens from the northern São Paulo coast, and offshore islands Barra do Rio Negro, Amazonas, on 20 October 1832 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(4), 2015 Distribution and natural history of the mangrove-dwelling Gray-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides cajaneus avicenniae Stotz, 1992, in southeastern Brazil Robson Silva e Silva and Fábio Olmos (Vitória, Búzios and Alcatrazes) have been considered as Estação Ecológica Juréia-Itatins at Peruíbe (Rio Guaraú intermediates between the nominate form and avicenniae and Rio Una) and Iguape (Rio Verde), but with little (Stotz 1992). There are recor ds dating from the 1960’s success in getting more than site records of the species. from another island, São Sebastião (Ilhabela), where rails Channels and rivers crossing the mangroves were were not recorded in the early 1990’s by Olmos (1996) explored with small boats with an outboard motor while but have been documented later (Silva 2007). we searched for wood-rails and their nests, especially Here we review the distribution and habitat in smaller channels less than 10 m wide. Behavioural preferences of this taxon and present the first data on data were recorded ad libitum. When a nest was located breeding biology, food habits and general ecology of this we recorded its position with a GPS and measured its species in coastal São Paulo, as well on its distribution. dimensions and height with rulers and a measuring tape. Eggs and hatchlings were measured with a caliper and weighed with a Pesola spring scale. Additionally, we examined specimens housed at Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZUSP), Brazil, and American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), New York, USA and photographic records stored at Wikiaves (http://www.wikiaves.org). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Distribution Specimens collected at the islands of Búzios, Vitória and Alcatrazes (Table 1) were considered intermediate between FIGURE 1. Gray-necked Wood-Rail specimens at Museu de Zoologia nominate cajaneus and avicenniae by Stotz (1992), da Universidade de São Paulo, subspecies avicenniae (2 above, MZUSP although their bluish mantles look closer to avicenniae 78725 and MZUSP 67212 holotype), and nominate form (2 bellow, and are considered as so here. Birds photographed in MZUSP 74282 from Niquelândia-GO and MZUSP 32926 from Pau Bertioga (Souza 2010) and Ilhabela (Silva 2007) show Grande-ES). Photo: Robson Silva e Silva. the plumbeous/bluish mantle of avicenniae, while birds recorded at São Sebastião and Ubatuba, further up the METHODS coast, show green mantles typical of nominate birds (Cardoso 2013, Cisneros 2013). Further down the coast, observations and photos of We recorded the presence of the Gray-necked Wood-Rail especially from its characteristic voice, during a medium- living birds in the mangroves of Santos-Cubatão (Figure term study of the bird fauna of the mangrove swamps of 2) showed a color pattern agreeing with avicenniae, with Santos-Cubatão, in the central coast of São Paulo (Olmos plain gray crowns lacking a brown tinge, plumbeous (not & Silva e Silva 2001) and in several trips to the mangroves greenish) backs and pale rufous to cinnamon underparts. This and four specimens from Santos and Cu batão (Table of the southern coast between Iguape and Cananéia. Data on wood-rails were gathered between March 1994 1) confirm that bir ds there belong to avicenniae. and February 2003 during 259 field trips to Santos and Besides Santos-Cubatão, we found avicenniae in the Cubatão and seven to the southern coast, including areas mangroves along the southern coast of São Paulo, at Iguape in Iguape, Ilha Comprida and Cananéia, including Ilha (including the well-known collecting locality of Icapara), Ilha Comprida and Cananéia (including Ilha do Cardoso), do Cardoso. These two mangrove systems are the most extensive the same region where most specimens, including the in São Paulo state (Lamparelli 1998), and 145 km apart holotype, came from (Stotz 1992). Farther south in Paraná