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Continued use of MDA-MB-435, a melanoma cell line, as a model for human breast cancer, even in year, 2014

Continued use of MDA-MB-435, a melanoma cell line, as a model for human breast cancer, even in... www.nature.com/npjbcancer All rights reserved 2374-4677/15 CORRESPONDENCE OPEN Continued use of MDA-MB-435, a melanoma cell line, as a model for human breast cancer, even in year, 2014 npj Breast Cancer (2015) 1, 15002; doi:10.1038/npjbcancer.2015.2; cells for investigating: (i) anti-proliferative effect of 2-methoxyestradiol which is in phase I/II clinical trials for treating published online 2 June 2015 breast cancer, (ii) effect of herceptin on the breast cancer cells, using MDA-MB-435, (iii) EphB6 receptor effect on invasiveness of human breast carcinoma cells, (iv) a protein target for It is a matter of significant concern, that the articles which refer immunotherapy of triple-negative breast cancer, and (v) anti- MDA-MB-435 cell line as a breast cancer cell line are still being PTHrP antibody mediated enhancement of anti-proliferation published in peer reviewed journals of international repute, even ability of cancer drugs, which is now established to be a in 2014. Questions have been raised, for the last 14 years or so, melanoma cell line. Such a continued mistaken use and about its origin and caution has been advised against using the 1–5 acceptance of such articles for publication in scientific journals cell line as a model for breast cancer. The origin of the cell line, 6–8 adds to the confusion and the questionable data generated using notwithstanding few contradictory reports, has been estab- inappropriate models continue to populate cancer research data lished to be of melanoma. bases, used by academicians, researchers and pharmacologists. The MDA-MB-435 cell line was originally derived from pleural In addition to the MDA-MB-435 cell line, various other non- effusion of a female breast cancer patient in 1976 at MD- breast cancer cell lines are also being used to study breast Anderson, Houston, TX, USA. Ever since the ‘MDA-MB-435’ cell line cancer. By year 1999 itself, 45 cell lines were reported to be cross has been in use in established laboratories as a model for human contaminated by the originators. Since then, the list of the cross- breast cancer, worldwide. However, gene expression studies of 1,2 contaminated/misidentified cell lines has grown substantially, as melanoma and breast cancer, CpG island promoter hyperme- indicated by the list on the Database of Cross Contaminated or 3 9 10 thylation, SNP array investigation, and miRNA expression, have Misidentified Cell lines. Nevertheless, employing mischaracter- determined that the available MDA-MB-435 cells are of melanoma ized/misidentified cell lines to study human diseases, particularly origin and not that of breast cancer. Further, Rae et al., in a more cancer, cannot be sporadic and publishing such misleading data exhaustive study, employing whole battery of molecular techni- should and must be contained. Continued dissemination of faulty ques (karyotyping, comparative genomic hybridization, microsa- data through publications, inspite of few initiatives taken up by tellite polymorphic markers, bioinformatics analysis of SNP, and certain journals (Breast Cancer Research, Cancer Research, PNAS gene expression data) on the MDA-MB-435 cells obtained from etc.,) to discontinue the usage of unauthentic/misidentified cell repositories and various research laboratories, concluded that ‘All lines indicates a lack of concerted effort and underscores the need currently available stocks of MDA-MB-435 cells are derived from for a cohesive, coordinated and comprehensive approach as M14 melanoma cell line’, implying the usage of the cell line as a opposed to isolated steps by few journals. model for breast cancer as erroneous. These studies, unquestion- In view of the widespread use of cell lines in understanding ably determined that the currently available MDA-MB-435 cells are physiological pathways and pathophysiology of human diseases, not the original MDA-MB-435 cells obtained from the breast we call upon the editors of the concerned journals to form a cancer patient but are misidentified M14 melanoma cells, and the consortium along with the major cell depositories, funding 4,5,11 original stock of MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells were lost. agencies, and cancer researchers across the globe. The consortium Consequently, The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, http:// can undertake