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Crystal fingerprinting: elucidating the crystals of Cheddar, Parmigiano-Reggiano, Gouda, and soft washed-rind cheeses using powder x-ray diffractometry

Crystal fingerprinting: elucidating the crystals of Cheddar, Parmigiano-Reggiano, Gouda, and soft... Crystals in cheese may be considered defects or positive features, depending on the variety and mode of production (industrial, artisanal). Powder x-ray diffractometry (PXRD) offers a simple means to identify and resolve complex combinations of crystals that contribute to cheese characteristics. The objective of the present research was to demonstrate the application of PXRD to study crystals from a range of different cheese types, specifically Cheddar, Parmigiano-Reggiano, Gouda, and soft washed-rind (smear ripened) cheeses. In studies of Parmigiano-Reggiano and long-aged Gouda, PXRD has confirmed that hard (crunchy) crystals that form abundantly within these cheeses consist of tyrosine. Furthermore, PXRD has tentatively identified the presence of an unusual form of crystalline leucine in large (up to 6 mm in diameter) spherical entities, or “pearls”, that occur abundantly in 2-year-old Parmigiano Reggiano and long-aged Gouda cheeses, and on the surface of rindless hard Italian-type cheese. Ongoing investigations into the nature of these “pearls” are providing new insight into the roles that crystals play in the visual appearance and texture of long-aged cheeses. Crystals also sometimes develop profusely in the eyes of long-aged Gouda, which have been shown by PXRD to consist of tyrosine and the aforementioned presumptive form of crystalline leucine. Finally, crystals have been shown by PXRD to form in the smears of soft washed-rind cheeses. These crystals may be associated in some cheeses with gritty mouth feel and with zonal body softening that occurs during ripening. Heightened interest in artisanal cheeses highlights the need to better understand crystals and their contributions to cheese characteristics. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Dairy Science & Technology Springer Journals

Crystal fingerprinting: elucidating the crystals of Cheddar, Parmigiano-Reggiano, Gouda, and soft washed-rind cheeses using powder x-ray diffractometry

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2015 by INRA and Springer-Verlag France
Subject
Chemistry; Food Science; Agriculture; Microbiology
ISSN
1958-5586
eISSN
1958-5594
DOI
10.1007/s13594-015-0225-6
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Crystals in cheese may be considered defects or positive features, depending on the variety and mode of production (industrial, artisanal). Powder x-ray diffractometry (PXRD) offers a simple means to identify and resolve complex combinations of crystals that contribute to cheese characteristics. The objective of the present research was to demonstrate the application of PXRD to study crystals from a range of different cheese types, specifically Cheddar, Parmigiano-Reggiano, Gouda, and soft washed-rind (smear ripened) cheeses. In studies of Parmigiano-Reggiano and long-aged Gouda, PXRD has confirmed that hard (crunchy) crystals that form abundantly within these cheeses consist of tyrosine. Furthermore, PXRD has tentatively identified the presence of an unusual form of crystalline leucine in large (up to 6 mm in diameter) spherical entities, or “pearls”, that occur abundantly in 2-year-old Parmigiano Reggiano and long-aged Gouda cheeses, and on the surface of rindless hard Italian-type cheese. Ongoing investigations into the nature of these “pearls” are providing new insight into the roles that crystals play in the visual appearance and texture of long-aged cheeses. Crystals also sometimes develop profusely in the eyes of long-aged Gouda, which have been shown by PXRD to consist of tyrosine and the aforementioned presumptive form of crystalline leucine. Finally, crystals have been shown by PXRD to form in the smears of soft washed-rind cheeses. These crystals may be associated in some cheeses with gritty mouth feel and with zonal body softening that occurs during ripening. Heightened interest in artisanal cheeses highlights the need to better understand crystals and their contributions to cheese characteristics.

Journal

Dairy Science & TechnologySpringer Journals

Published: May 8, 2015

References