in a straight line. The mangroves grow along river and state, Johann Natterer collected specimens (now in the channels of the coastal plain of São Paulo, bounded Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, and Natural History Museum, Tring) in 1820 at Rio do Borraxudo and Rio da westwards by the Serra do Mar massif. While most of the lowland forests (“restinga” forests) on the plains have Villa, Paranaguá (Pelzeln 1871, Straube 1993; Table 1). been lost to agriculture, urban expansion and industrial Also in Paraná, Bornschein & Reinert (1996) development, the Serra do Mar and associated hills remain confirmed t he presence of avicenniae in Caiobá-Passagem, mostly covered by forest in different sucessional stages. municipality of Guaratuba, with a specimen now at Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia, Curitiba. We also visited a few smaller areas of mangroves between both systems at Itanhaém (Rio Itanhaém and Rio Preto), Towards the edge of mangrove distribution in Brazil, Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(4), 2015 Distribution and natural history of the mangrove-dwelling Gray-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides cajaneus avicenniae Stotz, 1992, in southeastern Brazil Robson Silva e Silva and Fábio Olmos Bangs (1907) and Stotz (1992) mention one specimen at The data show the subspecies has a fairly small the USNM from Santa Catarina matching avicenniae and range along the narrow coastal area between Bertioga Rosário (1996) and Naka & Rodrigues (2000) mention and Ilhabela (aprox. 23°50'S), São Paulo, in the north, the species occurring in mangroves. and Florianópolis (about 27°40'S), Santa Catarina, in the The presence of avicenniae in that state is confirmed south. Since birds along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul by photos from São Francisco do Sul (Cremer & Grose have green backs, the contact zone between them and 2010) and Florianópolis (Licco 2010, Serrão 2012). avicenniae must be somewhere south of Florianópolis. TABLE 1. Specimens of Aramides cajaneus avicenniae and intermediates. Collections: BMNH (British Museum of Natural History, Tring, UK); LACM (Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, Los Angeles, USA); MCZ (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA); MHNCI (Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia, Curitiba, Brazil); MNHN (Museum National d’ Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France); MZUSP (Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil); NMW (Nathurhitorisches Museum Wien, Wien, Austria); USNM (United States National Museum, Washington, USA). State: PR (Paraná); SC (Santa Catarina); SP (São Paulo). Collection Number Date Locality State Sex Collector Remarks NMW 38446 23 Dec 1820 Rio de Borraxudo, PR F Johann Natterer Guaraqueçaba NMW 38447 28 Dec 1820 Rio de Borraxudo, PR M Johann Natterer Guaraqueçaba NMW 38448 13 Dec 1820 Rio da Villa, Paranaguá PR M Johann Natterer BMNH 18.104.22.168 24 Dec 1820 Rio de Borraxudo, PR F Johann Natterer Guaraqueçaba USNM 24124 ? ? SC ? Lemuel Wells MHNCI 187 ? Caiobá-Passagem, GuaratubaPR F ? MZUSP 14967 20 Aug 1934 Cachoeirinha, Cananéia SP M Carlos Otaviano da Cunha Vieira MZUSP 14968 1 Sep 1934 Tabatinguara, Cananéia SP F Eurico Alves de Camargo MZUSP 14969 1 Sep 1934 Morrete, Cananéia SP F? Eurico Alves de Camargo MZUSP 14970 1 Sep 1934 Morrete, Cananéia SP M Eurico Alves de Camargo MZUSP 14971 28 Sep 1934 Tabatinguara, Cananéia SP M Eurico Alves de Camargo MZUSP 67212 13 Jul 1969 Iguape SP M Alfonso Maria OlallaHolotype MZUSP 67213 13 Jul 1969 Iguape SP F Alfonso Maria Olalla MZUSP 66527 11 Jul 1970 Icapara, Iguape SP ? Alfonso Maria Olalla MZUSP 68386 11 Jul 1970 Icapara, Iguape SP M Alfonso Maria Olalla MZUSP 69411 11 May 1969 Barra de Icapara, Iguape SP M Alfonso Maria Olalla MZUSP 70639 4 Sep 1991 Rio Cachoeira Grande, SP F Paulo Martuscelli Ilha do Cardoso, Cananéia MZUSP 73724 Oct 1994 Ilha do Cardoso, Cananéia SP ? Paulo Martuscelli MZUSP 78725 5 Jul 2007 Rio Sândi, Santos SP F Robson Silva e Silva MZUSP 