the task of re-characterizing/re-classifying and www.atcc.org) and The German Collection of Microorganisms and establishing the true origin of the cells, once for all, taking Cell Cultures (DSMZ, http://www.dsmz.de) characterized the cells advantage of the latest molecular biology, proteomics and and reclassified them as melanoma cells, sometime in 2012. metabolomics techniques and bioinformatics tools. Once the Corrections were also made on the websites of other cell identity of the cell lines is determined conclusively and the cell repositories (European Collection of Cell Cultures (ECACC, http:// lines are re-classified, appropriate guidelines may be framed and www.hpacultures.org.uk/collections/ecacc.jsp), The Japanese Col- publicized. Although, such task is onerous, bringing such lection of Research Bioresources (JCRB, http://cellbank.nibio.go.jp), awareness about the validity of the cell lines will be of importance and RIKEN Bioresource Center Cell Bank (RIKEN, http://www.brc. and make a significant contribution to cancer research. In the riken.go.jp/lab/cell/english/guide.shtml)). meanwhile, it may be incumbent on the Journals, to stop However, a quick Pubmed search revealed that 36 research accepting studies that have used incorrect cell line model to studies that mistakenly used the MDA-MB-435 cell line as a model investigate a disease and to compile a list of published studies for breast cancer are published in international peer reviewed that have used wrong cell lines to study disease, and circulate and 12 13 journals, such as: Nature Cell Biology, Nature Communications, publicize the list widely. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research, Cell Death 15 16 17 and Disease, PLoS One, Molecular Oncology, Archives of 18 19 20 Pharmacal Research, Acta Pharmaceutica, Tumor Biology, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Journal of Molecular Medicine (Berl) etc., even in 2014. The We would like to acknowledge the editorial help rendered by Dr Saritha Katta, R&D, search also revealed publication of 247 such articles between 1 BIACH & RI. January 2008 and 12 December 2014, even after the MDA-MB-435 cell line was declared to be a melanoma cell line, in 2007. A total of 890 published studies have used the cell line as a model for COMPETING INTERESTS human breast cancer till date (Pubmed, 12 December 2014). Some of the notable studies of recent past have used the MDA-MB-435 The authors declare no conflict of interest. © 2015 Breast Cancer Research Foundation/Macmillan Publishers Limited Correspondence 1 1 Vidudala VTS Prasad and Ramprasad OG Gopalan 16 Jiao F, Bai SY, Ma Y, Yan ZH, Yue Z, Yu Y et al. DNA methylation of heparanase promoter influences its expression and associated with the progression of human Research and Development, Basavatarakam Indo-American Cancer breast cancer. PLoS One 2014; 9: e92190. Hospital and Research Institute, Hyderabad, India 17 Marcato P, Dean CA, Liu RZ, Coyle KM, Bydoun M, Wallace M et al. Aldehyde Correspondence: VVTS Prasad (vidudalap@yahoo.com) dehydrogenase 1A3 influences breast cancer progression via differential retinoic acid signaling. Mol Oncol 2015; 9:17–31. 18 Yoo H, Mok H. Evaluation of multimeric siRNA conjugates for efficient protamine- based delivery into breast cancer cells. Arch Pharm Res 2015; 38:129–136. REFERENCES 19 Abdou WM, Ganoub NA, Sabry E. Design, synthesis and pharmacological 1 Ross DT, Scherf U, Eisen MB, Perou CM, Rees C, Spellman P et al. Systematic screening of beta-amino-, thiadiazole/thiadiazine-phosphonate based triazole variation in gene expression patterns in human cancer cell lines. Nat Genet 2000; motifs as antimicrobial/cytotoxic agents. Acta Pharm 2014; 64: 267–284. 24:227–235. 20 Jia J, Yang M, Chen Y, Yuan H, Li J, Cui X et al. Inducing apoptosis effect of caffeic 2 Ellison G, Klinowska T, Westwood RF, Docter E, French T, Fox JC. Further evidence acid 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethyl ester on the breast cancer cells. Tumour Biol 2014; to support the melanocytic origin of MDA-MB-435. Mol Pathol 2002; 55:294–299. 35: 11781–11789. 3 Paz MF, Fraga MF, Avila S, Guo M, Pollan M, Herman JG et al. A systematic profile 21 Xiang L, Gilkes DM, Chaturvedi P, Luo W, Hu H, Takano N et al. Ganetespib blocks of DNA methylation in human cancer cell lines. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 1114–1121. HIF-1 activity and inhibits tumor growth, vascularization, stem cell maintenance, 4 Rae JM, Creighton CJ, Meck JM, Haddad BR, Johnson MD. MDA-MB-435 cells are invasion, and metastasis in orthotopic mouse models of triple-negative derived from M14 melanoma cells--a loss for breast cancer, but a boon for mel- breast cancer. J Mol Med (Berl) 2014; 92:151–164. anoma research. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2007; 104:13–19. 22 Bhati R, Gokmen-Polar Y, Sledge GW Jr., Fan C, Nakshatri H, Ketelsen D et al. 2- 5 Holliday DL, Speirs V. Choosing the right cell line for breast cancer research. Breast methoxyestradiol inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex and protein trans- Cancer Res 2011; 13: 215. lation in human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 2007; 67:702–708. 6 Sellappan S, Grijalva R, Zhou X, Yang W, Eli MB, Mills GB et al. Lineage infidelity of 23 Spankuch B, Kurunci-Csacsko E, Kaufmann M, Strebhardt K. Rational combinations MDA-MB-435 cells: expression of melanocyte proteins in a breast cancer cell line. of siRNAs targeting Plk1 with breast cancer drugs. Oncogene 2007; 26: 5793–5807. Cancer Res 2004; 64: 3479–3485. 24 Fox BP, Kandpal RP. EphB6 receptor significantly alters invasiveness and other 7 Chambers AF. MDA-MB-435 and M14 cell lines. Identical but not M14 melanoma. phenotypic characteristics of human breast carcinoma cells. Oncogene 2009; 28: Cancer Res 2009; 69: 5292–5293. 1706–1713. 8 Zhang Q, Fan H, Shen J, Hoffman RM, Xing HR. Human breast cancer cell lines co- 25 Wang X, Osada T, Wang Y, Yu L, Sakakura K, Katayama A et al. CSPG4 protein as a express neuronal, epithelial and melanocytic differentiation markers in vitro and new target for the antibody-based immunotherapy of triple-negative in vivo. PLoS One 2010; 5: e9712. breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2010; 102: 1496–1512. 9 Garraway LA, Widlund HR, Rubin MA, Getz G, Berger AJ, Ramaswamy S et al. 26 Camirand A, Fadhil I, Luco AL, Ochietti B, Kremer RB. Enhancement of taxol, dox- Integrative genomic analyses identify MITF as a lineage survival oncogene orubicin and zoledronate anti-proliferation action on triple-negative breast cancer amplified in malignant melanoma. Nature 2005; 436:117–122. cells by a PTHrP blocking monoclonal antibody. Am J Cancer Res 2013; 3:500–508. 10 Gaur A, Jewell DA, Liang Y, Ridzon D, Moore JH, Chen C et al. Characterization of 27 Christgen M, Lehmann U. MDA-MB-435: the questionable use of a melanoma cell microRNA expression levels and their biological correlates in human cancer line as a model for human breast cancer is ongoing. Cancer Biol Ther 2007; 6: cell lines. Cancer Res 2007; 67: 2456–2468. 1355–1357. 11 Rae JM, Ramus SJ, Waltham M, Armes JE, Campbell IG, Clarke R et al. Common 28 MacLeod RA, Dirks WG, Matsuo Y, Kaufmann M, Milch H, Drexler HG. Widespread origins of MDA-MB-435 cells from various sources with those shown to have intraspecies cross-contamination of human tumor cell lines arising at source. Int J melanoma properties. Clin Exp Metastasis 2004; 21: 543–552. Cancer 1999; 83:555–563. 12 Lu H, Clauser KR, Tam WL, Frose J, Ye X, Eaton EN et al. A breast cancer stem cell 29 International Cell Line Authentication Committee (ICLAC)Database of cross- niche supported by juxtacrine signalling from monocytes and macrophages. Nat contaminated or misidentified cell lines http://www.dsmz.de/fileadmin/Bereiche/ Cell Biol 2014; 16: 1105–1117. HumanandAnimalCellLines/Cross_Contaminations_v7_1.pdf22 August 2013. 13 Wang W, Qin JJ, Voruganti S, Srivenugopal KS, Nag S, Patil S et al. The pyrido[b] indole MDM2 inhibitor SP-141 exerts potent therapeutic effects in breast cancer models. Nat Commun 2014; 5: 5086. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- 14 Li J, Liu J, Yang J, Li P, Mao X, Li W et al. Loss of LKB1 disrupts breast epithelial cell NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. The images polarity and promotes breast cancer metastasis and invasion. J Exp Clin Cancer Res or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons 2014; 33: 70. license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under 15 Hou P, Zhao Y, Li Z, Yao R, Ma M, Gao Y et al. LincRNA-ROR induces epithelial-to- the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license mesenchymal transition and contributes to breast cancer tumorigenesis and holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http:// metastasis. Cell Death Dis 2014; 5: e1287. creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ npj Breast Cancer (2015) 15002 © 2015 Breast Cancer Research Foundation/Macmillan Publishers Limited http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png npj Breast Cancer Springer Journals

Continued use of MDA-MB-435, a melanoma cell line, as a model for human breast cancer, even in year, 2014

