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Detection of Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus in Strawberry and Green Leafy Vegetables by Using RT-qPCR in Egypt

Detection of Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus in Strawberry and Green Leafy Vegetables by Using... There is an upward trend of consumption of organic fresh vegetables due to consumer demand for healthy foods without chemical additives. On the other hand, the number of food borne outbreaks associated with contaminated fresh produce has raised, being human norovirus genogroup I (GI), GII and hepatitis A virus (HAV) the most commonly reported causative agents. This study aimed to detect the presence of these viruses in green leafy vegetables (watercress, leek, coriander, and parsley) and strawberry using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Samples were collected from the Egyptian regions of Kalubia, Giza, and Mansoura. Overall HAV average occurrence in fresh strawberry was 48% with a mean concentration of 6.1 × 103 GC/g; Also NoV GI overall average occurrence was 25% with a mean concentration of 9.7 × 102 genome copies (GC)/g, while NoV GII was 40% with a mean concentration of 2.4 × 103 GC/g. For strawberry collected directly from Kalubia farms, neither HAV nor HNoV GI & GII were detected. In green leafy vegetable samples, the occurrence of HAV was 31.2% with a mean concentration of 9.2 × 104 GC/g, while occurrence of NoV GI and NoV GII were 20% and 30% with a mean concentrations of 1.1 × 104 and 2.03 × 103 GC/g, respectively. In conclusion, the importance of a virus surveillance program for soft fruits and fresh vegetables is highlighted by the outcomes of this study. Our findings should help with the management and control of microbial concerns in fresh foods, reducing the danger of consuming contaminated foods. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Food and Environmental Virology Springer Journals

Detection of Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus in Strawberry and Green Leafy Vegetables by Using RT-qPCR in Egypt

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2022
ISSN
1867-0334
eISSN
1867-0342
DOI
10.1007/s12560-022-09516-1
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

There is an upward trend of consumption of organic fresh vegetables due to consumer demand for healthy foods without chemical additives. On the other hand, the number of food borne outbreaks associated with contaminated fresh produce has raised, being human norovirus genogroup I (GI), GII and hepatitis A virus (HAV) the most commonly reported causative agents. This study aimed to detect the presence of these viruses in green leafy vegetables (watercress, leek, coriander, and parsley) and strawberry using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Samples were collected from the Egyptian regions of Kalubia, Giza, and Mansoura. Overall HAV average occurrence in fresh strawberry was 48% with a mean concentration of 6.1 × 103 GC/g; Also NoV GI overall average occurrence was 25% with a mean concentration of 9.7 × 102 genome copies (GC)/g, while NoV GII was 40% with a mean concentration of 2.4 × 103 GC/g. For strawberry collected directly from Kalubia farms, neither HAV nor HNoV GI & GII were detected. In green leafy vegetable samples, the occurrence of HAV was 31.2% with a mean concentration of 9.2 × 104 GC/g, while occurrence of NoV GI and NoV GII were 20% and 30% with a mean concentrations of 1.1 × 104 and 2.03 × 103 GC/g, respectively. In conclusion, the importance of a virus surveillance program for soft fruits and fresh vegetables is highlighted by the outcomes of this study. Our findings should help with the management and control of microbial concerns in fresh foods, reducing the danger of consuming contaminated foods.

Journal

Food and Environmental VirologySpringer Journals

Published: Jun 1, 2022

Keywords: Green leafy vegetables; Strawberry; Hepatitis A virus; Noroviruses; Real-time PCR

References