91802 31 Dec 2010 Cubatão SP M Luís Fábio Silveira MZUSP 99605 7 Apr 2014 Canal Piaçaguera, Cubatão SP M Luís Fábio Silveira MZUSP 99606 7 Apr 2014 Canal Piaçaguera, Cubatão SP F Luís Fábio Silveira MNHN 1971.301 Jul/Aug 1970 Icapara, Iguape SP M Alfonso Maria Olalla MNHN 1971.302 Jul/Aug 1970 Icapara, Iguape SP M Alfonso Maria Olalla MNHN 1971.303 Jul/Aug 1970 Icapara, Iguape SP M Alfonso Maria Olalla MNHN 1971.304 Jul/Aug 1970 Icapara, Iguape SP F Alfonso Maria Olalla Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(4), 2015 Distribution and natural history of the mangrove-dwelling Gray-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides cajaneus avicenniae Stotz, 1992, in southeastern Brazil Robson Silva e Silva and Fábio Olmos Collection Number Date Locality State Sex Collector Remarks MNHN 1971.305 Jul/Aug 1970 Icapara, Iguape SP F Alfonso Maria Olalla MNHN 1971.306 Jul/Aug 1970 Icapara, Iguape SP F Alfonso Maria Olalla MNHN 1971.307 Jul/Aug 1970 Icapara, Iguape SP F Alfonso Maria Olalla MCZ 177528 1 Sep 1934 Morrete, Cananéia SP M Eurico Alves de Camargo MCZ 177529 1 Sep 1934 Morrete, Cananéia SP M Eurico Alves de Camargo MCZ 177530 1 Sep 1934 Morrete, Cananéia SP M Eurico Alves de Camargo LACM 28678 1946 Rio da Avó, São Vicente SP F José Leonardo Lima MZUSP 63644 21 Oct 1963 Ilha dos Búzios SP F Mzusp expedition Intermediate MZUSP 63645 18 Oct 1963 Ilha dos Búzios SP F Mzusp expedition Intermediate MZUSP 63646 20 Oct 1963 Ilha dos Búzios SP M Mzusp expedition Intermediate MZUSP 63647 21 Oct 1963 Ilha dos Búzios SP M Mzusp expedition Intermediate MZUSP 63648 20 Oct 1963 Ilha dos Búzios SP M Mzusp expedition Intermediate MZUSP 63947 27 Oct 1963 Ilha dos Búzios SP F Mzusp expedition Intermediate MZUSP 6574 12 Jul 1906 Ilha Vitória SP F Francisco Günther Intermediate MZUSP 5550 Mar 1905 UbatubaSPF Ernst Garbe Intermediate MZUSP 10492 Oct 1920 Ilha Alcatrazes SP F José Pinto da Intermediate Fonseca MZUSP 10493 Oct 1920 Ilha Alcatrazes SP M José Pinto da Intermediate Fonseca FIGURE 2. Adult Gray-necked Wood-Rail at low tide in the mangroves of Canal Piaçaguera, Cubatão-SP, on 1 April 2014. Photo: Robson Silva e Silva. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(4), 2015 Distribution and natural history of the mangrove-dwelling Gray-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides cajaneus avicenniae Stotz, 1992, in southeastern Brazil Robson Silva e Silva and Fábio Olmos Habitat December,... lives on crabs (R. Borraxudo)...” (translated by E. Bauernfeind). Alcatrazes Island has no permanent human occupation We witnessed the same behavior several times in and lacks perennial watercourses. It is a mosaic of forests the mangroves between Iguape and Cananéia, at Ilha do dominated by the palm Syagrus rommanzoffiana, exposed Cardoso and in the mudflats along Canal de Ararapira, rocks covered by bromeliads and cacti and grassy areas where several birds, mostly in pairs, foraged for small resulting from man-made fires. Along four trips to crabs. Rails foraging along mudflats are a common sight Alcatrazes in 1992-93, FO found pairs or family groups of in the Iguape-Cananéia mangroves along the sheltered Gray-necked Wood-Rail throughout the island wherever mangroves of the Mar de Dentro and along smaller rivers there was denser vegetation, especially along ditch lines. such as the Sorocabinha. Palmas, Comprida, Rapada, Pesca and Couves are small The situation is different in the mangroves of Santos- islands where rails have been recorded and show a drier Cubatão, where rails are rarely seem foraging in the open vegetation, while at Ilha do Mar Virado, which has a flat mudflats and keep close to the vegetation. Rails were seen area with swampy forest (“caixetal”, dominated by the foraging for the many small Fiddler Crabs (Uca rapax, tree Tabebuia cassinoides) it is among the commonest U. mordax, U. leptodactyla, and U. uruguensis) (Figure 3), birds (Vieitas 1995). snails Melampus coffeus and Littorina sp. and, once, a dead Both Búzios and Vitória have been long inhabited Blue Crab Callinectes danae taken