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Springer Journals
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Biomedicine; Biomedicine, general; Cancer Research; Oncology; Human Genetics; Cell Biology
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Abstract

www.nature.com/npjbcancer All rights reserved 2374-4677/15 CORRESPONDENCE OPEN Continued use of MDA-MB-435, a melanoma cell line, as a model for human breast cancer, even in year, 2014 npj Breast Cancer (2015) 1, 15002; doi:10.1038/npjbcancer.2015.2; cells for investigating: (i) anti-proliferative effect of 2-methoxyestradiol which is in phase I/II clinical trials for treating published online 2 June 2015 breast cancer, (ii) effect of herceptin on the breast cancer cells, using MDA-MB-435, (iii) EphB6 receptor effect on invasiveness of human breast carcinoma cells, (iv) a protein target for It is a matter of significant concern, that the articles which refer immunotherapy of triple-negative breast cancer, and (v) anti- MDA-MB-435 cell line as a breast cancer cell line are still being PTHrP antibody mediated enhancement of anti-proliferation published in peer reviewed journals of international repute, even ability of cancer drugs, which is now established to be a in 2014. Questions have been raised, for the last 14 years or so, melanoma cell line. Such a continued mistaken use and about its origin and caution has been advised against using the 1–5 acceptance of such articles for publication in scientific journals cell line as a model for breast cancer. The origin of the cell line, 6–8 adds to the confusion and the questionable data generated using notwithstanding few contradictory reports, has been estab- inappropriate models continue to populate cancer research data lished to be of melanoma. bases, used by academicians, researchers and pharmacologists. The MDA-MB-435 cell line was originally derived from pleural In addition to the MDA-MB-435 cell line, various other non- effusion of a female breast cancer patient in 1976 at MD- breast cancer cell lines are also being used to study breast Anderson, Houston, TX, USA. Ever since the ‘MDA-MB-435’ cell line cancer. By year 1999 itself, 45 cell lines were reported to be cross has been in use in established laboratories as a model for human contaminated by the originators. Since then, the list of the cross- breast cancer, worldwide. However, gene expression studies of 1,2 contaminated/misidentified cell lines has grown substantially, as melanoma and breast cancer, CpG island promoter hyperme- indicated by the list on the Database of Cross Contaminated or 3 9 10 thylation, SNP array investigation, and miRNA expression, have Misidentified Cell lines. Nevertheless, employing mischaracter- determined that the available MDA-MB-435 cells are of melanoma ized/misidentified cell lines to study human diseases, particularly origin and not that of breast cancer. Further, Rae et al., in a more cancer, cannot be sporadic and publishing such misleading data exhaustive study, employing whole battery of molecular techni- should and must be contained. Continued dissemination of faulty ques (karyotyping, comparative genomic hybridization, microsa- data through publications, inspite of few initiatives taken up by tellite polymorphic markers, bioinformatics analysis of SNP, and certain journals (Breast Cancer Research, Cancer Research, PNAS gene expression data) on the MDA-MB-435 cells obtained from etc.,) to discontinue the usage of unauthentic/misidentified cell repositories and various research laboratories, concluded that ‘All lines indicates a lack of concerted effort and underscores the need currently available stocks of MDA-MB-435 cells are derived from for a cohesive, coordinated and comprehensive approach as M14 melanoma cell line’, implying the usage of the cell line as a opposed to isolated steps by few journals. model for breast cancer as erroneous. These studies, unquestion- In view of the widespread use of cell lines in understanding ably determined that the currently available MDA-MB-435 cells are physiological pathways and pathophysiology of human diseases, not the original MDA-MB-435 cells obtained from the breast we call upon the editors of the concerned journals to form a cancer patient but are misidentified M14 melanoma cells, and the consortium along with the major cell depositories, funding 4,5,11 original stock of MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells were lost. agencies, and cancer researchers across the globe. The consortium