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Direct Electronic Load Control for Demand Response in a DC Microgrid Using a Virtual Internal Impedance Screening Model and PID Controller

Direct Electronic Load Control for Demand Response in a DC Microgrid Using a Virtual Internal... To reduce peak loads, direct and indirect load control are common strategies used to change demand during peak hours. Voltage dependent demand response (DR) is a direct load control for changing loads in a DC mircogrid. The characteristics of electronic loads can be controlled with a switch-mode DC boost or buck converter. They have faster response to maintain stable output voltage under the fluctuating load condition and heavy load condition. Applying a fast load step to voltage regulator can maintain a well regulated voltages and load currents. The increased load resistance will cause voltage drop when load current is increased during heavy loads. Thus, their adjustable internal load impedances can change the absorbed currents by regulating the duty ratio. In this study, a screening model is employed to estimate the virtual internal impedances of power electronic loads. Then, the desired duty ratio can be determined to perform the DR program, while the boost converter acts to step-up or step-down the load voltages using the PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller. For a DC microgrid, simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed methods: (1) exact control of load voltage at both the power source side and load sides and (2) regulation of absorbed currents to modify load voltages and reduce line voltage drops and line losses during heavy loads. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy Springer Journals

Direct Electronic Load Control for Demand Response in a DC Microgrid Using a Virtual Internal Impedance Screening Model and PID Controller

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 by Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.
Subject
Energy; Energy Systems; Power Electronics, Electrical Machines and Networks; Energy Economics
eISSN
2199-4706
DOI
10.1007/s40866-018-0039-8
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

To reduce peak loads, direct and indirect load control are common strategies used to change demand during peak hours. Voltage dependent demand response (DR) is a direct load control for changing loads in a DC mircogrid. The characteristics of electronic loads can be controlled with a switch-mode DC boost or buck converter. They have faster response to maintain stable output voltage under the fluctuating load condition and heavy load condition. Applying a fast load step to voltage regulator can maintain a well regulated voltages and load currents. The increased load resistance will cause voltage drop when load current is increased during heavy loads. Thus, their adjustable internal load impedances can change the absorbed currents by regulating the duty ratio. In this study, a screening model is employed to estimate the virtual internal impedances of power electronic loads. Then, the desired duty ratio can be determined to perform the DR program, while the boost converter acts to step-up or step-down the load voltages using the PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller. For a DC microgrid, simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed methods: (1) exact control of load voltage at both the power source side and load sides and (2) regulation of absorbed currents to modify load voltages and reduce line voltage drops and line losses during heavy loads.

Journal

Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable EnergySpringer Journals

Published: Mar 13, 2018

References