by a pair of rails into the by artisanal fishermen (“caiçaras”) who have destroyed mangrove forest. Rails are a common presence in mixed large areas of the original forest and reportedly caused nesting colonies of Little Blue Herons (Egretta caerulea), water resources in Vitória to dwindle to a single spring. Snowy Egrets (E. thula), Scarlet Ibises (Eudocimus ruber), During two trips to Búzios in 1993-94, FO found forest Yellow-crowned Night-herons (Nyctanassa violacea), limited to an obviously secondary patch on the steep Black-crowned Night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) southern face of the island, which lacks running water, and Great Egret (Ardea alba) scattered in the area where the remainder being covered by grass, young second- the rails forage for fallen regurgitates, fallen eggs and growth, manioc and bean fields and orchar ds. A pair nestlings. Once we saw them feeding among young Little of Gray-necked Wood-Rails was sighted in the forest Blue Herons foraging on the mud exposed below their remnant in 1994. nests during low tide. Island populations of Gray-necked Wood-Rails can At Alcatrazes Island, where there is a large colony be described as a forest ground bird able to live in areas of Magnificent Frigatebir ds (Fregata magnificens) nesting where water is limited to a few springs dripping from on trees and bushes, rails have been seen scavenging for rocks and where there are no perennial creeks or swampy fallen regurgitates. It is likely they will also feed on fallen areas. eggs and nestlings. Alcatrazes and most coastal islands off This situation contrasts with t he mainland. In São Paulo have large populations of big ground-dwelling Santos-Cubatão it is by far the commonest rail in the roaches Hormetica scrobiculata, centipedes Otostigmus sp. mangrove swamps, living in mangrove forests dominated and spiders (mainly the wolfspider Ctenus medius and the by Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia schaueriana and tarantula Vitalius wacketi). It is probable those provide Laguncularia racemosa reaching 12 m high. The same is the main prey for rails together with the local frogs and true in southern São Paulo, where in the belt between lizards, some of them endemic. For a description of the Iguape and Cananéia it is easily found in mangrove island and its biota see Mercadante & Moura (2006) and forests, foraging on mudflats during the low tide. Muscat et al. (2014). Gray-necked Wood-Rails living in coastal São Paulo are also found in transitional areas between the mangroves and restinga forests, but are replaced on the lower slopes of the Serra do Mar massif by the Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail (Aramides saracura) (Olmos & Silva e Silva 2001). The possibility of competitive exclusion between the species leading to habitat segregation deserves further research. Foraging behavior The first data on food habits of A. c. avicenniae in the mangroves came from specimens taken by Natterer in Paraná and described by Pelzeln (1871): “Paranagua FIGURE 3. Feeding on a Fiddler Crab (Uca cf. leptodactyla), at Rio between mangroves on the bank of Rio da Villa in Cascalho mangroves, Cubatão-SP, on 15 April 2011. Photo: Robson December, Rio do Borraxudo between mangroves in Silva e Silva. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(4), 2015 Distribution and natural history of the mangrove-dwelling Gray-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides cajaneus avicenniae Stotz, 1992, in southeastern Brazil Robson Silva e Silva and Fábio Olmos Breeding Behavior creamy or whitish with brown to cinnamon spots. Five just-hatched young were found on their nest in Cananéia on 8 January 1998. They weighted 23.6±0.9 g (23 to 25 The observations suggest that the rails tie their nesting to the rainy season (see Table 2), which in the region g), had culmens 11.26±1.2 mm long (9.5 to 12 mm) and tarsi 20.44±2.1 mm (17.2 to 22.5 mm) (Figure 6). starts in late September-early October. This agrees with Besides nests, we recorded a pair of adults together the nesting