Consequently, The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, http:// can undertake the task of re-characterizing/re-classifying and www.atcc.org) and The German Collection of Microorganisms and establishing the true origin of the cells, once for all, taking Cell Cultures (DSMZ, http://www.dsmz.de) characterized the cells advantage of the latest molecular biology, proteomics and and reclassified them as melanoma cells, sometime in 2012. metabolomics techniques and bioinformatics tools. Once the Corrections were also made on the websites of other cell identity of the cell lines is determined conclusively and the cell repositories (European Collection of Cell Cultures (ECACC, http:// lines are re-classified, appropriate guidelines may be framed and www.hpacultures.org.uk/collections/ecacc.jsp), The Japanese Col- publicized. Although, such task is onerous, bringing such lection of Research Bioresources (JCRB, http://cellbank.nibio.go.jp), awareness about the validity of the cell lines will be of importance and RIKEN Bioresource Center Cell Bank (RIKEN, http://www.brc. and make a significant contribution to cancer research. In the riken.go.jp/lab/cell/english/guide.shtml)). meanwhile, it may be incumbent on the Journals, to stop However, a quick Pubmed search revealed that 36 research accepting studies that have used incorrect cell line model to studies that mistakenly used the MDA-MB-435 cell line as a model investigate a disease and to compile a list of published studies for breast cancer are published in international peer reviewed that have used wrong cell lines to study disease, and circulate and 12 13 journals, such as: Nature Cell Biology, Nature Communications, publicize the list widely. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research, Cell Death 15 16 17 and Disease, PLoS One, Molecular Oncology, Archives of 18 19 20 Pharmacal Research, Acta Pharmaceutica, Tumor Biology, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Journal of Molecular Medicine (Berl) etc., even in 2014. The We would like to acknowledge the editorial help rendered by Dr Saritha Katta, R&D, search also revealed publication of 247 such articles between 1 BIACH & RI. January 2008 and 12 December 2014, even after the MDA-MB-435 cell line was declared to be a melanoma cell line, in 2007. A total of 890 published studies have used the cell line as a model for COMPETING INTERESTS human breast cancer till date (Pubmed, 12 December 2014). Some of the notable studies of recent past have used the MDA-MB-435 The authors declare no conflict of interest. © 2015 Breast Cancer Research Foundation/Macmillan Publishers Limited Correspondence 1 1 Vidudala VTS Prasad and Ramprasad OG Gopalan 16 Jiao F, Bai SY, Ma Y, Yan ZH, Yue Z, Yu Y et al. DNA methylation of heparanase promoter influences its expression and associated with the progression of human Research and Development, Basavatarakam Indo-American Cancer breast cancer. PLoS One 2014; 9: e92190. Hospital and Research Institute, Hyderabad, India 17 Marcato P, Dean CA, Liu RZ, Coyle KM, Bydoun M, Wallace M et al. Aldehyde Correspondence: VVTS Prasad (vidudalap@yahoo.com) dehydrogenase 1A3 influences breast cancer progression via differential retinoic acid signaling. Mol Oncol 2015; 9:17–31. 18 Yoo H, Mok H. Evaluation of multimeric siRNA conjugates for efficient protamine- based delivery into breast cancer cells. Arch Pharm Res 2015; 38:129–136. REFERENCES 19 Abdou WM, Ganoub NA, Sabry E. Design, synthesis and pharmacological 1 Ross DT, Scherf U, Eisen MB, Perou CM, Rees C, Spellman P et al. Systematic screening of beta-amino-, thiadiazole/thiadiazine-phosphonate based triazole variation in gene expression patterns in human cancer cell lines. Nat Genet 2000; motifs as antimicrobial/cytotoxic agents. Acta Pharm 2014; 64: 267–284. 24:227–235. 20 Jia J, Yang M, Chen Y, Yuan H, Li J, Cui X et al. Inducing apoptosis effect of caffeic 2 Ellison G, Klinowska T, Westwood RF, Docter E, French T, Fox JC. Further evidence acid 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethyl ester on the breast cancer cells. Tumour Biol 2014; to support the melanocytic origin of MDA-MB-435. Mol Pathol 2002; 55:294–299. 35: 11781–11789. 3 Paz MF, Fraga MF, Avila S, Guo M, Pollan M, Herman JG et al. A systematic profile 21 Xiang L, Gilkes DM, Chaturvedi P, Luo W, Hu H, Takano N et al. Ganetespib blocks of DNA methylation in human cancer cell lines. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 1114–1121. HIF-1 activity and inhibits tumor growth, vascularization, stem cell maintenance, 4 Rae JM, Creighton CJ, Meck JM, Haddad BR, Johnson MD. MDA-MB-435 cells are invasion, and metastasis in orthotopic mouse models of triple-negative derived from M14 melanoma cells--a loss for breast cancer, but a boon for mel- breast cancer. J Mol Med (Berl) 2014; 92:151–164. anoma research. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2007; 104:13–19. 22 Bhati R, Gokmen-Polar Y, Sledge GW Jr., Fan C, Nakshatri H, Ketelsen D et al. 2- 5 Holliday DL, Speirs V. Choosing the right cell line for breast cancer research. Breast methoxyestradiol inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex and protein trans- Cancer Res 2011; 13: 215. lation in human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 2007; 67:702–708. 6 Sellappan S, Grijalva R, Zhou X, Yang W, Eli MB, Mills GB et al. Lineage infidelity of 23 Spankuch B, Kurunci-Csacsko E, Kaufmann M, Strebhardt K. Rational combinations MDA-MB-435 cells: expression of melanocyte proteins in a breast cancer cell line. of siRNAs targeting Plk1 with breast cancer drugs. Oncogene 2007; 26: 5793–5807. Cancer Res 2004; 64: 3479–3485. 24 Fox BP, Kandpal RP. EphB6 receptor significantly alters invasiveness and other 7 Chambers AF. MDA-MB-435 and M14 cell lines. Identical but not M14 melanoma. phenotypic characteristics of human breast carcinoma cells. Oncogene 2009; 28: Cancer Res 2009; 69: 5292–5293. 1706–1713. 8 Zhang Q, Fan H, Shen J, Hoffman RM, Xing HR. Human breast cancer cell lines co- 25 Wang X, Osada T, Wang Y, Yu L, Sakakura K, Katayama A et al. CSPG4 protein as a express neuronal, epithelial and melanocytic differentiation markers in vitro and new target for the antibody-based immunotherapy of triple-negative in vivo. PLoS One 2010; 5: e9712. breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2010; 102: 1496–1512. 9 Garraway LA, Widlund HR, Rubin MA, Getz G, Berger AJ, Ramaswamy S et al. 26 Camirand A, Fadhil I, Luco AL, Ochietti B, Kremer RB. Enhancement of taxol, dox- Integrative genomic analyses identify MITF as a lineage survival oncogene orubicin and zoledronate anti-proliferation action on triple-negative breast cancer amplified in malignant melanoma. Nature 2005; 436:117–122. cells by a PTHrP blocking monoclonal antibody. Am J Cancer Res 2013; 3:500–508. 10 Gaur A, Jewell DA, Liang Y, Ridzon D, Moore JH, Chen C et al. Characterization of 27 Christgen M, Lehmann U. MDA-MB-435: the questionable use of a melanoma cell microRNA expression levels and their biological correlates in human cancer line as a model for human breast cancer is ongoing. Cancer Biol Ther 2007; 6: cell lines. Cancer Res 2007; 67: 2456–2468. 1355–1357. 11 Rae JM, Ramus SJ, Waltham M, Armes JE, Campbell IG, Clarke R et al. Common 28 MacLeod RA, Dirks WG, Matsuo Y, Kaufmann M, Milch H, Drexler HG. Widespread origins of MDA-MB-435 cells from various sources with those shown to have intraspecies cross-contamination of human tumor cell lines arising at source. Int J melanoma properties. Clin Exp Metastasis 2004; 21: 543–552. Cancer 1999; 83:555–563. 12 Lu H, Clauser KR, Tam WL, Frose J, Ye X, Eaton EN et al. A breast cancer stem cell 29 International Cell Line Authentication Committee (ICLAC)Database of cross- niche supported by juxtacrine signalling from monocytes and macrophages. Nat contaminated or misidentified cell lines http://www.dsmz.de/fileadmin/Bereiche/ Cell Biol 2014; 16: 1105–1117. HumanandAnimalCellLines/Cross_Contaminations_v7_1.pdf22 August 2013. 13 Wang W, Qin JJ, Voruganti S, Srivenugopal KS, Nag S, Patil S et al. The pyrido[b] indole MDM2 inhibitor SP-141 exerts potent therapeutic effects in breast cancer models. Nat Commun 2014; 5: 5086. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- 14 Li J, Liu J, Yang J, Li P, Mao X, Li W et al. Loss of LKB1 disrupts breast epithelial cell NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. The images polarity and promotes breast cancer metastasis and invasion. J Exp Clin Cancer Res or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons 2014; 33: 70. license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under 15 Hou P, Zhao Y, Li Z, Yao R, Ma M, Gao Y et al. LincRNA-ROR induces epithelial-to- the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license mesenchymal transition and contributes to breast cancer tumorigenesis and holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http:// metastasis. Cell Death Dis 2014; 5: e1287. creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ npj Breast Cancer (2015) 15002 © 2015 Breast Cancer Research Foundation/Macmillan Publishers Limited

Journal

npj Breast CancerSpringer Journals

Published: Jun 2, 2015

References