of several other waterbirds (Olmos & Silva e with five young with 1/3 of the adult size foraging under Silva 2001) and may be due to increased prey availability, a heron colony in the Rio Saboó, Santos; another pair including small crabs recruiting at this season. We first recor ded nesting by A. c. avicenniae at with five ¾ grown young in Cubatão in October 1997 and one adult followed by one young in washed plumage Cananéia, when a nest with an incubating adult was on 22 November 2000. found on a mangrove tree leaning over a narrow tidal Predation seems an important factor accounting channel (Figure 4). Since then, we found another 20 nests for nest failures, but we could not identify predators. (see Table 2 for details and localities). The nest is a high bowl of twigs and intertwined leaves, with a leaf-covered Crab-eating Raccoons Procyon cancrivorus are common throughout the visited areas and are likely predators. The chamber. It is usually built on the leaning branches of strategy of building nests on thin trees tilted over rivers a mangrove tree over water, commonly using a parasitic and channels is a likely deterrent for terrestrial predators. Loranthaceae bush as camouflage and support. One pair Gray-necked Wood-Rails in coastal southeast Brazil was also seen carrying nesting material to an unfinished nest at the Rio Quilombo on December 2000. seem to be less generalist compared to their cospecifics elsewhere, and more restricted in their habitat choices Clutches had 1-6 eggs (Figure 5) (mode = 5), with (Taylor 1998). Nevertheless, their success in colonizing a mean of 3.4. Nests found with only 1 egg probably had coastal islands and becoming locally common invites incomplete clutches. 27 eggs from 10 nests measured further research on their ecology in this specific habitat 49.4±1.7 mm (52.22 to 45.5 mm) x 35.6±0.7 mm (36.6 to 34 mm) and weighted 32.9±2.3 g (36.5 to 26.5 g), and on their interactions with prey species quite unlike the ones found in their preferred mangroves on the and do not seem to differ from published measurements mainland. of other subspecies (Taylor 1998). The eggs were o blong, FIGURE 4. Adult incubating at nest # 02. Mangroves of Cananéia-SP, on 8 January 1998. Photo: Robson Silva e Silva. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(4), 2015 Distribution and natural history of the mangrove-dwelling Gray-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides cajaneus avicenniae Stotz, 1992, in southeastern Brazil Robson Silva e Silva and Fábio Olmos TABLE 2. Nests characteristics of Aramides cajaneus avicenniae found in mangroves of São Paulo. Measurements are in centimetres, except for nest height measured from the water surface, in meters. Tree species: A – Avicennia schaueriana; L – Laguncularia racemosa; R – Rhizophora mangle Content: E – egg; C – chick Height Tree Nest Date Locality Coordinates Lenght Width Heigth Depth from Content Species Water 01 12 Jan 1995 Rio Quilombo, 23°52'44''S, - --- 1.2 R 1E Santos 46°21'05''W 02 7 Jan 1998 Cananéia 24°53'00''S, 36 22 17 7 2.2 L 2E + 3C 47°49'30''W 03 2 Nov 1998 Rio Saboó, Santos 23°55'28''S, 33 26 21 6 1.7 A 3E 46°20'52''W 04 13 Jan 1999 Cananéia 24°52'36''S, - --- 2.3 L 1E 47°48'23''W 05 17 Dec 1999 Icapara, Iguape 24°41'54''S, 27 13 10 5 1 L 5E 47°31'25''W 06 17 Dec 1999 Icapara, Iguape 24°41'50''S, 23 21 12 3 1.5 L 5E 47°31'22''W 07 9 Nov 2000 Rio Quilombo, 23°52'52''S, 26 28 22 5 3.3 R 6E Santos 46°21'07''W 08 16 Nov 2000 Rio Quilombo, 23°52'36''S, 31 24 16 4 3.5 A 1E Santos 46°21'05''W 09 16 Nov 2000 Rio Quilombo, 23°53'07''S, 29 25 22 5 2.2 R 1E Santos 46°21'37''W 10 27 Nov 2000 Rio Morrão, 23°52'36''S, 40 24 11 5 2.3 R 5E Santos 46°21'35''W 11 29 Nov 2000 Rio Quilombo, 23°52'41''S, - --- 2.4 R 0 Santos 46°21'22''W 12 9 Jan 2003 Iguape 24°42'59''S, 34 29 19 7 0.9 L 0 47°33'28''W 13 9 Jan 2003 Iguape 24°42'11''S, 27 25 15 5 1.1 L 0 47°31'36''W 14 9 Jan 2003 Iguape 24°42'11''S, 32 31 13 6 0.8 L 0 47°31'27''W 15 9 Jan 2003 Iguape 24°42'11''S, 31 24 12 6 2.3 L 0 47°31'27''W 16 9 Jan 2003 Iguape 24°42'13''S, 32 31 12 4 0.7 L 0 47°31'23''W 17 9 Jan 2003 Iguape 24°42'13''S, 32 31 14 5 1.3 L 0 47°31'23''W 18 9 Jan 2003 Iguape 24°41'52''S, 36 26 15 4 1.7 L 0 47°31'08''W 19 9 Jan 2003 Iguape 24°41'43''S, 38 26 20 8 0.9 L 0 47°28'48''W 20 9 Jan 2003 Rio Sorocabinha, 24°44'13''S, 39 25 22 - 2.1 L 0 Iguape 47°35'43''W Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(4), 2015 Distribution and natural history of the mangrove-dwelling Gray-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides cajaneus avicenniae Stotz, 1992, in southeastern Brazil Robson Silva e Silva and Fábio Olmos FIGURE 5. Nest # 03 at Rio Saboó, Santos-SP, on 9 November 1998. Photo: Robson Silva e Silva. FIGURE 6. Just-hatched young (nest # 02), Cananéia-SP, on 8 January 1998. Photo: Robson Silva e Silva. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(4), 2015 Distribution and natural history of the mangrove-dwelling Gray-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides cajaneus avicenniae Stotz, 1992, in southeastern Brazil Robson Silva e Silva and Fábio Olmos archipelago and surrounding waters, São Paulo, southeastern ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Brazil. Checklist 10(4): 729–738. Mercadante, O. A. & Moura, L. F. H. A. 2005. Serpentes ilhoas em We are grateful for the financial support of Fundação Alcatrazes e Queimada Grande. São Paulo: Magma Editora. O Boticário de Proteção à Natureza and Fertilizantes Naka, L. N. & Rodrigues, M. 2000. As aves da ilha de Santa Catarina. Fosfatados S.A. (FOSFERTIL). Our thanks to Joel Escobar Florianópolis: Editora da UFSC. Olmos, F. 1996. Missing species in São Sebastião Island, southeastern from Náutica da Ilha (Cubatão) for logistical support. Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 39(18): 329-349. We are especially grateful to Dr. Ernst Bauernfeind Olmos, F. & Silva e Silva, R. 2001. The avifauna of a southeastern (Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien), for sending the Brazilian mangrove swamp. International Journal of Ornithology information on Aramides cajaneus specimens collected 4(3/4): 137-207. Pelzeln, A. von 1871. Zur ornithologie Brasiliens: resultate von Johann in Brazil by Johann Natterer and translating their labels. Natterer reisen in den jahren 1817 bis 1835. Wien: A. Pichler’s We also thanks to Dr. Luís Fábio Silveira from Museu Witwe & Sohn. de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, and Dr. Paul Ripley, S. D. 1977. Rails of the World. Toronto: M. F. Feheley Sweet from American Museum of Natural History, New Publishers Limited. Rosário, L. A. do. 1996. As aves em Santa Catarina: distribuição York, for allowing our access to these collections. Dr. geográfica e meio ambiente. F lorianópolis: FATMA. Hein van Grouw (The Natural History Museum, Tring), Serrão, M. A. 2012. [WA560114, Aramides cajaneus Statius Muller, Dr. Kimball L. Garrett (Los Angeles County Museum 1776]. www.wikiaves.com/560114 (access on 18 March 2014). of Natural History), Dr. Jeremiah Trimble (Museum of Sick, H. 1997. Ornitologia Brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Nova Comparative Zoology) and Dr. Patrick Boussès (Muséum Fronteira. Silva, M. D. 2007. [WA165615, Aramides cajaneus Statius Muller, National d’ Histoire Naturelle, Paris) sent us information 1776]. www.wikiaves.com/165615 (access on 18 March 2014). about the specimens from those institutions. Souza, D. M. 2010. [WA147917, Aramides cajaneus Statius Muller, 1776]. www.wikiaves.com/147917 (access on 18 March 2014). Skutch, A. F. 1994. The Gray-necked Woo d-rail: habits, food, nesting REFERENCES and voice. 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A.; Eugênio, M.; Associate Editor: Carla Fontana Rotenberg, E. L. & Olmos, F. 2014. Birds of the Alcatrazes Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(4), 2015
Ornithology Research – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 1, 2015
Keywords: Gray-necked Wood-Rail; Aramides cajaneus avicenniae; breeding biology; distribution; eggs; foraging; São Paulo state; Brazil
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